Application of a Generalized Additive Model to Reveal the Relations between the Density of Zooplankton with Other Variables in the West Daya Bay, China
Zooplankton are a central issue in the ecology which makes a great contribution to maintaining the balance of an ecosystem. It is critical in promoting the material cycle and energy flow within the ecosystems. A generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the relationships between the density (individuals per m³) of zooplankton and other variables in West Daya Bay. All data used in this analysis (the survey month, survey station (longitude and latitude), the depth of the water column, the superficial concentration of chlorophyll a, the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, the number of zooplankton species and the number of zooplankton species) were collected through monthly scientific surveys during January to December 2016. GLM model (generalized linear model) was used to choose the significant variables’ impact on the density of zooplankton, and the GAM was employed to analyze the relationship between the density of zooplankton and the significant variables. The results showed that the density of zooplankton increased with an increase of the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, but decreased with a decrease in the depth of the water column. Both high numbers of zooplankton species and the overall total number of zooplankton individuals led to a higher density of zooplankton.
Improved Predictive Models for the IRMA Network Using Nonlinear Optimisation
Cellular complexity stems from the interactions
among thousands of different molecular species. Thanks to the
emerging fields of systems and synthetic biology, scientists are
beginning to unravel these regulatory, signaling, and metabolic
interactions and to understand their coordinated action. Reverse
engineering of biological networks has has several benefits but a
poor quality of data combined with the difficulty in reproducing
it limits the applicability of these methods. A few years back,
many of the commonly used predictive algorithms were tested
on a network constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(S. cerevisiae) to resolve this issue. The network was a synthetic
network of five genes regulating each other for the so-called in
vivo reverse-engineering and modeling assessment (IRMA). The
network was constructed in S. cereviase since it is a simple and well
characterized organism. The synthetic network included a variety
of regulatory interactions, thus capturing the behaviour of larger
eukaryotic gene networks on a smaller scale. We derive a new set of
algorithms by solving a nonlinear optimization problem and show
how these algorithms outperform other algorithms on these datasets.
The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level
Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.
Design and Development of Real-Time Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
This paper describes a strategy to develop an energy
management system (EMS) for a charge-sustaining power-split hybrid
electric vehicle. This kind of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) benefit
from the advantages of both parallel and series architecture. However,
it gets relatively more complicated to manage power flow between the
battery and the engine optimally. The applied strategy in this paper is
based on nonlinear model predictive control approach. First of all, an
appropriate control-oriented model which was accurate enough and
simple was derived. Towards utilization of this controller in real-time,
the problem was solved off-line for a vast area of reference signals
and initial conditions and stored the computed manipulated variables
inside look-up tables. Look-up tables take a little amount of memory.
Also, the computational load dramatically decreased, because to find
required manipulated variables the controller just needed a simple
interpolation between tables.
The New Relative Efficiency Based on the Least Eigenvalue in Generalized Linear Model
A new relative efficiency is defined as LSE and BLUE in the generalized linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the ratio of the least eigenvalues. In this paper, we discuss about its lower bound and the relationship between it and generalized relative coefficient. Finally, this paper proves that the new estimation is better under Stein function and special condition in some degree.
Improve Safety Performance of Un-Signalized Intersections in Oman
The main objective of this paper is to provide a new
methodology for road safety assessment in Oman through the
development of suitable accident prediction models. GLM technique
with Poisson or NBR using SAS package was carried out to develop
these models. The paper utilized the accidents data of 31 un-signalized
T-intersections during three years. Five goodness-of-fit
measures were used to assess the overall quality of the developed
models. Two types of models were developed separately; the flow-based
models including only traffic exposure functions, and the full
models containing both exposure functions and other significant
geometry and traffic variables.
The results show that, traffic exposure functions produced much
better fit to the accident data. The most effective geometric variables
were major-road mean speed, minor-road 85th percentile speed,
major-road lane width, distance to the nearest junction, and right-turn
The developed models can be used for intersection treatment or
upgrading and specify the appropriate design parameters of T-intersections.
