Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation for Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Opening
This article presents a 3-D modified non-linear elastic model in the strain space. The Helmholtz free energy function is introduced with the existence of a dissipation potential surface in the space of thermodynamic conjugate forces. The constitutive equation and the damage evolution were derived as well. The modified damage has been examined to model the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs with an opening. A parametric study with RC was carried out to investigate the impact of different factors on the behavior of RC slabs. These factors are the opening area, the opening shape, the place of opening, and the thickness of the slabs. And the numerical results have been compared with the experimental data from literature. Finally, the model showed its ability to be applied to the structural analysis of RC slabs.
Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.
Seismic Behaviour of RC Knee Joints in Closing and Opening Actions
Knee joints, the beam column connections found at the roof level of a moment resisting frame buildings, are inherently different from conventional interior and exterior beam column connections in the way that forces from adjoining members are transferred into joint and then resisted by the joint. A knee connection has two distinct load resisting mechanisms, each for closing and opening actions acting simultaneously under reversed cyclic loading. In spite of many distinct differences in the behaviour of shear resistance in knee joints, there are no special design provisions in the major design codes available across the world due to lack of in-depth research on the knee connections. To understand the relative importance of opening and closing actions in design, it is imperative to study knee joints under varying shear stresses, especially at higher opening-to-closing shear stress ratios. Three knee joint specimens, under different input shear stresses, were designed to produce a varying ratio of input opening to closing shear stresses. The design was carried out in such a way that the ratio of flexural strength of beams with consideration of axial forces in opening to closing actions are maintained at 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0, thereby resulting in the required variation of opening to closing joint shear stress ratios among the specimens. The behaviour of these specimens was then carefully studied in terms of closing and opening capacities, hysteretic behaviour, and envelope curves to understand the differences in joint performance based on which an attempt to suggest design guidelines for knee joints is made emphasizing the relative importance of opening and closing actions. Specimens with relatively higher opening stresses were observed to be more vulnerable under the action of seismic loading.
Influence of Pier Modification Techniques for Reducing Scour around Bridge Piers
Bridge piers often fail all over the world and the whole structure may be endangered due to scouring phenomena. Scouring has been linked to catastrophic failures that lead into the loss of human lives. Various techniques have been employed to extenuate the scouring process in order to assist the bridge designs. Pier modifications plays vital role to control scouring at the vicinity of the pier. This experimental study aims at monitoring the effectiveness of pier modification and temporal development of scour depth around a bridge pier by providing a collar, a cable or openings under the same flow conditions. Provision of a collar around the octagonal pier reduced more scour depth than that for other two configurations. Providing a collar around the octagonal pier found to be the best in reducing scour. The scour depth in front of pier was found to be 19.5% less than that at the octagonal pier without any modifications. Similarly, the scour depth around the octagonal pier having provision of a cable was less than that at pier with provision of openings. The scour depth around an octagonal pier was also compared with a plain circular pier and found to be 9.1% less.
Shear Strength of Reinforced Web Openings in Steel Beams
The floor beams of steel buildings, cold-formed steel
floor joists in particular, often require large web openings, which may
affect their shear capacities. A cost effective way to mitigate the
detrimental effects of such openings is to weld/fasten reinforcements.
A difficulty associated with an experimental investigation to establish
suitable reinforcement schemes for openings in shear zone is that
moment always coexists with the shear, and thus, it is impossible to
create pure shear state in experiments, resulting in moment
influenced results. However, Finite Element Method (FEM) based
analysis can be conveniently used to investigate the pure shear
behaviour of webs including webs with reinforced openings. This
paper presents the details associated with the finite element analysis
of thick/thin-plates (representing the web of hot-rolled steel beam,
and the web of a cold-formed steel member) having a large
reinforced opening. The study considered simply-supported
rectangular plates subjected to in-plane shear loadings until failure
(including post-buckling behaviour). The plate was modelled using
geometrically non-linear quadrilateral shell elements, and non-linear
stress-strain relationship based on experiments. Total Langrangian
with large displacement/small strain formulation was used for such
analyses. The model also considered the initial geometric
imperfections. This study considered three reinforcement schemes,
namely, flat, lip, and angle reinforcements. This paper discusses the
modelling considerations and presents the results associated with the
various reinforcement schemes under consideration.
