Programming Language Extension Using Structured Query Language for Database Access
Relational databases constitute a very vital tool for the effective management and administration of both personal and organizational data. Data access ranges from a single user database management software to a more complex distributed server system. This paper intends to appraise the use a programming language extension like structured query language (SQL) to establish links to a relational database (Microsoft Access 2013) using Visual C++ 9 programming language environment. The methodology used involves the creation of tables to form a database using Microsoft Access 2013, which is Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) database compliant. The SQL command is used to query the tables in the database for easy extraction of expected records inside the visual C++ environment. The findings of this paper reveal that records can easily be accessed and manipulated to filter exactly what the user wants, such as retrieval of records with specified criteria, updating of records, and deletion of part or the whole records in a table.
A Framework for an Automated Decision Support System for Selecting Safety-Conscious Contractors
Selection of competent contractors for construction projects is usually accomplished through competitive bidding or negotiated contracting in which the contract bid price is the basic criterion for selection. The evaluation of contractor’s safety performance is still not a typical criterion in the selection process, despite the existence of various safety prequalification procedures. There is a critical need for practical and automated systems that enable owners and decision makers to evaluate contractor safety performance, among other important contractor selection criteria. These systems should ultimately favor safety-conscious contractors to be selected by the virtue of their past good safety records and current safety programs. This paper presents an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach to develop a framework for an automated decision support system that evaluates contractor safety performance based on a multitude of indicators and metrics that have been identified through a comprehensive review of construction safety research, and a survey distributed to domain experts. The framework is developed in three phases: (1) determining the indicators that depict contractor current and past safety performance; (2) soliciting input from construction safety experts regarding the identified indicators, their metrics, and relative significance; and (3) designing a decision support system using relational database models to integrate the identified indicators and metrics into a system that assesses and rates the safety performance of contractors. The proposed automated system is expected to hold several advantages including: (1) reducing the likelihood of selecting contractors with poor safety records; (2) enhancing the odds of completing the project safely; and (3) encouraging contractors to exert more efforts to improve their safety performance and practices in order to increase their bid winning opportunities which can lead to significant safety improvements in the construction industry. This should prove useful to decision makers and researchers, alike, and should help improve the safety record of the construction industry.
A Novel Framework for User-Friendly Ontology-Mediated Access to Relational Databases
A large amount of data is typically stored in relational
databases (DB). The latter can efficiently handle user queries which
intend to elicit the appropriate information from data sources.
However, direct access and use of this data requires the end users to
have an adequate technical background, while they should also cope
with the internal data structure and values presented. Consequently
the information retrieval is a quite difficult process even for IT or DB
experts, taking into account the limited contributions of relational
databases from the conceptual point of view. Ontologies enable users
to formally describe a domain of knowledge in terms of concepts and
relations among them and hence they can be used for unambiguously
specifying the information captured by the relational database.
However, accessing information residing in a database using
ontologies is feasible, provided that the users are keen on using
semantic web technologies. For enabling users form different
disciplines to retrieve the appropriate data, the design of a Graphical
User Interface is necessary. In this work, we will present an
interactive, ontology-based, semantically enable web tool that can be
used for information retrieval purposes. The tool is totally based on
the ontological representation of underlying database schema while it
provides a user friendly environment through which the users can
graphically form and execute their queries.
SQL Generator Based On MVC Pattern
Structured Query Language (SQL) is the standard de facto language to access and manipulate data in a relational database. Although SQL is a language that is simple and powerful, most novice users will have trouble with SQL syntax. Thus, we are presenting SQL generator tool which is capable of translating actions and displaying SQL commands and data sets simultaneously. The tool was developed based on Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern. The MVC pattern is a widely used software design pattern that enforces the separation between the input, processing, and output of an application. Developers take full advantage of it to reduce the complexity in architectural design and to increase flexibility and reuse of code. In addition, we use White-Box testing for the code verification in the Model module.
Applying Spanning Tree Graph Theory for Automatic Database Normalization
In Knowledge and Data Engineering field, relational
database is the best repository to store data in a real world. It has
been using around the world more than eight decades. Normalization
is the most important process for the analysis and design of relational
databases. It aims at creating a set of relational tables with minimum
data redundancy that preserve consistency and facilitate correct
insertion, deletion, and modification. Normalization is a major task in
the design of relational databases. Despite its importance, very few
algorithms have been developed to be used in the design of
commercial automatic normalization tools. It is also rare technique to
do it automatically rather manually. Moreover, for a large and
complex database as of now, it make even harder to do it manually.
