Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 8

8
10010772
Nigerian Football System: Examining Meso-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport
Abstract:

This study was designed to examine mass participation and elite football performance in Nigeria with reference to advance international football management practices. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro- (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso- (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs) and micro-level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. The Smolianov and Zakus model has been employed for further understanding of sport systems such as US soccer, US Rugby, swimming, tennis, and volleyball as well as Russian and Dutch swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sport governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 120 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, content analysis of Nigeria Football Federation’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the meso-level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs. This includes training centers, competition systems, and intellectual services. Results identified remarkable achievements coupled with great potential to further develop football in different types of public and private organizations in Nigeria. These include: assimilating football competitions with other cultural and educational activities, providing favorable conditions for employees of all possible organizations to partake and help in managing football programs and events, providing football coaching integrated with counseling for prevention of antisocial conduct, and improving cooperation between football programs and organizations for peace-making and advancement of international relations, tourism, and socio-economic development. Accurate reporting of the sports programs from the media should be encouraged through staff training for better awareness of various events. The systematic integration of these meso-level practices into the balanced development of mass and high-performance football will contribute to international sport success as well as national health, education, and social harmony.

7
10010389
Modeling Football Penalty Shootouts: How Improving Individual Performance Affects Team Performance and the Fairness of the ABAB Sequence
Abstract:
Penalty shootouts often decide the outcome of important soccer matches. Although usually referred to as ”lotteries”, there is evidence that some national teams and clubs consistently perform better than others. The outcomes are therefore not explained just by mere luck, and therefore there are ways to improve the average performance of players, naturally at the expense of some sort of effort. In this article we study the payoff of player performance improvements in terms of the performance of the team as a whole. To do so we develop an analytical model with static individual performances, as well as Monte Carlo models that take into account the known influence of partial score and round number on individual performances. We find that within a range of usual values, the team performance improves above 70% faster than individual performances do. Using these models, we also estimate that the new ABBA penalty shootout ordering under test reduces almost all the known bias in favor of the first-shooting team under the current ABAB system.
6
10009789
Contribution of Football Club Jerseys towards English Premier League Fans’ Loyalty in Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:

The globalization of football especially among youth over the decade is uprising. Nigeria youth displaying football jerseys at every opportunity is an acceptance of football globalization. The Love for English Premier League (EPL) football jersey is very strong among Nigeria fans. Football club jerseys of the EPL are a common sports product among fans in Nigeria. This study investigates the contribution of football club jerseys towards EPL fans’ loyalty in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of EPL fans in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique (fish bowl without replacement) was used to select two states from the six geo-political zones. Purposive sampling technique was used to pick eight viewing centres while accidental sampling technique was used to pick five vendor stands from each State. An average of 250 respondents was selected from each state. A total of 3,200 respondents participated in the research. Two research instruments were used. A self-developed structured questionnaire on Football Jersey Scale (FJS): The instrument consists of 10 items. Fans Loyalty Scale (FLS): The instrument was modified from the psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale, and consists of 20 items. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.75 was obtained, respectively. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significant levels. Data were analysed using frequency, percentages count, pie chart and multiple regressions. The result showed that the b-value of football club jersey is 0.148 also the standard regression coefficient (Beta) is 0.089. The t = 4.759 is statistically significant at p = 0.000. This signified a relative contribution of football club jersey on EPL fans loyalty in Nigeria. Club jersey, which is the most outstanding identifier of every club, was found to significantly predict loyalty. The jersey on the body of the fan has become the site for a declaration of loyalty which becomes available for social interaction and negotiation. The Nigerian local league clubs in an attempt to keep Nigerian fans loyal must borrow a leaf from their European counterparts.

5
10006960
A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team
Abstract:

We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A.V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams, we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.

4
14862
Differences in Goal Scoring and Passing Sequences between Winning and Losing Team in UEFA-EURO Championship 2012
Abstract:
The objective of current study is to investigate the differences of winning and losing teams in terms of goal scoring and passing sequences. Total of 31 matches from UEFA-EURO 2012 were analyzed and 5 matches were excluded from analysis due to matches end up drawn. There are two groups of variable used in the study which is; i. the goal scoring variable and: ii. passing sequences variable. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched pair rank test with significant value set at p < 0.05. Current study found the timing of goal scored was significantly higher for winning team at 1st half (Z=-3.416, p=.001) and 2nd half (Z=-3.252, p=.001). The scoring frequency was also found to be increase as time progressed and the last 15 minutes of the game was the time interval the most goals scored. The indicators that were significantly differences between winning and losing team were the goal scored (Z=-4.578, p=.000), the head (Z=-2.500, p=.012), the right foot (Z=-3.788,p=.000), corner (Z=-.2.126,p=.033), open play (Z=-3.744,p=.000), inside the penalty box (Z=-4.174, p=.000) , attackers (Z=-2.976, p=.003) and also the midfielders (Z=-3.400, p=.001). Regarding the passing sequences, there are significance difference between both teams in short passing sequences (Z=-.4.141, p=.000). While for the long passing, there were no significance difference (Z=-.1.795, p=.073). The data gathered in present study can be used by the coaches to construct detailed training program based on their objectives.
3
5992
Some Physical Fitness Values of Physical Education Department Students Engaged In Different Team Sport Branches
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare physical fitness values of students engaged in different team sport branches Totally 60 female, and 60 male athletes, that 20 athletes in each branch which are volleyball, basketball and football participated the study as a volunteer. The mean ages of female and male athletes were 21.20 ±1.87 and 21.61 ± 1.61 respectively. Age, height, body weight, body mass index, flexibility, body fat percentage, 30m sprint, maximum oxygen consumption capacity (MaxVO2) and drop jump values were measured. As a result of measurements, significant differences were found in height, weight, MaxVO2, shuttle run speed between different sports branches in female athletes. In male athletes, height, body weight, flexibility, 30m split speed and drop jump values were found significantly different between sports branches. As a conclusion and as a literature, it can be said that structure of body has to be appropriate with the engaged sports branch. Physical fitness values that required the sports branches can be expressed clearly by increasing the number of subjects.
2
15985
Improved Body Mass Index Classification for Football Code Masters Athletes, A Comparison to the Australian National Population
Abstract:
Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG), yet this cohort of athletes remains proportionately under-investigated. Due to a growing global obesity pandemic in context of benefits of physical activity across the lifespan, the prevalence of obesity in this unique population was of particular interest. Data gathered on a sub-sample of 535 football code athletes, aged 31-72 yrs ( =47.4, s =±7.1), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009) demonstrated a significantly (p
1
1429
Body Mass Index for Australian Athletes Participating in Rugby Union, Soccer and Touch Football at the World Masters Games
Abstract:

Whilst there is growing evidence that activity across the lifespan is beneficial for improved health, there are also many changes involved with the aging process and subsequently the potential for reduced indices of health. Data gathered on a subsample of 535 football code athletes, aged 31-72 yrs ( = 47.4, s = ±7.1), competing at the Sydney World Masters Games (2009) demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.001), reduced classification of obesity using Body Mass Index (BMI) when compared to the general Australian population. This evidence of improved classification in one index of health (BMI < 30) for master athletes (when compared to the general population) implies there are either improved levels of this index of health due to adherence to sport or possibly the reduced BMI is advantageous and contributes to this cohort adhering (or being attracted) to masters sport. Demonstration of this proportionately under-investigated World Masters Games population having improved health over the general population is of particular interest.

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