|Commenced in January 2007||Frequency: Monthly||Edition: International||Paper Count: 8|
In electrical discharge machining (EDM), a complete and clear theory has not yet been established. The developed theory (physical models) yields results far from reality due to the complexity of the physics. It is difficult to select proper parameter settings in order to achieve better EDM performance. However, modelling can solve this critical problem concerning the parameter settings. Therefore, the purpose of the present work is to develop mathematical model to predict performance characteristics of EDM on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn titanium alloy. Response surface method (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) are employed to develop the mathematical models. The developed models are verified through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANN models are trained, tested, and validated utilizing a set of data. It is found that the developed ANN and mathematical model can predict performance of EDM effectively. Thus, the model has found a precise tool that turns EDM process cost-effective and more efficient.
Vancron 40, a nitrided powder metallurgical tool Steel, is used in cold work applications where the predominant failure mechanisms are adhesive wear or galling. Typical applications of Vancron 40 are among others fine blanking, cold extrusion, deep drawing and cold work rolls for cluster mills. Vancron 40 positive results for cold work rolls for cluster mills and as a tool for some severe metal forming process makes it competitive compared to other type of work rolls that require higher precision, among others in cold rolling of thin stainless steel, which required high surface finish quality. In this project, three roll materials for cold rolling of stainless steel strip was examined, Vancron 40, Narva 12B (a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with tungsten) and Supra 3 (a Chromium-molybdenum tungsten-vanadium alloyed high speed steel). The purpose of this project was to study the depth profiles of the ironed stainless steel strips, emergence of galling and to study the lubrication performance used by steel industries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine scratch of the strip, galling and surface roughness of the roll materials under severe tribological conditions. The critical sliding length for onset of galling was estimated for stainless steel with four different lubricants. Laboratory experiments result of performance evaluation of resistance capability of rolls toward adhesive wear under severe conditions for low and high reductions. Vancron 40 in combination with cold rolling lubricant gave good surface quality, prevents galling of metal surfaces and good bearing capacity.
Abrasive Water Jet Machining is an unconventional machining process well known for machining hard to cut materials. The primary research focus on the process was for through cutting and a very limited literature is available on pocket milling using AWJM. The present work is an attempt to use this process for milling applications considering a set of various process parameters. Four different input parameters, which were considered by researchers for part separation, are selected for the above application, i.e., abrasive size, flow rate, standoff distance and traverse speed. Pockets of definite size are machined to investigate surface roughness, material removal rate and pocket depth. Based on the data available through experiments on SS304 material, it is observed that higher traverse speeds gives a better finish because of reduction in the particle energy density and lower depth is also observed. Increase in the standoff distance and abrasive flow rate reduces the rate of material removal as the jet loses its focus and occurrence of collisions within the particles. ANOVA for individual output parameter has been studied to know the significant process parameters.
A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.
Present investigations involve a systematic study on the machinability of austempered ductile irons (ADI) developed from four commercially viable ductile irons alloyed with different contents of 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% of Ni. The influence of Ni content, amount of retained austenite and hardness of ADI on machining behavior has been conducted systematically. Austempering heat treatment was carried out for 120 minutes at four temperatures- 270oC, 320oC, 370oC or 420oC, after austenitization at 900oC for 120 min. Milling tests were performed and machinability index, cutting forces and surface roughness measurements were used to evaluate the machinability. Higher cutting forces, lower machinability index and the poorer surface roughness of the samples austempered at lower temperatures indicated that austempering at higher temperatures resulted in better machinability. The machinability of samples austempered at 420oC, which contained higher fractions of retained austenite, was superior to that of samples austempered at lower temperatures, indicating that hardness is an important factor in assessing machinability in addition to high carbon austenite content. The ADI with 0.6% Ni, austempered at 420°C for 120 minutes, demonstrated best machinability.
This paper presents a comparative study on dry and wet grinding through experimental investigation in the grinding of CSM glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using a pink aluminium oxide wheel. Different sets of experiments were performed to study the effects of the independent grinding parameters such as grinding wheel speed, feed and depth of cut on dependent performance criteria such as cutting forces and surface finish. Experimental conditions were laid out using design of experiment central composite design. An effective coolant was sought in this study to minimise cutting forces and surface roughness for GFRP laminates grinding. Test results showed that the use of coolants reduces surface roughness, although not necessarily the cutting forces. These research findings provide useful economic machining solution in terms of optimized grinding conditions for grinding CSM GFRP.
Traditional wind tunnel models are meticulously machined from metal in a process that can take several months. While very precise, the manufacturing process is too slow to assess a new design's feasibility quickly. Rapid prototyping technology makes this concurrent study of air vehicle concepts via computer simulation and in the wind tunnel possible. This paper described the Affects layer thickness models product with rapid prototyping on Aerodynamic Coefficients for Constructed wind tunnel testing models. Three models were evaluated. The first model was a 0.05mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.1μm (Ra) second model was a 0.125mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 0.22μm (Ra) third model was a 0.15mm layer thickness and Horizontal plane 4.6μm (Ra). These models were fabricated from somos 18420 by a stereolithography (SLA). A wing-body-tail configuration was chosen for the actual study. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.9 at an angle-of-attack range of -2° to +12° at zero sideslip. Coefficients of normal force, axial force, pitching moment, and lift over drag are shown at each of these Mach numbers. Results from this study show that layer thickness does have an effect on the aerodynamic characteristics in general; the data differ between the three models by fewer than 5%. The layer thickness does have more effect on the aerodynamic characteristics when Mach number is decreased and had most effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of axial force and its derivative coefficients.