A Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Applied to the Synthesis of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels
The Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithm is inspired by the behavior of bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Myxococcus xanthus when searching for food, more precisely the chemotaxis behavior. Bacteria perceive chemical gradients in the environment, such as nutrients, and also other individual bacteria, and move toward or in the opposite direction to those signals. The application example considered as a case study consists in establishing the dependency between the reaction yield of hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and the working conditions such as time, temperature, monomer, initiator, crosslinking agent and inclusion polymer concentrations, as well as type of the polymer added. This process is modeled with a neural network which is included in an optimization procedure based on BFO. An experimental study of BFO parameters is performed. The results show that the algorithm is quite robust and can obtain good results for diverse combinations of parameter values.
Blockchain Security in MANETs
The security aspect of the IoT occupies a place of great
importance especially after the evolution that has known this field
lastly because it must take into account the transformations and the
new applications .Blockchain is a new technology dedicated to the
data sharing. However, this does not work the same way in the
different systems with different operating principles. This article will
discuss network security using the Blockchain to facilitate the sending
of messages and information, enabling the use of new processes and
enabling autonomous coordination of devices. To do this, we will
discuss proposed solutions to ensure a high level of security in these
networks in the work of other researchers. Finally, our article will
propose a method of security more adapted to our needs as a team
working in the ad hoc networks, this method is based on the principle
of the Blockchain and that we named ”MPR Blockchain”.
Fast Adjustable Threshold for Uniform Neural Network Quantization
The neural network quantization is highly desired
procedure to perform before running neural networks on mobile
devices. Quantization without fine-tuning leads to accuracy drop of
the model, whereas commonly used training with quantization is done
on the full set of the labeled data and therefore is both time- and
resource-consuming. Real life applications require simplification and
acceleration of quantization procedure that will maintain accuracy of
full-precision neural network, especially for modern mobile neural
network architectures like Mobilenet-v1, MobileNet-v2 and MNAS. Here we present a method to significantly optimize training with
quantization procedure by introducing the trained scale factors for
discretization thresholds that are separate for each filter. Using the
proposed technique, we quantize the modern mobile architectures of
neural networks with the set of train data of only ∼ 10% of the
total ImageNet 2012 sample. Such reduction of train dataset size and
small number of trainable parameters allow to fine-tune the network
for several hours while maintaining the high accuracy of quantized
model (accuracy drop was less than 0.5%). Ready-for-use models and
code are available in the GitHub repository.
Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment
2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.
Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation
The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.
Optimizing the Probabilistic Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multi-Class Identification
In this work, a training algorithm for probabilistic neural networks (PNN) is presented. The algorithm addresses one of the major drawbacks of PNN, which is the size of the hidden layer in the network. By using a cross-validation training algorithm, the number of hidden neurons is shrunk to a smaller number consisting of the most representative samples of the training set. This is done without affecting the overall architecture of the network. Performance of the network is compared against performance of standard PNN for different databases from the UCI database repository. Results show an important gain in network size and performance.
Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm
Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.
Game-Theory-Based on Downlink Spectrum Allocation in Two-Tier Networks
The capacity of conventional cellular networks has
reached its upper bound and it can be well handled by introducing
femtocells with low-cost and easy-to-deploy. Spectrum interference
issue becomes more critical in peace with the value-added multimedia
services growing up increasingly in two-tier cellular networks.
Spectrum allocation is one of effective methods in interference
mitigation technology. This paper proposes a game-theory-based on
OFDMA downlink spectrum allocation aiming at reducing co-channel
interference in two-tier femtocell networks. The framework is
formulated as a non-cooperative game, wherein the femto base
stations are players and frequency channels available are strategies.
The scheme takes full account of competitive behavior and
fairness among stations. In addition, the utility function reflects
the interference from the standpoint of channels essentially. This
work focuses on co-channel interference and puts forward a negative
logarithm interference function on distance weight ratio aiming
at suppressing co-channel interference in the same layer network.
