Internet Optimization by Negotiating Traffic Times
This paper describes a system to optimize the use of the internet by clients requiring downloading of videos at peak hours. The system consists of a web server belonging to a provider of video contents, a provider of internet communications and a software application running on a client’s computer. The client using the application software will communicate to the video provider a list of the client’s future video demands. The video provider calculates which videos are going to be more in demand for download in the immediate future, and proceeds to request the internet provider the most optimal hours to do the downloading. The times of the downloading will be sent to the application software, which will use the information of pre-established hours negotiated between the video provider and the internet provider to download those videos. The videos will be saved in a special protected section of the user’s hard disk, which will only be accessed by the application software in the client’s computer. When the client is ready to see a video, the application will search the list of current existent videos in the area of the hard disk; if it does exist, it will use this video directly without the need for internet access. We found that the best way to optimize the download traffic of videos is by negotiation between the internet communication provider and the video content provider.
Framework and Characterization of Physical Internet
Over the last years, a new paradigm known as Physical Internet has been developed, and studied in logistics management. The purpose of this global and open system is to deal with logistics grand challenge by setting up an efficient and sustainable Logistics Web. The purpose of this paper is to review scientific articles dedicated to Physical Internet topic, and to provide a clustering strategy enabling to classify the literature on the Physical Internet, to follow its evolution, as well as to criticize it. The classification is based on three factors: Logistics Web, organization, and resources. Several papers about Physical Internet have been classified and analyzed along the Logistics Web, resources and organization views at a strategic, tactical and operational level, respectively. A developed cluster analysis shows which topics of the Physical Internet that are the less covered actually. Future researches are outlined for these topics.
Current Status of Industry 4.0 in Material Handling Automation and In-house Logistics
In the last decade, a new industrial revolution seems to be emerging, supported -once again- by the rapid advancements of Information Technology in the areas of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication permitting large numbers of intelligent devices, e.g. sensors to communicate with each other and take decisions without any or minimum indirect human intervention. The advent of these technologies have triggered the emergence of a new category of hybrid (cyber-physical) manufacturing systems, combining advanced manufacturing techniques with innovative M2M applications based on the Internet of Things (IoT), under the umbrella term Industry 4.0. Even though the topic of Industry 4.0 has attracted much attention during the last few years, the attempts of providing a systematic literature review of the subject are scarce. In this paper, we present the authors’ initial study of the field with a special focus on the use and applications of Industry 4.0 principles in material handling automations and in-house logistics. Research shows that despite the vivid discussion and attractiveness of the subject, there are still many challenges and issues that have to be addressed before Industry 4.0 becomes standardized and widely applicable.
Low-Cost Monitoring System for Hydroponic Urban Vertical Farms
This paper presents the development of a low-cost monitoring system for a hydroponic urban vertical farm, enabling its automation and a quantitative assessment of the farm performance. Urban farming has seen increasing interest in the last decade thanks to the development of energy efficient and affordable LED lights; however, the optimal configuration of such systems (i.e. amount of nutrients, light-on time, ambient temperature etc.) is mostly based on the farmers’ experience and empirical guidelines. Moreover, even if simple, the maintenance of such systems is labor intensive as it requires water to be topped-up periodically, mixing of the nutrients etc. To unlock the full potential of urban farming, a quantitative understanding of the role that each variable plays in the growth of the plants is needed, together with a higher degree of automation. The low-cost monitoring system proposed in this paper is a step toward filling this knowledge and technological gap, as it enables collection of sensor data related to water and air temperature, water level, humidity, pressure, light intensity, pH and electric conductivity without requiring any human intervention. More sensors and actuators can also easily be added thanks to the modular design of the proposed platform. Data can be accessed remotely via a simple web interface. The proposed platform can be used both for quantitatively optimizing the setup of the farms and for automating some of the most labor-intensive maintenance activities. Moreover, such monitoring system can also potentially be used for high-level decision making, once enough data are collected.
