Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance
The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.
Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.
The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.
Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced by Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell
The utilization of biomass as a source of new and renewable energy is being carried out. One of the technologies to convert biomass as an energy source is pyrolysis which is converting biomass into more valuable products, such as bio-oil. Bio-oil is a liquid which is produced by steam condensation process from the pyrolysis of coconut shells. The composition of a coconut shell e.g. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin will be oxidized to phenolic compounds as the main component of the bio-oil. The phenolic compounds in bio-oil are corrosive; they cause various difficulties in the combustion system because of a high viscosity, low calorific value, corrosiveness, and instability. Phenolic compounds are very valuable components which phenol has used as the main component for the manufacture of antiseptic, disinfectant (known as Lysol) and deodorizer. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a pyrolysis reactor at temperatures ranging from 300 oC to 350 oC with a heating rate of 10 oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the bio-oil components. The obtained bio-oil has the viscosity of 1.46 cP, the density of 1.50 g/cm3, the calorific value of 16.9 MJ/kg, and the molecular weight of 1996.64. By GC-MS, the analysis of bio-oil showed that it contained phenol (40.01%), ethyl ester (37.60%), 2-methoxy-phenol (7.02%), furfural (5.45%), formic acid (4.02%), 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (3.89%), and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (2.01%).
Microscopic Analysis of Interfacial Transition Zone of Cementitious Composites Prepared by Various Mixing Procedures
Mechanical parameters of cementitious composites differ quite significantly based on the composition of cement matrix. They are also influenced by mixing times and procedure. The research presented in this paper was aimed at identification of differences in microstructure of normal strength (NSC) and differently mixed high strength (HSC) cementitious composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) phase analysis of NSC and HSC samples was conducted. Evaluation of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the aggregate and cement matrix was performed. Volume share, thickness, porosity and composition of ITZ were studied. In case of HSC, samples obtained by several different mixing procedures were compared in order to find the most suitable procedure. In case of NSC, ITZ was identified around 40-50% of aggregate grains and its thickness typically ranged between 10 and 40 µm. Higher porosity and lower share of clinker was observed in this area as a result of increased water-to-cement ratio (w/c) and the lack of fine particles improving the grading curve of the aggregate. Typical ITZ with lower content of Ca was observed only in one HSC sample, where it was developed around less than 15% of aggregate grains. The typical thickness of ITZ in this sample was similar to ITZ in NSC (between 5 and 40 µm). In the remaining four HSC samples, no ITZ was observed. In general, the share of ITZ in HSC samples was found to be significantly smaller than in NSC samples. As ITZ is the weakest part of the material, this result explains to large extent the improved mechanical properties of HSC compared to NSC. Based on the comparison of characteristics of ITZ in HSC samples prepared by different mixing procedures, the most suitable mixing procedure from the point of view of properties of ITZ was identified.
Residual Dipolar Couplings in NMR Spectroscopy Using Lanthanide Tags
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an indispensable technique used in structure determination of small and macromolecules to study their physical properties, elucidation of characteristic interactions, dynamics and thermodynamic processes. Quantum mechanics defines the theoretical description of NMR spectroscopy and treatment of the dynamics of nuclear spin systems. The phenomenon of residual dipolar coupling (RDCs) has become a routine tool for accurate structure determination by providing global orientation information of magnetic dipole-dipole interaction vectors within a common reference frame. This offers accessibility of distance-independent angular information and insights to local relaxation. The measurement of RDCs requires an anisotropic orientation medium for the molecules to partially align along the magnetic field. This can be achieved by introduction of liquid crystals or attaching a paramagnetic center. Although anisotropic paramagnetic tags continue to mark achievements in the biomolecular NMR of large proteins, its application in small organic molecules remains unspread. Here, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of a lanthanide tag and the measurement of RDCs in organic molecules using paramagnetic lanthanide complexes.
Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study
We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.
PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá
One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.
Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.
A Self Organized Map Method to Classify Auditory-Color Synesthesia from Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume
Absolute pitch is the ability to identify a musical note without a reference tone. Training for absolute pitch often occurs in preschool education. It is necessary to clarify how well the trainee can make use of synesthesia in order to evaluate the effect of the training. To the best of our knowledge, there are no existing methods for objectively confirming whether the subject is using synesthesia. Therefore, in this study, we present a method to distinguish the use of color-auditory synesthesia from the separate use of color and audition during absolute pitch training. This method measures blood volume in the prefrontal cortex using functional Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and assumes that the cognitive step has two parts, a non-linear step and a linear step. For the linear step, we assume a second order ordinary differential equation. For the non-linear part, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to create an inverse filter of such a complex system as the brain. Therefore, we apply a method based on a self-organizing map (SOM) and are guided by the available data. The presented method was tested using 15 subjects, and the estimation accuracy is reported.
Inﬂuence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior
The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.
Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials
One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.
Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.
A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization
In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800°C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.
Influence of [Emim][OAc] and Water on Gelatinization Process and Interactions with Starch
Thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] were obtained through gelatinization process. The gelatinization process occurred in the presence of water and [Emim][OAc] as plasticizer at high temperature (90˚C). The influence of [Emim][OAc] and water on the gelatinization and interactions with starch have been studied over a range of compositions. The homogenous mass was obtained for the samples containing 35, 40 and 43.5 % of water contents which showed that water plays important role in gelatinization process. Detailed IR spectroscopy analysis showed decrease in hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups in the presence of [Emim][OAc]. Starch-[Emim][OAc]-water mixture at 10-3-8.7 presented homogenous mass, less hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups.
Reﬂectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface
Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.
Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates
The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.
Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Columnar-Structured Mn-Doped Bi26Mo10O69-d Electrolytes
The present work is devoted to the investigation of two series of doped bismuth molybdates: Bi26-2xMn2xMo10O69-d and
Bi26Mo10-2yMn2yO69-d. Complex oxides were synthesized by conventional solid state technology and by co-precipitation method. The products were identified by powder diffraction. The powders and ceramic samples were examined by means of densitometry, laser diffraction, and electron microscopic methods. Porosity of the ceramic materials was estimated using the hydrostatic method. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using impedance spectroscopy method.
Monitoring the Drying and Grinding Process during Production of Celitement through a NIR-Spectroscopy Based Approach
Online measurement of the product quality is a
challenging task in cement production, especially in the production of
Celitement, a novel environmentally friendly hydraulic binder. The
mineralogy and chemical composition of clinker in ordinary Portland
cement production is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and
X-ray fluorescence (XRF), where only crystalline constituents can be
detected. But only a small part of the Celitement components can be
measured via XRD, because most constituents have an amorphous
structure. This paper describes the development of algorithms
suitable for an on-line monitoring of the final processing step of
Celitement based on NIR-data. For calibration intermediate products
were dried at different temperatures and ground for variable
durations. The products were analyzed using XRD and
thermogravimetric analyses together with NIR-spectroscopy to
investigate the dependency between the drying and the milling
processes on one and the NIR-signal on the other side. As a result,
different characteristic parameters have been defined. A short
overview of the Celitement process and the challenging tasks of the
online measurement and evaluation of the product quality will be
presented. Subsequently, methods for systematic development of
near-infrared calibration models and the determination of the final
calibration model will be introduced. The application of the model on
experimental data illustrates that NIR-spectroscopy allows for a quick
and sufficiently exact determination of crucial process parameters.
Structural Investigation of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 Glasses Doped with NdF3
Sodium borosilicate glasses doped with different
content of NdF3 mol % have been prepared by rapid quenching
method. Ultrasonic velocities (both longitudinal and shear)
measurements have been carried out at room temperature and at
ultrasonic frequency of 4 MHz. Elastic moduli, Debye temperature,
softening temperature and Poisson's ratio have been obtained as a
function of NdF3 modifier content. Results showed that the elastic
moduli, Debye temperature, softening temperature and Poisson's ratio
have very slight change with the change of NdF3 mol % content.
Based on FTIR spectroscopy and theoretical (Bond compression)
model, quantitative analysis has been carried out in order to obtain
more information about the structure of these glasses. The study
indicated that the structure of these glasses is mainly composed of
SiO4 units with four bridging oxygens (Q4), and with three bridging
and one nonbridging oxygens (Q3).
Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm
Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women
are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements.
Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and
right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are
statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat
content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone
mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for dominant arm.
With the post-menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant
arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified
osteopenic and osteoporic population around lumbar spine, is
statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine
osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve
of the characteristic frequency is 0.830, suggesting that the Cole-Cole
plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter
when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis.
Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by
monitoring frequency driven angular behavior of the dominant arm
without performing any complex calculation.
Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar
Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis
processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful
compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic
compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for
insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many
others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal
obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The
experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a
laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a
heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis
temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)
was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar
has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific
value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The
analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78
chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene,
naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar
are 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total
naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and
A Structural and Magnetic Investigation of the Inversion Degree in Spinel NiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Ferrites Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis
NiFe2O4 (nickel ferrite), ZnFe2O4 (zinc ferrite) and
Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (nickel-zinc ferrite) were prepared by
mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture
of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2/Fe(OH)3,
Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 and Ni(OH)2/Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 hydroxide
powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and
confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 25 h, 18 h
and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer
spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e.
mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality
single phase ferrite samples in much more efficient way. From the IR
spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of
modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples
have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in
the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra
allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made
of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to
spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra allows to separate
contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and
to estimate the degree of inversion.
Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery
The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by
nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free
hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions. The XRD
results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The
TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are
polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline
nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1
of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic
cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode
material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest
that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode
material for lithium ion batteries.
Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature
Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2
ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-
xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where
x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples
were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The
dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the
frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been
done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric
relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at
lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher
frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well
fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance
plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation.
All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as
the amount of substitution.
Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma
In the present research work we present the optical
emission studies of the Indium (In) – Tin (Sn) plasma produced by
the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed
laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (In
I) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te)
using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number
density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line
profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the
target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also
by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation
of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with
distance from the target surface.
Off-Line Detection of “Pannon Wheat” Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods
The aim of this investigation is to elaborate nearinfrared
methods for testing and recognition of chemical components
and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety
identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic
methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of
the milling technology by different types of milling products and
according to sampling times, respectively. These wheat categories
produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected
versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes
of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and
physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by
dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared
(NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation
were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement
techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal
component analysis [PCA], cluster analysis [CA]) and operation
condition of milling technology. It is obvious that NIR methods are
able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of
the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR
technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling
Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics
Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood
is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is
desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to
detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper,
we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of
detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in
blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration.
This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the
sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only
on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering
species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance
change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible
for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to
provide a display of the virus concentration.
Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance
Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal
cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables
the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to
distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at
different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are
dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and
on the concentration.
When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the
impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of
membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance
plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the
increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic
groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist
plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its
diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the
decrease of the solution resistance.