Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 29

29
10010928
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator
Abstract:

Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

28
10010949
Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions
Abstract:

This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

27
10010578
Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.
26
10010616
A Theoretical Analysis of Air Cooling System Using Thermal Ejector under Variable Generator Pressure
Abstract:

Due to energy and environment context, research is looking for the use of clean and energy efficient system in cooling industry. In this regard, the ejector represents one of the promising solutions. The thermal ejector is a passive component used for thermal compression in refrigeration and cooling systems, usually activated by heat either waste or solar. The present study introduces a theoretical analysis of the cooling system which uses a gas ejector thermal compression. A theoretical model is developed and applied for the design and simulation of the ejector, as well as the whole cooling system. Besides the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum, the gas dynamic equations, state equations, isentropic relations as well as some appropriate assumptions are applied to simulate the flow and mixing in the ejector. This model coupled with the equations of the other components (condenser, evaporator, pump, and generator) is used to analyze profiles of pressure and velocity (Mach number), as well as evaluation of the cycle cooling capacity. A FORTRAN program is developed to carry out the investigation. Properties of refrigerant R134a are calculated using real gas equations. Among many parameters, it is thought that the generator pressure is the cornerstone in the cycle, and hence considered as the key parameter in this investigation. Results show that the generator pressure has a great effect on the ejector and on the whole cooling system. At high generator pressures, strong shock waves inside the ejector are created, which lead to significant condenser pressure at the ejector exit. Additionally, at higher generator pressures, the designed system can deliver cooling capacity for high condensing pressure (hot season).

25
10010525
Numerical Study of the Influence of the Primary Stream Pressure on the Performance of the Ejector Refrigeration System Based on Heat Exchanger Modeling
Abstract:

Numerical models of the heat exchangers in ejector refrigeration system (ERS) were developed and validated with the experimental data. The models were based on the switched heat exchangers model using the moving boundary method, which were capable of estimating the zones’ lengths, the outlet temperatures of both sides and the heat loads at various experimental points. The developed models were utilized to investigate the influence of the primary flow pressure on the performance of an R245fa ERS based on its coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency. It was illustrated numerically and proved experimentally that increasing the primary flow pressure slightly reduces the COP while the exergy efficiency goes through a maximum before decreasing.

24
10008949
Design of Membership Ranges for Fuzzy Logic Control of Refrigeration Cycle Driven by a Variable Speed Compressor
Abstract:
Design of membership function ranges in fuzzy logic control (FLC) is presented for robust control of a variable speed refrigeration system (VSRS). The criterion values of the membership function ranges can be carried out from the static experimental data, and two different values are offered to compare control performance. Some simulations and real experiments for the VSRS were conducted to verify the validity of the designed membership functions. The experimental results showed good agreement with the simulation results, and the error change rate and its sampling time strongly affected the control performance at transient state of the VSRS.
23
10007538
Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources
Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

22
10007539
Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ejector-Absorption Refrigeration Cycle with Using NH3-H2O
Abstract:
In this paper, the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. This article deals with the thermodynamic simulation and the first and second law analysis of an ammonia-water. The effects of parameters such as condenser, absorber, generator, and evaporator temperatures have been investigated. The influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient and exergy efficiency of this cycle has been studied. The results show that when the temperature of different parts increases, the performance coefficient and the exergy efficiency of the cycle decrease, except for evaporator and generator, that causes an increase in coefficient of performance (COP). According to the results, absorber and ejector have the highest exergy losses in the studied conditions.
21
10004617
Comparative Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants
Abstract:

In present paper, the performance of various alternative refrigerants is compared to find the substitute of R22, the widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant in developing countries. These include the environmentally friendly hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants such as R134A, R410A, R407C and M20. In the present study, a steady state thermodynamic model (includes both first and second law analysis) which simulates the working of an actual vapor-compression system is developed. The model predicts the performance of system with alternative refrigerants. Considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, R407C is found to be potential candidate to replace R22 refrigerant in the present study.

20
10004683
Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development
Abstract:

The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.

