Risk of Occupational Exposure to Cytotoxic Drugs: The Role of Handling Procedures of Hospital Workers
In order to study environmental contamination by cytostatic drugs in Portugal hospitals, sampling campaigns were conducted in three hospitals in 2015 (112 samples). Platinum containing drugs and fluorouracil were chosen because both were administered in high amounts. The detection limit was 0.01 pg/cm² for platinum and 0.1 pg/cm² for fluorouracil. The results show that spills occur mainly on the patient`s chair, while the most referenced occurrence is due to an inadequately closed wrapper. Day hospitals facilities were detected as having the largest number of contaminated samples and with higher levels of contamination.
Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment to Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Basin of South India
This paper examines vulnerability assessment of water resources in a semi-arid basin using the 4-step approach. The vulnerability assessment framework is developed to study the water resources vulnerability which includes the creation of GIS-based vulnerability maps. These maps represent the spatial variability of the vulnerability index. This paper introduces the 4-step approach to assess vulnerability that incorporates a new set of indicators. The approach is demonstrated using a framework composed of a precipitation data for (1975–2010) period, temperature data for (1965–2010) period, hydrological model outputs and the water resources GIS data base. The vulnerability assessment is a function of three components such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The current water resources vulnerability is assessed using GIS based spatio-temporal information. Rainfall Coefficient of Variation, monsoon onset and end date, rainy days, seasonality indices, temperature are selected for the criterion ‘exposure’. Water yield, ground water recharge, evapotranspiration (ET) are selected for the criterion ‘sensitivity’. Type of irrigation and storage structures are selected for the criterion ‘Adaptive capacity’. These indicators were mapped and integrated in GIS environment using overlay analysis. The five sub-basins, namely Arjunanadhi, Kousiganadhi, Sindapalli-Uppodai and Vallampatti Odai, fall under medium vulnerability profile, which indicates that the basin is under moderate stress of water resources. The paper also explores prioritization of sub-basinwise adaptation strategies to climate change based on the vulnerability indices.
An Analysis of Institutional Environments on Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in Nigerian Renewable Energy Firms
Several studies have proposed a one-size fit all approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices, such that CSR as it applies to developed countries is adapted to developing countries, ignoring the differing institutional environments (such as the regulative, economic, social and political environments), which affects the profitability and practices of businesses operating in them. CSR as it applies to filling institutional gaps in developing countries, was categorized into four themes: environmental protection, product and service innovation, social innovation and local cluster development. Based on the four themes, the study employed a qualitative research approach through the use of interviews and review of available publications to study the influence of institutional environments on CSR practices engaged in by three renewable energy firms operating in Nigeria. Over the course of three 60-minutes sessions with the top management and selected workers of the firms, four propositions were made: regulatory environment influences environmental protection practice of Nigerian renewable firms, economic environment influences product and service innovation practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms, the social environment impacts on social innovation in Nigerian renewable energy firms, and political environment affects local cluster development practice of Nigerian renewable energy firms. It was also observed that beyond institutional environments, the international exposure of an organization’s managers reflected in their approach to CSR. This finding on the influence of international exposure on CSR practices creates an area for further study. Insights from this paper are set to help policy makers in developing countries, CSR managers, and future researchers.
Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines
In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.
Phthalate Exposure among Roma Population in Slovakia
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants
well known because of their endocrine disrupting activity in human
organism. The aim of our study was, by biological monitoring,
investigate exposure to phthalates of Roma ethnicity group i.e.
children and adults from 5 families (n=29, average age 11.8 ± 7.6
years) living in western Slovakia. Additionally, we analysed some
associations between anthropometric measures, questionnaire data
i.e. socio-economic status, eating and drinking habits, practise of
personal care products and household conditions in comparison with
concentrations of phthalate metabolites. We used for analysis of urine
samples high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass
spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine concentrations of
phthalate metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl
phthalate (MnBP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono(2-ethyl-
5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)
phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) and mono(2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP).
Our results indicate that ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status and
different housing conditions in Roma population can affect urinary
concentration of phthalate metabolites.
Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching
The importance of using mother tongue and
translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and
translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching
courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of
translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in
common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end
in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’
opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign
language teaching are investigated and according to the findings,
some explanations and recommendations are made.
Evaluation of GSM Radiation Power Density in Three Major Cities in Nigeria
The levels of maximum power density of GSM
signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja were studied.
Measurements were made with a calibrated hand held spectrum
analyzer 200m away from 271 base stations, at 1.2m to the ground
level. The maximum GSM 900 signal power density was
139.63μW/m2 in Lagos, 162.49μW/m2 in Ibadan and 5411.26μW/m2
in Abuja. Also, the maximum GSM 1800 signal power density was
296.82μW/m2 in Lagos, 116.82μW/m2 in Ibadan and 1263.00μW/m2
in Abuja. The level of power density of GSM 900 and GSM 1800
signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja are far less than the
recommended value of 4.5W/m2 for GSM 900 and 9.0 W/m2 for
GSM 1800 by the ICNRP guideline. It can be concluded that
exposure to GSM signals in these cities cannot contribute to the
health detriments caused by thermal effects of radiofrequency
Use of Hair as an Indicator of Environmental Lead Pollution: Characteristics and Seasonal Variation of Lead Pollution in Egypt
Lead being a toxic heavy metal that mankind is
exposed to the highest levels of this metal from environmental
pollutants. A total of 180 Male scalp hair samples were collected
from different environments in Greater Cairo (GC), i.e. industrial,
heavy traffic and rural areas (60 samples from each) having different
activities during the period of, 1/5/2010 to 1/11/2012. Hair samples
were collected during five stages. Data proved that the concentration
of lead in male industrial areas of Cairo ranged between 6.2847 to
19.0432 μg/g, with mean value of 12.3288 μg/g. On the other hand,
lead content of hair samples of residential-traffic areas ranged
between 2.8634 to 16.3311 μg/g with mean value of 9.7552 μg/g.
While lead concentration on the hair of the male residents living in
rural area ranged between 1.0499-9.0402μg/g with mean value of
4.7327 μg/g. The Pb concentration in scalp hair of Cairo residents of
residential-traffic and rural traffic areas was observed to follow the
same pattern. The pattern was that of decrease concentration of
summer and its increase in winter. Then, there was a marked increase
in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this increase was
significant. These were obviously seen for the residential-traffic and
rural areas residents. Pb pollution in residents of industrial areas
showed the same seasonal pattern, but there was marked to decrease
in Pb concentration of summer 2012, and this decrease was
significant. Lead pollution in residents of GC was serious. It is worth
noting that the atmosphere is still contaminated by lead despite a
decade of using unleaded gasoline. Strong seasonal variation in
higher Pb concentration on winter than in summer was found. Major
contributions to the pollution with Pb could include industry
emissions, motor vehicle emissions and long transported dust from
outside Cairo. More attention should be paid to the reduction of Pb
content of the urban aerosol and to the Pb pollution health.
The Television Morning News for Thai Undergraduate Students: Information Exposure, Uses and Gratifications
The purposes of the study are to study and to
investigate the relationship among exposure, uses and gratifications
of television morning news among undergraduate students in
Bangkok. This study also compares differences in information
exposure, uses and gratifications of television morning news among
The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a
quantitative method. The respondents were undergraduate students at
public and private universities in Bangkok. Totally, 400 usable
questionnaires were received. Descriptive and inferential statistics
were used in data analysis.
The results indicated that information exposure of undergraduate
students in Bangkok was at a high level. Students’ uses and
gratifications were also at high level. Information exposure was
positively correlated with uses and gratifications. Uses of information
were positively correlated with satisfaction with information. The
results also showed that students with differences in sex and type of
university were not significantly different in information exposure,
and uses and gratifications.
