Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 32

32
10009202
High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
Abstract:
Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.
31
10008600
Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images
Abstract:

Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.

30
10007822
Secure E-Pay System Using Steganography and Visual Cryptography
Abstract:

Today’s internet world is highly prone to various online attacks, of which the most harmful attack is phishing. The attackers host the fake websites which are very similar and look alike. We propose an image based authentication using steganography and visual cryptography to prevent phishing. This paper presents a secure steganographic technique for true color (RGB) images and uses Discrete Cosine Transform to compress the images. The proposed method hides the secret data inside the cover image. The use of visual cryptography is to preserve the privacy of an image by decomposing the original image into two shares. Original image can be identified only when both qualified shares are simultaneously available. Individual share does not reveal the identity of the original image. Thus, the existence of the secret message is hard to be detected by the RS steganalysis.

29
10007267
Secure Text Steganography for Microsoft Word Document
Abstract:

Seamless modification of an entity for the purpose of hiding a message of significance inside its substance in a manner that the embedding remains oblivious to an observer is known as steganography. Together with today's pervasive registering frameworks, steganography has developed into a science that offers an assortment of strategies for stealth correspondence over the globe that must, however, need a critical appraisal from security breach standpoint. Microsoft Word is amongst the preferably used word processing software, which comes as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. With a user-friendly graphical interface, the richness of text editing, and formatting topographies, the documents produced through this software are also most suitable for stealth communication. This research aimed not only to epitomize the fundamental concepts of steganography but also to expound on the utilization of Microsoft Word document as a carrier for furtive message exchange. The exertion is to examine contemporary message hiding schemes from security aspect so as to present the explorative discoveries and suggest enhancements which may serve a wellspring of information to encourage such futuristic research endeavors.

28
10006131
An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength
Abstract:

Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data. It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.

27
10006938
High Secure Data Hiding Using Cropping Image and Least Significant Bit Steganography
Abstract:

This paper presents a high secure data hiding technique using image cropping and Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography. The predefined certain secret coordinate crops will be extracted from the cover image. The secret text message will be divided into sections. These sections quantity is equal the image crops quantity. Each section from the secret text message will embed into an image crop with a secret sequence using LSB technique. The embedding is done using the cover image color channels. Stego image is given by reassembling the image and the stego crops. The results of the technique will be compared to the other state of art techniques. Evaluation is based on visualization to detect any degradation of stego image, the difficulty of extracting the embedded data by any unauthorized viewer, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio of stego image (PSNR), and the embedding algorithm CPU time. Experimental results ensure that the proposed technique is more secure compared with the other traditional techniques.

26
10006995
Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique
Abstract:
 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.
25
10004028
Threshold Based Region Incrementing Secret Sharing Scheme for Color Images
Abstract:
In this era of online communication, which transacts data in 0s and 1s, confidentiality is a priced commodity. Ensuring safe transmission of encrypted data and their uncorrupted recovery is a matter of prime concern. Among the several techniques for secure sharing of images, this paper proposes a k out of n region incrementing image sharing scheme for color images. The highlight of this scheme is the use of simple Boolean and arithmetic operations for generating shares and the Lagrange interpolation polynomial for authenticating shares. Additionally, this scheme addresses problems faced by existing algorithms such as color reversal and pixel expansion. This paper regenerates the original secret image whereas the existing systems regenerates only the half toned secret image.
24
10001561
A New Authenticable Steganographic Method via the Use of Numeric Data on Public Websites
Abstract:
A new steganographic method via the use of numeric data on public websites with a self-authentication capability is proposed. The proposed technique transforms a secret message into partial shares by Shamir’s (k, n)-threshold secret sharing scheme with n = k + 1. The generated k+1 partial shares then are embedded into the numeric items to be disguised as part of the website’s numeric content, yielding the stego numeric content. Afterward, a receiver links to the website and extracts every k shares among the k+1 ones from the stego numeric content to compute k+1 copies of the secret, and the phenomenon of value consistency of the computed k+1 copies is taken as an evidence to determine whether the extracted message is authentic or not, attaining the goal of self-authentication of the extracted secret message. Experimental results and discussions are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
23
10003694
A Differential Calculus Based Image Steganography with Crossover
Abstract:
Information security plays a major role in uplifting the standard of secured communications via global media. In this paper, we have suggested a technique of encryption followed by insertion before transmission. Here, we have implemented two different concepts to carry out the above-specified tasks. We have used a two-point crossover technique of the genetic algorithm to facilitate the encryption process. For each of the uniquely identified rows of pixels, different mathematical methodologies are applied for several conditions checking, in order to figure out all the parent pixels on which we perform the crossover operation. This is done by selecting two crossover points within the pixels thereby producing the newly encrypted child pixels, and hence the encrypted cover image. In the next lap, the first and second order derivative operators are evaluated to increase the security and robustness. The last lap further ensures reapplication of the crossover procedure to form the final stego-image. The complexity of this system as a whole is huge, thereby dissuading the third party interferences. Also, the embedding capacity is very high. Therefore, a larger amount of secret image information can be hidden. The imperceptible vision of the obtained stego-image clearly proves the proficiency of this approach.
22
10000190
A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain
Abstract:

Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.

21
2057
A Robust Data Hiding Technique based on LSB Matching
Abstract:
Many researchers are working on information hiding techniques using different ideas and areas to hide their secrete data. This paper introduces a robust technique of hiding secret data in image based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption technique. The key of the proposed technique is to encrypt the secret data. Then the encrypted data will be converted into a bit stream and divided it into number of segments. However, the cover image will also be divided into the same number of segments. Each segment of data will be compared with each segment of image to find the best match segment, in order to create a new random sequence of segments to be inserted then in a cover image. Experimental results show that the proposed technique has a high security level and produced better stego-image quality.
20
11642
An Approach of Quantum Steganography through Special SSCE Code
Abstract:
Encrypted messages sending frequently draws the attention of third parties, perhaps causing attempts to break and reveal the original messages. Steganography is introduced to hide the existence of the communication by concealing a secret message in an appropriate carrier like text, image, audio or video. Quantum steganography where the sender (Alice) embeds her steganographic information into the cover and sends it to the receiver (Bob) over a communication channel. Alice and Bob share an algorithm and hide quantum information in the cover. An eavesdropper (Eve) without access to the algorithm can-t find out the existence of the quantum message. In this paper, a text quantum steganography technique based on the use of indefinite articles (a) or (an) in conjunction with the nonspecific or non-particular nouns in English language and quantum gate truth table have been proposed. The authors also introduced a new code representation technique (SSCE - Secret Steganography Code for Embedding) at both ends in order to achieve high level of security. Before the embedding operation each character of the secret message has been converted to SSCE Value and then embeds to cover text. Finally stego text is formed and transmits to the receiver side. At the receiver side different reverse operation has been carried out to get back the original information.
19
8143
Stego Machine – Video Steganography using Modified LSB Algorithm
Abstract:
Computer technology and the Internet have made a breakthrough in the existence of data communication. This has opened a whole new way of implementing steganography to ensure secure data transfer. Steganography is the fine art of hiding the information. Hiding the message in the carrier file enables the deniability of the existence of any message at all. This paper designs a stego machine to develop a steganographic application to hide data containing text in a computer video file and to retrieve the hidden information. This can be designed by embedding text file in a video file in such away that the video does not loose its functionality using Least Significant Bit (LSB) modification method. This method applies imperceptible modifications. This proposed method strives for high security to an eavesdropper-s inability to detect hidden information.
18
15200
Implementing Adaptive Steganography by Exploring the Ycbcr Color Model Characteristics
Abstract:
Stegnography is a new way of secret communication the most widely used mechanism on account of its simplicity is the use of the least significant bit. We have used the least significant bit (2 LSB and 4 LSB) substitution method. Depending upon the characteristics of the individual portions of cover image we decide whether to use 2 LSB or 4 LSB thus it is an adaptive stegnography technique. We used one of the three channels to behave as indicator to indicate the presence of hidden data in other two channels. The module showed impressive results in terms of capacity to hide the data. In proposed method, instead of using RGB color space directly, YCbCr color space is used to make use of human visual system characteristic.
17
13267
A Dynamic RGB Intensity Based Steganography Scheme
Abstract:

Steganography meaning covered writing. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files [1]. In other words, it is the Secret communication by hiding the existence of message. In this paper, we will refer to cover image, to indicate the images that do not yet contain a secret message, while we will refer to stego images, to indicate an image with an embedded secret message. Moreover, we will refer to the secret message as stego-message or hidden message. In this paper, we proposed a technique called RGB intensity based steganography model as RGB model is the technique used in this field to hide the data. The methods used here are based on the manipulation of the least significant bits of pixel values [3][4] or the rearrangement of colors to create least significant bit or parity bit patterns, which correspond to the message being hidden. The proposed technique attempts to overcome the problem of the sequential fashion and the use of stego-key to select the pixels.