Finally, the models presented in this thesis reflect the intersection
conditions in Oman and could represent the typical conditions in
several countries in the middle east area, especially gulf countries.
Periodic Control of a Wastewater Treatment Process to Improve Productivity
In this paper, periodic force operation of a wastewater treatment process has been studied for the improved process performance. A previously developed dynamic model for the process is used to conduct the performance analysis. The static version of the model was utilized first to determine the optimal productivity conditions for the process. Then, feed flow rate in terms of dilution rate i.e. (D) is transformed into sinusoidal function. Nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is utilized to regulate the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal function. The parameters of the feed cyclic functions are determined which resulted in improved productivity than the optimal productivity under steady state conditions. The improvement in productivity is found to be marginal and is satisfactory in substrate conversion compared to that of the optimal condition and to the steady state condition, which corresponds to the average value of the periodic function. Successful results were also obtained in the presence of modeling errors and external disturbances.
Parameter Estimation for Viewing Rank Distribution of Video-on-Demand
Video-on-demand (VOD) is designed by using content delivery networks (CDN) to minimize the overall operational cost and to maximize scalability. Estimation of the viewing pattern (i.e., the relationship between the number of viewings and the ranking of VOD contents) plays an important role in minimizing the total operational cost and maximizing the performance of the VOD systems. In this paper, we have analyzed a large body of commercial VOD viewing data and found that the viewing rank distribution fits well with the parabolic fractal distribution. The weighted linear model fitting function is used to estimate the parameters (coefficients) of the parabolic fractal distribution. This paper presents an analytical basis for designing an optimal hierarchical VOD contents distribution system in terms of its cost and performance.
Numerical Analysis of Concrete Crash Barriers
Reinforced concrete crash barriers used in road traffic
must meet a number of criteria. Crash barriers are laid lengthwise,
one behind another, and joined using specially designed steel locks.
While developing BSV reinforced concrete crash barriers (type
ŽPSV), experiments and calculations aimed to optimize the shape of
a newly designed lock and the reinforcement quantity and
distribution in a crash barrier were carried out. The tension carrying
capacity of two parallelly joined locks was solved experimentally.
Based on the performed experiments, adjustments of nonlinear
properties of steel were performed in the calculations. The obtained
results served as a basis to optimize the lock design using a
computational model that takes into account the plastic behaviour of
steel and the influence of the surrounding concrete . The response
to the vehicle impact has been analyzed using a specially elaborated
complex computational model, comprising both the nonlinear model
of the damping wall or crash barrier and the detailed model of the
Stability Issues on an Implemented All-Pass Filter Circuitry
The so-called all-pass filter circuits are commonly
used in the field of signal processing, control and measurement.
Being connected to capacitive loads, these circuits tend to loose their
stability; therefore the elaborate analysis of their dynamic behavior is
necessary. The compensation methods intending to increase the
stability of such circuits are discussed in this paper, including the socalled
lead-lag compensation technique being treated in detail. For
the dynamic modeling, a two-port network model of the all-pass filter
is being derived. The results of the model analysis show, that
effective lead-lag compensation can be achieved, alone by the
optimization of the circuit parameters; therefore the application of
additional electric components are not needed to fulfill the stability
Development of Admire Longitudinal Quasi-Linear Model by using State Transformation Approach
This paper presents a longitudinal quasi-linear model for the ADMIRE model. The ADMIRE model is a nonlinear model of aircraft flying in the condition of high angle of attack. So it can-t be considered to be a linear system approximately. In this paper, for getting the longitudinal quasi-linear model of the ADMIRE, a state transformation based on differentiable functions of the nonscheduling states and control inputs is performed, with the goal of removing any nonlinear terms not dependent on the scheduling parameter. Since it needn-t linear approximation and can obtain the exact transformations of the nonlinear states, the above-mentioned approach is thought to be appropriate to establish the mathematical model of ADMIRE. To verify this conclusion, simulation experiments are done. And the result shows that this quasi-linear model is accurate enough.