This scenario is more suitable for actual network deployment and
the system possesses high robustness. According to the proposed
mechanism, interference exists only when players employ the same
channel for data communication. This paper focuses on implementing
spectrum allocation in a distributed fashion. Numerical results show
that signal to interference and noise ratio can be obviously improved
through the spectrum allocation scheme and the users quality of
service in downlink can be satisfied. Besides, the average spectrum
efficiency in cellular network can be significantly promoted as
simulations results shown.
Managing City Pipe Leaks through Community Participation Using a Web and Mobile Application in South Africa
South Africa is one of the driest countries in the world and is facing a water crisis. In addition to inadequate infrastructure and poor planning, the country is experiencing high rates of water wastage due to pipe leaks. This study outlines the level of water wastage and develops a smart solution to efficiently manage and reduce the effects of pipe leaks, while monitoring the situation before and after fixing the pipe leaks. To understand the issue in depth, a literature review of journal papers and government reports was conducted. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public. Additionally, the municipality office was contacted from a managerial perspective. The analysis from the study indicated that the majority of the citizens are aware of the water crisis and are willing to participate positively to decrease the level of water wasted. Furthermore, the response from the municipality acknowledged that more practical solutions are needed to reduce water wastage, and resources to attend to pipe leaks swiftly. Therefore, this paper proposes a specific solution for municipalities, local plumbers and citizens to minimize the effects of pipe leaks. The solution provides web and mobile application platforms to report and manage leaks swiftly. The solution is beneficial to the country in achieving water security and would promote a culture of responsibility toward water usage.
Connotation Reform and Problem Response of Rural Social Relations under the Influence of the Earthquake: With a Review of Wenchuan Decade
The occurrence of Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 has led to severe damage to the rural areas of Chengdu city, such as the rupture of the social network, the stagnation of economic production and the rupture of living space. The post-disaster reconstruction has become a sustainable issue. As an important link to maintain the order of rural social development, social network should be an important content of post-disaster reconstruction. Therefore, this paper takes rural reconstruction communities in earthquake-stricken areas of Chengdu as the research object and adopts sociological research methods such as field survey, observation and interview to try to understand the transformation of rural social relations network under the influence of earthquake and its impact on rural space. It has found that rural societies under the earthquake generally experienced three phases: the break of stable social relations, the transition of temporary non-normal state, and the reorganization of social networks. The connotation of phased rural social relations also changed accordingly: turn to a new division of labor on the social orientation, turn to a capital flow and redistribution in new production mode on the capital orientation, and turn to relative decentralization after concentration on the spatial dimension. Along with such changes, rural areas have emerged some social issues such as the alienation of competition in the new industry division, the low social connection, the significant redistribution of capital, and the lack of public space. Based on a comprehensive review of these issues, this paper proposes the corresponding response mechanism. First of all, a reasonable division of labor should be established within the villages to realize diversified commodity supply. Secondly, the villages should adjust the industrial type to promote the equitable participation of capital allocation groups. Finally, external public spaces should be added to strengthen the field of social interaction within the communities.