19
10003543
Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids
Abstract:
We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.
18
10001551
Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2
Abstract:
Many water desalination technologies have been developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2, produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above 20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3 per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature for water desalination and cooling applications.
17
10000999
Optimum Turbomachine Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants
Abstract:

Power Regeneration in Refrigeration Plant concept has been analyzed and has been shown to be capable of saving about 25% power in Cryogenic Plants with the Power Regeneration System (PRS) running under nominal conditions. The innovative component Compressor Expander Group (CEG) based on turbomachinery has been designed and built modifying CETT compressor and expander, both selected for optimum plant performance. Experiments have shown the good response of the turbomachines to run with R404a as working fluid. Power saving up to 12% under PRS derated conditions (50% loading) has been demonstrated. Such experiments allowed predicting a power saving up to 25% under CEG full load.

16
10001119
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Vapor Absorption System Using Modified Gouy-Stodola Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, the exergy analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-H2O as working fluid is carried out with the modified Gouy-Stodola approach rather than the classical Gouy-Stodola equation and effect of varying input parameters is also studied on the performance of the system. As the modified approach uses the concept of effective temperature, the mathematical expressions for effective temperature have been formulated and calculated for each component of the system. Various constraints and equations are used to develop program in EES to solve these equations. The main aim of this analysis is to determine the performance of the system and the components having major irreversible loss. Results show that exergy destruction rate is considerable in absorber and generator followed by evaporator and condenser. There is an increase in exergy destruction in generator, absorber and condenser and decrease in the evaporator by the modified approach as compared to the conventional approach. The value of exergy determined by the modified Gouy-Stodola equation deviates maximum i.e. 26% in the generator as compared to the exergy calculated by the classical Gouy-Stodola method.

15
9998940
Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23
Abstract:

The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e. evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

14
17246
Adsorption Refrigeration Working Pairs: The State-of-the-Art in the Application
Abstract:

Adsorption refrigeration working pair is a vital and is the main component in the adsorption refrigeration machine. Therefore the development key is laying on the adsorption pair that leads to the improvement of the adsorption refrigeration machine. In this study the state-of-the-art in the application of the adsorption refrigeration working pairs in both classical and modern adsorption pairs are presented, compared and summarized. It is found that the maximum adsorption capacity for the classical working pairs was 0.259kg/kg for activated carbon/methanol and that for the modern working pairs was 2kg/kg for maxsorb III/R-134a. The study concluded that, the performances of the adsorption working pairs of adsorption cooling systems are still need further investigations as well as developing adsorption pairs having higher sorption capacity with low or no impact on environmental, to build compact, efficient, reliable and long life performance adsorption chillier. Also, future researches need to be focused on designing the adsorption system that provide efficient heating and cooling for the adsorbent materials through distributing the adsorbent material over heat exchanger surface, to allow good heat and mass transfer between the adsorbent and the refrigerant.

13
17247
Experimental Study on Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Pairs with Different Refrigerants
Abstract:

This study is experimentally targeting to develop effective in heat and mass transfer processes for the adsorbate to obtain applicable adsorption capacity data. This is done by using fin and tube heat exchanger core and the adsorbate is adhesive over its surface and located as the core of the adsorber. The pairs are activated carbon powder/R-134a, activated carbon powder/R-407c, activated carbon powder/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-407c and activated carbon granules/R-134a, at different adsorption temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 50°C. The following is results is obtained: at adsorption temperature of 25 °C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.8352kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.1583kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. While, at adsorption temperature of 50°C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.3207kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.0609kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. Therefore, the activated carbon powder/R-134a pair is highly recommended to be used as adsorption refrigeration working pair because of its higher maximum adsorption capacity than the other tested pairs, to produce a compact, efficient and reliable for long life performance adsorption refrigeration system.

