Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion
A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.
Design and Experiment of Orchard Gas Explosion Subsoiling and Fertilizer Injection Machine
At present, the orchard ditching and fertilizing technology has a series of problems, such as easy tree roots damage, high energy consumption and uneven fertilizing. In this paper, a gas explosion subsoiling and fertilizer injection machine was designed, which used high pressure gas to shock soil body and then injected fertilizer. The drill pipe mechanism with pneumatic chipping hammer excitation and hydraulic assistance was designed to drill the soil. The operation of gas and liquid fertilizer supply was controlled by PLC system. The 3D model of the whole machine was established by using SolidWorks software. The machine prototype was produced, and field experiments were carried out. The results showed that soil fractures were created and diffused by gas explosion, and the subsoiling effect radius reached 40 cm under the condition of 0.8 MPa gas pressure and 30 cm drilling depth. What’s more, the work efficiency is 0.048 hm2/h at least. This machine could meet the agronomic requirements of orchard, garden and city greening fertilization, and the tree roots were not easily damaged and the fertilizer evenly distributed, which was conducive to nutrient absorption of root growth.
Analysis of the Elastic Energy Released and Characterization of the Eruptive Episodes Intensity’s during 2014-2015 at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador
The elastic energy released through Strombolian explosions has been quite studied, detailing various processes, sources, and precursory events at several volcanoes. We realized an analysis based on the relative partitioning of the elastic energy radiated into the atmosphere and ground by Strombolian-type explosions recorded at El Reventador volcano, using infrasound and seismic signals at high and moderate seismicity episodes during intense eruptive stages of explosive and effusive activity. Our results show that considerable values of Volcano Acoustic-Seismic Ratio (VASR or η) are obtained at high seismicity stages. VASR is a physical diagnostic of explosive degassing that we used to compare eruption mechanisms at El Reventador volcano for two datasets of explosions recorded at a Broad-Band BB seismic and infrasonic station located at ~5 kilometers from the vent. We conclude that the acoustic energy EA released during explosive activity (VASR η = 0.47, standard deviation σ = 0.8) is higher than the EA released during effusive activity; therefore, producing the highest values of η. Furthermore, we realized the analysis and characterization of the eruptive intensity for two episodes at high seismicity, calculating a η three-time higher for an episode of effusive activity with an occasional explosive component (η = 0.32, and σ = 0.42), than a η for an episode of only effusive activity (η = 0.11, and σ = 0.18), but more energetic.
Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe
An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected at one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum overpressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed, of 63ms-1, was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe; greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23ms-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate, which increases the flame speed.
Blast Induced Ground Shock Effects on Pile Foundations
Due to increased number of terrorist attacks in recent years, loads induced by explosions need to be incorporated in building designs. For safer performance of a structure, its foundation should have sufficient strength and stability. Therefore, prior to any reconstruction or rehabilitation of a building subjected to blast, it is important to examine adverse effects on the foundation caused by blast induced ground shocks. This paper evaluates the effects of a buried explosion on a pile foundation. It treats the dynamic response of the pile in saturated sand, using explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA. The blast induced wave propagation in the soil and the horizontal deformation of pile are presented and the results are discussed. Further, a parametric study is carried out to evaluate the effect of varying the explosive shape on the pile response. This information can be used to evaluate the vulnerability of piled foundations to credible blast events as well as develop guidance for their design.
Hazard Contributing Factors Classification for Petrol Fuel Station
Petrol Fuel Station (PFS) has potential hazards to the
people, asset, environment and reputation of an operating company.
Fire hazards, static electricity air pollution evoked by aliphatic and
aromatic organic compounds are major causes of accident/incident
occurrence at fuel station. Activities such as carelessness,
maintenance, housekeeping, slips trips and falls, transportation
hazard, major and minor injuries, robbery and snake bites has a
potential to create unsafe conditions. The level of risk of these
hazards varies according to location and country. The emphasis on
safety considerations by the government is variable all around the
world. Developed countries safety records are much better as
compared to developing countries safety statistics. There is no
significant approach available to highlight the unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions during operation and maintenance of fuel station. Fuel
station is the most commonly available facilities that contain
flammable and hazardous materials. Due to continuous operation of
fuel station they pose various hazards to people, environment and
assets of an organization. To control these hazards, there is a need for
specific approach. PFS operation is unique as compared to other
businesses. For smooth operations it demands an involvement of
operating company, contractor and operator group. This study will
focus to address hazard contributing factors that have a potential to
make PFS operation risky. One year data collected, 902 activities
analyzed, comparisons were made to highlight significant
contributing factors. The study will provide help and assistance to
PFS outlet marketing companies to make their fuel station operation
safer. It will help health safety and environment (HSE) professionals
to arrest the gap available related to safety matters at PFS.