This paper presents a new complete automated relational database
normalization method. It produces the directed graph and spanning
tree, first. It then proceeds with generating the 2NF, 3NF and also
BCNF normal forms. The benefit of this new algorithm is that it can
cope with a large set of complex function dependencies.
Some Properties of IF Rough Relational Algebraic Operators in Medical Databases
Some properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy (IF) rough relational algebraic operators under an IF rough relational data model are investigated and illustrated using diabetes and heart disease databases. These properties are important and desirable for processing queries in an effective and efficient manner.
Migration of the Relational Data Base (RDB) to the Object Relational Data Base (ORDB)
This paper proposes an approach for translating an existing relational database (RDB) schema into ORDB. The transition is done with methods that can extract various functions from a RDB which is based on aggregations, associations between the various tables, and the reflexive relationships. These methods can extract even the inheritance knowing that no process of reverse engineering can know that it is an Inheritance; therefore, our approach exceeded all of the previous studies made for the transition from RDB to ORDB. In summation, the creation of the New Data Model (NDM) that stocks the RDB in a form of a structured table, and from the NDM we create our navigational model in order to simplify the implementation object from which we develop our different types. Through these types we precede to the last step, the creation of tables.
The step mentioned above does not require any human interference. All this is done automatically, and a prototype has already been created which proves the effectiveness of this approach.
A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems
In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.
Testing Database of Information System using Conceptual Modeling
This paper focuses on testing database of existing
information system. At the beginning we describe the basic problems
of implemented databases, such as data redundancy, poor design of
database logical structure or inappropriate data types in columns of
database tables. These problems are often the result of incorrect
understanding of the primary requirements for a database of an
information system. Then we propose an algorithm to compare the
conceptual model created from vague requirements for a database
with a conceptual model reconstructed from implemented database.
An algorithm also suggests steps leading to optimization of
implemented database. The proposed algorithm is verified by an
implemented prototype. The paper also describes a fuzzy system
which works with the vague requirements for a database of an
information system, procedure for creating conceptual from vague
requirements and an algorithm for reconstructing a conceptual model
from implemented database.
, relational database
, conceptual model
, uncertain information
Using Perspective Schemata to Model the ETL Process
Data Warehouses (DWs) are repositories which contain the unified history of an enterprise for decision support. The data must be Extracted from information sources, Transformed and integrated to be Loaded (ETL) into the DW, using ETL tools. These tools focus on data movement, where the models are only used as a means to this aim. Under a conceptual viewpoint, the authors want to innovate the ETL process in two ways: 1) to make clear compatibility between models in a declarative fashion, using correspondence assertions and 2) to identify the instances of different sources that represent the same entity in the real-world. This paper presents the overview of the proposed framework to model the ETL process, which is based on the use of a reference model and perspective schemata. This approach provides the designer with a better understanding of the semantic associated with the ETL process.
A Generic, Functionally Comprehensive Approach to Maintaining an Ontology as a Relational Database
An ontology is a data model that represents a set of
concepts in a given field and the relationships among those concepts.
As the emphasis on achieving a semantic web continues to escalate,
ontologies for all types of domains increasingly will be developed.
These ontologies may become large and complex, and as their size
and complexity grows, so will the need for multi-user interfaces for
ontology curation. Herein a functionally comprehensive, generic
approach to maintaining an ontology as a relational database is
presented. Unlike many other ontology editors that utilize a database,
this approach is entirely domain-generic and fully supports Webbased,
collaborative editing including the designation of different
levels of authorization for users.
A Formal Suite of Object Relational Database Metrics
Object Relational Databases (ORDB) are complex in
nature than traditional relational databases because they combine the
characteristics of both object oriented concepts and relational
features of conventional databases. Design of an ORDB demands
efficient and quality schema considering the structural, functional
and componential traits. This internal quality of the schema is
assured by metrics that measure the relevant attributes. This is
extended to substantiate the understandability, usability and
reliability of the schema, thus assuring external quality of the
schema. This work institutes a formalization of ORDB metrics;
metric definition, evaluation methodology and the calibration of the
metric. Three ORDB schemas were used to conduct the evaluation
and the formalization of the metrics. The metrics are calibrated using
content and criteria related validity based on the measurability,
consistency and reliability of the metrics. Nominal and summative
scales are derived based on the evaluated metric values and are
standardized. Future works pertaining to ORDB metrics forms the
Contribution to the Query Optimization in the Object-Oriented Databases
Appeared toward 1986, the object-oriented databases
management systems had not known successes knew five years after
their birth. One of the major difficulties is the query optimization.
