Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece
Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.
Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm
With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.
Comparison of Machine Learning Models for the Prediction of System Marginal Price of Greek Energy Market
The Greek Energy Market is structured as a mandatory pool where the producers make their bid offers in day-ahead basis. The System Operator solves an optimization routine aiming at the minimization of the cost of produced electricity. The solution of the optimization problem leads to the calculation of the System Marginal Price (SMP). Accurate forecasts of the SMP can lead to increased profits and more efficient portfolio management from the producer`s perspective. Aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of various machine learning models such as artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy models for the prediction of the SMP of the Greek market. Machine learning algorithms are favored in predictions problems since they can capture and simulate the volatilities of complex time series.
Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles
The primary focus of this paper is the generation of
energy-optimal speed trajectories for heterogeneous electric vehicle
platoons in urban driving conditions. Optimal speed trajectories are
generated for individual vehicles and for an entire platoon under
the assumption that they can be executed without errors, as would
be the case for self-driving vehicles. It is then shown that the
optimization for the “average vehicle in the platoon” generates similar
transportation energy savings to optimizing speed trajectories for
each vehicle individually. The introduced approach only requires the
lead vehicle to run the optimization software while the remaining
vehicles are only required to have adaptive cruise control capability.
The achieved energy savings are typically between 30% and 50%
for stop-to-stop segments in cities. The prime motivation of urban
platooning comes from the fact that urban platoons efficiently utilize
the available space and the minimization of transportation energy in
cities is important for many reasons, i.e., for environmental, power,
and range considerations.
Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications
Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.
Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco
The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take into account a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results, and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.
Energy Saving, Heritage Conserving Renovation Methods in Case of Historical Building Stock
The majority of the building stock of Budapest inner districts was built around the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Although the structural stability of the buildings is not questioned, as the load bearing structures are in sufficient state, the secondary structures are aged, resulting unsatisfactory energetic state. The renovation of these historical buildings requires special methodology and technology: their ornamented facades and custom-made fenestration cannot be insulated or exchanged with conventional solutions without damaging the heritage values. The present paper aims to introduce and systematize the possible technological solutions for heritage respecting energy retrofit in case of a historical residential building stock. Through case study, the possible energy saving potential is also calculated using multiple renovation scenarios.
Studying the Effect of Shading by Rooftop PV Panels on Dwellings’ Thermal Performance
Thermal performance is considered to be a key measure in building sustainability. One of the technologies used in the current building sustainable design is the rooftop solar PV power generators. The application of this type of technology has expanded vastly during the last five years in many countries. This paper studies the effect of roof shading developed by the solar PV panels on dwellings’ thermal performance. The analysis in this work is performed by using two types of packages: “AccuRate Sustainability” for rating the energy efficiency of residential building design, and “PVSYST” for the solar PV power system design. The former package is used to calculate the annual heating and cooling load, and the later package is used to evaluate the power production from the roof top PV system. The analysis correlates the electrical energy generated from the PV panels to the change in the heating and cooling load due to roof shading. Different roof orientation, roof inclination, roof insulation, as well as PV panel area are considered in this study. The analysis shows that the drop in energy efficiency due to the shaded area of the roof by PV panels is negligible compared to the energy generated by these panels.
Efficiency Validation of Hybrid Cooling Application in Hot and Humid Climate Houses of KSA
Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions are probably the greatest challenge now facing mankind. From considerations surrounding global warming and CO2 production, it has to be recognized that oil is a finite resource and the KSA like many other oil-rich countries will have to start to consider a horizon where hydro-carbons are not the dominant energy resource. The employment of hybrid ground-cooling pipes in combination with the black body solar collection and radiant night cooling systems may have the potential to displace a significant proportion of oil currently used to run conventional air conditioning plant. This paper presents an investigation into the viability of such hybrid systems with the specific aim of reducing cooling load and carbon emissions while providing all year-round thermal comfort in a typical Saudi Arabian urban housing block. Soil temperatures were measured in the city of Jeddah. A parametric study then was carried out by computational simulation software (DesignBuilder) that utilized the field measurements and predicted the cooling energy consumption of both a base case and an ideal scenario (typical block retro-fitted with insulation, solar shading, ground pipes integrated with hypocaust floor slabs/stack ventilation and radiant cooling pipes embed in floor). Initial simulation results suggest that careful ‘ecological design’ combined with hybrid radiant and ground pipe cooling techniques can displace air conditioning systems, producing significant cost and carbon savings (both capital and running) without appreciable deprivation of amenity.
Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks are resource constrained networks, where energy is the major resource in such networks. Therefore, energy conservation is major aspect in the deployment of Wireless Sensor Network. This work makes use of an extended Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (eGPSR) protocol that mainly focuses on energy efficient data transmission. This data transmission is based on the fact that the message that is sent to a distant node consumes more energy than the message that is sent to a short range transmission. Every cluster contains a head set that consists of many virtual cluster heads. Routing is decided by head set members. The energy level of the received signal is the major constraint to choose head set from its members. The experimental result shows that the use of eGPSR in routing has improved throughput with comparatively less delay.
A Design Methodology and Tool to Support Ecodesign Implementation in Induction Hobs
Nowadays, the European Ecodesign Directive has emerged as a new approach to integrate environmental concerns into the product design and related processes. Ecodesign aims to minimize environmental impacts throughout the product life cycle, without compromising performances and costs. In addition, the recent Ecodesign Directives require products which are increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performances. It is very important for producers measuring performances, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use, and a low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point, also in terms of ecodesign requirements. The Ecodesign Directive provides a clear framework about the sustainable design of products and it has been extended in 2009 to all energy-related products, or products with an impact on energy consumption during the use. The European Regulation establishes measures of ecodesign of ovens, hobs, and kitchen hoods, and domestic use and energy efficiency of a product has a significant environmental aspect in the use phase which is the most impactful in the life cycle. It is important that the product parameters and performances are not affected by ecodesign requirements from a user’s point of view, and the benefits of reducing energy consumption in the use phase should offset the possible environmental impact in the production stage. Accurate measurements of cooking appliance performance are essential to help the industry to produce more energy efficient appliances. The development of ecodriven products requires ecoinnovation and ecodesign tools to support the sustainability improvement. The ecodesign tools should be practical and focused on specific ecoobjectives in order to be largely diffused. The main scope of this paper is the development, implementation, and testing of an innovative tool, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of induction hobs. In particular, a prototypical software tool is developed in order to simulate the energy performances of the induction hobs. The tool is focused on a multiphysics model which is able to simulate the energy performances and the efficiency of induction hobs starting from the design data. The multiphysics model is composed by an electromagnetic simulation and a thermal simulation. The electromagnetic simulation is able to calculate the eddy current induced in the pot, which leads to the Joule heating of material. The thermal simulation is able to measure the energy consumption during the operational phase. The Joule heating caused from the eddy currents is the output of electromagnetic simulation and the input of thermal ones. The aims of the paper are the development of integrated tools and methodologies of virtual prototyping in the context of the ecodesign. This tool could be a revolutionary instrument in the field of industrial engineering and it gives consideration to the environmental aspects of product design and focus on the ecodesign of energy-related products, in order to achieve a reduced environmental impact.
Adaptive Design of Large Prefabricated Concrete Panels Collective Housing
More than half of the urban population in Romania lives today in residential buildings made out of large prefabricated reinforced concrete panels. Since their initial design was made in the 1960’s, these housing units are now being technically and morally outdated, consuming large amounts of energy for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting, while failing to meet the needs of the contemporary life-style. Due to their widespread use, the design of a system that improves their energy efficiency would have a real impact, not only on the energy consumption of the residential sector, but also on the quality of life that it offers. Furthermore, with the transition of today’s existing power grid to a “smart grid”, buildings could become an active element for future electricity networks by contributing in micro-generation and energy storage. One of the most addressed issues today is to find locally adapted strategies that can be applied considering the 20-20-20 EU policy criteria and to offer sustainable and innovative solutions for the cost-optimal energy performance of buildings adapted on the existing local market. This paper presents a possible adaptive design scenario towards sustainable retrofitting of these housing units. The apartments are transformed in order to meet the current living requirements and additional extensions are placed on top of the building, replacing the unused roof space, acting not only as housing units, but as active solar energy collection systems. An adaptive building envelope is ensured in order to achieve overall air-tightness and an elevator system is introduced to facilitate access to the upper levels.
