Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 40

Dual-Actuated Vibration Isolation Technology for a Rotary System’s Position Control on a Vibrating Frame: Disturbance Rejection and Active Damping
A vibration isolation technology for precise position control of a rotary system powered by two permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors is proposed, where this system is mounted on an oscillatory frame. To achieve vibration isolation for this system, active damping and disturbance rejection (ADDR) technology is presented which introduces a cooperation of a main and an auxiliary PMDC, controlled by discrete-time sliding mode control (DTSMC) based schemes. The controller of the main actuator tracks a desired position and the auxiliary actuator simultaneously isolates the induced vibration, as its controller follows a torque trend. To determine this torque trend, a combination of two algorithms is introduced by the ADDR technology. The first torque-trend producing algorithm rejects the disturbance by counteracting the perturbation, estimated using a model-based observer. The second torque trend applies active variable damping to minimize the oscillation of the output shaft. In this practice, the presented technology is implemented on a rotary system with a pendulum attached, mounted on a linear actuator simulating an oscillation-transmitting structure. In addition, the obtained results illustrate the functionality of the proposed technology.
Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System
This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.
Comparative Analysis of Control Techniques Based Sliding Mode for Transient Stability Assessment for Synchronous Multicellular Converter

This paper features a comparative study performance of sliding mode controller (SMC) for closed-loop voltage control of direct current to direct current (DC-DC) three-cells buck converter connected in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) with SMC based on hysteresis modulation (HM) where an adaptive feedforward technique is adopted. On one hand, for the PWM-based SM, the approach is to incorporate a fixed-frequency PWM scheme which is effectively a variant of SM control. On the other hand, for the HM-based SM, oncoming an adaptive feedforward control that makes the hysteresis band variable in the hysteresis modulator of the SM controller in the aim to restrict the switching frequency variation in the case of any change of the line input voltage or output load variation are introduced. The results obtained under load change, input change and reference change clearly demonstrates a similar dynamic response of both proposed techniques, their effectiveness is fast and smooth tracking of the desired output voltage. The PWM-based SM technique has greatly improved the dynamic behavior with a bit advantageous compared to the HM-based SM technique, as well as provide stability in any operating conditions. Simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been performed to verify the concept.

Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

H-Infinity and RST Position Controllers of Rotary Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor

Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM) is a compact, precise, and silent actuator generating high torque at low speed without gears. Moreover, the TWUM has a high holding torque without supply, which makes this motor as an attractive solution for holding position of robotic arms. However, their nonlinear dynamics, and the presence of load-dependent dead zones often limit their use. Those issues can be overcome in closed loop with effective and precise controllers. In this paper, robust H-infinity (H∞) and discrete time RST position controllers are presented. The H∞ controller is designed in continuous time with additional weighting filters to ensure the robustness in the case of uncertain motor model and external disturbances. Robust RST controller based on the pole placement method is also designed and compared to the H∞. Simulink model of TWUM is used to validate the stability and the robustness of the two proposed controllers.

Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer
In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.
Impulsive Noise-Resilient Subband Adaptive Filter
We present a new subband adaptive filter (R-SAF) which is robust against impulsive noise in system identification. To address the vulnerability of adaptive filters based on the L2-norm optimization criterion against impulsive noise, the R-SAF comes from the L1-norm optimization criterion with a constraint on the energy of the weight update. Minimizing L1-norm of the a posteriori error in each subband with a constraint on minimum disturbance gives rise to the robustness against the impulsive noise and the capable convergence performance. Experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed R-SAF outperforms the classical adaptive filtering algorithms when impulsive noise as well as background noise exist.
Variable Regularization Parameter Normalized Least Mean Square Adaptive Filter
We present a normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm with robust regularization. Unlike conventional NLMS with the fixed regularization parameter, the proposed approach dynamically updates the regularization parameter. By exploiting a gradient descent direction, we derive a computationally efficient and robust update scheme for the regularization parameter. In simulation, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional NLMS algorithms in terms of convergence rate and misadjustment error.
Sparsity-Aware and Noise-Robust Subband Adaptive Filter
This paper presents a subband adaptive filter (SAF) for a system identification where an impulse response is sparse and disturbed with an impulsive noise. Benefiting from the uses of l1-norm optimization and l0-norm penalty of the weight vector in the cost function, the proposed l0-norm sign SAF (l0-SSAF) achieves both robustness against impulsive noise and much improved convergence behavior than the classical adaptive filters. Simulation results in the system identification scenario confirm that the proposed l0-norm SSAF is not only more robust but also faster and more accurate than its counterparts in the sparse system identification in the presence of impulsive noise.
Synchrony between Genetic Repressilators in Sister Cells in Different Temperatures
We used live E. coli containing synthetic genetic oscillators to study how the degree of synchrony between the genetic circuits of sister cells changes with temperature. We found that both the mean and the variability of the degree of synchrony between the fluorescence signals from sister cells are affected by temperature. Also, while most pairs of sister cells were found to be highly synchronous in each condition, the number of asynchronous pairs increased with increasing temperature, which was found to be due to disruptions in the oscillations. Finally we provide evidence that these disruptions tend to affect multiple generations as opposed to individual cells. These findings provide insight in how to design more robust synthetic circuits and in how cell division can affect their dynamics.
Robust Fault Diagnosis for Wind Turbine Systems Subjected to Multi-Faults