Internet of Health Things as a Win-Win Solution for Mitigating the Paradigm Shift inside Senior Patient-Physician Shared Health Management
Internet of Health Things (IoHT) has already proved to be a persuasive means to support a proper assessment of the living conditions by collecting a huge variety of data. For a customized health management of a senior patient, IoHT provides the capacity to build a dynamic solution for sustaining the shift inside the patient-physician relationship by allowing a real-time and continuous remote monitoring of the health status, well-being, safety and activities of the senior, especially in a non-clinical environment. Thus, is created a win-win solution in which both the patient and the physician enhance their involvement and shared decision-making, with significant outcomes. Health monitoring systems in smart environments are becoming a viable alternative to traditional healthcare solutions. The ongoing “Non-invasive monitoring and health assessment of the elderly in a smart environment (RO-SmartAgeing)” project aims to demonstrate that the existence of complete and accurate information is critical for assessing the health condition of the seniors, improving wellbeing and quality of life in relation to health. The researches performed inside the project aim to highlight how the management of IoHT devices connected to the RO-SmartAgeing platform in a secure way by using a role-based access control system, can allow the physicians to provide health services at a high level of efficiency and accessibility, which were previously only available in hospitals. The project aims to identify deficient aspects in the provision of health services tailored to a senior patient’s specificity and to offer a more comprehensive perspective of proactive and preventive medical acts.
Residential and Care Model for Elderly People Based on “Internet Plus”
China's aging tendency is becoming increasingly severe, which leads to the embarrassing situation of "getting old before getting wealthy". The traditional pension model does not comply with the need of today. Relying on "Internet Plus", it can efficiently integrate information and resources and meet the personalized needs of elderly care. It can reduce the operating cost of community elderly care facilities and lay a technical foundation for providing better services for the elderly. The key for providing help for the elderly in the future is to effectively integrate technology, make good use of technology, and improve the efficiency of elderly care services. The effective integration of traditional home care, community care, intelligent elderly care equipment and medical resources to create the "Internet Plus" community intelligent pension service mode has become the future development trend of aging care. The research method of this paper is to collect literature and conduct theoretical research on community pension firstly. Secondly, the combination of suitable aging design and "Internet Plus" is elaborated through research. Finally, this paper states the current level of intelligent technology in old-age care and looks into the future by understanding multiple levels of "Internet Plus". The development of community intelligent pension mode and content under "Internet Plus" has enormous development potential. In addition to the characteristics and functions of ordinary houses, residential design of endowment housing has higher requirements for comfort and personalization, and the people-oriented is the principle of design.
Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Profiles of Spanish Public Universities
In the higher education setting, there is a current trend in society toward greater openness and transparency. The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in recent years in public sector universities (particularly the New Public Management, the Bologna Process and the emergence of the “third mission”) call for a wider disclosure of value created by universities to support fundraising activities, to ensure accountability in the use of public funds and the outcomes of research and teaching, as well as close relationships with industries and territories. The paper has two purposes: 1) to explore the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure in Spanish universities through their websites, and 2) to identify university profiles. This study applies a content analysis to analyze the institutional websites of Spanish public universities and a cluster analysis. The analysis reveals that Spanish universities’ website content usually relates to human capital, while structural and relational capitals are less widely disclosed. Our research identifies three behavioral profiles of Spanish universities with regard to the online disclosure of IC (universities more proactive, universities less proactive and universities adopt a middle position in this regard. The results can serve as encouragement to university managers to enhance online IC disclosure to meet the information needs of university stakeholders.
Non-Invasive Data Extraction from Machine Display Units Using Video Analytics
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform
manufacturing by improving shop floor processes such as production,
maintenance and quality. However, industrial datasets are notoriously
difficult to extract in a real-time, streaming fashion thus, negating
potential AI benefits. The main example is some specialized industrial
controllers that are operated by custom software which complicates
the process of connecting them to an Information Technology (IT)
based data acquisition network. Security concerns may also limit
direct physical access to these controllers for data acquisition.
