Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes
Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total, 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.
Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller
In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).
Context Detection in Spreadsheets Based on Automatically Inferred Table Schema
Programming requires years of training. With natural language and end user development methods, programming could become available to everyone. It enables end users to program their own devices and extend the functionality of the existing system without any knowledge of programming languages. In this paper, we describe an Interactive Spreadsheet Processing Module (ISPM), a natural language interface to spreadsheets that allows users to address ranges within the spreadsheet based on inferred table schema. Using the ISPM, end users are able to search for values in the schema of the table and to address the data in spreadsheets implicitly. Furthermore, it enables them to select and sort the spreadsheet data by using natural language. ISPM uses a machine learning technique to automatically infer areas within a spreadsheet, including different kinds of headers and data ranges. Since ranges can be identified from natural language queries, the end users can query the data using natural language. During the evaluation 12 undergraduate students were asked to perform operations (sum, sort, group and select) using the system and also Excel without ISPM interface, and the time taken for task completion was compared across the two systems. Only for the selection task did users take less time in Excel (since they directly selected the cells using the mouse) than in ISPM, by using natural language for end user software engineering, to overcome the present bottleneck of professional developers.
The Importance of Cultural Adaptation of B2C E-Services Design in Germany
This research will give the introductory ideas for
cultural adaption of B2C E-Service design in Germany. By the
intense competition of E-Service development, many companies have
realized the importance of understanding the emotional and cultural
characteristics of their customers. Ignoring customers’ needs and
requirements throughout the E-Service design can lead to faults,
mistakes, and gaps. The term of E-Service usability now is changed
not only to develop high quality E-Services, but also to be extended
to include customer satisfaction and provide for them to feel local.
Design Guidelines for an Enhanced Interaction Experience in the Domain of Smartphone-Based Applications for Sport and Fitness
Nowadays, several research studies point up that an
active lifestyle is essential for physical and mental health benefits.
Mobile phones have greatly influenced people’s habits and attitudes
also in the way they exercise. Our research work is mainly focused on
investigating how to exploit mobile technologies to favour people’s
exertion experience. To this end, we developed an exertion framework
users can exploit through a real world mobile application, called
EverywhereSport Run (EWRun), designed to act as a virtual personal
trainer to support runners during their trainings. In this work, inspired
by both previous findings in the field of interaction design for people
with visual impairments, feedback gathered from real users of our
framework, and positive results obtained from two experimentations,
we present some new interaction facilities we designed to enhance
the interaction experience during a training. The positive obtained
results helped us to derive some interaction design recommendations
we believe will be a valid support for designers of future mobile
systems conceived to be used in circumstances where there are limited
possibilities of interaction.
Personas Help Understand Users’ Needs, Goals and Desires in an Online Institutional Repository
Communicating users' needs, goals and problems help
designers and developers overcome challenges faced by end users.
Personas are used to represent end users’ needs. In our research,
creating personas allowed the following questions to be answered:
Who are the potential user groups? What do they want to achieve by
using the service? What are the problems that users face? What
should the service provide to them? To develop realistic personas, we
conducted a focus group discussion with undergraduate and graduate
students and also interviewed a university librarian. The personas
were created to help evaluating the Institutional Repository that is
based on the DSpace system. The profiles helped to communicate
users' needs, abilities, tasks, and problems, and the task scenarios
used in the heuristic evaluation were based on these personas. Four
personas resulted of a focus group discussion with undergraduate and
graduate students and from interviewing a university librarian. We
then used these personas to create focused task-scenarios for a
heuristic evaluation on the system interface to ensure that it met
users' needs, goals, problems and desires. In this paper, we present
the process that we used to create the personas that led to devise the
task scenarios used in the heuristic evaluation as a follow up study of
the DSpace university repository.
