Creeping Control Strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox Based on the Investigation of Temperature Variation of the Wet Clutch
Proposing an appropriate control strategy is an effective and practical way to address the overheat problems of the wet multi-plate clutch in Direct Shift Gearbox under the long-time creeping condition. To do so, the temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch is investigated firstly by establishing a thermal resistance model for the gearbox cooling system. To calculate the generated heat flux and predict the clutch temperature precisely, the friction torque model is optimized by introducing an improved friction coefficient, which is related to the pressure, the relative speed and the temperature. After that, the heat transfer model and the reasonable friction torque model are employed by the vehicle powertrain model to construct a comprehensive co-simulation model for the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) vehicle. A creeping control strategy is then proposed and, to evaluate the vehicle performance, the safety temperature (250 ℃) is particularly adopted as an important metric. During the creeping process, the temperature of two clutches is always under the safety value (250 ℃), which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in avoiding the thermal failures of clutches.
Determining Full Stage Creep Properties from Miniature Specimen Creep Test
In this work, methods for determining creep properties which can be used to represent the full life until failure from miniature specimen creep tests based on analytical solutions are presented. Examples used to demonstrate the application of the methods include a miniature rectangular thin beam specimen creep test under three-point bending and a miniature two-material tensile specimen creep test subjected to a steady load. Mathematical expressions for deflection and creep strain rate of the two specimens were presented for the Kachanov-Rabotnov creep damage model. On this basis, an inverse procedure was developed which has potential applications for deriving the full life creep damage constitutive properties from a very small volume of material, in particular, for various microstructure constitutive regions, e.g. within heat-affected zones of power plant pipe weldments. Further work on validation and improvement of the method is addressed.
Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads
Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.
Activation Parameters of the Low Temperature Creep Controlling Mechanism in Martensitic Steels
Martensitic steels with an ultimate tensile strength beyond 2000 MPa are applied in the powertrain of vehicles due to their excellent fatigue strength and high creep resistance. However, the creep controlling mechanism in martensitic steels at ambient temperatures up to 423 K is not evident. The purpose of this study is to review the low temperature creep (LTC) behavior of martensitic steels at temperatures from 363 K to 523 K. Thus, the validity of a logarithmic creep law is reviewed and the stress and temperature dependence of the creep parameters α and β are revealed. Furthermore, creep tests are carried out, which include stepped changes in temperature or stress, respectively. On one hand, the change of the creep rate due to a temperature step provides information on the magnitude of the activation energy of the LTC controlling mechanism and on the other hand, the stress step approach provides information on the magnitude of the activation volume. The magnitude, the temperature dependency, and the stress dependency of both material specific activation parameters may deliver a significant contribution to the disclosure of the nature of the LTC rate controlling mechanism.
Analysis and Modeling of Stresses and Creeps Resulting from Soil Mechanics in Southern Plains of Kerman Province
Many of the engineering materials, such as behavioral metals, have at least a certain level of linear behavior. It means that if the stresses are doubled, the deformations would be also doubled. In fact, these materials have linear elastic properties. Soils do not follow this law, for example, when compressed, soils become gradually tighter. On the surface of the ground, the sand can be easily deformed with a finger, but in high compressive stresses, they gain considerable hardness and strength. This is mainly due to the increase in the forces among the separate particles. Creeps also deform the soils under a constant load over time. Clay and peat soils have creep behavior. As a result of this phenomenon, structures constructed on such soils will continue their collapse over time. In this paper, the researchers analyzed and modeled the stresses and creeps in the southern plains of Kerman province in Iran through library-documentary, quantitative and software techniques, and field survey. The results of the modeling showed that these plains experienced severe stresses and had a collapse of about 26 cm in the last 15 years and also creep evidence was discovered in an area with a gradient of 3-6 degrees.
Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle
In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.