To connect the Operational Technology (OT) data stored in these
controllers to an AI application in a secure, reliable and available
way, we propose a novel Industrial IoT (IIoT) solution in this paper.
In this solution, we demonstrate how video cameras can be installed
in a factory shop floor to continuously obtain images of the controller
HMIs. We propose image pre-processing to segment the HMI into
regions of streaming data and regions of fixed meta-data. We then
evaluate the performance of multiple Optical Character Recognition
(OCR) technologies such as Tesseract and Google vision to recognize
the streaming data and test it for typical factory HMIs and realistic
lighting conditions. Finally, we use the meta-data to match the OCR
output with the temporal, domain-dependent context of the data to
improve the accuracy of the output. Our IIoT solution enables reliable
and efficient data extraction which will improve the performance of
subsequent AI applications.
Context Aware Anomaly Behavior Analysis for Smart Home Systems
The Internet of Things (IoT) will lead to the development of advanced Smart Home services that are pervasive, cost-effective, and can be accessed by home occupants from anywhere and at any time. However, advanced smart home applications will introduce grand security challenges due to the increase in the attack surface. Current approaches do not handle cybersecurity from a holistic point of view; hence, a systematic cybersecurity mechanism needs to be adopted when designing smart home applications. In this paper, we present a generic intrusion detection methodology to detect and mitigate the anomaly behaviors happened in Smart Home Systems (SHS). By utilizing our Smart Home Context Data Structure, the heterogeneous information and services acquired from SHS are mapped in context attributes which can describe the context of smart home operation precisely and accurately. Runtime models for describing usage patterns of home assets are developed based on characterization functions. A threat-aware action management methodology, used to efficiently mitigate anomaly behaviors, is proposed at the end. Our preliminary experimental results show that our methodology can be used to detect and mitigate known and unknown threats, as well as to protect SHS premises and services.
The Internet of Healthcare Things: A European Perspective and a Review of Ethical Concerns
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a disruptive technological paradigm that is at the center of the digital evolution by integrating physical and virtual worlds leading to the creation of extended interconnected ecosystems that are characterized as smart environments. The concept of the IoT has a broad range of applications in different industries including the healthcare sector. The Internet of Healthcare Things (IoHT), a branch of the IoT, is expected to bring promising benefits to all involved stakeholders and accelerate the revolution of the healthcare sector through a transition towards preventive and personalized medicine. The socio-economic challenges that the healthcare sector is facing further emphasize the need for a radical transformation of healthcare systems in both developed and developing countries with the role of pervasive technological innovations, such as IoHT, recognized as key to counteract the relevant challenges. Besides the number of potential opportunities that IoHT presents, there are fundamental ethical concerns that need to be considered and addressed in relation to the application of IoHT. This paper contributes to the discussion of the emerging topic of IoHT by providing an overview of the role and potential of IoHT, highlighting the characteristics of the current and future healthcare landscape, reporting on the up-to-date status of IoHT in Europe and reflecting upon existing research in the ethics of IoHT by incorporating additional ethical dimensions that have been ignored which can provide pathways for future research in the field.
Designing an Integrated Platform for Real-Time Recommendations Sharing among the Aged and People Living with Cancer
The world is expected to experience growth in the number of ageing population, and this will bring about high cost of providing care for these valuable citizens. In addition, many of these live with chronic diseases that come with old age. Providing adequate care in the face of rising costs and dwindling personnel can be challenging. However, advances in technologies and emergence of the Internet of Things are providing a way to address these challenges while improving care giving. This study proposes the integration of recommendation systems into homecare to provide real-time recommendations for effective management of people receiving care at home and those living with chronic diseases. Using the simplified Training Logic Concept, stakeholders and requirements were identified. Specific requirements were gathered from people living with cancer. The solution designed has two components namely home and community, to enhance recommendations sharing for effective care giving. The community component of the design was implemented with the development of a mobile app called Recommendations Sharing Community for Aged and Chronically Ill People (ReSCAP). This component has illustrated the possibility of real-time recommendations, improved recommendations sharing among care receivers and between a physician and care receivers. Full implementation will increase access to health data for better care decision making.
Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure
Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.
Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions
The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.
Comparative Advantage of Mobile Agent Application in Procuring Software Products on the Internet
This paper brings to fore the inherent advantages in application of mobile agents to procure software products rather than downloading software content on the Internet. It proposes a system whereby the products come on compact disk with mobile agent as deliverable. The client/user purchases a software product, but must connect to the remote server of the software developer before installation. The user provides an activation code that activates mobile agent which is part of the software product on compact disk. The validity of the activation code is checked on connection at the developer’s end to ascertain authenticity and prevent piracy. The system is implemented by downloading two different software products as compare with installing same products on compact disk with mobile agent’s application. Downloading software contents from developer’s database as in the traditional method requires a continuously open connection between the client and the developer’s end, a fixed network is not economically or technically feasible. Mobile agent after being dispatched into the network becomes independent of the creating process and can operate asynchronously and autonomously. It can reconnect later after completing its task and return for result delivery. Response Time and Network Load are very minimal with application of Mobile agent.
Email Based Global Automation with Raspberry Pi and Control Circuit Module: Development of Smart Home Application
Global Automation is an emerging technology of today’s era and is based on Internet of Things (IoT). Global automation deals with the controlling of electrical appliances throughout the world. The fabrication of this system has been carried out with interfacing an electrical control system module to Raspberry Pi. An electrical control system module includes a relay driver mechanism through which appliances are controlled automatically in respective condition. In this research project, one email ID has been assigned to Raspberry Pi, and the users from different location having different email ID can mail to Raspberry Pi on assigned email address “[email protected]
” with subject heading “Device Control” with predefined command on compose email line. Also, a notification regarding current working condition of this system has been updated on respective user email ID. This approach is an innovative way of implementing smart automation system through which a user can control their electrical appliances like light, fan, television, refrigerator, etc. in their home with the use of email facility. The development of this project helps to enhance the concept of smart home application as well as industrial automation.
A Web and Cloud-Based Measurement System Analysis Tool for the Automotive Industry
Any industrial company needs to determine the amount of variation that exists within its measurement process and guarantee the reliability of their data, studying the performance of their measurement system, in terms of linearity, bias, repeatability and reproducibility and stability. This issue is critical for automotive industry suppliers, who are required to be certified by the 16949:2016 standard (replaces the ISO/TS 16949) of International Automotive Task Force, defining the requirements of a quality management system for companies in the automotive industry. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is one of the mandatory tools. Frequently, the measurement system in companies is not connected to the equipment and do not incorporate the methods proposed by the Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG). To address these constraints, an R&D project is in progress, whose objective is to develop a web and cloud-based MSA tool. This MSA tool incorporates Industry 4.0 concepts, such as, Internet of Things (IoT) protocols to assure the connection with the measuring equipment, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, statistical tools, and advanced mathematical algorithms. This paper presents the preliminary findings of the project. The web and cloud-based MSA tool is innovative because it implements all statistical tests proposed in the MSA-4 reference manual from AIAG as well as other emerging methods and techniques. As it is integrated with the measuring devices, it reduces the manual input of data and therefore the errors. The tool ensures traceability of all performed tests and can be used in quality laboratories and in the production lines. Besides, it monitors MSAs over time, allowing both the analysis of deviations from the variation of the measurements performed and the management of measurement equipment and calibrations. To develop the MSA tool a ten-step approach was implemented. Firstly, it was performed a benchmarking analysis of the current competitors and commercial solutions linked to MSA, concerning Industry 4.0 paradigm. Next, an analysis of the size of the target market for the MSA tool was done. Afterwards, data flow and traceability requirements were analysed in order to implement an IoT data network that interconnects with the equipment, preferably via wireless. The MSA web solution was designed under UI/UX principles and an API in python language was developed to perform the algorithms and the statistical analysis. Continuous validation of the tool by companies is being performed to assure real time management of the ‘big data’. The main results of this R&D project are: MSA Tool, web and cloud-based; Python API; New Algorithms to the market; and Style Guide of UI/UX of the tool. The MSA tool proposed adds value to the state of the art as it ensures an effective response to the new challenges of measurement systems, which are increasingly critical in production processes. Although the automotive industry has triggered the development of this innovative MSA tool, other industries would also benefit from it. Currently, companies from molds and plastics, chemical and food industry are already validating it.
