Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

12
10004680
Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads
Abstract:
Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.
11
10001683
Nanoindentation Behaviour and Microstructural Evolution of Annealed Single-Crystal Silicon
Abstract:
The nanoindentation behaviour and phase transformation of annealed single-crystal silicon wafers are examined. The silicon specimens are annealed at temperatures of 250, 350 and 450ºC, respectively, for 15 minutes and are then indented to maximum loads of 30, 50 and 70 mN. The phase changes induced in the indented specimens are observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS). For all annealing temperatures, an elbow feature is observed in the unloading curve following indentation to a maximum load of 30 mN. Under higher loads of 50 mN and 70 mN, respectively, the elbow feature is replaced by a pop-out event. The elbow feature reveals a complete amorphous phase transformation within the indented zone, whereas the pop-out event indicates the formation of Si XII and Si III phases. The experimental results show that the formation of these crystalline silicon phases increases with an increasing annealing temperature and indentation load. The hardness and Young’s modulus both decrease as the annealing temperature and indentation load are increased.
10
10001314
Application of Ultrasonic Assisted Machining Technique for Glass-Ceramic Milling
Abstract:

In this study, ultrasonic assisted machining (UAM) technique is applied in side-surface milling experiment for glass-ceramic workpiece material. The tungsten carbide cutting-tool with diamond coating is used in conjunction with two kinds of cooling/lubrication mediums such as water-soluble (WS) cutting fluid and minimum quantity lubricant (MQL). Full factorial process parameter combinations on the milling experiments are planned to investigate the effect of process parameters on cutting performance. From the experimental results, it tries to search for the better process parameter combination which the edge-indentation and the surface roughness are acceptable. In the machining experiments, ultrasonic oscillator was used to excite a cutting-tool along the radial direction producing a very small amplitude of vibration frequency of 20KHz to assist the machining process. After processing, toolmaker microscope was used to detect the side-surface morphology, edge-indentation and cutting tool wear under different combination of cutting parameters, and analysis and discussion were also conducted for experimental results. The results show that the main leading parameters to edge-indentation of glass ceramic are cutting depth and feed rate. In order to reduce edge-indentation, it needs to use lower cutting depth and feed rate. Water-soluble cutting fluid provides a better cooling effect in the primary cutting area; it may effectively reduce the edge-indentation and improve the surface morphology of the glass ceramic. The use of ultrasonic assisted technique can effectively enhance the surface finish cleanness and reduce cutting tool wear and edge-indentation. 