Experimental Investigation of Vessel Volume and Equivalence Ratio in Vented Gas
An experiment of vented gas explosions involving two
different cylinder vessel volumes (0.2 and 0.0065 m3) was reported,
with equivalence ratio (Φ) ranged from 0.3 to 1.6. Both vessels were
closed at the rear end and fitted at the other side with a circular
orifice plate that gives a constant vent coefficient (K =Av/V2/3) of
16.4. It was shown that end ignition gives higher overpressures than
central ignition, even though most of the published work on venting
uses central ignition. For propane and ethylene, it is found that rich
mixtures gave the highest overpressures and these mixtures are not
considered in current vent design guidance; which the guideline is
based on mixtures giving the maximum flame temperature. A strong
influence of the vessel volume at constant K was found for methane,
propane, ethylene and hydrogen-air explosions. It can be concluded
that self- acceleration of the flame, which is dependent on the
distance of a flame from the ignition and the ‘suction’ at the vent
opening are significant factors affecting the vent flow during
explosion development in vented gas explosion. This additional
volume influence on vented explosions is not taken into account in
the current vent design guidance.
Analytical Proposal to Damage Assessment of Buried Continuous Pipelines during External Blast Loading
In this paper, transversal vibration of buried pipelines
during loading induced by underground explosions is analyzed. The
pipeline is modeled as an infinite beam on an elastic foundation, so
that soil-structure interaction is considered by means of transverse
linear springs along the pipeline. The pipeline behavior is assumed to
be ideal elasto-plastic which an ultimate strain value limits the plastic
behavior. The blast loading is considered as a point load, considering
the affected length at some point of the pipeline, in which the
magnitude decreases exponentially with time. A closed-form solution
for the quasi-static problem is carried out for both elastic and elasticperfect
plastic behaviors of pipe materials. At the end, a comparative
study on steel and polyethylene pipes with different sizes buried in
various soil conditions, affected by a predefined underground
explosion is conducted, in which effect of each parameter is
Preliminary Chaos Analyses of Explosion Earthquakes Followed by Harmonic Tremors at Semeru Volcano, East Java, Indonesia
Successive event of explosion earthquake and harmonic tremor recorded at Semeru volcano were analyzed to investigate the dynamical system regarding to their eruptive mechanism. The eruptive activity at Semeru volcano East Java, Indonesia is intermittent emission of ash and bombs with Strombolian style which occurred at interval of 15 to 45 minutes. The explosive eruptions accompanied by explosion earthquakes and followed by volcanic tremor which generated by continuous emission of volcanic ash. The spectral and Lyapunov exponent of successive event of explosion and harmonic tremor were analyzed. Peak frequencies of explosion earthquakes range 1.2 to 1.9 Hz and those of the harmonic tremor have peak frequency range 1.5 — 2.2 Hz. The phase space is reconstructed and evaluated based on the Lyapunov exponents. Harmonic tremors have smaller Lyapunov exponent than explosion earthquakes. It can be considerably as correlated complexity of the mechanism from the variance of spectral and fractal dimension and can be concluded that the successive event of harmonic tremor and explosions are chaotic.
Assessing the Effects of Explosion Waves on Office and Residential Buildings
Explosions may cause intensive damage to buildings
and sometimes lead to total and progressive destruction. Pressures
induced by explosions are one of the most destructive loads a
structure may experience. While designing structures for great
explosions may be expensive and impractical, engineers are looking
for methods for preventing destructions resulted from explosions. A
favorable structural system is a system which does not disrupt totally
due to local explosion, since such structures sustain less loss in
comparison with structural ones which really bear the load and
suddenly disrupt. Designing and establishing vital and necessary
installations in a way that it is resistant against direct hit of bomb and
rocket is not practical, economical, or expedient in many cases,
because the cost of construction and installation with such
specifications is several times more than the total cost of the related
Designing the Concrete-Framework Building and Examining its Behavior under the Explosion Load
These Nowadays the explosion of bombs or explosive
materials such as gas and oil near or inside the buildings cause some
losses in installations and building components. This has made the
engineers to make the buildings and their components resistance
against the effects of explosion. These activities lead to provide
regulations and different methods. The above regulations are mostly
focused on the explosion effects resulting from the vehicles around
the buildings. Therefore, the explosion resulting from the vehicles
outside the buildings will be studied in this research.