Mathematical Modeling for Continuous Reactive Extrusion of Poly Lactic Acid formation by Ring Opening Polymerization Considering Metal/Organic Catalyst and Alternative Energies
PLA emerged as a promising polymer because of its
property as a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from
renewable sources. PLA can be polymerized from monomers
(Lactide or Lactic acid) obtained by fermentation processes from
renewable sources such as corn starch or sugarcane. For PLA
synthesis, ring opening polymerization (ROP) of Lactide monomer is
one of the preferred methods. In the literature, the technique mainly
developed for ROP of PLA is based on metal/bimetallic catalyst (Sn,
Zn and Al) or other organic catalysts in suitable solvent. However,
the PLA synthesized using such catalysts may contain trace elements
of the catalyst which may cause toxicity. This work estimated the
usefulness and drawbacks of using different catalysts as well as effect
of alternative energies and future aspects for PLA production.
Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings
Topology optimization technique utilizes constant
element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution
contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in
design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that
regions with element density values become occupied by solids in
design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no
density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology
optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate
depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic
objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain
optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea
that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of
proper web-opening’s position. Numerical examples of linear
elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological
design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate
the proper deposition of web-openings.
A Study of Shear Stress Intensity Factor of PP and HDPE by a Modified Experimental Method together with FEM
Shear testing is one of the most complex testing areas where available methods and specimen geometries are different from each other. Therefore, a modified shear test specimen (MSTS) combining the simple uniaxial test with a zone of interest (ZOI) is tested which gives almost the pure shear. In this study, material parameters of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are first measured by tensile tests with a dogbone shaped specimen. These parameters are then used as an input for the finite element analysis. Secondly, a specially designed specimen (MSTS) is used to perform the shear stress tests in a tensile testing machine to get the results in terms of forces and extension, crack initiation etc. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is also performed on the shear fracture surface to find material behavior. These experiments are then simulated by finite element method and compared with the experimental results in order to confirm the simulation model. Shear stress state is inspected to find the usability of the proposed shear specimen. Finally, a geometry correction factor can be established for these two materials in this specific loading and geometry with notch using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). By these results, strain energy of shear failure and stress intensity factor (SIF) of shear of these two polymers are discussed in the special application of the screw cap opening of the medical or food packages with a temper evidence safety solution.
Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings
This research investigates the effects of the opening
shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete
deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged.
The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite
element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep
beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement
with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was
concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the
deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular
narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.
Numerical Simulation of a Pressure Regulated Valve to Find Out the Characteristics of Passive Control Circuit
The objective of the present paper is a numerical
analysis of the flow forces acting on spool surfaces of a pressure
regulated valve. The transient, compressible and turbulent flow
structures inside the valve are simulated using ANSYS FLUENT
coupled with a special UDF. Here, valve inlet pressure is varied in a
stepwise manner. For every value of inlet pressure, transient analysis
leads to a quasi-static flow through the valve. Spool forces are
calculated based on different pressures at inlet. From this information
of spool forces, pressure characteristic of the passive control circuit
has been derived.
Influence of Injection Timing and Injector Opening Pressure on Combustion Performance and P-θ Characteristics of a CI Engine Operating on Jatropha B20 Fuel
The quest for alternatefuels for a CI engine has
become all the more imperative considering its importance in the
economy of a nation and from the standpoint of preserving the environment. Reported in this paper are the combustion performance and P-θ characteristics of a CI engine operating on B20 biodiesel fuel derived from Jatropha oil.Itis observed that the twin effect of advancing the injection timing and increasing the injector opening pressure (IOP) up to 220 barhas resulted in minimum brake specific
energy consumption and higherpeak pressure. It is also observed that
the crank angle of occurrence of peak pressure progressestowards top
dead center (TDC) as the timing is advanced and IOP is increased.
Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete
A research program is conducted to evaluate the
mechanical properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete, target
compressive strength at the age of 28 days being more than 150 MPa.
The methodology to develop such mix has been explained. The
material properties, mix design and curing regime are determined.
The material attributes are understood by studying the stress strain
behaviour of UHPC cylinders under uniaxial compressive loading.