The SEMONT Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Environmental EMF Pollution
Wireless communications have been expanded very fast in recent decades. This technology relies on an extensive network of base stations and antennas, using radio frequency signals to transmit information. Devices that use wireless communication, while offering various services, basically act as sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF). Such devices are permanently present in human vicinity and almost constantly radiate, causing EMF pollution of the environment. This fact has initiated development of modern systems for observation of the EMF pollution, as well as for risk assessment. This paper presents the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network – SEMONT, designed for automated, remote and continuous broadband monitoring of EMF in the environment. Measurement results of the SEMONT monitoring at one of the test locations, within the main campus of the University of Novi Sad, are presented and discussed, along with corresponding exposure assessment of the general population, regarding the Serbian legislation.
Effect of Progressive Type-I Right Censoring on Bayesian Statistical Inference of Simple Step–Stress Acceleration Life Testing Plan under Weibull Life Distribution
This paper discusses the effects of using progressive Type-I right censoring on the design of the Simple Step Accelerated Life testing using Bayesian approach for Weibull life products under the assumption of cumulative exposure model. The optimization criterion used in this paper is to minimize the expected pre-posterior variance of the Pth percentile time of failures. The model variables are the stress changing time and the stress value for the first step. A comparison between the conventional and the progressive Type-I right censoring is provided. The results have shown that the progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of testing on the expense of the test precision when the sample size is small. Moreover, the results have shown that using strong priors or large sample size reduces the sensitivity of the test precision to the censoring proportion. Hence, the progressive Type-I right censoring is recommended in these cases as progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of the test and doesn't affect the precision of the test a lot. Moreover, the results have shown that using direct or indirect priors affects the precision of the test.
Comparison of Welding Fumes Exposure during Standing and Sitting Welder’s Position
Experimental study was conducted to assess personal welding fumes exposure toward welders during an aluminum metal inert gas (MIG) process. The welding process was carried out by a welding machine attached to a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) workbench. A dummy welder was used to replicate welder during welding works and was attached with sampling pumps and filter cassettes for welding fumes sampling. Direct reading instruments to measure air velocity, humidity, temperature and particulate matter with diameter size 10µm or less (PM10) were located behind the dummy welder and parallel to the neck collar level to make sure the measured welding fumes exposure were not being influenced by other factors. Welding fumes exposure during standing and sitting position with and without the usage of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was investigated. Welding fume samples were then digested and analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) according to ASTM D7439-08 method. The results of the study showed the welding fume exposure during sitting was lower compared to standing position. LEV helped reduce aluminum and lead exposure to acceptable levels during standing position. However during sitting position reduction of exposure was smaller. It can be concluded that welder position and the correct positioning of LEV should be implemented for effective exposure reduction.
Design of Auto Exposure Unit Based On 2-Way Histogram Equalization
Histogram equalization is often used in image enhancement, but it can be also used in auto exposure. However, conventional histogram equalization does not work well when many pixels are concentrated in a narrow luminance range.This paper proposes an auto exposure method based on 2-way histogram equalization. Two cumulative distribution functions are used, where one is from dark to bright and the other is from bright to dark. In this paper, the proposed auto exposure method is also designed and implemented for image signal processors with full-HD images.
Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash
Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.
A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom
Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.
Political Information Exposures, Politicians- Perceptions, Political Attitudes and Political Participations among People in Bangkok Metropolitan Area
The purposes of this study are to study political
information exposure, politicians- perceptions, political attitudes and
political participations among people in Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
The sample consisted of 420 which were selected by using accidental sampling method. Questionnaires were administered to all of the
respondents to obtain the data for this research. T-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson-s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The findings are as follows: The difference in gender,
education, income and occupation has significantly effect upon political information exposures. The difference in age, income has
significantly effect upon politicians- perceptions. The difference in income has significantly effect upon political attitudes. The
difference in gender, income and occupation has significantly effect
upon political participations. There were a significantly relations between political information exposures, political attitudes, political
participations and between politicians- perceptions, political attitudes and political participations.
Factors Affecting Media Literacy of Early Teenagers
The purposes of this research are: 1) to study the media
literacy of early teenagers, and 2) to study the interaction between
gender and timing of media exposure that affects the media literacy
of teenagers. The sample of the study included 400 young people
aged between 11 to 17 and who were living in Bangkok. The data
was collected using questionnaires. Two-way ANOVA was used in
analyzing the collected data. The result revealed that gender and
timing of media exposure affected the media literacy of early
teenagers with statistical significance at the level of 0.05.