Operations, maintenance and reliability of wind turbines have received much attention over the years due to the rapid expansion of wind farms. This paper explores early fault diagnosis technique for a 5MW wind turbine system subjected to multiple faults, where genetic optimization algorithm is employed to make the residual sensitive to the faults, but robust against disturbances. The proposed technique has a potential to reduce the downtime mostly caused by the breakdown of components and exploit the productivity consistency by providing timely fault alarms. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the robust fault detection methods used under Matlab/Simulink/Gatool environment.

Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Capacity of Anchors in Structural Connections
When dealing with safety in structures, the connections between structural components play an important role. Robustness of a structure as a whole depends both on the load- bearing capacity of the structural component and on the structures capacity to resist total failure, even though a local failure occurs in a component or a connection between components. To avoid progressive collapse it is necessary to be able to carry out a design for connections. A connection may be executed with anchors to withstand local failure of the connection in structures built with prefabricated components. For the design of these anchors, a model is developed for connections in structures performed in prefabricated autoclaved aerated concrete components. The design model takes into account the effect of anchors placed close to the edge, which may result in splitting failure. Further the model is developed to consider the effect of reinforcement diameter and anchor depth. The model is analytical and theoretically derived assuming a static equilibrium stress distribution along the anchor. The theory is compared to laboratory test, including the relevant parameters and the model is refined and theoretically argued analyzing the observed test results. The method presented can be used to improve safety in structures or even optimize the design of the connections
State Feedback Speed Controller for Turbocharged Diesel Engine and Its Robustness
In this paper, the full state feedback controllers capable of regulating and tracking the speed trajectory are presented. A fourth order nonlinear mean value model of a 448 kW turbocharged diesel engine published earlier is used for the purpose. For designing controllers, the nonlinear model is linearized and represented in state-space form. Full state feedback controllers capable of meeting varying speed demands of drivers are presented. Main focus here is to investigate sensitivity of the controller to the perturbations in the parameters of the original nonlinear model. Suggested controller is shown to be highly insensitive to the parameter variations. This indicates that the controller is likely perform with same accuracy even after significant wear and tear of engine due to its use for years.
A New Proportional - Pursuit Coupled Guidance Law with Actuator Delay Compensation
The aim of this paper is to present a new three-dimensional proportional-pursuit coupled (PP) guidance law to track highly maneuverable aircraft. Utilizing a 3-D polar coordinate frame, the PP guidance law is formed by collecting proportional navigation guidance in Z-R plane and pursuit guidance in X-Y plane. Feedback linearization control method to solve the guidance accelerations is used to implement PP guidance. In order to compensate the actuator time delay, the time delay compensated version of PP guidance law (CPP) was derived and proved the effectiveness of modifying the problem of high acceleration in the final phase of pursuit guidance and improving the weak robustness of proportional navigation. The simulation results for intercepting Max G turn situation show that the proposed proportional-pursuit coupled guidance law guidance law with actuator delay compensation (CPP) possesses satisfactory robustness and performance.
Nonlinear Controller Design for Active Front Steering System

