Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil
In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.
Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Cast Alloy AA7075 by Taguchi Method
This investigation proposes Friction stir welding technique to solve the fusion welding problems. Objectives of this investigation are fabrication of AA7075-10%wt. Silicon carbide (SiC) aluminum metal matrix composite and optimization of optimal process parameters of friction stir welded AA7075-10%wt. SiC Composites. Composites were prepared by the mechanical stir casting process. Experiments were performed with four process parameters such as tool rotational speed, weld speed, axial force and tool geometry considering three levels of each. The quality characteristics considered is joint efficiency (JE). The welding experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. An orthogonal array and design of experiments were used to give best possible welding parameters that give optimal JE. The fabricated welded joints using rotational speed of 1500 rpm, welding speed (1.3 mm/sec), axial force (7 k/n) of and tool geometry (square) give best possible results. Experimental result reveals that the tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant process parameters affecting the welding performance. The predicted optimal value of percentage JE is 95.621. The confirmation tests also have been done for verifying the results.
Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study
Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.
A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms
Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.
Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper
This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.
Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency
Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality
and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of
tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal
environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the
low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from
the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface
during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire
changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension
and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure
and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here,
we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity
at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model
is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire
under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode
shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where
the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic
response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was
conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire
and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when
the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging
from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on
tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial
and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes
exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation
was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the
fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the
rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling
analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity
with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation
was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and
rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point.
The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling
velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to
a fixed Newtonian point on ground.
Implementation of Quantum Rotation Gates Using Controlled Non-Adiabatic Evolutions
Quantum gates are the basic building blocks in the
quantum circuits model. These gates can be implemented using
adiabatic or non adiabatic processes. Adiabatic models can be
controlled using auxiliary qubits, whereas non adiabatic models can
be simplified by using one single-shot implementation. In this paper,
the controlled adiabatic evolutions is combined with the single-shot
implementation to obtain quantum gates with controlled non adiabatic
evolutions. This is an important improvement which can speed the
implementation of quantum gates and reduce the errors due to the
long run in the adiabatic model. The robustness of our scheme to
different types of errors is also investigated.
Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument
Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.
Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument
Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.
The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma
A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.
Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid
In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability
analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid
in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection).
Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation.
Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying
instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of
nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture
theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh
number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric
eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh
number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of
convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So,
increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby
increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes
required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically.
The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state
assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on
the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and
depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is
delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport.
Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to
the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component
V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case
of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal
Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model
A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.
Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die
The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.
Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform
Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.
Modeling the Moment of Resistance Generated by an Ore-Grinding Mill
The pertinence of modeling the moment of resistance generated by the ore-grinding mill is substantiated. Based on the ranking of technological indices obtained in the result of the survey among the specialists of several beneficiating plants, the factors determining the level of the moment of resistance generated by the mill are revealed. A priori diagram of the ranks is obtained in which the factors are arranged in the descending order of the impact degree on the level of the moment. The obtained model of the moment of resistance shows the technological character of the operation modes of the ore-grinding mill and can be used for improving the operation modes of the system motor-mill and preventing the abnormal mode of the drive synchronous motor.
Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm
An innovative approach to develop modified scaling free CORDIC based two parallel pipelined Multipath Delay Commutator (MDC) FFT and IFFT architectures for radix 22 FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.
Image Analysis for Obturator Foramen Based on Marker-Controlled Watershed Segmentation and Zernike Moments
Obturator Foramen is a specific structure in Pelvic
bone images and recognition of it is a new concept in medical image
processing. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures such as
Obturator Foramen plays an essential role for clinical research in
orthopedics. In this paper, we present a novel method to analyze the
similarity between the substructures of the imaged region and a hand
drawn template as a preprocessing step for computation of Pelvic
bone rotation on hip radiographs. This method consists of integrated
usage of Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation and Zernike
moment feature descriptor and it is used to detect Obturator Foramen
accurately. Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation is applied to
separate Obturator Foramen from the background effectively. Then,
Zernike moment feature descriptor is used to provide matching
between binary template image and the segmented binary image for
final extraction of Obturator Foramens. Finally, Pelvic bone rotation
rate calculation for each hip radiograph is performed automatically to
select and eliminate hip radiographs for further studies which depend
on Pelvic bone angle measurements. The proposed method is tested
on randomly selected 100 hip radiographs. The experimental results
demonstrated that the proposed method is able to segment Obturator
Foramen with 96% accuracy.
