Level Shifted Carrier Signal Based Scalar Random Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms for Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
Acoustic noise becoming ever more obnoxious radiated by voltage source inverter fed induction motor drive in modern and industrial applications. The drive utilized for industrial and modern applications should use “spread spectrum” innovation known as Random pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithms where acoustic noise emanates through the machine should be critically concerned. This paper illustrates three types of random PWM control algorithms with fixed switching frequency namely 1) Random modulating PWM 2) Random carrier PWM and 3) Random modulating-carrier PWM. The spectrum plots of the motor stator current demonstrate the strength and robustness of the proposed PWM algorithms. To affirm the proposed algorithms, experimental tests have been conducted using dSPACE rt1104 control board on a v/f control three phase induction motor drive fed by DC link cascaded multilevel inverter.
Cascaded H-Bridge Five Level Inverter Based Selective Harmonic Eliminated Pulse Width Modulation for Harmonic Elimination
In this paper, selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation technique is employed to eliminate lower order harmonics like third by determination of solving non-linear equations. The cascaded H-bridge five level inverter is driven by the Peripheral Interface Controlled (PIC) Microcontroller 16F877A. The performance of single phase cascaded H-bridge five level inverter with relevant to harmonics and a variety of switches with solar cell as its input source is simulated by employing MATLAB/Simulink. A hardware model is developed to verify the performance of the developed system.
Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network
Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.
A Thirteen-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Single Phase Inverter
This paper presents a thirteen-level asymmetrical
cascaded H-bridge single phase inverter. In this configuration, the
desired output voltage level is achieved by connecting the DC sources in
different combinations by triggering the switches. The modes of
operation are explained well for positive level generations. Moreover, a
comparison is made with conventional topologies of diode clamped,
flying capacitors and cascaded-H-bridge and some recently proposed
topologies to show the significance of the proposed topology in terms of
reduced part counts. The simulation work has been carried out in
MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental work is also carried
out for lower rating to verify the performance and feasibility of the
proposed topology. Further the results are presented for different loading
Harmonic Pollution Caused by Non-Linear Load: Analysis and Identification
The present paper provides a detailed analysis of prior methods and approaches for non-linear load identification in residential buildings. The main goal of this analysis is to decipher the distorted signals and to estimate the harmonics influence on power systems. We have performed an analytical study of non-linear loads behavior in the residential environment. Simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the distorted rate of the current and follow his behavior. To complete this work, an instrumental platform has been realized to carry out practical tests on single-phase non-linear loads which illustrate the current consumption of some domestic appliances supplied with single-phase sinusoidal voltage. These non-linear loads have been processed and tracked in order to limit their influence on the power grid and to reduce the Joule effect losses. As a result, the study has allowed to identify responsible circuits of harmonic pollution.
Enhanced Magnetoelastic Response near Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnetic Materials: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis
The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) recently has attracted constant interest in ferromagnetic systems for obtaining enhanced large magnetoelastic response. In the present study, structural and magnetoelastic properties of MPB involved ferromagnetic Tb1-xGdxFe2 (0≤x≤1) system has been investigated. The change of easy magnetic direction from <111> to <100> with increasing x up MPB composition of x=0.9 is detected by step-scanned  synchrotron X-ray diffraction reflections. The Gd substitution for Tb changes the composition for the anisotropy compensation near MPB composition of x=0.9, which was confirmed by the analysis of detailed scanned XRD, magnetization curves and the calculation of the first anisotropy constant K1. The spin configuration diagram accompanied with different crystal structures for Tb1-xGdxFe2 was designed. The calculated first anisotropy constant K1 shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.9. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction, and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant │λS∕K1│ appears at MPB composition, which makes it a potential material for magnetostrictive application. Based on experimental results, a theoretically approach was also proposed to signify that the facilitated magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic effect near MPB composition are a consequence of the anisotropic flattening of free energy of ferromagnetic crystal. Our work specifies the universal existence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials which is important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties and may provide a new route to develop advanced functional materials.
Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method
In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.
Effects of Inlet Distorted Flows on the Performance of an Axial Compressor
Compressor fans in modern aircraft engines are of considerate importance, as they provide majority of thrust required by the aircraft. Their challenging environment is frequently subjected to non-uniform inflow conditions. These conditions could be either due to the flight operating requirements such as take-off and landing, wake interference from aircraft fuselage or cross-flow wind conditions. So, in highly maneuverable flights regimes of fighter aircrafts affects the overall performance of an engine. Since the flow in compressor of an aircraft application is highly sensitive because of adverse pressure gradient due to different flow orientations of the aircraft. Therefore, it is prone to unstable operations. This paper presents the study that focuses on axial compressor response to inlet flow orientations for the range of angles as 0 to 15 degrees. For this purpose, NASA Rotor-37 was taken and CFD mesh was developed. The compressor characteristics map was generated for the design conditions of pressure ratio of 2.106 with the rotor operating at rotational velocity of 17188.7 rpm using CFD simulating environment of ANSYS-CFX®. The grid study was done to see the effects of mesh upon computational solution. Then, the mesh giving the best results, (when validated with the available experimental NASA’s results); was used for further distortion analysis. The flow in the inlet nozzle was given angle orientations ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. The CFD results are analyzed and discussed with respect to stall margin and flow separations due to induced distortions.
Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter
This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.
Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation
This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts
of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and
the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic
distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real
system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network.
Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used
with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared
with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution
Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.
Effect of Butt Joint Distortion and Comparison Study on Ti/Al Dissimilar Metal Using Laser Beam Welding
In general, it is desirable to finish the weld quickly,
before a large volume of surrounding metal heats up and expands.
The welding process used, type, welding current and speed of travel,
thus, affect the degree of shrinkage and distortion of a weldment. The
use of mechanized welding equipment reduces welding time, metal
affected zone and consequently distortion. This article helps to define
what weld distortion is and then provide a practical understanding of
the causes of distortion, effects of shrinkage in butt joint welded
assemblies using TI6AL4VA and Aluminium AA2024 alloy sheet.
The beam offset position to the joint interface towards titanium and
aluminium side. The factors affecting distortion during welding is
also given. Test results reveal that welding speed is the significant
parameter to decide the extent of distortion. Also welding from Al
side reduces the distortion while Ti side increases the distortion.
Influence of Harmonics on Medium Voltage Distribution System: A Case Study for Residential Area
In this paper, influence of harmonics on medium
voltage distribution system of Bogazici Electricity Distribution Inc.
(BEDAS) which takes place at Istanbul/Turkey is investigated. A ring
network consisting of residential loads is taken into account for this
study. Real system parameters and measurement results are used for
simulations. Also, probable working conditions of the system are
analyzed for 50%, 75%, and 100% loading of transformers with
similar harmonic contents. Results of the study are exhibited the
influence of nonlinear loads on %THDV, P.F. and technical losses of
the medium voltage distribution system.
Enhancing the Performance of H.264/AVC in Adaptive Group of Pictures Mode Using Octagon and Square Search Pattern
This paper integrates Octagon and Square Search
pattern (OCTSS) motion estimation algorithm into H.264/AVC
(Advanced Video Coding) video codec in Adaptive Group of Pictures
(AGOP) mode. AGOP structure is computed based on scene change
in the video sequence. Octagon and square search pattern block-based
motion estimation method is implemented in inter-prediction process
of H.264/AVC. Both these methods reduce bit rate and computational
complexity while maintaining the quality of the video sequence
respectively. Experiments are conducted for different types of video
sequence. The results substantially proved that the bit rate,
computation time and PSNR gain achieved by the proposed method
is better than the existing H.264/AVC with fixed GOP and AGOP.
With a marginal gain in quality of 0.28dB and average gain in bitrate
of 132.87kbps, the proposed method reduces the average computation
time by 27.31 minutes when compared to the existing state-of-art
H.264/AVC video codec.
Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features
Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital
opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer
from mammogram images. Architectural distortions, masses and
microcalcifications are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a
computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for
distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion
from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM
texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features
for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support vector machine
has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded
an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and an accuracy of 96% for
mammogram images collected from digital database for screening
Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network
This article presents two methods for the
compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is
the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern
method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both
methods are applied to a shunt Active Power Filter (sAPF) based on a
three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In
calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm
P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For
flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear
that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better
Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter
This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source
Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for
two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic
distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV
system. To improve the performance of the system the number of
voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This
paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z
source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width
Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison
are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total
harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical
results are verified using MATLAB.
Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Different Control Methods of ZSI Feeding Industrial Drives
Industrial drives are source of serious power quality problems. In this, two typical industrial drives have been dealt with, namely, FOC induction motor drives and DTC induction motor drive. The Z-source inverter is an emerging topology of power electronic converters which is capable of buck boost characteristics. The performances of different control methods based Z-source inverters feeding these industrial drives have been investigated, in this work. The test systems have been modeled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained after carrying out these simulations have been used to draw the conclusions.
A Literature Assessment of Multi-Level Inverters
Multi-Level Inverter technology has been developed in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy scheme, because of their advantages such as devices of lower rating can be used thereby enabling the schemes to be used for high voltage applications. Reduced Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).Since the dv/dt is low; the Electromagnetic Interference from the scheme is low. To avoid the switching losses Lower switching frequencies can be used. In this paper present a survey of various topologies, control strategy and modulation techniques used by these inverters. Here the regenerative and superior topologies are also discussed.
Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band
We report on the use of strong external optical
feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers
over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher
than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of
photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external
cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study
is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account
both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external
cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions
associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave
band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with
solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance
frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower
5iD Viewer - Observation of Fish School Behaviour in Labyrinths and Use of Semantic and Syntactic Entropy for School Structure Definition
In this article is reported a construction and some
properties of the 5iD viewer, the system recording simultaneously
5 views of a given experimental object. Properties of the system
are demonstrated on the analysis of fish schooling behaviour. It
is demonstrated the method of instrument calibration which allows
inclusion of image distortion and it is proposed and partly tested
also the method of distance assessment in the case that only two
opposite cameras are available. Finally, we demonstrate how the state
trajectory of the behaviour of the fish school may be constructed from
the entropy of the system.