The Conditioning Effect on Celebrity Multiple Endorsements
This research adapts experimental design to investigate
the effect of conditioning or not and pre-exposure or not on brand
attitude, so it is a 2×2=4 factorial design. The results show that the
brand attitude of conditioning group is significantly higher than that of
unconditioning group. The brand attitude with pre-exposure is
significantly higher than that without pre-exposure. Conditioning or
not and pre-exposure or not have significant interaction. No matter the
celebrity is pre-exposure or not, the brand attitude is higher under
Biokinetics of Coping Mechanism of Freshwater tilapia following Exposure to Waterborne and Dietary Copper
The purpose of this study was to understand the main
sources of copper (Cu) accumulation in target organs of tilapia
(Oreochromis mossambicus) and to investigate how the organism
mediate the process of Cu accumulation under prolonged conditions.
By measuring both dietary and waterborne Cu accumulation and total
concentrations in tilapia with biokinetic modeling approach, we were
able to clarify the biokinetic coping mechanisms for the long term Cu
accumulation. This study showed that water and food are both the
major source of Cu for the muscle and liver of tilapia. This implied
that control the Cu concentration in these two routes will be correlated
to the Cu bioavailability for tilapia. We found that exposure duration
and level of waterborne Cu drove the Cu accumulation in tilapia. The
ability for Cu biouptake and depuration in organs of tilapia were
actively mediated under prolonged exposure conditions. Generally,
the uptake rate, depuration rate and net bioaccumulation ability in all
selected organs decreased with the increasing level of waterborne Cu
and extension of exposure duration.Muscle tissues accounted for over
50%of the total accumulated Cu and played a key role in buffering the
Cu burden in the initial period of exposure, alternatively, the liver
acted a more important role in the storage of Cu with the extension of
exposures. We concluded that assumption of the constant biokinetic
rates could lead to incorrect predictions with overestimating the
long-term Cu accumulation in ecotoxicological risk assessments.
Preventive Measures after Needle-Stick Injuries and Association with Health Locus of Control Beliefs in Medical Students
The purpose of this research was to demonstrate
prevalence of post-exposure preventive measures (PEP) after needlestick
injuries and its relationship with locus of control beliefs in a
sample of medical students. In this cross-sectional study, 300 medical
students with history of having experienced needle stick injuries
(NSI) for at least once filled in a questionnaire to determine if they
perceived themselves to be responsible and effective in preventing
blood born infections after NSI. About 38% of students did not seek
any professional consult or PEP after NSI due to lack of enough time
or access, anxiety about tests results, belief in uselessness of followup
and not being able to change destiny. These 114 students were not
different from others regarding their scores on NSI specific scale of
locus of health control. Thus, the potentiality of NSI locus of control
beliefs in predicting PEP was not seen in this study.
Behavior of Media Exposure and Participation in Environmental Activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi Dormitory Students
The purposes of this research were 1) to investigate
behavior of media exposure and participation in environmental
activities of King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi
(KMUTT) dormitory students, 2) to compare the correlation between
faculties and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT
dormitory students, and 3) to compare the correlation between media
exposure and participation in environmental activities of KMUTT
dormitory students. The tool used for collecting data was
questionnaire. The research findings revealed that dormitory students
were mostly exposed to the environmental media via public relations
boards for general media and KMUTT dormitory media. Dormitory
students were daily exposed to media via websites on the internet and
weekly for other media. Dormitory students participation in the
environmental activities was at high level (x = 3.65) on an
individual basis and was at medium level (x = 2.76) on a collective
basis. Faculties did not correlate with the participation in
environmental activities of dormitory students at the .01 statistical
level and media exposure via various media correlated with
participation in environmental activities of dormitory students at the
.01 statistical level.
The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers
In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like
atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and
the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening.
However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human
beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to
technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To
evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for
every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values.
Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are
time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have
conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by
charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused
by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so
energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat
transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately.
This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software
of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the
results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and
give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it
on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and
norms of protection from EMF.
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.