We propose in this paper a new approach that permits to enrich
techniques of query optimization existing in the object-oriented
databases. Seen success that knew the query optimization in the
relational model, our approach inspires itself of these optimization
techniques and enriched it so that they can support the new concepts
introduced by the object databases.
Fuzzy Join Dependency in Fuzzy Relational Databases
The join dependency provides the basis for obtaining
lossless join decomposition in a classical relational schema. The
existence of Join dependency shows that that the tables always
represent the correct data after being joined. Since the classical
relational databases cannot handle imprecise data, they were
extended to fuzzy relational databases so that uncertain, ambiguous,
imprecise and partially known information can also be stored in
databases in a formal way. However like classical databases, the
fuzzy relational databases also undergoes decomposition during
normalization, the issue of joining the decomposed fuzzy relations
remains intact. Our effort in the present paper is to emphasize on this
issue. In this paper we define fuzzy join dependency in the
framework of type-1 fuzzy relational databases & type-2 fuzzy
relational databases using the concept of fuzzy equality which is
defined using fuzzy functions. We use the fuzzy equi-join operator
for computing the fuzzy equality of two attribute values. We also
discuss the dependency preservation property on execution of this
fuzzy equi- join and derive the necessary condition for the fuzzy
functional dependencies to be preserved on joining the decomposed
fuzzy relations. We also derive the conditions for fuzzy join
dependency to exist in context of both type-1 and type-2 fuzzy
relational databases. We find that unlike the classical relational
databases even the existence of a trivial join dependency does not
ensure lossless join decomposition in type-2 fuzzy relational
databases. Finally we derive the conditions for the fuzzy equality to
be non zero and the qualification of an attribute for fuzzy key.
A System to Integrate and Manipulate Protein Database Using BioPerl and XML
The size, complexity and number of databases used
for protein information have caused bioinformatics to lag behind in
adapting to the need to handle this distributed information.
Integrating all the information from different databases into one
database is a challenging problem. Our main research is to develop a
tool which can be used to access and manipulate protein information
from difference databases. In our approach, we have integrated
difference databases such as Swiss-prot, PDB, Interpro, and EMBL
and transformed these databases in flat file format into relational
form using XML and Bioperl. As a result, we showed this tool can
search different sizes of protein information stored in relational
database and the result can be retrieved faster compared to flat file
database. A web based user interface is provided to allow user to
access or search for protein information in the local database.
Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases
Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management, security and integrity control. On the other hand, there appear more and more OWL files that contain ontologies. Therefore, this paper proposes to extract ontologies from OWL files and then store them in relational databases. A prerequisite for this storing is transformation of ontologies to relational databases, which is the purpose of this paper.
A Method of Protecting Relational Databases Copyright with Cloud Watermark
With the development of Internet and databases application techniques, the demand that lots of databases in the Internet are permitted to remote query and access for authorized users becomes common, and the problem that how to protect the copyright of relational databases arises. This paper simply introduces the knowledge of cloud model firstly, includes cloud generators and similar cloud. And then combined with the property of the cloud, a method of protecting relational databases copyright with cloud watermark is proposed according to the idea of digital watermark and the property of relational databases. Meanwhile, the corresponding watermark algorithms such as cloud watermark embedding algorithm and detection algorithm are proposed. Then, some experiments are run and the results are analyzed to validate the correctness and feasibility of the watermark scheme. In the end, the foreground of watermarking relational database and its research direction are prospected.
Towards an Extended SQLf: Bipolar Query Language with Preferences
Database management systems that integrate user preferences promise better solution for personalization, greater flexibility and higher quality of query responses. This paper presents a tentative work that studies and investigates approaches to express user preferences in queries. We sketch an extend capabilities of SQLf language that uses the fuzzy set theory in order to define the user preferences. For that, two essential points are considered: the first concerns the expression of user preferences in SQLf by so-called fuzzy commensurable predicates set. The second concerns the bipolar way in which these user preferences are expressed on mandatory and/or optional preferences.