12
16072
Parametric Study of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Using a Two-Phase Constant Area Ejector
Authors:
Abstract:

There are several ways of improving the performance of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Use of an ejector as expansion device is one of the alternative ways. The present paper aims at evaluate the performance improvement of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle under a wide range of operating conditions. A numerical model is developed and a parametric study of important parameters such as condensation (30-50°C) and evaporation temperatures (-20-5°C), nozzle and diffuser efficiencies (0.75-0.95), subcooling and superheating degrees (0-15K) are investigated. The model verification gives a good agreement with the literature data. The simulation results revealed that condensation temperature has the highest effect (129%) on the performance improvement ratio while superheating has the lowest one (6.2%). Among ejector efficiencies, the diffuser efficiency has a significant effect on the COP of ejector expansion refrigeration cycle. The COP improvement percentage decreases from 10.9% to 4.6% as subcooling degrees increases by 15K.

11
16062
TACS : Thermo Acoustic Cooling System
Abstract:
Cooling with sound is a physical phenomenon allowed by Thermo-Acoustics in which acoustic energy is transformed into a negative heat transfer, in other words: into cooling! Without needing any harmful gas, the transformation is environmentally friendly and can respond to many needs in terms of air conditioning, food refrigeration for domestic use, and cooling medical samples for example. To explore the possibilities of this cooling solution on a small scale, the TACS prototype has been designed, consisting of a low cost thermoacoustic refrigerant “pipe” able to lower the temperature by a few degrees. The obtained results are providing an interesting element for possible future of thermo-acoustic refrigeration.
10
16404
Design and Analysis of a Solar Refrigeration System with a Rotating Generator
Abstract:

A solar refrigeration system based on the adsorptiondesorption phenomena is designed and analyzed. An annular tubular generator filled with silica gel adsorbent and with a perforated inner cylinder is integrated within a flat solar collector. The working fluid in the refrigeration cycle is water. The thermodynamic analysis and because of the temperature level that could be attained with a flat solar collector it is required that the system operates under vacuum conditions. In order to enhance the performance of the system and to get uniform temperature in the silica gel and higher desorbed mass, an apparatus for rotation of the generator is incorporated in the system. Testing is carried out and measurements are taken on the designed installation. The effect of rotation is checked on the temperature distribution and on the performance of this machine and compared to the flat solar collector with fixed generator.

9
16511
Thermodynamic Performance of a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle
Abstract:

In this study thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined organic Rankine cycle and ejector refrigeration cycle is carried out for use of low-grade heat source in the form of sensible energy. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters including the turbine inlet temperature and turbine inlet pressure on the characteristics of the system such as ratios of mass flow rate, net work production, and refrigeration capacity as well as the coefficient of performance and exergy efficiency of the system. Results show that for a given source the coefficient of performance increases with increasing of the turbine inlet pressure. However, the exergy efficiency has an optimal condition with respect to the turbine inlet pressure.

8
2414
Performance Monitoring of the Refrigeration System with Minimum Set of Sensors
Abstract:
This paper describes a methodology for remote performance monitoring of retail refrigeration systems. The proposed framework starts with monitoring of the whole refrigeration circuit which allows detecting deviations from expected behavior caused by various faults and degradations. The subsequent diagnostics methods drill down deeper in the equipment hierarchy to more specifically determine root causes. An important feature of the proposed concept is that it does not require any additional sensors, and thus, the performance monitoring solution can be deployed at a low installation cost. Moreover only a minimum of contextual information is required, which also substantially reduces time and cost of the deployment process.
7
1105
Numerical Simulation of Heat Exchanger Area of R410A-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System at Various Evaporating and Condensing Temperature
Abstract:
Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system is limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of main three heat exchangers namely condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) for both systems have been compared and the effect of condensing and evaporating temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems have been studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condensing temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporating temperature (Te).
6
1251
Thermodynamic Analysis of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System
Abstract:
The present work deals with thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system using ozone friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable and as R507A an azeotropic mixture there is no problem of temperature glide. This study thermodynamically analyzed R507A-R23 cascade refrigeration system to optimize the design and operating parameters of the system. The design and operating parameters include: Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the high temperature circuit, temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger, Condensing, evaporating, subcooling and superheating temperatures in the low temperature circuit.
5
8268
Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator
Abstract:
The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.
4
12720
Optimization of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:

The present work deals with optimization of cascade refrigeration system using eco friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% by wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable. Optimization of R507AR23 cascade refrigeration system performance parameters such as minimum work required, refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency was carried out in terms of eight operating parameters- combinations using Genetic Algorithm tool. The eight operating parameters include (1) low side evaporator temperature (2) high side condenser temperature (3) temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger (4) low side condenser temperature (5) low side degree of subcooling (6) high side degree of subcooling (7) low side degree of superheating (8) high side degree of superheating. Results show that for minimum work system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and low degree of subcooling and superheating in both side. For maximum refrigeration effect system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, high temperature in high side condenser, high temperature difference in cascade condenser, low temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling in LT and HT side. For maximum coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency, system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling and superheating in low side of the system.

3
26
Numerical Simulation of R410a-R23 and R404A-R508B Cascade Refrigeration System
Abstract:
Capacity and efficiency of any refrigerating system diminish rapidly as the difference between the evaporating and condensing temperature is increased by a reduction in the evaporator temperature. The single stage vapour compression refrigeration system using various refrigerants are limited to an evaporator temperature of -40 0C. Below temperature of -40 0C the either cascade refrigeration system or multi stage vapour compression system is employed. Present work describes thermal design of condenser (HTS), cascade condenser and evaporator (LTS) of R404A-R508B and R410A-R23 cascade refrigeration system. Heat transfer area of condenser, cascade condenser and evaporator for both systems are compared and the effect of condenser and evaporator temperature on heat-transfer area for both systems is studied under same operating condition. The results shows that the required heat-transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser for R410A-R23 cascade system is lower than the R404A-R508B cascade system but heat transfer area of evaporator is similar for both the system. The heat transfer area of condenser and cascade condenser decreases with increase in condenser temperature (Tc), whereas the heat transfer area of cascade condenser and evaporator increases with increase in evaporator temperature (Te).
2
5073
Optimisation of A Phase Change Thermal Storage System
Abstract:
PCMs have always been viewed as a suitable candidate for off peak thermal storage, particularly for refrigeration systems, due to the high latent energy densities of these materials. However, due to the need to have them encapsulated within a container this density is reduced. Furthermore, PCMs have a low thermal conductivity which reduces the useful amount of energy which can be stored. To consider these factors, the true energy storage density of a PCM system was proposed and optimised for PCMs encapsulated in slabs. Using a validated numerical model of the system, a parametric study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the slab thickness, gap between slabs and the mass flow rate. The study showed that, when optimised, a PCM system can deliver a true energy storage density between 53% and 83% of the latent energy density of the PCM.
1
6249
Effect of Valve Pressure Drop in Exergy Analysis of C2+ Recovery Plants Refrigeration Cycles
Abstract:

This paper provides an exergy analysis of the multistage refrigeration cycle used for C2+ recovery plant. The behavior of an industrial refrigeration cycle with refrigerant propane has been investigated by the exergy method. A computational model based on the exergy analysis is presented for the investigation of the effects of the valves on the exergy losses, the second law of efficiency, and the coefficient of performance (COP) of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The equations of exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency for the main cycle components such as evaporators, condensers, compressors, and expansion valves are developed. The relations for the total exergy destruction in the cycle and the cycle exergetic efficiency are obtained. An ethane recovery unit with its refrigeration cycle has been simulated to prepare the exergy analysis. Using a typical actual work input value; the exergetic efficiency of the refrigeration cycle is determined to be 39.90% indicating a great potential for improvements. The simulation results reveal that the exergetic efficiencies of the heat exchanger and expansion sections get the lowest rank among the other compartments of refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration calculations have been carried out through the analysis of T–S and P–H diagrams where coefficient of performance (COP) was obtained as 1.85. The novelty of this article includes the effect and sensitivity analysis of molar flow, pressure drops and temperature on the exergy efficiency and coefficient of performance of the cycle.


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