In the present study, the main goals are to investigate the
explosion load effects on the structures located on the piles with the
specific quantity of plasticity and observing the permissible response
of these structures. The concentrated mass system and the spring with
two degree of freedom will be used to study the structural system.
Designing a Single-Floor Structure for the Control Room of a Petroleum Refinery and Assessing the Resistance of Such a Structure against Gas Explosion Load
Explosion occurs due to sudden release of energy.
Common examples of explosion include chemical, atomic, heat, and
pressure tank (due to ignition) explosions. Petroleum, gas, and
petrochemical industries operations are threatened by natural risks
and processes. Fires and explosions are the greatest process risks
which cause financial damages.
This study aims at designing a single-floor structure for the control
room of a petroleum refinery to be resistant against gas explosion
loads, and the information related to the structure specifications have
been provided regarding the fact that the structure is made on the
ground's surface. In this research, the lateral stiffness of single pile is
calculated by SPPLN.FOR computer program, and its value for
13624 KN/m single pile has been assessed. The analysis used due to
the loading conditions, is dynamic nonlinear analysis with direct
Feasibility Study on Vanillin Production from Jatropha curcas Stem Using Steam Explosion as a Pretreatment
Jatropha curcas stem was analyzed for chemical
compositions: 19.11% pentosan, 42.99% alphacellulose and 24.11%
lignin based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The condition to
fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in J. curcas stem using
steam explosion was optimized. The procedure started from cutting J.
curcas stem into small pieces and soaked in water for overnight.
After that, they were steam exploded at 214 °C and 21 kg/cm2 for 5
min. The obtained hydrolysate contained 1.55 g/L ferulic acid which
after that was used as substrate for vanillin production by Aspergillus
niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in one-step process. The
maximum 0.65 g/L of vanillin were obtained with the conversion rate
of 45.2% based on the initial ferulic acid.
Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Saccharified Sunflower Stalks Using Steam Explosion as Pretreatment
Sunflower stalks were analysed for chemical
compositions: pentosan 15.84%, holocellulose 70.69%,
alphacellulose 45.74%, glucose 27.10% and xylose 7.69% based on
dry weight of 100-g raw material. The most optimum condition for
steam explosion pretreatment was as follows. Sunflower stalks were
cut into small pieces and soaked in 0.02 M H2SO4 for overnight.
After that, they were steam exploded at 207 C and 21 kg/cm2 for 3
minutes to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The
resulting hydrolysate, containing hemicellulose, and cellulose pulp
contained xylose sugar at 2.53% and 7.00%, respectively.The pulp
was further subjected to enzymatic saccharification at 50 C, pH 4.8 citrate buffer) with pulp/buffer 6% (w/w)and Celluclast 1.5L/pulp
2.67% (w/w) to obtain single glucose with maximum yield 11.97%.
After fixed-bed fermentation under optimum condition using
conventional yeast mixtures to produce bioethanol, it indicated
maximum ethanol yield of 0.028 g/100 g sunflower stalk.
Temporal Change of Fractal Dimension of Explosion Earthquakes and Harmonic Tremors at Semeru Volcano, East Java, Indonesia, using Critical Exponent Method
Fractal analyses of successive event of explosion
earthquake and harmonic tremor recorded at Semeru volcano were
carried out to investigate the dynamical system regarding to their
generating mechanism. The explosive eruptions accompanied by
explosion earthquakes and following volcanic tremor which are
generated by continuous emission of volcanic ash. The fractal
dimension of successive event of explosion and harmonic tremor was
estimated by Critical Exponent Method (CEM). It was found that the
method yield a higher fractal dimension of explosion earthquakes and
gradually decrease during the occurrence of harmonic tremor, and can
be considerably as correlated complexity of the source mechanism
from the variance of fractal dimension.