Large Amplitude Free Vibration of a Very Sag Marine Cable
This paper focuses on a variational formulation of large amplitude free vibration behavior of a very sag marine cable. In the static equilibrium state, the marine cable has a very large sag configuration. In the motion state, the marine cable is assumed to vibrate in in-plane motion with large amplitude from the static equilibrium position. The total virtual work-energy of the marine cable at the dynamic state is formulated which involves the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by effective weight, and the inertia forces. The equations of motion for the large amplitude free vibration of marine cable are obtained by taking into account the difference between the Euler’s equation in the static state and the displaced state. Based on the Galerkin finite element procedure, the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices, and mass matrices of the marine cable are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved. The natural frequency spectrum and the large amplitude free vibration behavior of marine cable are presented.
Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads
A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work. The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.
Analytical and Numerical Results for Free Vibration of Laminated Composites Plates
The reinforcement and repair of concrete structures by bonding composite materials have become relatively common operations. Different types of composite materials can be used: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) as well as functionally graded material (FGM). The development of analytical and numerical models describing the mechanical behavior of structures in civil engineering reinforced by composite materials is necessary. These models will enable engineers to select, design, and size adequate reinforcements for the various types of damaged structures. This study focuses on the free vibration behavior of orthotropic laminated composite plates using a refined shear deformation theory. In these models, the distribution of transverse shear stresses is considered as parabolic satisfying the zero-shear stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates without using shear correction factors. In this analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained by using the Hamilton’s principle. The accuracy of the developed model is demonstrated by comparing our results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. Besides, a finite-element analysis is used to calculate the natural frequencies of laminated composite plates and is compared with those obtained by the analytical approach.
Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field
The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.
A Refined Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory for Assessing Scaling-Dependent Vibration Behavior of Microbeams
A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model, which
accounts for nonlocal stress field, strain gradient field and higher
order inertia force field, is derived based on the nonlocal strain
gradient theory considering velocity gradient effect. The governing
equations and boundary conditions are derived both in dimensional
and dimensionless form by employed the Hamilton principle. The
analytical solutions based on different continuum theories are
compared. The effect of higher order inertia terms is extremely
significant in high frequency range. It is found that there exists
an asymptotic frequency for the proposed beam model, while for
the nonlocal strain gradient theory the solutions diverge. The effect
of strain gradient field in thickness direction is significant in low
frequencies domain and it cannot be neglected when the material
strain length scale parameter is considerable with beam thickness.
The influence of each of three size effect parameters on the natural
frequencies are investigated. The natural frequencies increase with
the increasing material strain gradient length scale parameter or
decreasing velocity gradient length scale parameter and nonlocal
Free Vibration Analysis of Conical Helicoidal Rods Having Elliptical Cross Sections Positioned in Different Orientation
In this study, the free vibration analysis of conical helicoidal rods with two different elliptically oriented cross sections is investigated and the results are compared by the circular cross-section keeping the net area for all cases equal to each other. Problems are solved by using the mixed finite element formulation. Element matrices based on Timoshenko beam theory are employed. The finite element matrices are derived by directly inserting the analytical expressions (arc length, curvature, and torsion) defining helix geometry into the formulation. Helicoidal rod domain is discretized by a two-noded curvilinear element. Each node of the element has 12 DOFs, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of elliptical cross sectional geometry and its orientation over the natural frequencies of the conical type helicoidal rod.
Vibration and Parametric Instability Analysis of Delaminated Composite Beams
This paper revisits the free vibration problem of delaminated composite beams. It is shown that during the vibration of composite beams the delaminated parts are subjected to the parametric excitation. This can lead to the dynamic buckling during the motion of the structure. The equation of motion includes time-dependent stiffness and so it leads to a system of Mathieu-Hill differential equations. The free vibration analysis of beams is carried out in the usual way by using beam finite elements. The dynamic buckling problem is investigated locally, and the critical buckling forces are determined by the modified harmonic balance method by using an imposed time function of the motion. The stability diagrams are created, and the numerical predictions are compared to experimental results. The most important findings are the critical amplitudes at which delamination buckling takes place, the stability diagrams representing the instability of the system, and the realistic mode shape prediction in contrast with the unrealistic results of models available in the literature.
Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus
In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.
Effect of Infills in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures
Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise
structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely
important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures.
Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour
of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need
for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled
frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design
of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies
and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the
effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating
with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained
from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis
is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is
modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect
of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by
free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those
obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-
The Free Vibration Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Beam Using 3D and Continuum Model
In this study free vibration analysis of aluminum
honeycomb sandwich structures were carried out experimentally and
numerically. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of sandwich
structures fabricated with different configurations for clamped-free
boundary condition were determined. The effects of lower and upper
face sheet thickness, the core material thickness, cell diameter, cell
angle and foil thickness on the vibration characteristics were
examined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS
package. While the sandwich structures were modeled in ANSYS the
continuum model was used. Later, the numerical results were
compared with the experimental findings.
Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods
In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular
rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for
naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using
Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of
the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations.
Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically
by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix
are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free
vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A
computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared.
Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free
vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based
on finite element method and available in the literature.
Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels
An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an
innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a
modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which
refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite
sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in
composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it
not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic
behaviour of the structure. Generally it is seen that the majority of
research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of
laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received
relatively minor attention. Furthermore it is observed that research
done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very
limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating
dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple
debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and
analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free
vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich
panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by
varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions
of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding.
Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element
package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently
represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element
models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as
close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically
validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions
based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations
of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears
greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater
decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained.
Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity
seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental
mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with
respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results
indicate the effectiveness of the developed three dimensional finite
element models in assessing debonding damage in composite
Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser- Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation
This paper studies free vibration of functionally
graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at
both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement
field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam
theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded
continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's
principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is
solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent
volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration
frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present
analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.
Exact Analysis of Resonance Frequencies of Simply Supported Cylindrical Shells
In order to study the free vibration of simply supported circular cylindrical shells; an analytical procedure is developed and discussed in detail. To identify its’ validity, the exact technique was applied to four different shell theories 1) Soedel, 2) Flugge, 3) Morley-Koiter, and 4) Donnell. The exact procedure was compared favorably with experimental results and those obtained using the numerical finite element method. A literature review reveals that beam functions are used extensively as an approximation for simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of this approximate method were also investigated on the natural frequencies by comparing results with those of the exact analysis.
Computational Initial Value Method for Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Plate
In the present paper, an improved initial value
numerical technique is presented to analyze the free vibration of
symmetrically laminated rectangular plate. A combination of the
initial value method (IV) and the finite differences (FD) devices is
utilized to develop the present (IVFD) technique. The achieved
technique is applied to the equation of motion of vibrating laminated
rectangular plate under various types of boundary conditions. Three
common types of laminated symmetrically cross-ply, orthotropic and
isotropic plates are analyzed here. The convergence and accuracy of
the presented Initial Value-Finite Differences (IVFD) technique have
been examined. Also, the merits and validity of improved technique
are satisfied via comparing the obtained results with those available
in literature indicating good agreements.
Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations Analysis of Laminated Composite Beam using Differential Quadrature Method
In this paper the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is employed to study the coupled lateral-torsional free vibration behavior of the laminated composite beams. In such structures due to the fiber orientations in various layers, the lateral displacement leads to a twisting moment. The coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity. In the present study, in addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved numerically using DQ procedure under different boundary conditions consist of the combinations of simply, clamped, free and other end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes for cantilever beam are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.
RBF- based Meshless Method for Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates
The governing differential equations of laminated
plate utilizing trigonometric shear deformation theory are derived
using energy approach. The governing differential equations
discretized by different radial basis functions are used to predict the
free vibration behavior of symmetric laminated composite plates.
Effect of orthotropy and span to thickness ratio on frequency
parameter of simply supported laminated plate is presented.
Numerical results show the accuracy and good convergence of radial
Study of Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations of Laminated Composite Beam: Analytical Approach
In this paper, an analytical approach is used to study the coupled lateral-torsional vibrations of laminated composite beam. It is known that in such structures due to the fibers orientation in various layers, any lateral displacement will produce a twisting moment. This phenomenon is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity and its main feature is the coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations. In addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies. Then, the governing differential equations are derived using the Hamilton-s principle and the mathematical model matches the Timoshenko beam model when neglecting the effect of bending-twisting rigidity. The equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved analytically to study the free vibrations of the beam in lateral and rotational modes due to the bending, as well as the torsional mode caused by twisting. The analytic solution is carried out in three steps: 1) assuming synchronous motion for the kinematic variables which are the lateral, rotational and torsional displacements, 2) solving the ensuing eigenvalue problem which contains three coupled second order ODEs and 3) imposing different boundary conditions related to combinations of simply, clamped and free end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.
Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams
This work presents the highly accurate numerical calculation
of the natural frequencies for functionally graded beams with
simply supported boundary conditions. The Timoshenko first order
shear deformation beam theory and the higher order shear deformation
beam theory of Reddy have been applied to the functionally
graded beams analysis. The material property gradient is assumed
to be in the thickness direction. The Hamilton-s principle is utilized
to obtain the dynamic equations of functionally graded beams. The
influences of the volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio
on the fundamental frequencies are discussed. Comparison of the
numerical results for the homogeneous beam with Euler-Bernoulli
beam theory results show that the derived model is satisfactory.
Effect of Shear Theories on Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates
Analytical solution of the first-order and third-order
shear deformation theories are developed to study the free vibration
behavior of simply supported functionally graded plates. The
material properties of plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness
direction as a power law distribution of volume fraction of the
constituents. The governing equations of functionally graded plates
are established by applying the Hamilton's principle and are solved
by using the Navier solution method. The influence of side-tothickness
ratio and constituent of volume fraction on the natural
frequencies are studied. The results are validated with the known
data in the literature.