Application of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System in Macroeconomic Variables Forecasting
In this paper we apply an Adaptive Network-Based
Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with one input, the dependent
variable with one lag, for the forecasting of four macroeconomic
variables of US economy, the Gross Domestic Product, the inflation
rate, six monthly treasury bills interest rates and unemployment rate.
We compare the forecasting performance of ANFIS with those of the
widely used linear autoregressive and nonlinear smoothing transition
autoregressive (STAR) models. The results are greatly in favour of
ANFIS indicating that is an effective tool for macroeconomic
forecasting used in academic research and in research and application
by the governmental and other institutions
A Comparison of Marginal and Joint Generalized Quasi-likelihood Estimating Equations Based On the Com-Poisson GLM: Application to Car Breakdowns Data
In this paper, we apply and compare two generalized estimating equation approaches to the analysis of car breakdowns data in Mauritius. Number of breakdowns experienced by a machinery is a highly under-dispersed count random variable and its value can be attributed to the factors related to the mechanical input and output of that machinery. Analyzing such under-dispersed count observation as a function of the explanatory factors has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we aim at estimating the effects of various factors on the number of breakdowns experienced by a passenger car based on a study performed in Mauritius over a year. We remark that the number of passenger car breakdowns is highly under-dispersed. These data are therefore modelled and analyzed using Com-Poisson regression model. We use the two types of quasi-likelihood estimation approaches to estimate the parameters of the model: marginal and joint generalized quasi-likelihood estimating equation approaches. Under-dispersion parameter is estimated to be around 2.14 justifying the appropriateness of Com-Poisson distribution in modelling underdispersed count responses recorded in this study.
Analyzing the Factors Effecting the Passenger Car Breakdowns using Com-Poisson GLM
Number of breakdowns experienced by a machinery is a highly under-dispersed count random variable and its value can be attributed to the factors related to the mechanical input and output of that machinery. Analyzing such under-dispersed count observations as a function of the explanatory factors has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we aim at estimating the effects of various factors on the number of breakdowns experienced by a passenger car based on a study performed in Mauritius over a year. We remark that the number of passenger car breakdowns is highly under-dispersed. These data are therefore modelled and analyzed using Com-Poisson regression model. We use quasi-likelihood estimation approach to estimate the parameters of the model. Under-dispersion parameter is estimated to be 2.14 justifying the appropriateness of Com-Poisson distribution in modelling under-dispersed count responses recorded in this study.
Analysis of Event-related Response in Human Visual Cortex with fMRI
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI) is a
noninvasive imaging technique that measures the hemodynamic
response related to neural activity in the human brain. Event-related
functional magnetic resonance imaging (efMRI) is a form of
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in which a series of
fMRI images are time-locked to a stimulus presentation and averaged
together over many trials. Again an event related potential (ERP) is a
measured brain response that is directly the result of a thought or
perception. Here the neuronal response of human visual cortex in
normal healthy patients have been studied. The patients were asked
to perform a visual three choice reaction task; from the relative
response of each patient corresponding neuronal activity in visual
cortex was imaged. The average number of neurons in the adult
human primary visual cortex, in each hemisphere has been estimated
at around 140 million. Statistical analysis of this experiment was
done with SPM5(Statistical Parametric Mapping version 5) software.
The result shows a robust design of imaging the neuronal activity of
human visual cortex.
Applying Gibbs Sampler for Multivariate Hierarchical Linear Model
Among various HLM techniques, the Multivariate Hierarchical Linear Model (MHLM) is desirable to use, particularly when multivariate criterion variables are collected and the covariance structure has information valuable for data analysis. In order to reflect prior information or to obtain stable results when the sample size and the number of groups are not sufficiently large, the Bayes method has often been employed in hierarchical data analysis. In these cases, although the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a rather powerful tool for parameter estimation, Procedures regarding MCMC have not been formulated for MHLM. For this reason, this research presents concrete procedures for parameter estimation through the use of the Gibbs samplers. Lastly, several future topics for the use of MCMC approach for HLM is discussed.
Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses
The System Identification problem looks for a
suitably parameterized model, representing a given process. The
parameters of the model are adjusted to optimize a performance
function based on error between the given process output and
identified process output. The linear system identification field is
well established with many classical approaches whereas most of
those methods cannot be applied for nonlinear systems. The problem
becomes tougher if the system is completely unknown with only the
output time series is available. It has been reported that the
capability of Artificial Neural Network to approximate all linear and
nonlinear input-output maps makes it predominantly suitable for the
identification of nonlinear systems, where only the output time series
is available. . The work reported here is an attempt to
implement few of the well known algorithms in the context of
modeling of nonlinear systems, and to make a performance
comparison to establish the relative merits and demerits.
Simulating Action Potential as a Linear Combination of Gating Dynamics
In this research we show that the dynamics of an action potential in a cell can be modeled with a linear combination of the dynamics of the gating state variables. It is shown that the modeling error is negligible. Our findings can be used for simplifying cell models and reduction of computational burden i.e. it is useful for simulating action potential propagation in large scale computations like tissue modeling. We have verified our finding with the use of several cell models.
Forecasting the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100 Index Using an Artificial Neural Network
Many studies have shown that Artificial Neural
Networks (ANN) have been widely used for forecasting financial
markets, because of many financial and economic variables are nonlinear,
and an ANN can model flexible linear or non-linear
relationship among variables.
The purpose of the study was to employ an ANN models to
predict the direction of the Istanbul Stock Exchange National 100
Indices (ISE National-100).
As a result of this study, the model forecast the direction of the
ISE National-100 to an accuracy of 74, 51%.
Neural Network-Based Control Strategies Applied to a Fed-Batch Crystallization Process
This paper is focused on issues of process modeling
and two model based control strategies of a fed-batch sugar
crystallization process applying the concept of artificial neural
networks (ANNs). The control objective is to force the operation into
following optimal supersaturation trajectory. It is achieved by
manipulating the feed flow rate of sugar liquor/syrup, considered as
the control input. The control task is rather challenging due to the
strong nonlinearity of the process dynamics and variations in the
crystallization kinetics. Two control alternatives are considered –
model predictive control (MPC) and feedback linearizing control
(FLC). Adequate ANN process models are first built as part of the
controller structures. MPC algorithm outperforms the FLC approach
with respect to satisfactory reference tracking and smooth control
action. However, the MPC is computationally much more involved
since it requires an online numerical optimization, while for the FLC
an analytical control solution was determined.
Chaos Theory and Application in Foreign Exchange Rates vs. IRR (Iranian Rial)
Daily production of information and importance of the sequence of produced data in forecasting future performance of market causes analysis of data behavior to become a problem of analyzing time series. But time series that are very complicated, usually are random and as a result their changes considered being unpredictable. While these series might be products of a deterministic dynamical and nonlinear process (chaotic) and as a result be predictable. Point of Chaotic theory view, complicated systems have only chaotically face and as a result they seem to be unregulated and random, but it is possible that they abide by a specified math formula. In this article, with regard to test of strange attractor and biggest Lyapunov exponent probability of chaos on several foreign exchange rates vs. IRR (Iranian Rial) has been investigated. Results show that data in this market have complex chaotic behavior with big degree of freedom.
The Multi-Layered Perceptrons Neural Networks for the Prediction of Daily Solar Radiation
The Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) Neural
networks have been very successful in a number of signal processing
applications. In this work we have studied the possibilities and the
met difficulties in the application of the MLP neural networks for the
prediction of daily solar radiation data. We have used the Polack-Ribière algorithm for training the neural networks. A comparison, in
term of the statistical indicators, with a linear model most used in
literature, is also performed, and the obtained results show that the
neural networks are more efficient and gave the best results.
A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics
In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.
The Factors Significant to Software Development Productivity
The past decade has seen enormous growth in the amount of software produced. However, given the ever increasing complexity of the software being developed and the concomitant rise in the typical project size, managers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of issues that influence the productivity levels of the project teams involved. By analyzing the latest release of ISBSG data repository, we report on the factors found to significantly influence the productivity among which average team size and language type are the two most essential ones. Building on this we present an original model for evaluating the potential productivity during the project planning stage.