Comparison of Security Challenges and Issues of Mobile Computing and Internet of Things
In this modern era of technology, the concept of Internet of Things is very popular in every domain. It is a widely distributed system of things in which the data collected from sensory devices is transmitted, analyzed locally/collectively then broadcasted to network where action can be taken remotely via mobile/web apps. Today’s mobile computing is also gaining importance as the services are provided during mobility. Through mobile computing, data are transmitted via computer without physically connected to a fixed point. The challenge is to provide services with high speed and security. Also, the data gathered from the mobiles must be processed in a secured way. Mobile computing is strongly influenced by internet of things. In this paper, we have discussed security issues and challenges of internet of things and mobile computing and we have compared both of them on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.
Economized Sensor Data Processing with Vehicle Platooning
We present vehicular platooning as a special case of crowd-sensing framework where sharing sensory information among a crowd is used for their collective benefit. After offering an abstract policy that governs processes involving a vehicular platoon, we review several common scenarios and components surrounding vehicular platooning. We then present a simulated prototype that illustrates efficiency of road usage and vehicle travel time derived from platooning. We have argued that one of the paramount benefits of platooning that is overlooked elsewhere, is the substantial computational savings (i.e., economizing benefits) in acquisition and processing of sensory data among vehicles sharing the road. The most capable vehicle can share data gathered from its sensors with nearby vehicles grouped into a platoon.
Introduction of an Approach of Complex Virtual Devices to Achieve Device Interoperability in Smart Building Systems
One of the major challenges for sustainable smart
building systems is to support device interoperability, i.e. connecting
sensor or actuator devices from different vendors, and present their
functionality to the external applications. Furthermore, smart building
systems are supposed to connect with devices that are not available
yet, i.e. devices that become available on the market sometime later.
It is of vital importance that a sustainable smart building platform
provides an appropriate external interface that can be leveraged
by external applications and smart services. An external platform
interface must be stable and independent of specific devices and
should support flexible and scalable usage scenarios. A typical
approach applied in smart home systems is based on a generic
device interface used within the smart building platform. Device
functions, even of rather complex devices, are mapped to that generic
base type interface by means of specific device drivers. Our new
approach, presented in this work, extends that approach by using the
smart building system’s rule engine to create complex virtual devices
that can represent the most diverse properties of real devices. We
examined and evaluated both approaches by means of a practical
case study using a smart building system that we have developed.
We show that the solution we present allows the highest degree
of flexibility without affecting external application interface stability
and scalability. In contrast to other systems our approach supports
complex virtual device configuration on application layer (e.g. by
administration users) instead of device configuration at platform layer
(e.g. platform operators). Based on our work, we can show that
our approach supports almost arbitrarily flexible use case scenarios
without affecting the external application interface stability. However,
the cost of this approach is additional appropriate configuration
overhead and additional resource consumption at the IoT platform
level that must be considered by platform operators. We conclude
that the concept of complex virtual devices presented in this work
can be applied to improve the usability and device interoperability of
sustainable intelligent building systems significantly.
Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot
In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode
controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote
robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes
two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed
at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface
and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote
robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify
the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with
a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual
robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.