Energy Efficiency Approach to Reduce Costs of Ownership of Air Jet Weaving
Air jet weaving is the most productive, but also the most energy consuming weaving method. Increasing energy costs and environmental impact are constantly a challenge for the manufacturers of weaving machines. Current technological developments concern with low energy costs, low environmental impact, high productivity, and constant product quality. The high degree of energy consumption of the method can be ascribed to the high need of compressed air. An energy efficiency method is applied to the air jet weaving technology. Such method identifies and classifies the main relevant energy consumers and processes from the exergy point of view and it leads to the identification of energy efficiency potentials during the weft insertion process. Starting from the design phase, energy efficiency is considered as the central requirement to be satisfied. The initial phase of the method consists of an analysis of the state of the art of the main weft insertion components in order to point out a prioritization of the high demanding energy components and processes. The identified major components are investigated to reduce the high demand of energy of the weft insertion process. During the interaction of the flow field coming from the relay nozzles within the profiled reed, only a minor part of the stream is really accelerating the weft yarn, hence resulting in large energy inefficiency. Different tools such as FEM analysis, CFD simulation models and experimental analysis are used in order to design a more energy efficient design of the involved components in the filling insertion. A different concept for the metal strip of the profiled reed is developed. The developed metal strip allows a reduction of the machine energy consumption. Based on a parametric and aerodynamic study, the designed reed transmits higher values of the flow power to the filling yarn. The innovative reed fulfills both the requirement of raising energy efficiency and the compliance with the weaving constraints.
Energy Efficient Plant Design Approaches: Case Study of the Sample Building of the Energy Efficiency Training Facilities
Nowadays, due to the growing problems of energy supply and the drastic reduction of natural non-renewable resources, the development of new applications in the energy sector and steps towards greater efficiency in energy consumption are required. Since buildings account for a large share of energy consumption, increasing the structural density of buildings causes an increase in energy consumption. This increase in energy consumption means that energy efficiency approaches to building design and the integration of new systems using emerging technologies become necessary in order to curb this consumption. As new systems for productive usage of generated energy are developed, buildings that require less energy to operate, with rational use of resources, need to be developed. One solution for reducing the energy requirements of buildings is through landscape planning, design and application. Requirements such as heating, cooling and lighting can be met with lower energy consumption through planting design, which can help to achieve more efficient and rational use of resources. Within this context, rather than a planting design which considers only the ecological and aesthetic features of plants, these considerations should also extend to spatial organization whereby the relationship between the site and open spaces in the context of climatic elements and planting designs are taken into account. In this way, the planting design can serve an additional purpose. In this study, a landscape design which takes into consideration location, local climate morphology and solar angle will be illustrated on a sample building project.
A Comparative Study on Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Enabled Cluster Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has played a significant task in research for the recent years. Energy consumption and data delivery in time are the major parameters with the usage of sensor nodes that are significant criteria for these networks. The location of sensor nodes must not be prearranged. Clustering in WSN is a key methodology which is used to enlarge the life-time of a sensor network. It consists of numerous real-time applications. The features of WSNs are minimized the consumption of energy. Soft computing techniques can be included to accomplish improved performance. This paper surveys the modern trends in routing enclose fuzzy logic and Neuro-fuzzy logic based on the clustering techniques and implements a comparative study of the numerous related methodologies.
