Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.
A Topology for High Voltage Gain Half-Bridge Z-Source Inverter with Low Voltage Stress on Capacitors
In this paper, a topology for high voltage gain half-bridge z-source inverter with low voltage stress on capacitors is proposed. The proposed inverter has only one impedance network. It can generate symmetric and asymmetric voltages with different magnitudes during both half-cycles. By selecting the duty cycle it can also produce conventional half-bridge inverter characteristics. It is used in special applications like, electrochemical and electro plating applications. Calculations of voltage ripple of capacitors, capacitors voltage stress inductors current ripple are presented. The proposed topology is simulated using PSCAD software and the simulated values are compared with the theoretical values.
The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method
Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used
clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy,
which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to
maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments,
this study presented a system for root canal length measurement
based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system
can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to
1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance
ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained
and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of
them with representatives will be selected after data process. The
system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance
ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics
by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen
can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance
ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of
the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to
determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the
dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more
complex measurement environments, the performance of the system
was more stable.
Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures
Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.
Photoimpedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Planar and Nano-Textured Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
In impedance spectroscopy (IS) the response of a photo-active device is analysed as a function of ac bias. It is widely applied in a broad class of material systems and devices. It gives access to fundamental mechanisms of operation of solar cells. We have implemented a method of IS where we modulate the light instead of the bias. This scheme allows us to analyze not only carrier dynamics but also impedance of device locally. Here, using this scheme, we have measured the frequency-dependent photocurrent response of the thin-film planar and nano-textured Si solar cells using this method. Photocurrent response is measured in range of 50 Hz to 50 kHz. Bode and Nyquist plots are used to determine characteristic lifetime of both the cells. Interestingly, the carrier lifetime of both planar and nano-textured solar cells depend on back and front contact positions. This is due to either heterogeneity of device or contacts are not optimized. The estimated average lifetime is found to be shorter for the nano-textured cell, which could be due to the influence of the textured interface on the carrier relaxation dynamics.
The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.
Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers
High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.
The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven
Automotive interior material consisting of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tunings are required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, so much time and money is spent. In this study, we present a method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Then, we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved, and then, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.
Inﬂuence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior
The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.
Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials
One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.
An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101
An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.
Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites
Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.
Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field
Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators
This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.
Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates
The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.
Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Columnar-Structured Mn-Doped Bi26Mo10O69-d Electrolytes
The present work is devoted to the investigation of two series of doped bismuth molybdates: Bi26-2xMn2xMo10O69-d and
Bi26Mo10-2yMn2yO69-d. Complex oxides were synthesized by conventional solid state technology and by co-precipitation method. The products were identified by powder diffraction. The powders and ceramic samples were examined by means of densitometry, laser diffraction, and electron microscopic methods. Porosity of the ceramic materials was estimated using the hydrostatic method. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using impedance spectroscopy method.
Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot
Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.
Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator
This paper proposes for the first time symbolic
formula of the power spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator
and its modified circuit. Many principles existed to derived power
spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance
parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph
of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of
view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance
parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current
injection at the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in
reality). Four graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple
oscillator are proposed. After that four graphs of scattering
parameters of CMOS cross coupled oscillator will be shown.
Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm
Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women
are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements.
Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and
right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are
statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat
content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone
mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for dominant arm.
With the post-menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant
arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified
osteopenic and osteoporic population around lumbar spine, is
statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine
osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve
of the characteristic frequency is 0.830, suggesting that the Cole-Cole
plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter
when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis.
Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by
monitoring frequency driven angular behavior of the dominant arm
without performing any complex calculation.
A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Maloperation
In this paper, various methods of providing restricted
earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and
low impedance Restricted Earth Fault (REF) protection for various
applications has been discussed. The maloperation of a relay due to
improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique
solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover,
it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method
will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methodology has
been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000
KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in
IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection
engineers to sort out the issues related to mal functioning of REF
Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature
Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2
ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-
xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where
x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples
were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The
dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the
frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been
done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric
relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at
lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher
frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well
fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance
plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation.
All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as
the amount of substitution.
Body Composition Analysis of University Students by Anthropometry and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Background: Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people
die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, and 35.8
million (2.3%) of global DALYs are caused by overweight or
obesity. Obesity is acknowledged as one of the burning public
health problems reducing life expectancy and quality of life. The
body composition analysis of the university population is essential
in assessing the nutritional status, as well as the risk of developing
diseases associated with abnormal body fat content so as to make
nutritional recommendations. Objectives: The main aim was to
determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight in University
students using Anthropometric analysis and BIA methods. Material
and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 university students
participated. The body composition analysis was undertaken by
using mainly: i) Anthropometric Measurement: Height, Weight,
BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold
thickness, ii) Bio-electrical impedance was used for analysis of
body fat mass, fat percent and visceral fat which was measured by
Tanita SC-330P Professional Body Composition Analyzer. The
data so collected were compiled in MS Excel and analyzed for
males and females using SPSS 16. Results and Discussion: The
mean age of the male (n= 153) studied subjects was 25.37 ±2.39
years and females (n=130) was 22.53 ±2.31. The data of BIA
revealed very high mean fat per cent of the female subjects i.e.