Radiation Dose Distribution for Workers in South Korean Nuclear Power Plants
A total of 33,680 nuclear power plants (NPPs) workers were monitored and recorded from 1990 to 2007. According to the record, the average individual radiation dose has been decreasing continually from it 3.20 mSv/man in 1990 to 1.12 mSv/man at the end of 2007. After the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 recommendation was generalized in South Korea, no nuclear power plant workers received above 20 mSv radiation, and the numbers of relatively highly exposed workers have been decreasing continuously. The age distribution of radiation workers in nuclear power plants was composed of mainly 20-30- year-olds (83%) for 1990 ~ 1994 and 30-40-year-olds (75%) for 2003 ~ 2007. The difference in individual average dose by age was not significant. Most (77%) of NPP radiation exposures from 1990 to 2007 occurred mostly during the refueling period. With regard to exposure type, the majority of exposures were external exposures, representing 95% of the total exposures, while internal exposures represented only 5%. External effective dose was affected mainly by gamma radiation exposure, with an insignificant amount of neutron exposure. As for internal effective dose, tritium (3H) in the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) was the biggest cause of exposure.
Mitigation of Radiation Levels for Base Transceiver Stations based on ITU-T Recommendation K.70
This essay presents applicative methods to reduce human exposure levels in the area around base transceiver stations in a environment with multiple sources based on ITU-T recommendation K.70. An example is presented to understand the mitigation techniques and their results and also to learn how they can be applied, especially in developing countries where there is not much research on non-ionizing radiations.
Effects of Intrauterine and Extrauterine Exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-Like Radiofrequency Radiation on Liver Regulatory Enzymes Activities in Infant Female Rabbits
In the present study, we aimed to design the
intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF
radiation and investigate its possible bio-effects on infant female
rabbits. Totally thirty-six New Zealand White female rabbits, onemonth
old, were randomly divided into four groups which are
composed of 9 rabbits; i. Group I [Intrauterine (IU) exposure(-);
Extrauterine (EU) exposure (-)], Group II [IU exposure (-); EU
exposure (+)], Group III [IU exposure(+);EU exposure(-)], Group IV
[IU exposure (+);EU exposure(+)]. The master regulatory enzymes
activities of pentose phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate
dehydrogenase, G-6PD; 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 6-
PGDH) and glutathione-dependent metabolism (glutathione
peroxidase, GSH-Px; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione Stransferase,
GST, thioredoxin reductase, TRx) were analyzed in liver
tissues of young female rabbits. Decreased G-6PD, 6-PGD, GSH-Px,
GR activities were found in Group III compared to Group I (p
Hardware Approach to Solving Password Exposure Problem through Keyboard Sniff
This paper introduces a hardware solution to password
exposure problem caused by direct accesses to the keyboard hardware
interfaces through which a possible attacker is able to grab user-s
password even where existing countermeasures are deployed. Several
researches have proposed reasonable software based solutions to the
problem for years. However, recently introduced hardware
vulnerability problems have neutralized the software approaches and
yet proposed any effective software solution to the vulnerability.
Hardware approach in this paper is expected as the only solution to the
A Study of the Hand-Hold Impact on the EM Interaction of a Cellular Handset and a Human
This paper investigates the impact of the hand-hold
positions on both antenna performance and the specific absorption
rate (SAR) induced in the user-s head. A cellular handset with
external antenna operating at GSM-900 frequency is modeled and
simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD)-based
platform SEMCAD-X. A specific anthropomorphic mannequin
(SAM) is adopted to simulate the user-s head, whereas a semirealistic
CAD-model of three-tissues is designed to simulate the
user-s hand. The results show that in case of the handset in hand close
to head at different positions; the antenna total efficiency gets
reduced to (14.5% - 5.9%) at cheek-position and to (27.5% to 11.8%)
at tilt-position. The peak averaged SAR1g values in head close to
handset without hand, are 4.67 W/Kg and 2.66 W/Kg at cheek and
tilt-position, respectively. Due to the presence of hand, the SAR1g in
head gets reduced to (3.67-3.31 W/Kg) at cheek-position and to
(1.84-1.64 W/Kg) at tilt-position, depending on the hand-hold