Enlightening Malaysia's Energy Policies and Strategies for Modernization and Sustainable Development
Malaysia has achieved remarkable economic growth since 1957, moving toward modernization from a predominantly agriculture base to manufacturing and—now—modern services. The development policies (i.e., New Economic Policy [1970–1990], the National Development Policy [1990–2000], and Vision 2020) have been recognized as the most important drivers of this transformation. The transformation of the economic structure has moved along with rapid gross domestic product (GDP) growth, urbanization growth, and greater demand for energy from mainly fossil fuel resources, which in turn, increase CO2 emissions. Malaysia faced a great challenge to bring down the CO2 emissions without compromising economic development. Solid policies and a strategy to reduce dependencies on fossil fuel resources and reduce CO2 emissions are needed in order to achieve sustainable development. This study provides an overview of the Malaysian economic, energy, and environmental situation, and explores the existing policies and strategies related to energy and the environment. The significance is to grasp a clear picture on what types of policies and strategies Malaysia has in hand. In the future, this examination should be extended by drawing a comparison with other developed countries and highlighting several options for sustainable development.
Increase of Energy Efficiency by Means of Application of Active Bearings
In the present paper, increasing of energy efficiency of a thrust hybrid bearing with a central feeding chamber is considered. The mathematical model was developed to determine the pressure distribution and the reaction forces, based on the Reynolds equation and static characteristics’ equations. The boundary problem of pressure distribution calculation was solved using the method of finite differences. For various types of lubricants, geometry and operational characteristics, axial gaps can be determined, where the minimal friction coefficient is provided. The next part of the study considers the application of servovalves in order to maintain the desired position of the rotor. The report features the calculation results and the analysis of the influence of the operational and geometric parameters on the energy efficiency of mechatronic fluid-film bearings.
Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems
This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.
Disaggregating and Forecasting the Total Energy Consumption of a Building: A Case Study of a High Cooling Demand Facility
Energy disaggregation has been focused by many energy companies since energy efficiency can be achieved when the breakdown of energy consumption is known. Companies have been investing in technologies to come up with software and/or hardware solutions that can provide this type of information to the consumer. On the other hand, not all people can afford to have these technologies. Therefore, in this paper, we present a methodology for breaking down the aggregate consumption and identifying the highdemanding end-uses profiles. These energy profiles will be used to build the forecast model for optimal control purpose. A facility with high cooling load is used as an illustrative case study to demonstrate the results of proposed methodology. We apply a high level energy disaggregation through a pattern recognition approach in order to extract the consumption profile of its rooftop packaged units (RTUs) and present a forecast model for the energy consumption.
Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector
For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.
Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.
Evaluation of Research in the Field of Energy Efficiency and MCA Methods Using Publications Databases
Energy is a fundamental component in sustainability, the access and use of this resource is related with economic growth, social improvements, and environmental impacts. In this sense, energy efficiency has been studied as a factor that enhances the positive impacts of energy in communities; however, the implementation of efficiency requires strong policy and strategies that usually rely on individual measures focused in independent dimensions. In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency as a multi-objective problem is studied, using scientometric analysis to discover trends and patterns that allow to identify the main variables and study approximations related with a further development of models to integrate energy efficiency and MCA into policy making for small communities.
Characterization of the Airtightness Level in School Classrooms in Mediterranean Climate
An analysis of the air tightness level is performed on a representative sample of school classrooms in Southern Spain, which allows knowing the infiltration level of these classrooms, mainly through its envelope, which can affect both energy demand and occupant's thermal comfort. By using a pressurization/depressurization equipment (Blower-Door test), a characterization of 45 multipurpose classrooms have been performed in nine non-university educational institutions of the main climate zones of Southern Spain. In spite of having two doors and a high ratio between glass surface and outer surface, it is possible to see in these classrooms that there is an adequate level of airtightness, since all the n50 values obtained are lower than 9.0 ACH, with an average value around 7.0 ACH.
A Method of Effective Planning and Control of Industrial Facility Energy Consumption
A method of effective planning and control of
industrial facility energy consumption is offered. The method allows
optimally arranging the management and full control of complex
production facilities in accordance with the criteria of minimal
technical and economic losses at the forecasting control. The method
is based on the optimal construction of the power efficiency
characteristics with the prescribed accuracy. The problem of optimal
designing of the forecasting model is solved on the basis of three
criteria: maximizing the weighted sum of the points of forecasting
with the prescribed accuracy; the solving of the problem by the
standard principles at the incomplete statistic data on the basis of
minimization of the regularized function; minimizing the technical
and economic losses due to the forecasting errors.