30.3±6.5 per cent whereas mean fat per cent of the male subjects
was 15.60±6.02 per cent indicating a normal body fat range. The
findings showed high visceral fat of both males (12.92±3.02) and
females (16.86±4.98). BMI, BF% and WHR were higher among
females, and BMI was higher among males. The most evident
correlation was verified between BF% and WHR for female
students (r=0.902; p
Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot – A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms
This paper investigates simple implicit force control
algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches
already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot
controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary
or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In
the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position
controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are
stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such
algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further
the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and
the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these
properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen
implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable
on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control
and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this
purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical
impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the
case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This
fact will be verified by simulation.
Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics
Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood
is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is
desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to
detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper,
we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of
detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in
blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration.
This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the
sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only
on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering
species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance
change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible
for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to
provide a display of the virus concentration.
A Novel Design in the Use of Planar Transformers for LDMOS Based Amplifiers in Bands II, III, DRM+, DVB-T and DAB+
The coaxial transformer-coupled push-pull circuitry
has been used widely in HF and VHF amplifiers for many decades
without significant changes in the topology of the transformers. Basic
changes over the years concerned the construction and turns ratio of
the transformers as has been imposed upon the newer technologies
active devices demands. The balun transmission line transformers
applied in push-pull amplifiers enable input/output impedance
transformation, but are mainly used to convert the balanced output
into unbalanced and the input unbalanced into balanced. A simple
and affordable alternative solution over the traditional coaxial
transformer is the coreless planar balun. A key advantage over the
traditional approach lies in the high specifications repeatability;
simplifying the amplifier construction requirements as the planar
balun constitutes an integrated part of the PCB copper layout. This
paper presents the performance analysis of a planar LDMOS
MRFE6VP5600 Push-Pull amplifier that enables robust operation in
Band III, DVB-T, DVB-T2 standards but functions equally well in
Band II, for DRM+ new generation transmitters.
Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance
Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal
cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables
the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to
distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at
different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are
dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and
on the concentration.
When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the
impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of
membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance
plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the
increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic
groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist
plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its
diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the
decrease of the solution resistance.
Impact of Masonry Joints on Detection of Humidity Distribution in Aerated Concrete Masonry Constructions by Electric Impedance Spectrometry Measurements
Aerated concrete is a load bearing construction
material, which has high heat insulation parameters. Walls can be
erected from aerated concrete masonry constructions and in perfect
circumstances additional heat insulation is not required. The most
common problem in aerated concrete heat insulation properties is the
humidity distribution throughout the cross section of the masonry
elements as well as proper and conducted drying process of the
aerated concrete construction because only dry aerated concrete
masonry constructions can reach high heat insulation parameters.
In order to monitor drying process of the masonry and detect
humidity distribution throughout the cross section of aerated concrete
masonry construction application of electrical impedance
spectrometry is applied. Further test results and methodology of this
non-destructive testing method is described in this paper.
A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators
This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band
pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators.
Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators
connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to
connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are
designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication
system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at
1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents
good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and
isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype
of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by
using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.
Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting
A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a
microstrip-line is proposed. The new design consist of a rectangular
patch with symmetric l-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip
transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic
slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used
in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB)
frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5%
(1.875 – 7.115 GHz) with stable radiation pattern is achieved. The
proposed antenna has excellent characteristics, low profile and costeffective
compared to existing UWB antennas. The UWB antenna is
designed and analyzed using CST Microwave Studio in transient
mode to verify antenna parameters improvements.
Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Seawater
Paints are the most widely used methods of protection
against atmospheric corrosion of metals. The aim of this work was to
determine the protective performance of epoxy coating against sea
water before and after damage.
Investigations are conducted using stationary and non-stationary
electrochemical tools such as electrochemical impedance
spectroscopy has allowed us to characterize the protective qualities of
these films. The application of the EIS on our damaged in-situ
painting shows the existence of several capacitive loops which is an
indicator of the failure of our tested paint. Microscopic analysis
(micrograph) helped bring essential elements in understanding the
degradation of our paint condition and immersion training corrosion