Usability Issues of Smart Phone Applications: For Visually Challenged People
In this era of globalization, adoption of technology is quite difficult for people with physical disabilities compared to people with normal abilities. The advancement in mobile based accessible applications have opened up several different avenues for the visually challenged across the globe. Smartphones applications are not very common for blind people, but they access and use these applications in their daily lives to some extent. Several smartphone applications have a number of usability issues for the visually impaired. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of various android & iPhone applications for blind people through analysis and surveys. This paper aspires to provide guidance in order to increase smartphone application accessibility for the visually impaired. An abstract application design is also proposed to overcome usability issues in smartphone applications for visually challenged people.
Alive Cemeteries with Augmented Reality and Semantic Web Technologies
Due the proliferation of smartphones in everyday use, several different outdoor navigation systems have become available. Since these smartphones are able to connect to the Internet, the users can obtain location-based information during the navigation as well. The users could interactively get to know the specifics of a particular area (for instance, ancient cultural area, Statue Park, cemetery) with the help of thus obtained information. In this paper, we present an Augmented Reality system which uses Semantic Web technologies and is based on the interaction between the user and the smartphone. The system allows navigating through a specific area and provides information and details about the sight an interactive manner.
Usability Guidelines for Arab E-government Websites
The website developer and designer should follow usability guidelines to provide a user-friendly interface. Many guidelines and heuristics have been developed by previous studies to help both the developer and designer in this task, but E-government websites are special cases that require specialized guidelines. This paper introduces a set of 18 guidelines for evaluating the usability of e-government websites in general and Arabic e-government websites specifically, along with a check list of how to apply them. The validity and effectiveness of these guidelines were evaluated against a variety of user characteristics. The results indicated that the proposed set of guidelines can be used to identify qualitative similarities and differences with user testing and that the new set is best suited for evaluating general and e-governmental usability.
Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition Using Generative and Discriminative Stochastic Models
Many approaches to pattern recognition are founded on probability theory, and can be broadly characterized as either generative
or discriminative according to whether or not the distribution of the image features. Generative and discriminative models have
very different characteristics, as well as complementary strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we study these models to recognize the patterns of alphabet characters (A-Z) and numbers (0-9). To handle isolated pattern, generative model as Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and discriminative models like Conditional Random Field (CRF), Hidden Conditional Random Field (HCRF) and Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Field (LDCRF) with different number of window size are applied on extracted pattern features. The gesture recognition rate is improved initially as the window size increase, but degrades as window size increase further. Experimental results show that the LDCRF is the best in terms of results than CRF, HCRF and HMM at window size equal 4. Additionally, our results show that; an overall recognition rates are 91.52%, 95.28%, 96.94% and 98.05% for CRF,
HCRF, HMM and LDCRF respectively.
Automatic Distance Compensation for Robust Voice-based Human-Computer Interaction
Distant-talking voice-based HCI system suffers from
performance degradation due to mismatch between the acoustic
speech (runtime) and the acoustic model (training). Mismatch is
caused by the change in the power of the speech signal as observed at
the microphones. This change is greatly influenced by the change in
distance, affecting speech dynamics inside the room before reaching
the microphones. Moreover, as the speech signal is reflected, its
acoustical characteristic is also altered by the room properties. In
general, power mismatch due to distance is a complex problem. This
paper presents a novel approach in dealing with distance-induced
mismatch by intelligently sensing instantaneous voice power variation
and compensating model parameters. First, the distant-talking speech
signal is processed through microphone array processing, and the
corresponding distance information is extracted. Distance-sensitive
Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), pre-trained to capture both
speech power and room property are used to predict the optimal
distance of the speech source. Consequently, pre-computed statistic
priors corresponding to the optimal distance is selected to correct
the statistics of the generic model which was frozen during training.
Thus, model combinatorics are post-conditioned to match the power
of instantaneous speech acoustics at runtime. This results to an
improved likelihood in predicting the correct speech command at
farther distances. We experiment using real data recorded inside two
rooms. Experimental evaluation shows voice recognition performance
using our method is more robust to the change in distance compared
to the conventional approach. In our experiment, under the most
acoustically challenging environment (i.e., Room 2: 2.5 meters), our
method achieved 24.2% improvement in recognition performance
against the best-performing conventional method.