The load –crack mouth opening displacement (cmod) of UHPC
beams, flexural strength and fracture energy was evaluated using
third point loading test. Compressive strength and Split tensile
strength results are determined to find out the compressive and tensile
behaviour. Residual strength parameters are presented vividly
explaining the flexural performance, toughness of concrete.Durability
studies were also done to compare the effect of fibre to that of a
control mix For all the studies the Mechanical properties were
evaluated by varying the percentage and aspect ratio of steel fibres
The results reflected that higher aspect ratio and fibre volume
produced drastic changes in the cube strength, cylinder strength, post
peak response, load-cmod, fracture energy flexural strength, split
tensile strength, residual strength and durability. In regards to null
application of UHPC in India, an initiative is undertaken to
comprehend the mechanical behaviour of UHPC, which will be vital
for longer run in commercialization for structural applications.
Strengthening of RC Beams with Large Openings in Shear by CFRP Laminates: 2D Nonlinear FE Analysis
To date, theoretical studies concerning the Carbon
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strengthening of RC beams with
openings have been rather limited. In addition, various numerical
analyses presented so far have effectively simulated the behaviour of
solid beam strengthened by FRP material. In this paper, a two
dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis is presented to validate
against the laboratory test results of six RC beams. All beams had the
same rectangular cross-section geometry and were loaded under four
point bending. The crack pattern results of the finite element model
show good agreement with the crack pattern of the experimental
beams. The load midspan deflection curves of the finite element
models exhibited a stiffer result compared to the experimental beams.
The possible reason may be due to the perfect bond assumption used
between the concrete and steel reinforcement.
Strengthening of RC Beams Containing Large Opening at Flexure with CFRP laminates
This paper presents the study of strengthening R/C
beams with large circular and square opening located at flexure zone
by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates. A total of
five beams were tested to failure under four point loading to
investigate the structural behavior including crack patterns, failure
mode, ultimate load and load deflection behaviour. Test results show
that large opening at flexure reduces the beam capacity and stiffness;
and increases cracking and deflection. A strengthening configuration
was designed for each un-strengthened beams based on their
respective crack patterns. CFRP laminates remarkably restore the
beam capacity of beam with large circular opening at flexure location
while 10% re-gain of beam capacity with square opening. The use of
CFRP laminates with the designed strengthening configuration could
significantly reduce excessive cracking and deflection and increase
the ultimate capacity and stiffness of beam.
Effects of Various Substrate Openings for Electronic Cooling under Forced and Natural Convection
This study experimentally investigates the heat transfer effects of forced convection and natural convection under different substrate openings design. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established and implemented to verify and explain the experimental results and heat transfer behavior. It is found that different opening position will destroy the growth of the boundary layer on substrates to alter the cooling ability for both forced under low Reynolds number and natural convection. Nevertheless, having too many opening may reduce heat conduction and affect the overall heat transfer performance. This study provides future researchers with a guideline on designing and electronic package manufacturing.
Development of Synthetic Jet Air Blower for Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell
This paper presents a synthetic jet air blower actuated
by PZT for air blowing for air-breathing micro PEM fuel cell. The
several factors to affect the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cell
such as air flow rate, opening ratio and cathode open type in the
cathode side were studied. Especially, an air flow rate is critical
condition to improve its performance. In this paper, we developed a
synthetic jet air blower to supply a high stoichiometric air flow. The
synthetic jet mechanism is a zero mass flux device that converts
electrical energy into the momentum. The synthetic jet actuation is
usually generated by a traditional PZT actuator, which consists of a
small cylindrical cavity, in/outlet channel and PZT diaphragms. The
flow rate of the fabricated synthetic jet air blower was 400cc/min at
550Hz and its power consumption was very low under 0.3W. The
proposed air-breathing PEM fuel cell which installed synthetic jet air
blower was higher performance and stability during continuous
operation than the air-breathing fuel cell without auxiliary device to
supply the air. The results showed that the maximum power density
was 188mW/cm2 at 400mA/cm2. This maximum power density and
durability were improved more than 40% and 20%, respectively.
Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Running on Rice Bran Oil / Diesel Fuel Blend
Triglycerides and their derivatives are considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. Rice bran oil is used as diesel fuel. Highly viscous rice bran oil can be reduced by blending it with diesel fuel. The present research is aimed to investigate experimentally the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine, typically used in agricultural sector, over the entire load range when fuelled with rice bran oil and diesel fuel blends, RB10 (10% rice bran oil + 90% diesel fuel) to RB50. The performance, emission and combustion parameters of RB20 were found to be very close to neat diesel fuel (ND). The injector opening pressure (IOP) undoubtedly is of prime importance in diesel engine operation. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics with RB30 at enhanced IOPs are better than ND. Improved premixed heat release rate were noticed with RB30 when the IOP is enhanced.