16
9304
A Genetic-Algorithm-Based Approach for Audio Steganography
Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel, principled approach to resolve the remained problems of substitution technique of audio steganography. Using the proposed genetic algorithm, message bits are embedded into multiple, vague and higher LSB layers, resulting in increased robustness. The robustness specially would be increased against those intentional attacks which try to reveal the hidden message and also some unintentional attacks like noise addition as well.

15
1349
High Securing Cover-File of Hidden Data Using Statistical Technique and AES Encryption Algorithm
Abstract:
Nowadays, the rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information Besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threatens. It-s a big security and privacy issue with the large flood of information and the development of the digital format, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Nowadays protection system classified with more specific as hiding information, encryption information, and combination between hiding and encryption to increase information security, the strength of the information hiding science is due to the non-existence of standard algorithms to be used in hiding secret messages. Also there is randomness in hiding methods such as combining several media (covers) with different methods to pass a secret message. In addition, there are no formal methods to be followed to discover the hidden data. For this reason, the task of this research becomes difficult. In this paper, a new system of information hiding is presented. The proposed system aim to hidden information (data file) in any execution file (EXE) and to detect the hidden file and we will see implementation of steganography system which embeds information in an execution file. (EXE) files have been investigated. The system tries to find a solution to the size of the cover file and making it undetectable by anti-virus software. The system includes two main functions; first is the hiding of the information in a Portable Executable File (EXE), through the execution of four process (specify the cover file, specify the information file, encryption of the information, and hiding the information) and the second function is the extraction of the hiding information through three process (specify the steno file, extract the information, and decryption of the information). The system has achieved the main goals, such as make the relation of the size of the cover file and the size of information independent and the result file does not make any conflict with anti-virus software.
14
12059
Narrowband Speech Hiding using Vector Quantization
Abstract:
In this work we introduce an efficient method to limit the impact of the hiding process on the quality of the cover speech. Vector quantization of the speech spectral information reduces drastically the number of the secret speech parameters to be embedded in the cover signal. Compared to scalar hiding, vector quantization hiding technique provides a stego signal that is indistinguishable from the cover speech. The objective and subjective performance measures reveal that the current hiding technique attracts no suspicion about the presence of the secret message in the stego speech, while being able to recover an intelligible copy of the secret message at the receiver side.
13
13692
A Novel Steganographic Method for Gray-Level Images
Abstract:
In this work we propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by dividing the cover into blocks of equal sizes and then embeds the message in the edge of the block depending on the number of ones in left four bits of the pixel. The proposed approach is tested on a database consists of 100 different images. Experimental results, compared with other methods, showed that the proposed approach hide more large information and gave a good visual quality stego-image that can be seen by human eyes.
12
15989
Application of LSB Based Steganographic Technique for 8-bit Color Images
Abstract:

Steganography is the process of hiding one file inside another such that others can neither identify the meaning of the embedded object, nor even recognize its existence. Current trends favor using digital image files as the cover file to hide another digital file that contains the secret message or information. One of the most common methods of implementation is Least Significant Bit Insertion, in which the least significant bit of every byte is altered to form the bit-string representing the embedded file. Altering the LSB will only cause minor changes in color, and thus is usually not noticeable to the human eye. While this technique works well for 24-bit color image files, steganography has not been as successful when using an 8-bit color image file, due to limitations in color variations and the use of a colormap. This paper presents the results of research investigating the combination of image compression and steganography. The technique developed starts with a 24-bit color bitmap file, then compresses the file by organizing and optimizing an 8-bit colormap. After the process of compression, a text message is hidden in the final, compressed image. Results indicate that the final technique has potential of being useful in the steganographic world.