Active Front Steering system (AFS) provides an electronically controlled superposition of an angle to the steering wheel angle. This additional degree of freedom enables a continuous and driving-situation dependent on adaptation of the steering characteristics. In an active steering system, there needs be no fixed relationship between the steering wheel and the angle of the road wheels. Not only can the effective steering ratio be varied with speed, for example, but also the road wheel angles can be controlled by a combination of driver and computer inputs. Features like steering comfort, effort and steering dynamics are optimized and stabilizing steering interventions can be performed. In contrast to the conventional stability control, the yaw rate was fed back to AFS controller and the stability performance was optimized with Sliding Mode control (SMC) method. In addition, tire uncertainties have been taken into account in SM controller to provide the control robustness. In this paper, 3-DOF nonlinear model is used to design the AFS controller and 8-DOF nonlinear model is used to model the controlled vehicle.

The Fundamental Reliance of Iterative Learning Control on Stability Robustness
Iterative learning control aims to achieve zero tracking error of a specific command. This is accomplished by iteratively adjusting the command given to a feedback control system, based on the tracking error observed in the previous iteration. One would like the iterations to converge to zero tracking error in spite of any error present in the model used to design the learning law. First, this need for stability robustness is discussed, and then the need for robustness of the property that the transients are well behaved. Methods of producing the needed robustness to parameter variations and to singular perturbations are presented. Then a method involving reverse time runs is given that lets the world behavior produce the ILC gains in such a way as to eliminate the need for a mathematical model. Since the real world is producing the gains, there is no issue of model error. Provided the world behaves linearly, the approach gives an ILC law with both stability robustness and good transient robustness, without the need to generate a model.
Design of Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Robotic Manipulators Tracking Control
This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode controller which combines adaptive control and sliding mode control to control a nonlinear robotic manipulator with uncertain parameters. We use an adaptive algorithm based on the concept of sliding mode control to alleviate the chattering phenomenon of control input. Adaptive laws are developed to obtain the gain of switching input and the boundary layer parameters. The stability and convergence of the robotic manipulator control system are guaranteed by applying the Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results demonstrate that the chattering of control input can be alleviated effectively. The proposed controller scheme can assure robustness against a large class of uncertainties and achieve good trajectory tracking performance.
Implementation of an Innovative Simplified Sliding Mode Observer-Based Robust Fault Detection in a Drum Boiler System
One of the robust fault detection filter (RFDF) designing method is based on sliding-mode theory. The main purpose of our study is to introduce an innovative simplified reference residual model generator to formulate the RFDF as a sliding-mode observer without any manipulation package or transformation matrix, through which the generated residual signals can be evaluated. So the proposed design is more explicit and requires less design parameters in comparison with approaches requiring changing coordinates. To the best author's knowledge, this is the first time that the sliding mode technique is applied to detect actuator and sensor faults in a real boiler. The designing procedure is proposed in a drum boiler in Synvendska Kraft AB Plant in Malmo, Sweden as a multivariable and strongly coupled system. It is demonstrated that both sensor and actuator faults can robustly be detected. Also sensor faults can be diagnosed and isolated through this method.
Alternative to M-Estimates in Multisensor Data Fusion
To solve the problem of multisensor data fusion under non-Gaussian channel noise. The advanced M-estimates are known to be robust solution while trading off some accuracy. In order to improve the estimation accuracy while still maintaining the equivalent robustness, a two-stage robust fusion algorithm is proposed using preliminary rejection of outliers then an optimal linear fusion. The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is equivalent to the M-estimates in the case of uncorrelated local estimates and significantly outperforms the M-estimates when local estimates are correlated.
A Wavelet Based Object Watermarking System for Image and Video

Efficient storage, transmission and use of video information are key requirements in many multimedia applications currently being addressed by MPEG-4. To fulfill these requirements, a new approach for representing video information which relies on an object-based representation, has been adopted. Therefore, objectbased watermarking schemes are needed for copyright protection. This paper proposes a novel blind object watermarking scheme for images and video using the in place lifting shape adaptive-discrete wavelet transform (SA-DWT). In order to make the watermark robust and transparent, the watermark is embedded in the average of wavelet blocks using the visual model based on the human visual system. Wavelet coefficients n least significant bits (LSBs) are adjusted in concert with the average. Simulation results shows that the proposed watermarking scheme is perceptually invisible and robust against many attacks such as lossy image/video compression (e.g. JPEG, JPEG2000 and MPEG-4), scaling, adding noise, filtering, etc.

