Theoretical Investigation on the Dynamic Characteristics of One Degree of Freedom Vibration System Equipped with Inerter of Variable Inertance
In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the dynamic characteristics of one degree of freedom vibration system equipped with inerter of variable inertance, is presented. Differential equation of movement was solved under proper initial conditions in the case of free undamped/damped vibration, considered in the absence/presence of the inerter in the mechanical system. Influence of inertance on the amplitude of vibration, phase angle, natural frequency, damping ratio, and logarithmic decrement was clarified. It was mainly found that the inerter decreases the natural frequency of the undamped system and also of the damped system if the damping ratio is below 0.707. On the other hand, the inerter increases the natural frequency of the damped system if the damping ratio exceeds 0.707. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of inerters.
The Use of Nuclear Generation to Provide Power System Stability
The decreasing use of fossil fuel power stations has
a negative effect on the stability of the electricity systems in many
countries. Nuclear power stations have traditionally provided minimal
ancillary services to support the system but this must change in the
future as they replace fossil fuel generators. This paper explains the
development of the four most popular reactor types still in regular
operation across the world which have formed the basis for most
reactor development since their commercialisation in the 1950s. The
use of nuclear power in four countries with varying levels of capacity
provided by nuclear generators is investigated, using the primary
frequency response provided by generators as a measure for the
electricity networks stability, to assess the need for nuclear generators
to provide additional support as their share of the generation capacity
Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm
This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.
Optimal Voltage and Frequency Control of a Microgrid Using the Harmony Search Algorithm
The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems. The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids. The objectives of this paper are the modelling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances. Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation, so they are designed and modeled in this paper. The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters. According to the achieved results, the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid.
GSA-Based Design of Dual Proportional Integral Load Frequency Controllers for Nonlinear Hydrothermal Power System
This paper considers the design of Dual Proportional-
Integral (DPI) Load Frequency Control (LFC), using gravitational
search algorithm (GSA). The design is carried out for nonlinear
hydrothermal power system where generation rate constraint (GRC)
and governor dead band are considered. Furthermore, time delays
imposed by governor-turbine, thermodynamic process, and
communication channels are investigated. GSA is utilized to search
for optimal controller parameters by minimizing a time-domain based
objective function. GSA-based DPI has been compared to Ziegler-
Nichols based PI, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) based PI controllers
in order to demonstrate the superior efficiency of the proposed
design. Simulation results are carried for a wide range of operating
conditions and system parameters variations.
Frequency Controller Design for Distributed Generation by Load Shedding: Multi-Agent Systems Approach
Frequency stability of microgrids under islanded
operation attracts particular attention recently. A new cooperative
frequency control strategy based on centralized multi-agent system
(CMAS) is proposed in this study. Based on this strategy, agents sent
data and furthermore each component has its own to center operating
decisions (MGCC).After deciding on the information, they are
returned. Frequency control strategies include primary and secondary
frequency control and disposal of multi-stage load in which this study
will also provide a method and algorithm for load shedding. This
could also be a big problem for the performance of micro-grid in
times of disaster. The simulation results show the promising
performance of the proposed structure of the controller based on
multi agent systems.
On The Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study
This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.
Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Intelligent Controllers in Load Frequency Control of Multi Area Interconnected Power Systems
This paper deals with the application of artificial
neural network (ANN) and fuzzy based Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy
Inference System(ANFIS) approach to Load Frequency Control
(LFC) of multi unequal area hydro-thermal interconnected power
system. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of
fuzzy controller as well as quick response and adaptability nature of
ANN. Area-1 and area-2 consists of thermal reheat power plant
whereas area-3 and area-4 consists of hydro power plant with electric
governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent
controller like ANFIS, ANN and Fuzzy controllers and conventional
PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of
intelligent and conventional controller sliding surface is included.
The performances of the controllers are simulated using
MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN,
Fuzzy, PI and PID based approaches shows the superiority of
proposed ANFIS over ANN & fuzzy, PI and PID controller for 1%
step load variation.
A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)
The artificial intelligent controller in power system
plays as most important rule for many applications such as system
operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC).
The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power
close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper,
parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load
Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method
used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal
interconnected power system areas were used as a test system.
Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller
compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms
of speed response and damping frequency.
A Genetic Algorithm for Optimum Design of PID Controller in Load Frequency Control
In this paper, determining the optimal proportionalintegral-
derivative (PID) controller gains of an single-area load
frequency control (LFC) system using genetic algorithm (GA) is
presented. The LFC is notoriously difficult to control optimally using
conventionally tuning a PID controller because the system parameters
are constantly changing. It is for this reason the GA as tuning strategy
was applied. The simulation has been conducted in MATLAB
Simulink package for single area power system. the simulation results
shows the effectiveness performance of under various disturbance.
PI Controller for Automatic Generation Control Based on Performance Indices
The optimal design of PI controller for Automatic Generation Control in two area is presented in this paper. The concept of Dual mode control is applied in the PI controller, such that the proportional mode is made active when the rate of change of the error is sufficiently larger than a specified limit otherwise switched to the integral mode. A digital simulation is used in conjunction with the Hooke-Jeeve’s optimization technique to determine the optimum parameters (individual gain of proportional and integral controller) of the PI controller. Integrated Square of the Error (ISE), Integrated Time multiplied by Absolute Error(ITAE) , and Integrated Absolute Error(IAE) performance indices are considered to measure the appropriateness of the designed controller. The proposed controller are tested for a two area single nonreheat thermal system considering the practical aspect of the problem such as Deadband and Generation Rate Constraint(GRC). Simulation results show that dual mode with optimized values of the gains improved the control performance than the commonly used Variable Structure .
Space-Vector PWM Inverter Feeding a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
The paper presents a space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverter feeding a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The SVPWM inverter enables to feed the motor with a higher voltage with low harmonic distortions than the conventional sinusoidal PWM inverter. The control strategy of the inverter is the voltage / frequency control method, which is based on the space-vector modulation technique. The proposed PMSM drive system involving the field-oriented control scheme not only decouples the torque and flux which provides faster response but also makes the control task easy. The performance of the proposed drive is simulated. The advantages of the proposed drive are confirmed by the simulation results.
Integration of Acceleration Feedback Control with Automatic Generation Control in Intelligent Load Frequency Control
This paper investigates the effects of knowledge-based acceleration feedback control integrated with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to enhance the quality of frequency control of governing system. The Intelligent Acceleration Feedback Controller (IAFC) is proposed to counter the over and under frequency occurrences due to major load change in power system network. Therefore, generator tripping and load shedding operations can be reduced. Meanwhile, the integration of IAFC with AGC, a well known Load-Frequency Control (LFC) is essential to ensure the system frequency is restored to the nominal value. Computer simulations of frequency response of governing system are used to optimize the parameters of IAFC. As a result, there is substantial improvement on the LFC of governing system that employing the proposed control strategy.
An Online Evaluation of Operating Reserve for System Security
Utilities use operating reserve for frequency regulation.To ensure that the operating frequency and system security are well maintained, the operating grid codes always specify that the reserve quantity and response rate should meet some prescribed levels. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate system's contingency reserve for an isolated power network. With the presented algorithm to estimate system's frequency response characteristic, an online allocation of contingency reserve would be feasible to meet the grid codes for contingency operation. Test results from the simulated conditions, and from the actual operating data verify the merits of the proposed methodology to system's frequency control, and security.