Knowledge Reactor: A Contextual Computing Work in Progress for Eldercare
The world-wide population of people over 60 years
of age is growing rapidly. The explosion is placing increasingly
onerous demands on individual families, multiple industries and
entire countries. Current, human-intensive approaches to eldercare
are not sustainable, but IoT and AI technologies can help. The
Knowledge Reactor (KR) is a contextual, data fusion engine built to
address this and other similar problems. It fuses and centralizes IoT
and System of Record/Engagement data into a reactive knowledge
graph. Cognitive applications and services are constructed with its
multiagent architecture. The KR can scale-up and scaledown, because
it exploits container-based, horizontally scalable services for graph
store (JanusGraph) and pub-sub (Kafka) technologies. While the KR
can be applied to many domains that require IoT and AI technologies,
this paper describes how the KR specifically supports the challenging
domain of cognitive eldercare. Rule- and machine learning-based
analytics infer activities of daily living from IoT sensor readings. KR
scalability, adaptability, flexibility and usability are demonstrated.
Design of Smart Urban Lighting by Using Social Sustainability Approach
Creating cities, objects and spaces that are economically, environmentally and socially sustainable and which meet the challenge of social interaction and generation change will be one of the biggest tasks of designers. Social sustainability is about how individuals, communities and societies live with each other and set out to achieve the objectives of development model which they have chosen for themselves. Urban lightning as one of the most important elements of urban furniture that people constantly interact with it in public spaces; can be a significant object for designers. Using intelligence by internet of things for urban lighting makes it more interactive in public environments. It can encourage individuals to carry out appropriate behaviors and provides them the social awareness through new interactions. The greatest strength of this technology is its strong impact on many aspects of everyday life and users' behaviors. The analytical phase of the research is based on a multiple method survey strategy. Smart lighting proposed in this paper is an urban lighting designed on results obtained from a collective point of view about the social sustainability. In this paper, referring to behavioral design methods, the social behaviors of the people has been studied. Data show that people demands for a deeper experience of social participation, safety perception and energy saving with the meaningful use of interactive and colourful lighting effects. By using intelligent technology, some suggestions are provided in the field of future lighting to consider the new forms of social sustainability.
Comparison of Authentication Methods in Internet of Things Technology
Internet of Things (IoT) is a powerful industry system, which end-devices are interconnected and automated, allowing the devices to analyze data and execute actions based on the analysis. The IoT technology leverages the technology of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), including mobile and sensor. These technologies contribute to the evolution of IoT. However, due to more devices are connected each other in the Internet, and data from various sources exchanged between things, confidentiality of the data becomes a major concern. This paper focuses on one of the major challenges in IoT; authentication, in order to preserve data integrity and confidentiality are in place. A few solutions are reviewed based on papers from the last few years. One of the proposed solutions is securing the communication between IoT devices and cloud servers with Elliptic Curve Cryptograhpy (ECC) based mutual authentication protocol. This solution focuses on Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) cookies as security parameter. Next proposed solution is using keyed-hash scheme protocol to enable IoT devices to authenticate each other without the presence of a central control server. Another proposed solution uses Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based mutual authentication protocol. It emphasizes on tamper resistant and resource-efficient technology, which equals a 3-way handshake security protocol.
Evaluating Machine Learning Techniques for Activity Classification in Smart Home Environments
With the widespread adoption of the Internet-connected
devices, and with the prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT)
applications, there is an increased interest in machine learning
techniques that can provide useful and interesting services in the
smart home domain. The areas that machine learning techniques
can help advance are varied and ever-evolving. Classifying smart
home inhabitants’ Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), is one
prominent example. The ability of machine learning technique to find
meaningful spatio-temporal relations of high-dimensional data is an
important requirement as well. This paper presents a comparative
evaluation of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to classify
ADLs in the smart home domain. Forty-two synthetic datasets and
two real-world datasets with multiple inhabitants are used to evaluate
and compare the performance of the identified machine learning
techniques. Our results show significant performance differences
between the evaluated techniques. Such as AdaBoost, Cortical
Learning Algorithm (CLA), Decision Trees, Hidden Markov Model
(HMM), Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Structured Perceptron and
Support Vector Machines (SVM). Overall, neural network based
techniques have shown superiority over the other tested techniques.