Studies on Distortion of Dissimilar Thin Sheet Weld Joints Using Laser Beam Welding
To achieve reliable welds with minimum distortion for
the fabrication of components in aerospace industry laser beam
welding is attempted. Laser welding can provide a significant benefit
for the welding of Titanium and Aluminium thin sheet alloys of its
precision and rapid processing capability. For laser welding, pulse
shape, energy, duration, repetition rate and peak power are the most
important parameters that influence directly the quality of welds. In
this experimental work for joining 1mm thick TI6AL4V and AA2024
alloy and JK600 Nd:YAG pulsed laser units used. The distortions at
different welding power and speed of titanium and aluminium thin
sheet alloys are investigated. Test results reveal that increase in
welding speed increases distortion in weldment
Comparative Review of Modulation Techniques for Harmonic Minimization in Multilevel Inverter
This paper proposed the comparison made between
Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, Sinusoidal Pulse Width
Modulation and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width
Modulation technique for minimization of Total Harmonic Distortion
in Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter. In Multicarrier Pulse
Width Modulation method by using Alternate Position of Disposition
scheme for switching pulse generation to Multi-Level Inverter.
Another carrier based approach; Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
method is also implemented to define the switching pulse generation
system in the multi-level inverter. In Selective Harmonic Elimination
method using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
algorithm for define the required switching angles to eliminate low
order harmonics from the inverter output voltage waveform and
reduce the total harmonic distortion value. So, the results validate that
the Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation method
does capably eliminate a great number of precise harmonics and
minimize the Total Harmonic Distortion value in output voltage
waveform in compared with Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation
method, Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method. In this paper,
comparison of simulation results shows that the Selective Harmonic
Elimination method can attain optimal harmonic minimization
solution better than Multi-Carrier Pulse Width Modulation method,
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation method.
A Novel Approach of Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Power Electronics Devices
In this paper family of multilevel inverter topology
with reduced number of power switches is presented. The proposed
inverter can generate both even and odd level. The proposed topology
is suitable for symmetric structure. The proposed symmetric inverter
results in reduction of power switches, power diode and gate driver
circuits and also it may further minimize the installation area and
cost. To prove the superiority of proposed topology is compared with
conventional topologies. The performance of this symmetric
multilevel inverter has been tested by computer based simulation and
prototype based experimental setup for nine-level inverter is
developed and results are verified.
A Novel Three Phase Hybrid Unidirectional Rectifier for High Power Factor Applications
This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for
high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero
voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost
converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six
pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier.
The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC
output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it
increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56%
and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from
0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in
MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms
presented with experimental result.
Combined Fuzzy and Predictive Controller for Unity Power Factor Converter
This paper treats a design of combined control of a
single phase power factor correction (PFC). The strategy of the
proposed control is based on two parts, the first, for the outer loop
(DC output regulated voltage), and the second govern the input
current of the converter in order to achieve a sinusoidal form in phase
with the grid voltage. Two kinds of regulators are used, Fuzzy
controller for the outer loop and predictive controller for the inner
loop. The controllers are verified and discussed through simulation
under MATLAB/Simulink platform. Also an experimental
confirmation is applied. Results present a high dynamic performance
under various parameters changes.
A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate
This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.
Experimental Investigation on Cold-formed Steel Wall Plate System
A series of tests on cold-formed steel (CFS) wall plate system subjected to uplift force at the mid span of the wall plate is presented. The aim of the study was to study the behaviour and identify the modes of failure of CFS wall plate system. Two parameters were considered in these studies: 1) different dimension of U-bracket at the supports and 2) different sizes of lipped C-channel. The lipped C-channels used were C07508, C07512 and C10012. The dimensions of the leg of U-bracket were 50x35 mm and 50x60 mm respectively, where 25 mm clearance was provided to the connections for specimens with clearance. Results show that specimens with and without clearance experienced the same mode of failure. Failure began with the yielding of the connectors followed by distortional buckling of the wall plate. However, when C075 sections were used as wall plate, the system behaved differently. There was a large deformation in the wall plate and failure began in the distortional buckling of the wall plate followed by bearing of the connecting plates at the supports (U-bracket). The ultimate strength of the system also decreased dramatically when C075 sections were used.
Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller with D-Q-O Reference Frame Technique Based Active Power Filter
Active power filter continues to be a powerful tool to control harmonics in power systems thereby enhancing the power quality. This paper presents a fuzzy tuned PID controller based shunt active filter to diminish the harmonics caused by non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifiers and imbalanced loads. Here Fuzzy controller provides the tuning of PID, based on firing of thyristor bridge rectifiers and variations in input rms current. The shunt APF system is implemented with three phase current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and is connected at the point of common coupling for compensating the current harmonics by injecting equal but opposite filter currents. These controllers are capable of controlling dc-side capacitor voltage and estimating reference currents. Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC) is used to generate switching signals for the voltage source inverter. Simulation studies are carried out with non linear loads like thyristor bridge rectifier along with unbalanced loads and the results proved that the APF along with fuzzy tuned PID controller work flawlessly for different firing angles of non linear load.