9
10002058
Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition
Abstract:
These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.
8
1677
Vickers Indentation Simulation of Buffer Layer Thickness Effect for DLC Coated Materials
Abstract:
Vickers indentation is used to measure the hardness of materials. In this study, numerical simulation of Vickers indentation experiment was performed for Diamond like Carbon (DLC) coated materials. DLC coatings were deposited on stainless steel 304 substrates with Chromium buffer layer using RF Magnetron and T-shape Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Dual system The objective of this research is to understand the elastic plastic properties, stress strain distribution, ring and lateral crack growth and propagation, penetration depth of indenter and delamination of coating from substrate with effect of buffer layer thickness. The effect of Poisson-s ratio of DLC coating was also analyzed. Indenter penetration is more in coated materials with thin buffer layer as compared to thicker one, under same conditions. Similarly, the specimens with thinner buffer layer failed quickly due to high residual stress as compared to the coated materials with reasonable thickness of 200nm buffer layer. The simulation results suggested the optimized thickness of 200 nm among the prepared specimens for durable and long service.
7
1377
Consolidation of Al-2024 Powder by Conventional P/M Route and ECAP – A Comparative Study
Abstract:
In this study, mechanically alloyed Al 2024 powder is densified by conventional sintering and by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with and without back pressure. The powder was encapsulated in an aluminium can for consolidation through ECAP. The properties obtained in the compacts by conventional sintering route and by ECAP are compared. The effect of conventional sintering and ECAP on consolidation behaviour of powder, microstructure, density and hardness is discussed. Room temperature back pressure aided ECAP results in nearly full denser (97% of its theoretical density) compact at room temperature. NanoIndentation technique was used to determine the modulus of the consolidated compacts.
6
7629
Effect of Spray Stand-off on Elasticity Modulus of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Abstract:
The mechanical and tribological properties in WC-Co coatings are strongly affected by hardness and elasticity specifications. The results revealed the effect of spraying distance on microhardness and elasticity modulus of coatings. The metallurgical studies have been made on coated samples using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
5
5713
Effect of Spray Stand-off on Hardness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings
Abstract:
The mechanical and tribological properties in WC-Co coatings are strongly affected by hardness and elasticity specifications. The results revealed the effect of spraying distance on microhardness and elasticity modulus of coatings. The metallurgical studies have been made on coated samples using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
4
7775
Local Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Native Porcine Endplate
Abstract:
Hysitron TriboIndenterTM TI 950 system has been used for studying the local viscoelastic properties of porcine intervertebral disc end plate by means of nanoscale mechanical dynamic analysis. The specimen of an endplate was cut from fresh porcine vertebra dissected from 16 month animal. The lumbar spine motion segments were dissected and 5 millimeter thick plates of vertebral body, endplate and annulus fibrosus were prepared for nanoindentation. The surface of the sample was kept in physiological solution during nanoindentation experiment. We obtained mechanical characteristics of different areas of native endplate (endplate middle and vertebra and annulus fibrosus boundary).
3
12154
Analysis of Residual Strain and Stress Distributions in High Speed Milled Specimens using an Indentation Method
Abstract:
Through a proper analysis of residual strain and stress distributions obtained at the surface of high speed milled specimens of AA 6082–T6 aluminium alloy, the performance of an improved indentation method is evaluated. This method integrates a special device of indentation to a universal measuring machine. The mentioned device allows introducing elongated indents allowing to diminish the absolute error of measurement. It must be noted that the present method offers the great advantage of avoiding both the specific equipment and highly qualified personnel, and their inherent high costs. In this work, the cutting tool geometry and high speed parameters are selected to introduce reduced plastic damage. Through the variation of the depth of cut, the stability of the shapes adopted by the residual strain and stress distributions is evaluated. The results show that the strain and stress distributions remain unchanged, compressive and small. Moreover, these distributions reveal a similar asymmetry when the gradients corresponding to conventional and climb cutting zones are compared.
2
6053
A Study of Indentation Energy in Three Points Bending of Sandwich beams with Composite Laminated Faces and Foam Core
Abstract:
This paper deals with analysis of flexural stiffness, indentation and their energies in three point loading of sandwich beams with composite faces from Eglass/epoxy and cores from Polyurethane or PVC. Energy is consumed in three stages of indentation in laminated beam, indentation of sandwich beam and bending of sandwich beam. Theory of elasticity is chosen to present equations for indentation of laminated beam, then these equations have been corrected to offer better results. An analytical model has been used assuming an elastic-perfectly plastic compressive behavior of the foam core. Classical theory of beam is used to describe three point bending. Finite element (FE) analysis of static indentation sandwich beams is performed using the FE code ABAQUS. The foam core is modeled using the crushable foam material model and response of the foam core is experimentally characterized in uniaxial compression. Three point bending and indentation have been done experimentally in two cases of low velocity and higher velocity (quasi-impact) of loading. Results can describe response of beam in terms of core and faces thicknesses, core material, indentor diameter, energy absorbed, and length of plastic area in the testing. The experimental results are in good agreement with the analytical and FE analyses. These results can be used as an introduction for impact loading and energy absorbing of sandwich structures.
1
11870
Response of Fully Backed Sandwich Beams to Low Velocity Transverse Impact
Abstract:

This paper describes analysis of low velocity transverse impact on fully backed sandwich beams with composite faces from Eglass/epoxy and cores from Polyurethane or PVC. Indentation on sandwich beams has been analyzed with the existing theories and modeled with the FE code ABAQUS, also loadings have been done experimentally to verify theoretical results. Impact on fully backed has been modeled in two cases of impactor energy with SDOF model (single-degree-of-freedom) and indentation stiffness: lower energy for elastic indentation of sandwich beams and higher energy for plastic area in indentation. Impacts have been modeled by ABAQUS. Impact results can describe response of beam in terms of core and faces thicknesses, core material, indentor energy and energy absorbed. The foam core is modeled using the crushable foam material model and response of the foam core is experimentally characterized in uniaxial compression with higher velocity loading to define quasi impact behaviour.


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