11
6054
Embedding a Large Amount of Information Using High Secure Neural Based Steganography Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, we construct and implement a new Steganography algorithm based on learning system to hide a large amount of information into color BMP image. We have used adaptive image filtering and adaptive non-uniform image segmentation with bits replacement on the appropriate pixels. These pixels are selected randomly rather than sequentially by using new concept defined by main cases with sub cases for each byte in one pixel. According to the steps of design, we have been concluded 16 main cases with their sub cases that covere all aspects of the input information into color bitmap image. High security layers have been proposed through four layers of security to make it difficult to break the encryption of the input information and confuse steganalysis too. Learning system has been introduces at the fourth layer of security through neural network. This layer is used to increase the difficulties of the statistical attacks. Our results against statistical and visual attacks are discussed before and after using the learning system and we make comparison with the previous Steganography algorithm. We show that our algorithm can embed efficiently a large amount of information that has been reached to 75% of the image size (replace 18 bits for each pixel as a maximum) with high quality of the output.
10
12344
A New Approach to Steganography using Sinc-Convolution Method
Abstract:
Both image steganography and image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. Steganograhy allows us to hide a desired image containing confidential information in a covered or host image while image encryption is decomposing the desired image to a non-readable, non-comprehended manner. The encryption methods are usually much more robust than the steganographic ones. However, they have a high visibility and would provoke the attackers easily since it usually is obvious from an encrypted image that something is hidden! The combination of steganography and encryption will cover both of their weaknesses and therefore, it increases the security. In this paper an image encryption method based on sinc-convolution along with using an encryption key of 128 bit length is introduced. Then, the encrypted image is covered by a host image using a modified version of JSteg steganography algorithm. This method could be applied to almost all image formats including TIF, BMP, GIF and JPEG. The experiment results show that our method is able to hide a desired image with high security and low visibility.
9
13149
A Novel Plausible Deniability Scheme in Secure Steganography
Abstract:
The goal of steganography is to avoid drawing suspicion to the transmission of a hidden message. If suspicion is raised, steganography may fail. The success of steganography depends on the secrecy of the action. If steganography is detected, the system will fail but data security depends on the robustness of the applied algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel plausible deniability scheme in steganography by using a diversionary message and encrypt it with a DES-based algorithm. Then, we compress the secret message and encrypt it by the receiver-s public key along with the stego key and embed both messages in a carrier using an embedding algorithm. It will be demonstrated how this method can support plausible deniability and is robust against steganalysis.
8
15644
A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark
Abstract:

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

7
8190
Increased Capacity of Information Hiding in LSB-s Method for Text and Image
Abstract:
Steganography, derived from Greek, literally means “covered writing". It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message-s very existence. These methods include invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, covert channels, and spread spectrum communications. This paper proposes a new improved version of Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. The approach proposed is simple for implementation when compared to Pixel value Differencing (PVD) method and yet achieves a High embedding capacity and imperceptibility. The proposed method can also be applied to 24 bit color images and achieve embedding capacity much higher than PVD.
6
6848
Integrated Method for Detection of Unknown Steganographic Content
Abstract:
This article concerns the presentation of an integrated method for detection of steganographic content embedded by new unknown programs. The method is based on data mining and aggregated hypothesis testing. The article contains the theoretical basics used to deploy the proposed detection system and the description of improvement proposed for the basic system idea. Further main results of experiments and implementation details are collected and described. Finally example results of the tests are presented.
5
5449
Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images
Abstract:
In this paper we present a novel technique for data hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout the binary document image. The document image is treated as any other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information at the decoder end.
4
6371
Labeling Method in Steganography
Abstract:

In this paper a way of hiding text message (Steganography) in the gray image has been presented. In this method tried to find binary value of each character of text message and then in the next stage, tried to find dark places of gray image (black) by converting the original image to binary image for labeling each object of image by considering on 8 connectivity. Then these images have been converted to RGB image in order to find dark places. Because in this way each sequence of gray color turns into RGB color and dark level of grey image is found by this way if the Gary image is very light the histogram must be changed manually to find just dark places. In the final stage each 8 pixels of dark places has been considered as a byte and binary value of each character has been put in low bit of each byte that was created manually by dark places pixels for increasing security of the main way of steganography (LSB).

3
15308
Steganalysis of Data Hiding via Halftoning and Coordinate Projection
Abstract:
Steganography is the art of hiding and transmitting data through apparently innocuous carriers in an effort to conceal the existence of the data. A lot of steganography algorithms have been proposed recently. Many of them use the digital image data as a carrier. In data hiding scheme of halftoning and coordinate projection, still image data is used as a carrier, and the data of carrier image are modified for data embedding. In this paper, we present three features for analysis of data hiding via halftoning and coordinate projection. Also, we present a classifier using the proposed three features.

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