Evaluation of Internet Anxiety in SRBIAU Higher Education Students in Research Process
Increase in using internet makes some problems that
one of them is "internet anxiety". Internet anxiety is a type of anxious
that people may feel during surfing internet or using internet for their
educational purpose, blogging or streaming to digital libraries. The
goal of this study is evaluating of internet anxiety among the
management students. In this research Ealy's internet anxiety
questionnaire, consists of positive and negative items, is completed
by 310 participants. According to the findings, about 64.7% of them
were equal or below to mean anxiety score (50). The distribution of
internet anxiety scores was normal and there was no meaningful
difference between men-s and women's anxiety level in this sample.
Results also showed that there is no meaningful difference of internet
anxiety level between different fields of study in Management. This
evaluation will help managers to perform gap analysis between the
existent level and the desired one. Future work would be providing
techniques for abating human anxiety while using internet via human
computer interaction techniques.
Improving the Elder-s Quality of Life with Smart Television Based Services
The increasing number of senior population gradually
causes to demand the use of information and communication
technology for their satisfactory lives. This paper presents the
development of an integrated TV based system which offers an
opportunity to provide value added services to a large number of
elderly citizens, and thus helps improve their quality of life. The
design philosophy underlying this paper is to fulfill both technological
and human aspects. The balance between these two dimensions has
been currently stressed as a crucial element for the design of usable
systems in real use, particularly to the elderly who have physical and
mental decline. As the first step to achieve it, we have identified
human and social factors that affect the elder-s quality of life by a
literature review, and based on them, build four fundamental services:
information, healthcare, learning and social network services.
Secondly, the system architecture, employed technologies and the
elderly-friendly system design considerations are presented. This
reflects technological and human perspectives in terms of the system
design. Finally, we describe some scenarios that illustrate the
potentiality of the proposed system to improve elderly people-s quality
Audio User Interface for Visually Impaired Computer Users: in a Two Dimensional Audio Environment
In this paper we discuss a set of guidelines which
could be adapted when designing an audio user interface for the
visually impaired. It is based on an audio environment that is
focused on audio positioning. Unlike current applications which only
interpret Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the visually impaired,
this particular audio environment bypasses GUI to provide a direct
auditory output. It presents the capability of two dimensional (2D)
navigation on audio interfaces. This paper highlights the significance
of a 2D audio environment with spatial information in the context
of the visually impaired. A thorough usability study has been conducted
to prove the applicability of proposed design guidelines for
these auditory interfaces. While proving these guidelines, previously
unearthed design aspects have been revealed in this study.
Fast 3D Collision Detection Algorithm using 2D Intersection Area
There are many researches to detect collision between real object and virtual object in 3D space. In general, these techniques are need to huge computing power. So, many research and study are constructed by using cloud computing, network computing, and distribute computing. As a reason of these, this paper proposed a novel fast 3D collision detection algorithm between real and virtual object using 2D intersection area. Proposed algorithm uses 4 multiple cameras and coarse-and-fine method to improve accuracy and speed performance of collision detection. In the coarse step, this system examines the intersection area between real and virtual object silhouettes from all camera views. The result of this step is the index of virtual sensors which has a possibility of collision in 3D space. To decide collision accurately, at the fine step, this system examines the collision detection in 3D space by using the visual hull algorithm. Performance of the algorithm is verified by comparing with existing algorithm. We believe proposed algorithm help many other research, study and application fields such as HCI, augmented reality, intelligent space, and so on.
Humanoid Personalized Avatar Through Multiple Natural Language Processing
There has been a growing interest in implementing humanoid avatars in networked virtual environment. However, most existing avatar communication systems do not take avatars- social backgrounds into consideration. This paper proposes a novel humanoid avatar animation system to represent personalities and facial emotions of avatars based on culture, profession, mood, age, taste, and so forth. We extract semantic keywords from the input text through natural language processing, and then the animations of personalized avatars are retrieved and displayed according to the order of the keywords. Our primary work is focused on giving avatars runtime instruction from multiple natural languages. Experiments with Chinese, Japanese and English input based on the prototype show that interactive avatar animations can be displayed in real time and be made available online. This system provides a more natural and interesting means of human communication, and therefore is expected to be used for cross-cultural communication, multiuser online games, and other entertainment applications.