Development and Range Testing of a LoRaWAN System in an Urban Environment
This paper describes the construction and operation of an experimental LoRaWAN network surrounding the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. Following successful installation, an experimental node design is built and characterised, with particular emphasis on radio range. Several configurations are investigated, including different data rates, and varying heights of node. It is concluded that although range can be great (over 8 km in this case), environmental topology is critical. However, shorter range implementations, up to about 2 km in an urban environment, are relatively insensitive although care is still needed. The example node and the relatively simple base station reported demonstrate that LoraWan can be a very low cost and practical solution to Internet of Things type applications for distributed monitoring systems with sensors spread over distances of several km.
The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has
received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted
that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the
near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers
of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the
surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature
of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to
various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe
communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however,
come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small
batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices.
Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has
not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security
specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost
of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS)
parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of
security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins
by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security
levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security
on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of
transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects
of security on memory footprint. The results show that security
overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes
fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets
and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification.
Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet
lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results
depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall,
maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%,
and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.
An Intelligent Baby Care System Based on IoT and Deep Learning Techniques
Due to the heavy burden and pressure of caring for infants, an integrated automatic baby watching system based on IoT smart sensing and deep learning machine vision techniques is proposed in this paper. By monitoring infant body conditions such as heartbeat, breathing, body temperature, sleeping posture, as well as the surrounding conditions such as dangerous/sharp objects, light, noise, humidity and temperature, the proposed system can analyze and predict the obvious/potential dangerous conditions according to observed data and then adopt suitable actions in real time to protect the infant from harm. Thus, reducing the burden of the caregiver and improving safety efficiency of the caring work. The experimental results show that the proposed system works successfully for the infant care work and thus can be implemented in various life fields practically.
Design and Implementation a Virtualization Platform for Providing Smart Tourism Services
This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based virtualization platform for providing smart tourism services. The virtualization platform provides a consistent access interface to various types of data by naming IoT devices and legacy information systems as pathnames in a virtual file system. In the other words, the IoT virtualization platform functions as a middleware which uses the metadata for underlying collected data. The proposed platform makes it easy to provide customized tourism information by using tourist locations collected by IoT devices and additionally enables to create new interactive smart tourism services focused on the tourist locations. The proposed platform is very efficient so that the provided tourism services are isolated from changes in raw data and the services can be modified or expanded without changing the underlying data structure.
The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Bilateral Trade in Goods
This paper investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on bilateral trade in goods. Empirical analysis is performed on the United States and 34 partnering countries from 2000 to 2013. Our econometric model fits the data well, explaining 52% of the variation in trade flows for goods trade, 53.2% of the variation in trade flows for goods export and 48% of the variation in trade flows for goods import. For every 10% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people increases, goods trade by 7.9% and for every 5% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people, goods export increases by 11%. For every 1% increase in fixed telephone line penetration per 100 people, goods trade increases by 26.3%, goods export increases by 24.4% and goods import increases by 24.8%. For every 1% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods trade decreases by 29.6% and goods export decreases by 27.1%, whilst for every 0.01% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods import decreases by 34.3%. For every 1% increase in the percentage of population who used the Internet from any location in the last 12 months Internet, goods trade increases by 32.5%, goods export increases by 38.9%, goods import increases by 33%. All our trade determinants as well as our ICT variables have significances on goods exports for the US. We can also draw from our study that the US relies more rather heavily on ICT for its goods export compared to goods import.
Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software
This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.