Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth
Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.
Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717
This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.
Biosorption of Azo Dye Reactive Black B onto Nonviable Biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1: Thermodynamic, Kinetic and Equilibrium Modeling
This study investigated the biosorption of the azo dye reactive Black B (RBB) from aqueous solution using the nonviable biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1. The biosorption systems were carried out in batch mode considering different conditions of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent dosage. Higher removal rate of RBB was obtained at pH 2. Biosorption data were successfully described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity estimated at 71.43 mg/g. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S° indicated that the biosorption of RBB onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. It can be concluded that nonviable biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1 may be an attractive low-cost biosorbent for the removal of azo dye RBB from aqueous solution.
Malt Bagasse Waste as Biosorbent for Malachite Green: An Ecofriendly Approach for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution
In this study, malt bagasse, a low-cost waste biomass, was tested as a biosorbent to remove the cationic dye Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Batch biosorption experiments were investigated as functions of different experimental parameters such as initial pH, salt (NaCl) concentration, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration. Higher removal rates of MG were obtained at pH 8 and 10. The equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that the biosorption follows Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated at 117.65 mg/g (at 45 °C). According to Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of MG onto malt bagasse occurs physically. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that the MG biosorption onto malt bagasse is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance under high salt concentrations. It can be concluded that malt bagasse waste has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of MG from aqueous solution.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation
A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.
Energy Efficiency Analysis of Discharge Modes of an Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System
Efficient energy storage is a crucial factor in facilitating the uptake of renewable energy resources. Among the many options available for energy storage systems required to balance imbalanced supply and demand cycles, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven technology in grid-scale applications. This paper reviews the current state of micro scale CAES technology and describes a micro-scale advanced adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) system, where heat generated during compression is stored for use in the discharge phase. It will also describe a thermodynamic model, developed in EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to evaluate the performance and critical parameters of the discharge phase of the proposed system. Three configurations are explained including: single turbine without preheater, two turbines with preheaters, and three turbines with preheaters. It is shown that the micro-scale A-CAES is highly dependent upon key parameters including; regulator pressure, air pressure and volume, thermal energy storage temperature and flow rate and the number of turbines. It was found that a micro-scale AA-CAES, when optimized with an appropriate configuration, could deliver energy input to output efficiency of up to 70%.
Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2
With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.
Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption
The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.
Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Use: Sources Evaluation Perspective
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are
formed mainly because of incomplete combustion of organic
materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence.
Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
have been established. However, with limited validity index, previous
research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable
physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of
this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson
Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and Cluster Analysis (CA) in PAHs
source identification along soil samples of different land uses.
Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped, as Endocrine Disruption Substances
(EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils
seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas
chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments
and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades
respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of
PAHs along pyrolitic and petrogenic organics used in source
signature is about the predominance PAHs in environmental matrix.
Therefore, the distribution of PAHs in the studied stations revealed
the presence of trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen
PAHs, which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature
authentication. Therefore, factors to be considered when evaluating
possible sources of PAHs could be; type and extent of bacterial
metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental
factors such as salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light
intensity, temperature, co-substrates, and environmental medium are
hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating
possible sources of PAHs.
A Thermodynamic Study of Parameters That Affect the Nitration of Glycerol with Nitric Acid
Biodiesel production from vegetable oil will produce
glycerol as by-product about 10% of the biodiesel production. The
amount of glycerol that was produced needed alternative way to
handling immediately so as to not become the waste that polluted
environment. One of the solutions was to process glycerol to
polyglycidyl nitrate (PGN). PGN is synthesized from glycerol by
three-step reactions i.e. nitration of glycerol, cyclization of 13-
dinitroglycerine and polymerization of glycosyl nitrate. Optimum
condition of nitration of glycerol with nitric acid has not been known.
Thermodynamic feasibility should be done before run experiments in
the laboratory. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters
those affect nitration of glycerol and nitric acid and chose the
operation condition. Many parameters were simulated to verify its
possibility to experiment under conditions which would get the
highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine and which was the ideal
condition to get it. The parameters that need to be studied to obtain
the highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine were mol ratio of
nitric acid/glycerol, reaction temperature, mol ratio of
glycerol/dichloromethane and pressure. The highest conversion was
obtained in the range of mol ratio of nitric acid /glycerol between 2/1
– 5/1, reaction temperature of 5-25oC and pressure of 1 atm. The
parameters that need to be studied further to obtain the highest
conversion of 1.3 DNG are mol ratio of nitric acid/glycerol and
Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines
The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis
for three turboshaft engines. The first cycle is a Brayton cycle,
describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the
Klimov TV2 engine. The other four cycles aim at approaching an
Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in
the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi-
Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum
Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine
inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions.