Energy Consumption Forecast Procedure for an Industrial Facility
We regard forecasting of energy consumption by
private production areas of a large industrial facility as well as by the
facility itself. As for production areas, the forecast is made based on
empirical dependencies of the specific energy consumption and the
production output. As for the facility itself, implementation of the
task to minimize the energy consumption forecasting error is based
on adjustment of the facility’s actual energy consumption values
evaluated with the metering device and the total design energy
consumption of separate production areas of the facility. The
suggested procedure of optimal energy consumption was tested based
on the actual data of core product output and energy consumption by
a group of workshops and power plants of the large iron and steel
facility. Test results show that implementation of this procedure gives
the mean accuracy of energy consumption forecasting for winter
2014 of 0.11% for the group of workshops and 0.137% for the power
Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry
An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a
Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory.
The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also
considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are
established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code
is established using EES software to perform the calculations
required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the
key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature,
mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle
performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the
melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps.
The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present
exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for
steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam
temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine
generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4%
respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values,
leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.
A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of Square and Yurt-Shape Buildings on Energy Efficiency
Regions with extreme climate conditions such as
Astana city require energy saving measures to increase energy
performance of buildings which are responsible for more than 40% of
total energy consumption. Identification of optimal building
geometry is one of key factors to be considered. Architectural form of
a building has impact on space heating and cooling energy use,
however the interrelationship between the geometry and resultant
energy use is not always readily apparent. This paper presents a
comparative case study of two prototypical buildings with compact
building shape to assess its impact on energy performance.
Investigating the Effect of Refinancing on Financial Behavior of Energy Efficiency Projects
Reduction of energy consumption in built
infrastructure, through the installation of energy-efficient
technologies, is a major approach to achieving sustainability. In
practice, the viability of energy efficiency projects strongly depends
on the cost reimbursement and profitability. These projects are
subject to failure if the actual cost savings do not reimburse the
project cost promptly. In such cases, refinancing could be a solution
to benefit from the long-term returns of the project, if implemented
wisely. However, very little is still known about the effect of
refinancing options on financial performance of energy efficiency
projects. In order to fill this gap, the present study investigates the
financial behavior of energy efficiency projects with focus on
refinancing options, such as Leveraged Loans. A System Dynamics
(SD) model is introduced, and the model application is presented
using an actual case-study data. The case study results indicate that
while high-interest start-ups make using Leveraged Loan inevitable,
refinancing can rescue the project and bring about profitability. This
paper also presents some managerial implications of refinancing
energy efficiency projects based on the case-study analysis. Results
of this study help to implement financially viable energy efficiency
projects so that the community could benefit from their
environmental advantages widely.
Integrated Modeling Approach for Energy Planning and Climate Change Mitigation Assessment in the State of Florida
An integrated modeling approach was used in this study for energy planning and climate change mitigation assessment. The main objective of this study was to develop various green-house gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the state of Florida. The Long range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model was used in this study to examine the energy alternative and GHG emissions reduction scenarios for short and long term (2010-2050). One of the energy analysis and GHG mitigation scenarios was developed by taking into account the available renewable energy resources potential for power generation in the state of Florida. This will help to compare and analyze the GHG reduction measure against “Business As Usual” and ‘State of Florida Policy” scenarios. Two master scenarios: “Electrification” and “Energy efficiency and Lifestyle” were developed through combination of various mitigation scenarios: technological changes and energy efficiency and conservation. The results show a net reduction of the energy demand and GHG emissions by adopting these two energy scenarios compared to the business as usual.
The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate
This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive
Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy
savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system
configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare
and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the
effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a
range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations
under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt.
The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a
critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert
locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be
essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy
saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper
orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed
that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range
of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs.
ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of
configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing
the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide
acceptable performance. These require additional local shading
measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of
horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows
proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide
range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves
and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.