Suicide Conceptualization in Adolescents through Semantic Networks
Suicide is a global, multidimensional and dynamic problem of mental health, which requires a constant study for its understanding and prevention. When research of this phenomenon is done, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics it may have because of the individual and sociocultural variables, the importance of this consideration is related to the generation of effective treatments and interventions. Adolescents are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of the development stage. The investigation was carried out with the objective of identifying and describing the conceptualization of adolescents of suicide, and in this process, we find possible differences between men and women. The study was carried out in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The sample was composed of 418 volunteer students aged between 11 and 18 years. The ethical aspects of the research were reviewed and considered in all the processes of the investigation with the participants, their parents and the schools to which they belonged, psychological attention was offered to the participants and preventive workshops were carried in the educational institutions. Natural semantic networks were the instrument used, since this hybrid method allows to find and analyze the social concept of a phenomenon; in this case, the word suicide was used as an evocative stimulus and participants were asked to evoke at least five words and a maximum 10 that they thought were related to suicide, and then hierarchize them according to the closeness with the construct. The subsequent analysis was carried with Excel, yielding the semantic weights, affective loads and the distances between each of the semantic fields established according to the words reported by the subjects. The results showed similarities in the conceptualization of suicide in adolescents, men and women. Seven semantic fields were generated; the words were related in the discourse analysis: 1) death, 2) possible triggering factors, 3) associated moods, 4) methods used to carry it out, 5) psychological symptomatology that could affect, 6) words associated with a rejection of suicide, and finally, 7) specific objects to carry it out. One of the necessary aspects to consider in the investigations of complex issues such as suicide is to have a diversity of instruments and techniques that adjust to the characteristics of the population and that allow to understand the phenomena from the social constructs and not only theoretical. The constant study of suicide is a pressing need, the loss of a life from emotional difficulties that can be solved through psychiatry and psychological methods requires governments and professionals to pay attention and work with the risk population.
An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples
Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used
technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool
for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training
time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing
sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an
improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm
(IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search
algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output
hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a
better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias
than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of
CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the
original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks,
four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration.
The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best
forecasting results compared with the selected samples.
Interbank Networks and the Benefits of Using Multilayer Structures
Complexity science seeks the understanding of systems adopting diverse theories from various areas. Network analysis has been gaining space and credibility, namely with the biological, social and economic systems. Significant part of the literature focuses only monolayer representations of connections among agents considering one level of their relationships, and excludes other levels of interactions, leading to simplistic results in network analysis. Therefore, this work aims to demonstrate the advantages of the use of multilayer networks for the representation and analysis of networks. For this, we analyzed an interbank network, composed of 42 banks, comparing the centrality measures of the agents (degree and PageRank) resulting from each method (monolayer x multilayer). This proved to be the most reliable and efficient the multilayer analysis for the study of the current networks and highlighted JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank as the most important banks of the analyzed network.
Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation
Networks are often presented as containing a “core”
and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some
vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which
all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is
through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for
dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques,
k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected
vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such
communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense
connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These
percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure.
This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in
real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus,
the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to
a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct
result of the natural percolation of dense communities.
Collaboration in Palliative Care Networks in Urban and Rural Regions of Switzerland
Due to aging populations, the need for seamless palliative care provision is of central interest for western societies. An essential aspect of palliative care delivery is the quality of collaboration amongst palliative care providers. Therefore, the current research is based on Bainbridge’s conceptual framework, which provides an outline for the evaluation of palliative care provision. This study is the first one to investigate the predictive validity of spatial distribution on the quantity of interaction amongst various palliative care providers. Furthermore, based on the familiarity principle, we examine whether the extent of collaboration influences the perceived quality of collaboration among palliative care providers in urban versus rural areas of Switzerland. Based on a population-representative survey of Swiss palliative care providers, the results of the current study show that professionals in densely populated areas report higher absolute numbers of interactions and are more satisfied with their collaborative practice. This indicates that palliative care providers who work in urban areas are better embedded into networks than their counterparts in more rural areas. The findings are especially important, considering that efficient collaboration is a prerequisite to achieve satisfactory patient outcomes. Conclusively, measures should be taken to foster collaboration in weakly interconnected palliative care networks.
Investigation of Improved Chaotic Signal Tracking by Echo State Neural Networks and Multilayer Perceptron via Training of Extended Kalman Filter Approach
This paper presents a prediction performance of
feedforward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Echo State Networks
(ESN) trained with extended Kalman filter. Feedforward neural
networks and ESN are powerful neural networks which can track and
predict nonlinear signals. However, their tracking performance
depends on the specific signals or data sets, having the risk of
instability accompanied by large error. In this study we explore this
process by applying different network size and leaking rate for
prediction of nonlinear or chaotic signals in MLP neural networks.