Also, the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas
generator turbine is maintained the same. In two of the considered
quasi-Ericsson cycles, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine, as
well as the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the
gas generator turbine are maintained the same as for the reference
case, while for the other two cases, the efficiencies are increased in
order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. For the
two cases respecting the first condition, both the shaft power and the
thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while for the other
two, the power and efficiency are maintained, as a result of assuming
new, more efficient gas generator turbines.
Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes
In this study a ternary system containing sodium
chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the
antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial
neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the
mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The
system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model
by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of
the two models shows an excellent agreement between them
(R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the
thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are
difficult to model.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23
The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e. evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.
Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses
In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.
Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE
In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.
Performance Study of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants
Cascade refrigeration systems employ series of single stage vapor compression units which are thermally coupled with evaporator/condenser cascades. Different refrigerants are used in each of the circuit depending on the optimum characteristics shown by the refrigerant for a particular application. In the present research study, a steady state thermodynamic model is developed which simulates the working of an actual cascade system. The model provides COP and all other system parameters e.g. total compressor work, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy at different state points. The working fluid in low temperature circuit (LTC) is CO2 (R744) while Ammonia (R717), Propane (R290), Propylene (R1270), R404A and R12 are the refrigerants in high temperature circuit (HTC). The performance curves of Ammonia, Propane, Propylene, and R404A are compared with R12 to find its nearest substitute. Results show that Ammonia is the best substitute of R12.
A TIPSO-SVM Expert System for Efficient Classification of TSTO Surrogates
Fully reusable spaceplanes do not exist as yet. This implies that design-qualification for optimized highly-integrated forebody-inlet configuration of booster-stage vehicle cannot be based on archival data of other spaceplanes. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel TIPSO-SVM expert system methodology. A non-trivial problem related to optimization and classification of hypersonic forebody-inlet configuration in conjunction with mass-model of the two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle is solved. The hybrid-heuristic machine learning methodology is based on two-step improved particle swarm optimizer (TIPSO) algorithm and two-step support vector machine (SVM) data classification method. The efficacy of method is tested by first evolving an optimal configuration for hypersonic compression system using TIPSO algorithm; thereafter, classifying the results using two-step SVM method. In the first step extensive but non-classified mass-model training data for multiple optimized configurations is segregated and pre-classified for learning of SVM algorithm. In second step the TIPSO optimized mass-model data is classified using the SVM classification. Results showed remarkable improvement in configuration and mass-model along with sizing parameters.
Modeling and Investigation of Volume Strain at Large Deformation under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading in Semi Crystalline Polymer
This study deals with the experimental investigation
and theoretical modeling of Semi crystalline polymeric materials with
a rubbery amorphous phase (HDPE) subjected to a uniaxial cyclic
tests with various maximum strain levels, even at large deformation.
Each cycle is loaded in tension up to certain maximum strain and
then unloaded down to zero stress with N number of cycles. This
work is focuses on the measure of the volume strain due to the
phenomena of damage during this kind of tests. On the basis of
thermodynamics of relaxation processes, a constitutive model for
large strain deformation has been developed, taking into account the
damage effect, to predict the complex elasto-viscoelastic-viscoplastic
behavior of material. A direct comparison between the model
predictions and the experimental data show that the model accurately
captures the material response. The model is also capable of
predicting the influence damage causing volume variation.
Thermodynamic, Structural and Transport Properties of Molten Copper-Thallium Alloys
A self-association model has been used to understand
the concentration dependence of free energy of mixing (GM), heat of
mixing (HM), entropy of mixing (SM), activity (a) and microscopic
structures, such as concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit
(Scc(0)) and Warren-Cowley short range order parameter ( 1
α )for Cu-
Tl molten alloys at 1573K. A comparative study of surface tension of
the alloys in the liquid state at that temperature has also been carried
out theoretically as function of composition in the light of Butler-s
model, Prasad-s model and quasi-chemical approach. Most of the
computed thermodynamic properties have been found in agreement
with the experimental values. The analysis reveals that the Cu-Tl
molten alloys at 1573K represent a segregating system at all
concentrations with moderate interaction. Surface tensions computed
from different approaches have been found to be comparable to each
other showing increment with the composition of copper.
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application
Most buildings have been using anchor bolts
commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts
of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed
indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area
where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor
advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is
very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of
high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present
study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional
vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt.
The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from
thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by
metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was
found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the
hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed
mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed
along the grain and phase boundaries.
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory
The equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of the
biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb(II) by a Spore Forming Bacillus (MGL
75) were investigated at different experimental conditions. The
Langmuir and Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)
equilibrium adsorption models were applied to describe the
biosorption of the metal ions by MGL 75 biomass. The Langmuir
model fitted the equilibrium data better than the other models.
Maximum adsorption capacities q max for lead (II) and cadmium (II)
were found equal to 158.73mg/g and 91.74 mg/g by Langmuir model.