Trajectory Guided Recognition of Hand Gestures having only Global Motions
One very interesting field of research in Pattern Recognition that has gained much attention in recent times is Gesture Recognition. In this paper, we consider a form of dynamic hand gestures that are characterized by total movement of the hand (arm) in space. For these types of gestures, the shape of the hand (palm) during gesturing does not bear any significance. In our work, we propose a model-based method for tracking hand motion in space, thereby estimating the hand motion trajectory. We employ the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm for time alignment and normalization of spatio-temporal variations that exist among samples belonging to the same gesture class. During training, one template trajectory and one prototype feature vector are generated for every gesture class. Features used in our work include some static and dynamic motion trajectory features. Recognition is accomplished in two stages. In the first stage, all unlikely gesture classes are eliminated by comparing the input gesture trajectory to all the template trajectories. In the next stage, feature vector extracted from the input gesture is compared to all the class prototype feature vectors using a distance classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed trajectory estimator and classifier is suitable for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) platform.
A Neural Network Based Facial Expression Analysis using Gabor Wavelets
Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an
area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer
interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans
display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper we
present a method to analyze facial expression from images by
applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine
Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF)
Network is used to classify the facial expressions. As a second stage,
the images are preprocessed to enhance the edge details and non
uniform down sampling is done to reduce the computational
complexity and processing time. Our method reliably works even
with faces, which carry heavy expressions.
Animated Versus Static User Interfaces: A Study of Mathsigner™
In this paper we report a study aimed at determining
the effects of animation on usability and appeal of educational
software user interfaces. Specifically, the study compares 3
interfaces developed for the Mathsigner™ program: a static
interface, an interface with highlighting/sound feedback, and an
interface that incorporates five Disney animation principles. The
main objectives of the comparative study were to: (1) determine
which interface is the most effective for the target users of
Mathsigner™ (e.g., children ages 5-11), and (2) identify any Gender
and Age differences in using the three interfaces. To accomplish
these goals we have designed an experiment consisting of a
cognitive walkthrough and a survey with rating questions. Sixteen
children ages 7-11 participated in the study, ten males and six
females. Results showed no significant interface effect on user task
performance (e.g., task completion time and number of errors);
however, interface differences were seen in rating of appeal, with
the animated interface rated more 'likeable' than the other two.
Task performance and rating of appeal were not affected
significantly by Gender or Age of the subjects.
Retina Based Mouse Control (RBMC)
The paper presents a novel idea to control computer
mouse cursor movement with human eyes. In this paper, a working
of the product has been described as to how it helps the special
people share their knowledge with the world. Number of traditional
techniques such as Head and Eye Movement Tracking Systems etc.
exist for cursor control by making use of image processing in which
light is the primary source. Electro-oculography (EOG) is a new
technology to sense eye signals with which the mouse cursor can be
controlled. The signals captured using sensors, are first amplified,
then noise is removed and then digitized, before being transferred to
PC for software interfacing.
Pakistan Sign Language Recognition Using Statistical Template Matching
Sign language recognition has been a topic of research since the first data glove was developed. Many researchers have attempted to recognize sign language through various techniques. However none of them have ventured into the area of Pakistan Sign Language (PSL). The Boltay Haath project aims at recognizing PSL gestures using Statistical Template Matching. The primary input device is the DataGlove5 developed by 5DT. Alternative approaches use camera-based recognition which, being sensitive to environmental changes are not always a good choice.This paper explains the use of Statistical Template Matching for gesture recognition in Boltay Haath. The system recognizes one handed alphabet signs from PSL.