New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections
Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam
web and the column flange, are studied to investigate their
moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior
is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear
behavior of a single angle connection. The identical geometric and
material conditions with Lipson’s test are used for verifying finite
element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and
Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range of mechanism,
simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed.
Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.
Prediction of Temperature Distribution during Drilling Process Using Artificial Neural Network
Experimental & numeral study of temperature
distribution during milling process, is important in milling quality
and tools life aspects. In the present study the milling cross-section
temperature is determined by using Artificial Neural Networks
(ANN) according to the temperature of certain points of the work
piece and the point specifications and the milling rotational speed of
the blade. In the present work, at first three-dimensional model of the
work piece is provided and then by using the Computational Heat
Transfer (CHT) simulations, temperature in different nods of the
work piece are specified in steady-state conditions. Results obtained
from CHT are used for training and testing the ANN approach. Using
reverse engineering and setting the desired x, y, z and the milling
rotational speed of the blade as input data to the network, the milling
surface temperature determined by neural network is presented as
output data. The desired points temperature for different milling
blade rotational speed are obtained experimentally and by
extrapolation method for the milling surface temperature is obtained
and a comparison is performed among the soft programming ANN,
CHT results and experimental data and it is observed that ANN soft
programming code can be used more efficiently to determine the
temperature in a milling process.
Determination of Recrystallization Temperature of Varying Degrees Formed Aluminium, by DMTA Technique
This study is about the structural transformations of
aluminium examining with the Dynamic Mechanical Thermal
Analyzer (DMTA). It is a faster and simpler measuring method to
make consequence about the metal’s structural transformations. The
device measures the changing of the mechanical characteristics
depending on the heating rate, and concludes certain transformations.
This measuring method fast and shows clean-cut results comparing
the conventional ways.
Applying polymer measuring devices for metal investigations is
not widespread method. One of the adaptable ways is shown in this
study. The article compares the results of the small specimen test and
the DMTA method, considering the temperature and the forming
dependence of recrystallization temperature.
An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames
Modular structural systems are constructed using a
method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular
frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce
building construction time. The structural design is usually carried out
under the assumption that their load-carrying mechanism is similar to
that of traditional steel moment-resisting systems. However, both
systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details
which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially,
the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular
frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes.
Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEMs) of
unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column
joints with the access holes. Analysis results show that the unit
modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation
capacities and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections
even if there are access holes.
Bright–Dark Pulses in Nonlinear Polarisation Rotation Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser
We have experimentally demonstrated bright-dark
pulses in a nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked
Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a long cavity configuration.
Bright–dark pulses could be achieved when the laser works in the
passively mode-locking regime and the net group velocity dispersion
is quite anomalous. The EDFL starts to generate a bright pulse train
with degenerated dark pulse at the mode-locking threshold pump
power of 35.09 mW by manipulating the polarization states of the
laser oscillation modes using a polarization controller (PC). A split
bright–dark pulse is generated when further increasing the pump
power up to 37.95 mW. Stable bright pulses with no obvious
evidence of a dark pulse can also be generated when further adjusting
PC and increasing the pump power up to 52.19 mW. At higher pump
power of 54.96 mW, a new form of bright-dark pulse emission was
successfully identified with the repetition rate of 29 kHz. The bright
and dark pulses have a duration of 795.5 ns and 640 ns, respectively.
Analysis of the Theoretical Values of Several Characteristic Parameters of Surface Topography in Rotational Turning
In addition to the increase of the material removal rate or surface rate, or the improvement of the surface quality, which are the main aims of the development of manufacturing technology, a growing number of other manufacturing requirements have appeared in the machining of workpiece surfaces. Among these it is becoming increasingly dominant to generate a surface topography in finishing operations which meets more closely the needs of operational requirements.
These include the examination of the surface periodicity and/or ensuring that the twist-structure values are within the limits (or even preventing its occurrence) in specified cases such as on the sealing surfaces of rotating shafts or on the inside working surfaces of needle roller bearings. In the view of the measurement the twist has different parameters from surface roughness, which must be determined for the machining procedures. Therefore in this paper the alteration of the theoretical values of the parameters determining twist structure are studied as a function of the kinematic properties.
