Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

12
10009257
Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions
Abstract:

Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories.

11
10001344
Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking
Abstract:
The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.
10
9997841
Potential Field Functions for Motion Planning and Posture of the Standard 3-Trailer System
Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon, in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of 3-trailer systems in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the distance optimization technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws were demonstrated via simulations of two traffic scenarios.

9
9997845
Motion Planning and Posture Control of the General 3-Trailer System
Abstract:

This paper presents a set of artificial potential field functions that improves upon, in general, the motion planning and posture control, with theoretically guaranteed point and posture stabilities, convergence and collision avoidance properties of the general3-trailer system in a priori known environment. We basically design and inject two new concepts; ghost walls and the distance optimization technique (DOT) to strengthen point and posture stabilities, in the sense of Lyapunov, of our dynamical model. This new combination of techniques emerges as a convenient mechanism for obtaining feasible orientations at the target positions with an overall reduction in the complexity of the navigation laws. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controls laws.

8
9997321
Motion Planning and Control of a Swarm of Boids in a 3-Dimensional Space
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion planning and control problem for a swarm of three-dimensional boids. The swarm exhibit collective emergent behaviors within the vicinity of the workspace. The capability of biological systems to autonomously maneuver, track and pursue evasive targets in a cluttered environment is vastly superior to any engineered system. It is considered an emergent behavior arising from simple rules that are followed by individuals and may not involve any central coordination. A generalized, yet scalable algorithm for attraction to the centroid and inter-individual swarm avoidance is proposed. We present a set of new continuous time-invariant velocity control laws, formulated via the Lyapunov-based control scheme for target attraction and collision avoidance. The controllers provide a collision-free trajectory. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the control laws is demonstrated via computer simulations.

7
9997323
Obstacle and Collision Avoidance Control Laws of a Swarm of Boids
Abstract:

This paper proposes a new obstacle and collision avoidance control laws for a three-dimensional swarm of boids. The swarm exhibit collective emergent behaviors whilst avoiding the obstacles in the workspace. While flocking, animals group up in order to do various tasks and even a greater chance of evading predators. A generalized algorithms for attraction to the centroid, inter-individual swarm avoidance and obstacle avoidance is designed in this paper. We present a set of new continuous time-invariant velocity control laws is presented which is formulated via the Lyapunov-based control scheme. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws is demonstrated via computer simulations

 

6
6182
Swarm Navigation in a Complex Environment
Abstract:
This paper proposes a solution to the motion planning and control problem of car-like mobile robots which is required to move safely to a designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with swarm of boids exhibiting collective emergent behaviors. A generalized algorithm for target convergence and swarm avoidance is proposed that will work for any number of swarms. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws are demonstrated via computer simulations of an emergent behavior.
5
15391
Sensor-Based Motion Planning for a Car-like Robot Based On Bug Family Algorithms
Abstract:

This paper presents a sensor-based motion planning algorithm for 3-DOF car-like robots with a nonholonomic constraint. Similar to the classic Bug family algorithms, the proposed algorithm enables the car-like robot to navigate in a completely unknown environment using only the range sensor information. The car-like robot uses the local range sensor view to determine the local path so that it moves towards the goal. To guarantee that the robot can approach the goal, the two modes of motion are repeated, termed motion-to-goal and wall-following. The motion-to-goal behavior lets the robot directly move toward the goal, and the wall-following behavior makes the robot circumnavigate the obstacle boundary until it meets the leaving condition. For each behavior, the nonholonomic motion for the car-like robot is planned in terms of the instantaneous turning radius. The proposed algorithm is implemented to the real robot and the experimental results show the performance of proposed algorithm.

4
8959
Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications
Authors:
Abstract:
Finding the shortest path between two positions is a fundamental problem in transportation, routing, and communications applications. In robot motion planning, the robot should pass around the obstacles touching none of them, i.e. the goal is to find a collision-free path from a starting to a target position. This task has many specific formulations depending on the shape of obstacles, allowable directions of movements, knowledge of the scene, etc. Research of path planning has yielded many fundamentally different approaches to its solution, mainly based on various decomposition and roadmap methods. In this paper, we show a possible use of visibility graphs in point-to-point motion planning in the Euclidean plane and an alternative approach using Voronoi diagrams that decreases the probability of collisions with obstacles. The second application area, investigated here, is focused on problems of finding minimal networks connecting a set of given points in the plane using either only straight connections between pairs of points (minimum spanning tree) or allowing the addition of auxiliary points to the set to obtain shorter spanning networks (minimum Steiner tree).
3
10300
Classic and Heuristic Approaches in Robot Motion Planning A Chronological Review
Abstract:
This paper reviews the major contributions to the Motion Planning (MP) field throughout a 35-year period, from classic approaches to heuristic algorithms. Due to the NP-Hardness of the MP problem, heuristic methods have outperformed the classic approaches and have gained wide popularity. After surveying around 1400 papers in the field, the amount of existing works for each method is identified and classified. Especially, the history and applications of numerous heuristic methods in MP is investigated. The paper concludes with comparative tables and graphs demonstrating the frequency of each MP method's application, and so can be used as a guideline for MP researchers.
2
513
Robot Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments with Moving Obstacles and Target
Abstract:
This paper presents a new sensor-based online method for generating collision-free near-optimal paths for mobile robots pursuing a moving target amidst dynamic and static obstacles. At each iteration, first the set of all collision-free directions are calculated using velocity vectors of the robot relative to each obstacle and target, forming the Directive Circle (DC), which is a novel concept. Then, a direction close to the shortest path to the target is selected from feasible directions in DC. The DC prevents the robot from being trapped in deadlocks or local minima. It is assumed that the target's velocity is known, while the speeds of dynamic obstacles, as well as the locations of static obstacles, are to be calculated online. Extensive simulations and experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method and its success in coping with complex environments and obstacles.
1
9279
Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.
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