Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 6

6
10002991
Understanding and Predicting Foam in Anaerobic Digester
Abstract:

As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has not fully explained the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the current available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this piece of work presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

5
10001059
LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil
Abstract:

Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

4
9996795
Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Abstract:

The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes andincorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin. The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

3
17216
Synthesis and Foam Power of New Biodegradable Surfactant
Abstract:

This work deals with the synthesis and the determination of some surface properties of a new anionic surfactant belonging to sulfonamide derivatives. The interest in this new surfactant is that its behavior in aqueous solution is interesting both from a fundamental and a practice point of view. Indeed, it is well known that this kind of surfactant leads to the formation of bilayer structures, and the microstructures obtained have applications in various fields, ranging from cosmetics to detergents, to biological systems such as cell membranes and bioreactors. The surfactant synthesized from pure n-alkane by photosulfochlorination and derivatized using N-ethanol amine is a mixture of position isomers. These compounds have been analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry by Electron Impact mode (GC -MS/IE), and IR. The surface tension measurements were carried out, leading to the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess and the area occupied per molecule at the interface. The foaming power has also been determined by Bartsch method, and the results have been compared to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the foam formed has also been evaluated. These compounds show good foaming power characterized in most cases by dry foam.

2
12594
Study of the Sorption of Biosurfactants from l. Pentosus on Sediments
Abstract:
Losses of surfactant due to sorption need to be considered when selecting surfactant doses for soil bioremediation. The degree of surfactant sorption onto soil depends primarily on the organic carbon fraction of soil and the chemical nature of the surfactant. The use of biosurfactants in the control of the bioavailability of toxicants in soils is an attractive option because of their biodegradability. In this work biosurfactants were produced from a cheap raw material, trimming vine shoots, employing Lactobacillus pentosus. When biosurfactants from L. pentosus was added to sediments the surface tensión of the water containing the sediments rapidly increase, the same behaviour was observed with the chemical surfactant Tween 20; whereas sodyum dodecyl sulphate (SDS) kept the surface tension of the water around 36 mN/m. It means, that the behaviour of biosurfactants from L. pentosus is more similar to non-ionic surfactatns than to anionic surfactants.
1
11133
Effect of Anionic and Non-ionic Surfactants on Activated Sludge Oxygen Uptake Rate and Nitrification
Abstract:
A local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) experiencing poor nitrification tracked down high level of surfactants in the plant-s influent and effluent. The aims of this project were to assess the potential inhibitory effect of surfactants on activated sludge processes. The effect of the presence of TergitolNP-9, TrigetolNP-7, Trigetol15-S-9, dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on activated sludge oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and nitrification were assessed. The average concentration of non-ionic and anionic surfactants in the influent to the local WWTP were 7 and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. Removal of 67% to 90% of the non-ionic and 93-99% of the anionic surfactants tested were measured. All surfactants tested showed inhibitory effects both on OUR and nitrification. SDS incurred the lowest inhibition whereas SDBS and NP-9 caused severe inhibition to OUR and Nitrification. Activated sludge flocs sizes slightly decreased after 3 hours contact with the surfactant present in the test. The results obtained indicated that high concentrations of surfactants are likely to have an adverse effect on the performance of WWTPs utilizing activated sludge processes.

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