Major problems of ESN training such as the problem of initialization
of the network and improvement in the prediction performance are
tackled. The influence of coefficient of activation function in the
hidden layer and other key parameters are investigated by simulation
results. Extended Kalman filter is employed in order to improve the
sequential and regulation learning rate of the feedforward neural
networks. This training approach has vital features in the training of
the network when signals have chaotic or non-stationary sequential
pattern. Minimization of the variance in each step of the computation
and hence smoothing of tracking were obtained by examining the
results, indicating satisfactory tracking characteristics for certain
conditions. In addition, simulation results confirmed satisfactory
performance of both of the two neural networks with modified
parameterization in tracking of the nonlinear signals.
Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM
Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and
important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect
the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders
that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper
demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and
grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and
artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the
cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients.
The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet
transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of
120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the
image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A
comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector
machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for
the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave
better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8%
accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.
Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem
High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.
An Elaborate Survey on Node Replication Attack in Static Wireless Sensor Networks
Recent innovations in the field of technology led to the use of wireless sensor networks in various applications, which consists of a number of small, very tiny, low-cost, non-tamper proof and resource constrained sensor nodes. These nodes are often distributed and deployed in an unattended environment, so as to collaborate with each other to share data or information. Amidst various applications, wireless sensor network finds a major role in monitoring battle field in military applications. As these non-tamperproof nodes are deployed in an unattended location, they are vulnerable to many security attacks. Amongst many security attacks, the node replication attack seems to be more threatening to the network users. Node Replication attack is caused by an attacker, who catches one true node, duplicates the first certification and cryptographic materials, makes at least one or more copies of the caught node and spots them at certain key positions in the system to screen or disturb the network operations. Preventing the occurrence of such node replication attacks in network is a challenging task. In this survey article, we provide the classification of detection schemes and also explore the various schemes proposed in each category. Also, we compare the various detection schemes against certain evaluation parameters and also its limitations. Finally, we provide some suggestions for carrying out future research work against such attacks.
Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.
Semi-Supervised Outlier Detection Using a Generative and Adversary Framework
In many outlier detection tasks, only training data
belonging to one class, i.e., the positive class, is available. The
task is then to predict a new data point as belonging either to
the positive class or to the negative class, in which case the
data point is considered an outlier. For this task, we propose a
novel corrupted Generative Adversarial Network (CorGAN). In the
adversarial process of training CorGAN, the Generator generates
outlier samples for the negative class, and the Discriminator is trained
to distinguish the positive training data from the generated negative
data. The proposed framework is evaluated using an image dataset
and a real-world network intrusion dataset. Our outlier-detection
method achieves state-of-the-art performance on both tasks.
Normalizing Scientometric Indicators of Individual Publications Using Local Cluster Detection Methods on Citation Networks
One of the major shortcomings of widely used
scientometric indicators is that different disciplines cannot be
compared with each other. The issue of cross-disciplinary
normalization has been long discussed, but even the classification
of publications into scientific domains poses problems. Structural
properties of citation networks offer new possibilities, however, the
large size and constant growth of these networks asks for precaution.
Here we present a new tool that in order to perform cross-field
normalization of scientometric indicators of individual publications
relays on the structural properties of citation networks. Due to the
large size of the networks, a systematic procedure for identifying
scientific domains based on a local community detection algorithm
is proposed. The algorithm is tested with different benchmark
and real-world networks. Then, by the use of this algorithm, the
mechanism of the scientometric indicator normalization process is
shown for a few indicators like the citation number, P-index and
a local version of the PageRank indicator. The fat-tail trend of the
article indicator distribution enables us to successfully perform the
indicator normalization process.
Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids
Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.