The values of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation
showed that adsorption process is a physiosorption process. The
thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°),
and entropy (ΔS°) changes were also calculated, and the values
indicated that the biosorption process was exothermic and
spontaneous. Experiment data were also used to study biosorption
kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic
models. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption
capacities and related correlation coefficients were calculated and
discussed. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both
metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butan-2-ol - Ethanol - Water, Pentan-1-ol - Ethanol - Water and Toluene - Acetone - Water Systems
Experimental liquid-liquid equilibra of butan-2-ol -
ethanol -water; pentan-1-ol - ethanol - water and toluene - acetone -
water ternary systems were investigated at (25oC). The reliability of
the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias
and Hand plots. The distribution coefficients (D) and separation
factors (S) of the immiscibility region were evaluated for the three
A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand
The previous researches focused on the influence of
anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not
consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be
improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties.
Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert
surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area
of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the
desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar
area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat
exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces
between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can
increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand
particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat
the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may
thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to
future global warming if the current desertification continues to
Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents
Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil
extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The
120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple
mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the
essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under
certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior
Numerical Study of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle based on Blunted Waverider
The waverider is proved to be a remarkably useful
configuration for hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) in terms of the high
lift-to-drag ratio. Due to the severe aerodynamic heating and the
processing technical restriction, the sharp leading edge of waverider
should be blunted, and then the flow characteristics and the
aerodynamic performance along the trajectory will change. In this
paper, the flow characteristics of a HGV, including the rarefied gas
effect and transition phenomenon, were studied based on a reference
trajectory. A numerical simulation was carried out to study the
performance of the HGV under a typical condition.
Effects of Superheating on Thermodynamic Performance of Organic Rankine Cycles
Recently ORC(Organic Rankine Cycle) has attracted
much attention due to its potential in reducing consumption of fossil
fuels and its favorable characteristics to exploit low-grade heat sources.
In this work thermodynamic performance of ORC with superheating of
vapor is comparatively assessed for various working fluids. Special
attention is paid to the effects of system parameters such as the evaporating
temperature and the turbine inlet temperature on the characteristics
of the system such as maximum possible work extraction from
the given source, volumetric flow rate per 1 kW of net work and
quality of the working fluid at turbine exit as well as thermal and
exergy efficiencies. Results show that for a given source the thermal
efficiency increases with decrease of the superheating but exergy
efficiency may have a maximum value with respect to the superheating
of the working fluid. Results also show that in selection of working
fluid it is required to consider various criteria of performance characteristics
as well as thermal efficiency.
Techno-Economics Study to Select Optimum Desalination Plant for Asalouyeh Combined Cycle Power Plant in Iran
This research deals with techno economic analysis to select the most economic desalination method for Asalouyeh combined cycle power plant . Due to lack of fresh water, desalination of sea water is necessary to provide required DM water of Power Plant. The most common desalination methods are RO, MSF, MED, and MED–TVC. In this research, methods of RO, MED, and MED– TVC have been compared. Simulation results show that recovery of heat of exhaust gas of main stack is optimum case for providing DM water required for injected steam of MED desalination. This subject is very important because of improving thermal efficiency of power plant using extra heat recovery. Also, it has been shown that by adding 3 rows of finned tube to de-aerator evaporator, which is very simple and low cost, required steam for generating 5200 m3/day of desalinated water is obtainable.
Estimating the Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Biodiesels Using the UNIFAC Procedure
This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility
of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of
designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed
vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the
original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels
studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl
linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was
used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13
selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The
calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl
stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close
agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient
of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature.
Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast
amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of
Efficiency of Compact Organic Rankine Cycle System with Rotary-Vane-Type Expander for Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery
This paper describes the experimental efficiency of a
compact organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with a compact
rotary-vane-type expander. The compact ORC system can be used for
power generation from low-temperature heat sources such as waste
heat from various small-scale heat engines, fuel cells, electric devices,
and solar thermal energy. The purpose of this study is to develop an
ORC system with a low power output of less than 1 kW with a hot
temperature source ranging from 60°C to 100°C and a cold
temperature source ranging from 10°C to 30°C. The power output of
the system is rather less due to limited heat efficiency. Therefore, the
system should have an economically optimal efficiency. In order to
realize such a system, an efficient and low-cost expander is
indispensable. An experimental ORC system was developed using the
rotary-vane-type expander which is one of possible candidates of the
expander. The experimental results revealed the expander
performance for various rotation speeds, expander efficiencies, and
thermal efficiencies. Approximately 30 W of expander power output
with 48% expander efficiency and 4% thermal efficiency with a
temperature difference between the hot and cold sources of 80°C was
A Study on the Effects of Thermodynamic Nonideality and Mass Transfer on Multi-phase Hydrodynamics Using CFD Methods
Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.