Discrete Element Modeling of the Effect of Particle Shape on Creep Behavior of Rockfills
Rockfills are widely used in civil engineering, such as dams, railways, and airport foundations in mountain areas. A significant long-term post-construction settlement may affect the serviceability or even the safety of rockfill infrastructures. The creep behavior of rockfills is influenced by a number of factors, such as particle size, strength and shape, water condition and stress level. However, the effect of particle shape on rockfill creep still remains poorly understood, which deserves a careful investigation. Particle-based discrete element method (DEM) was used to simulate the creep behavior of rockfills under different boundary conditions. Both angular and rounded particles were considered in this numerical study, in order to investigate the influence of particle shape. The preliminary results showed that angular particles experience more breakages and larger creep strains under one-dimensional compression than rounded particles. On the contrary, larger creep strains were observed in he rounded specimens in the direct shear test. The mechanism responsible for this difference is that the possibility of the existence of key particle in rounded particles is higher than that in angular particles. The above simulations demonstrate that the influence of particle shape on the creep behavior of rockfills can be simulated by DEM properly. The method of DEM simulation may facilitate our understanding of deformation properties of rockfill materials.
Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc
The present paper investigates the effect of linear
thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating
isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law.
The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with
silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress
and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating
at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The
material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the
available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared
graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature
profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is
observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and
the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation
as compared to disc having uniform temperature.
Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the
effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of
rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using
threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made
of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have
been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have
been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having
thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and
have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental
data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle
content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner
to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The
results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly
format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle
reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It
is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation
and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal
gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.
Modeling of Steady State Creep in Thick-Walled Cylinders under Internal Pressure
The present study focused on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behavior of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The values of stress exponent appearing in the creep law were selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stress and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.
Time-Dependent Behavior of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Strengthened with Composite Plates Having Variable Fibers Spacing
In this study, the time-dependent behavior of damaged
reinforced concrete shear wall structures strengthened with composite
plates having variable fibers spacing was investigated to analyze their
seismic response. In the analytical formulation, the adherent and the
adhesive layers are all modeled as shear walls, using the mixed Finite
Element Method (FEM). The anisotropic damage model is adopted to
describe the damage extent of the Reinforced Concrete shear walls.
The phenomenon of creep and shrinkage of concrete has been
determined by Eurocode 2. Large earthquakes recorded in Algeria
(El-Asnam and Boumerdes) have been tested to demonstrate the
accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for non-uniform distributions of
carbon fibers in epoxy matrices. The effects of damage extent and the
delay mechanism creep and shrinkage of concrete are highlighted.
Prospects are being studied.
Creep Behaviour of Heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC Beams Assembled by Bonding: Experimental and Analytical Investigation
The purpose of this research was to investigate the
creep behaviour of the heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC beams. New
developments have been done to further improve the structural
performance, such as strengthening of the timber (glulam) beam by
bonding composite material combine with an ultra-high performance
fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) internally reinforced with or
without carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. However, in
the design of wooden structures, in addition to the criteria of
strengthening and stiffness, deformability due to the creep of wood,
especially in horizontal elements, is also a design criterion. Glulam,
UHPFRC and CFRP may be an interesting composite mix to respond
to the issue of creep behaviour of composite structures made of
different materials with different rheological properties. In this paper,
we describe an experimental and analytical investigation of the creep
performance of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams assembled by
bonding. The experimental investigations creep behaviour was
conducted for different environments: in- and outside under constant
loading for approximately a year. The measured results are compared
with numerical ones obtained by an analytical model. This model was
developed to predict the creep response of the glulam-UHPFRCCFRP
beams based on the creep characteristics of the individual
components. The results show that heterogeneous glulam-UHPFRC
beams provide an improvement in both the strengthening and
stiffness, and can also effectively reduce the creep deflection of
An Inverse Approach for Determining Creep Properties from a Miniature Thin Plate Specimen under Bending
This paper describes a new approach which can be
used to interpret the experimental creep deformation data obtained
from miniaturized thin plate bending specimen test to the
corresponding uniaxial data based on an inversed application of the
reference stress method. The geometry of the thin plate is fully
defined by the span of the support, l, the width, b, and the thickness,
d. Firstly, analytical solutions for the steady-state, load-line creep
deformation rate of the thin plates for a Norton’s power law under
plane stress (b→0) and plane strain (b→∞) conditions were obtained,
from which it can be seen that the load-line deformation rate of the
thin plate under plane-stress conditions is much higher than that
under the plane-strain conditions. Since analytical solution is not
available for the plates with random b-values, finite element (FE)
analyses are used to obtain the solutions. Based on the FE results
obtained for various b/l ratios and creep exponent, n, as well as the
analytical solutions under plane stress and plane strain conditions, an
approximate, numerical solutions for the deformation rate are
obtained by curve fitting. Using these solutions, a reference stress
method is utilised to establish the conversion relationships between
the applied load and the equivalent uniaxial stress and between the
creep deformations of thin plate and the equivalent uniaxial creep
strains. Finally, the accuracy of the empirical solution was assessed
by using a set of “theoretical” experimental data.
Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel
This paper presents a study on the effect of
second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated
or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow
and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the
second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary
conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity
increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal
creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip
becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary
condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead
to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the
heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall
case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the
Karniadakis slip model.
Nice Stadium: Design of a Flat Single Layer ETFE Roof
In order to host the Football Euro in 2016, many French cities have launched architectural competitions in recent years to improve the quality of their stadiums. The winning project in Nice was designed by Wilmotte architects together with Elioth structural engineers. It has a capacity of 35,000 seats.Its roof structure consists of a complex 3D shape timber and steel lattice and is covered by 25,000m² of ETFE, 10,500m² of PES-PVC fabric and 8,500m² of photovoltaic panels.
This paper focuses on the ETFE part of the cover. The stadium is one of the first constructions to use flat single layer ETFE on such a big area. Due to its relatively recent appearance in France, ETFE structures are not yet covered by any regulations and the existing codes for fabric structures cannot be strictly applied. Rather, they are considered as cladding systems and therefore have to be approved by an “Appréciation Technique d’Expérimentation” (ATEx), during which experimental tests have to be performed. We explain the method that we developed to justify the ETFE, which eventually led to bi-axial tests to clarify the allowable stress in the film.
Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder
Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.
Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System
The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.
Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System
The composite pavement system considered in this
paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced
asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer.
The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the
mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by
fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term
performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the
necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of
this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one
of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete
layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test
results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement
and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean
concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction
equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be
developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.
Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Moisture Susceptibility and Creep in HMA
The present study explains the effect of aggregate
gradation on moisture damage in bituminous mixes. Three types of
aggregate gradation and two types of binder; VG-30 and Polymer
modified bitumen (PMB-40) are used. Moisture susceptibility tests
like retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) and static creep
test are conducted on Marshall specimens. The creep test was also
conducted for conditioned and unconditioned specimens to observe
the effect of moisture on creep behaviour. The results indicate that
Marshall stability value is higher in PMB-40 mix than VG-30 mixes.
Moisture susceptibility of PMB-40 mixes is low when compared with
mix using VG-30. The reduction in retained stability, and indirect
tensile strength and increase in creep are evaluated for finer, coarser
and normal gradation of aggregate to observe the effect of gradation
on moisture susceptibility of mixes. The retained stability is least
affected when compared with other moisture susceptibility
Various Information Obtained from Acoustic Emissions Owing to Discharges in XLPE Cable
An acoustic emission (AE) technique is useful for
detection of partial discharges (PDs) at a joint and a terminal section of
a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable. For AE technique, it is not
difficult to detect a PD using AE sensors. However, it is difficult to
grasp whether the detected AE signal is owing to a single discharge or
not. Additionally, when an AE technique is applied at a terminal
section of a XLPE cable in salt pollution district, for example, there is
possibility of detection of AE signals owing to creeping discharges on
the surface of electric power apparatus. In this study, we evaluated AE
signals in order to grasp what kind of information we can get from
detected AE signals. The results showed that envelop detection of AE
signal and a period which some AE signals were continuously detected
were good indexes for estimating state-of-discharge.
Selecting an Advanced Creep Model or a Sophisticated Time-Integration? A New Approach by Means of Sensitivity Analysis
The prediction of long-term deformations of concrete and reinforced concrete structures has been a field of extensive research and several different creep models have been developed so far. Most of the models were developed for constant concrete stresses, thus, in case of varying stresses a specific superposition principle or time-integration, respectively, is necessary. Nowadays, when modeling concrete creep the engineering focus is rather on the application of sophisticated time-integration methods than choosing the more appropriate creep model. For this reason, this paper presents a method to quantify the uncertainties of creep prediction originating from the selection of creep models or from the time-integration methods. By adapting variance based global sensitivity analysis, a methodology is developed to quantify the influence of creep model selection or choice of time-integration method. Applying the developed method, general recommendations how to model creep behavior for varying stresses are given.