Finite Element Analysis of Flush End Plate Moment Connections under Cyclic Loading
This paper explains the results of an investigation on the analysis of flush end plate steel connections by means of finite element method. Flush end plates are a highly indeterminate type of connection, which have a number of parameters that affect their behavior. Because of this, experimental investigations are complicated and very costly. Today, the finite element method provides an ideal method for analyzing complicated structures. Finite element models of these types of connections under monotonic loading have previously been investigated. A numerical model, which can predict the cyclic behavior of these connections, is of critical importance, as dynamic experiments are more costly. This paper summarizes a study to develop a three-dimensional finite element model that can accurately capture the cyclic behavior of flush end plate connections. Comparisons between FEM results and experimental results obtained from full-scale tests have been carried out, which confirms the accuracy of the finite element model. Consequently, design equations for this connection have been investigated and it is shown that these predictions are not precise in all cases. The effect of end plate thickness and bolt diameter on the overall behavior of this connection is discussed. This research demonstrates that using the appropriate configuration, this connection has the potential to form a plastic hinge in the beam--desirable in seismic behavior.
The Effects of Crop Rotation and Nutrient Supply on the Leaf Area Values of Winter Wheat in a Long-Term Experiment
Our field experiments were set at the RISF Látókép Experimental Farm of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen, on lime-coated chernozem soil. During our studies, we have investigated two winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Mv Csárdás) of different genotypes. The preceding crops were sunflower and grain maize. We examined wheat leaf area index (LAI) five times during by BBCH scale. We have found that during the different stages of the vegetation period, the LAI values were different depending on the preceding crop, variety and nutrient levels. According to our results, the lowest LAI values were experienced in the control treatment, in the case of both preceding crops. According to our studies we can conclude that crop rotation and fertilizer treatment influenced the studied physiological trait to different extents.
The Impact of Crop Rotation and N Fertilization on the Leaf Area Index, Leaf Disease and Yield of Winter Wheat
The research focused on the effects of previous cropping and fertilizers on the LAI, rhythm of the dry matter, leaf disease intensity and amount of yield. Long term field experiments’ results proved that the previous crop fundamentally determines size, rate and dynamics of the dry matter formation in the spring time vegetation period. The LAI index and crop results of winter wheat can be influenced mainly by raising the fertilizer amount. N fertilization has an outstanding role in the changes in leaf area index (LAI), weight of dry matter and yield of winter wheat. According to our results, the interaction effect of leaf area index, weight of dry matter and fertilization resulted in the maximum yield in biculture and triculture.
Computational Investigation of the Combined Effects of Yaw, Rotation and Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamics of an Isolated Wheel
An exploratory computational investigation using
RANS & URANS was carried out to understand the aerodynamics
around an isolatedsingle rotating wheel with decreasing ground
proximity. The wheel was initially modeled in free air conditions,
then with decreasing ground proximity and increased yaw angle with
rotational speeds. Three speeds of rotation were applied to the wheel
so that the effect of different angular velocities can be investigated. In
addition to rotation, three different yaw angles were applied to the
rotating wheel in order to understand how these two variables
combined affect the aerodynamic flow field around the wheel.
Magnetic Fluid Based Squeeze Film in Rough Rotating Curved Porous Annular Plates: Deformation Effect
This article aims to investigate the performance of a magnetic fluid based squeeze film between rotating transversely rough curved porous annular plates incorporating the effect of elastic deformation. The associated stochastically averaged Reynolds type equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution leading to the calculation of the load carrying capacity. The results suggest that the transverse roughness of the bearing surfaces affects the performance adversely although the bearing systems register a relatively improved performance due to the magnetization. The deformation causes reduced the load carrying capacity while the curvature parameters tend to nominally increase the load carrying capacity. Besides, the adverse effect of porosity, deformation and standard deviation can be minimized to some extent by the positive effect of the magnetization and the curvature parameters in the case of negatively skewed roughness by suitably choosing the rotational inertia and the aspect ratio, which becomes significant when negative variance occurs.
The Effects of Four Organic Cropping Sequences on Soil Phosphorous Cycling and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
Organic farmers across Saskatchewan face soil
phosphorus (P) shortages. Due to the restriction on inputs in organic
systems, farmers rely on crop rotation and naturally-occurring
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for plant P supply. Crop rotation
is important for disease, pest, and weed management. Crops that are
not colonized by AMF (non-mycorrhizal) can decrease colonization
of a following crop. An experiment was performed to quantify soil P
cycling in four cropping sequences under organic management and
determine if mustard (non-mycorrhizal) was delaying the
colonization of subsequent wheat. Soils from the four cropping
sequences were measured for inorganic soil P (Pi), AMF spore
density (SD), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA, for AMF
biomarker counts), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase,
related to AMF metabolic activity). Plants were measured for AMF
colonization and P content and uptake of above-ground biomass. A
lack of difference in AMF activity indicated that mustard was not
depressing colonization. Instead, AMF colonization was largely
determined by crop type and crop rotation.