CoP-Networks: Virtual Spaces for New Faculty’s Professional Development in the 21st Higher Education
The 21st century higher education and globalization challenge new faculty members to build effective professional networks and partnership with industry in order to accelerate their growth and success. This creates the need for community of practice (CoP)-oriented development approaches that focus on cognitive apprenticeship while considering individual predisposition and future career needs. This work adopts data mining, clustering analysis, and social networking technologies to present the CoP-Network as a virtual space that connects together similar career-aspiration individuals who are socially influenced to join and engage in a process for domain-related knowledge and practice acquisitions. The CoP-Network model can be integrated into higher education to extend traditional graduate and professional development programs.
Electricity Price Forecasting: A Comparative Analysis with Shallow-ANN and DNN
Electricity prices have sophisticated features such as
high volatility, nonlinearity and high frequency that make forecasting
quite difficult. Electricity price has a volatile and non-random
character so that, it is possible to identify the patterns based on the
historical data. Intelligent decision-making requires accurate price
forecasting for market traders, retailers, and generation companies.
So far, many shallow-ANN (artificial neural networks) models have
been published in the literature and showed adequate forecasting
results. During the last years, neural networks with many hidden
layers, which are referred to as DNN (deep neural networks) have
been using in the machine learning community. The goal of this
study is to investigate electricity price forecasting performance of the
shallow-ANN and DNN models for the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. The forecasting accuracy of the models has been evaluated
with publicly available data from the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. Both shallow-ANN and DNN approach would give successful
result in forecasting problems. Historical load, price and weather
temperature data are used as the input variables for the models.
The data set includes power consumption measurements gathered
between January 2016 and December 2017 with one-hour resolution.
In this regard, forecasting studies have been carried out comparatively
with shallow-ANN and DNN models for Turkish electricity markets
in the related time period. The main contribution of this study
is the investigation of different shallow-ANN and DNN models
in the field of electricity price forecast. All models are compared
regarding their MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and MSE (Mean Square)
results. DNN models give better forecasting performance compare to
shallow-ANN. Best five MAE results for DNN models are 0.346,
0.372, 0.392, 0,402 and 0.409.
Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.
Advanced Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Congestion and Power Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks with High Distributed Generation Penetration through Network Reconfiguration
Renewable energy sources and distributed power generation units already have an important role in electrical power generation. A mixture of different technologies penetrating the electrical grid, adds complexity in the management of distribution networks. High penetration of distributed power generation units creates node over-voltages, huge power losses, unreliable power management, reverse power flow and congestion. This paper presents an optimization algorithm capable of reducing congestion and power losses, both described as a function of weighted sum. Two factors that describe congestion are being proposed. An upgraded selective particle swarm optimization algorithm (SPSO) is used as a solution tool focusing on the technique of network reconfiguration. The upgraded SPSO algorithm is achieved with the addition of a heuristic algorithm specializing in reduction of power losses, with several scenarios being tested. Results show significant improvement in minimization of losses and congestion while achieving very small calculation times.
Research Action Fields at the Nexus of Digital Transformation and Supply Chain Management: Findings from Practitioner Focus Group Workshops
Logistics and Supply Chain Management are of crucial importance for organisational success. In the era of Digitalization, several implications and improvement potentials for these domains arise, which at the same time could lead to decreased competitiveness and could endanger long-term company success if ignored or neglected. However, empirical research on the issue of Digitalization and benefits purported to it by practitioners is scarce and mainly focused on single technologies or separate, isolated Supply Chain blocks as e.g. distribution logistics or procurement only. The current paper applies a holistic focus group approach to elaborate practitioner use cases at the nexus of the concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Digitalization. In the course of three focus group workshops with over 45 participants from more than 20 organisations, a comprehensive set of benefit entitlements and areas for improvement in terms of applying digitalization to SCM is developed. The main results of the paper indicate the relevance of Digitalization being realized in practice. In the form of seventeen concrete research action fields, the benefit entitlements are aggregated and transformed into potential starting points for future research projects in this area. The main contribution of this paper is an empirically grounded basis for future research projects and an overview of actual research action fields from practitioners’ point of view.
Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.
Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices
In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.