Creep Constitutive Equation for 2- Materials of Weldment-304L Stainless Steel
In this paper, creep constitutive equations of base
(Parent) and weld materials of the weldment for cold-drawn 304L
stainless steel have been obtained experimentally. For this purpose,
test samples have been generated from cold drawn bars and weld
material according to the ASTM standard. The creep behavior and
properties have been examined for these materials by conducting uniaxial
creep tests. Constant temperatures and constant load uni-axial
creep tests have been carried out at two high temperatures, 680 and
720 oC, subjected to constant loads, which produce initial stresses
ranging from 240 to 360 MPa. The experimental data have been used
to obtain the creep constitutive parameters using numerical
Damage of Tubular Equipment in Process Industry
Tubular process equipment is often damaged in
industrial processes. The damage occurs both on devices working at
high temperatures and also on less exposed devices. In case of sudden
damage of key equipment a shutdown of the whole production unit
and resulting significant economic losses are imminent. This paper
presents a solution of several types of tubular process equipment. The
causes of damage and suggestions of correction actions are discussed
in all cases. Very important part is the analysis of operational
conditions, determination of unfavourable working states decreasing
lifetime of devices and suggestions of correction actions. Lately very
popular numerical methods are used for analysis of the equipment.
Robust On-Body Communications using Creeping Wave: Methodology and Analysis
In this paper methodology to exploit creeping wave
for body area network BAN communication reliability are described.
Creeping wave propagation effects are visualized & analyzed.
During this work Dipole, IA antennas various antennas were
redesigned using existing designs and their propagation
characteristics were verified for optimum performance when used on
BANs. These antennas were then applied on body shapes-including
rectangular, spherical and cylindrical so that all the effects of actual
human body can be taken nearly into account. Parametric simulation
scheme was devised so that on Body channel characterization can be
visualized at front, curved and back region. In the next phase
multiple inputs multiple output MIMO scheme was introduced where
virtual antennas were used in order to diminish the effects of
antennas on the propagation of waves. Results were, extracted and
analyzed at different heights. Finally based on comparative
measurement and analysis it was concluded that on body propagation
can be exploited to gain spatial diversity.
Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries
Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro
mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate
the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number.
Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of
rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel
and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been
investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual
Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal
transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic
phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher
temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature
gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In
this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and
governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height
ratios have been examined.
Analytical Solution for Compressible Gas Flow Inside a Two-Dimensional Poiseuille Flow in Microchannels with Constant Heat Flux Including the Creeping Effect
To achieve reliable solutions, today-s numerical and
experimental activities need developing more accurate methods and
utilizing expensive facilities, respectfully in microchannels. The analytical
study can be considered as an alternative approach to alleviate
the preceding difficulties. Among the analytical solutions, those with
high robustness and low complexities are certainly more attractive.
The perturbation theory has been used by many researchers to analyze
microflows. In present work, a compressible microflow with constant
heat flux boundary condition is analyzed. The flow is assumed to be
fully developed and steady. The Mach and Reynolds numbers are also
assumed to be very small. For this case, the creeping phenomenon
may have some effect on the velocity profile. To achieve robustness
solution it is assumed that the flow is quasi-isothermal. In this study,
the creeping term which appears in the slip boundary condition
is formulated by different mathematical formulas. The difference
between this work and the previous ones is that the creeping term
is taken into account and presented in non-dimensionalized form.
The results obtained from perturbation theory are presented based
on four non-dimensionalized parameters including the Reynolds,
Mach, Prandtl and Brinkman numbers. The axial velocity, normal
velocity and pressure profiles are obtained. Solutions for velocities
and pressure for two cases with different Br numbers are compared
with each other and the results show that the effect of creeping
phenomenon on the velocity profile becomes more important when
Br number is less than O(ε).