A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
In this paper, a novel feature-based image watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Text-independent Speaker Identification Based on MAP Channel Compensation and Pitch-dependent Features
One major source of performance decline in speaker recognition system is channel mismatch between training and testing. This paper focuses on improving channel robustness of speaker recognition system in two aspects of channel compensation technique and channel robust features. The system is text-independent speaker identification system based on two-stage recognition. In the aspect of channel compensation technique, this paper applies MAP (Maximum A Posterior Probability) channel compensation technique, which was used in speech recognition, to speaker recognition system. In the aspect of channel robust features, this paper introduces pitch-dependent features and pitch-dependent speaker model for the second stage recognition. Based on the first stage recognition to testing speech using GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), the system uses GMM scores to decide if it needs to be recognized again. If it needs to, the system selects a few speakers from all of the speakers who participate in the first stage recognition for the second stage recognition. For each selected speaker, the system obtains 3 pitch-dependent results from his pitch-dependent speaker model, and then uses ANN (Artificial Neural Network) to unite the 3 pitch-dependent results and 1 GMM score for getting a fused result. The system makes the second stage recognition based on these fused results. The experiments show that the correct rate of two-stage recognition system based on MAP channel compensation technique and pitch-dependent features is 41.7% better than the baseline system for closed-set test.
Audio Watermarking Based on Compression-expansion Technique
A novel robust audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. In the proposed scheme, the host audio signals are segmented into frames. Two consecutive frames are assessed if they are suitable to represent a watermark bit. If so, frequency transform is performed on these two frames. The compressionexpansion technique is adopted to generate distortion over the two frames. The distortion is used to represent one watermark bit. Psychoacoustic model is applied to calculate local auditory mask to ensure that the distortion is not audible. The watermarking schemes using mono and stereo audio signals are designed differently. The correlation-based detection method is used to detect the distortion and extract embedded watermark bits. The experimental results show that the quality degradation caused by the embedded watermarks is perceptually transparent and the proposed schemes are very robust against different types of attacks.
A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT
Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.
A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Simulation and Optimization of Mechanisms made of Micro-molded Components
The Institute of Product Development is dealing with the development, design and dimensioning of micro components and systems as a member of the Collaborative Research Centre 499 “Design, Production and Quality Assurance of Molded micro components made of Metallic and Ceramic Materials". Because of technological restrictions in the miniaturization of conventional manufacturing techniques, shape and material deviations cannot be scaled down in the same proportion as the micro parts, rendering components with relatively wide tolerance fields. Systems that include such components should be designed with this particularity in mind, often requiring large clearance. On the end, the output of such systems results variable and prone to dynamical instability. To save production time and resources, every study of these effects should happen early in the product development process and base on computer simulation to avoid costly prototypes. A suitable method is proposed here and exemplary applied to a micro technology demonstrator developed by the CRC499. It consists of a one stage planetary gear train in a sun-planet-ring configuration, with input through the sun gear and output through the carrier. The simulation procedure relies on ordinary Multi Body Simulation methods and subsequently adds other techniques to further investigate details of the system-s behavior and to predict its response. The selection of the relevant parameters and output functions followed the engineering standards for regular sized gear trains. The first step is to quantify the variability and to reveal the most critical points of the system, performed through a whole-mechanism Sensitivity Analysis. Due to the lack of previous knowledge about the system-s behavior, different DOE methods involving small and large amount of experiments were selected to perform the SA. In this particular case the parameter space can be divided into two well defined groups, one of them containing the gear-s profile information and the other the components- spatial location. This has been exploited to explore the different DOE techniques more promptly. A reduced set of parameters is derived for further investigation and to feed the final optimization process, whether as optimization parameters or as external perturbation collective. The 10 most relevant perturbation factors and 4 to 6 prospective variable parameters are considered in a new, simplified model. All of the parameters are affected by the mentioned production variability. The objective functions of interest are based on scalar output-s variability measures, so the problem becomes an optimization under robustness and reliability constrains. The study shows an initial step on the development path of a method to design and optimize complex micro mechanisms composed of wide tolerated elements accounting for the robustness and reliability of the systems- output.
On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter

This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.

A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)
Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.
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