Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 35

35
10010733
Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth
Abstract:

Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

34
10010578
Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.
33
10010218
Biosorption of Azo Dye Reactive Black B onto Nonviable Biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1: Thermodynamic, Kinetic and Equilibrium Modeling
Abstract:

This study investigated the biosorption of the azo dye reactive Black B (RBB) from aqueous solution using the nonviable biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1. The biosorption systems were carried out in batch mode considering different conditions of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent dosage. Higher removal rate of RBB was obtained at pH 2. Biosorption data were successfully described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity estimated at 71.43 mg/g. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S° indicated that the biosorption of RBB onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. It can be concluded that nonviable biomass of Cladosporium cladosporioides LM1 may be an attractive low-cost biosorbent for the removal of azo dye RBB from aqueous solution.

32
10009368
Malt Bagasse Waste as Biosorbent for Malachite Green: An Ecofriendly Approach for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution
Abstract:

In this study, malt bagasse, a low-cost waste biomass, was tested as a biosorbent to remove the cationic dye Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Batch biosorption experiments were investigated as functions of different experimental parameters such as initial pH, salt (NaCl) concentration, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration. Higher removal rates of MG were obtained at pH 8 and 10. The equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that the biosorption follows Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated at 117.65 mg/g (at 45 °C). According to Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of MG onto malt bagasse occurs physically. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that the MG biosorption onto malt bagasse is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance under high salt concentrations. It can be concluded that malt bagasse waste has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of MG from aqueous solution.

31
10008289
Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation
Abstract:

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

30
10008304
Energy Efficiency Analysis of Discharge Modes of an Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System
Abstract:

Efficient energy storage is a crucial factor in facilitating the uptake of renewable energy resources. Among the many options available for energy storage systems required to balance imbalanced supply and demand cycles, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven technology in grid-scale applications. This paper reviews the current state of micro scale CAES technology and describes a micro-scale advanced adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) system, where heat generated during compression is stored for use in the discharge phase. It will also describe a thermodynamic model, developed in EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to evaluate the performance and critical parameters of the discharge phase of the proposed system. Three configurations are explained including: single turbine without preheater, two turbines with preheaters, and three turbines with preheaters. It is shown that the micro-scale A-CAES is highly dependent upon key parameters including; regulator pressure, air pressure and volume, thermal energy storage temperature and flow rate and the number of turbines. It was found that a micro-scale AA-CAES, when optimized with an appropriate configuration, could deliver energy input to output efficiency of up to 70%.

29
10006295
Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2
Abstract:
With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.
28
10004983
Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption
Abstract:
The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.
27
10002890
Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Use: Sources Evaluation Perspective
Abstract:
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed mainly because of incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence. Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem have been established. However, with limited validity index, previous research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and Cluster Analysis (CA) in PAHs source identification along soil samples of different land uses. Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped, as Endocrine Disruption Substances (EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of PAHs along pyrolitic and petrogenic organics used in source signature is about the predominance PAHs in environmental matrix. Therefore, the distribution of PAHs in the studied stations revealed the presence of trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen PAHs, which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature authentication. Therefore, factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs could be; type and extent of bacterial metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental factors such as salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light intensity, temperature, co-substrates, and environmental medium are hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs.
26
10002050
A Thermodynamic Study of Parameters That Affect the Nitration of Glycerol with Nitric Acid
Abstract:
Biodiesel production from vegetable oil will produce glycerol as by-product about 10% of the biodiesel production. The amount of glycerol that was produced needed alternative way to handling immediately so as to not become the waste that polluted environment. One of the solutions was to process glycerol to polyglycidyl nitrate (PGN). PGN is synthesized from glycerol by three-step reactions i.e. nitration of glycerol, cyclization of 13- dinitroglycerine and polymerization of glycosyl nitrate. Optimum condition of nitration of glycerol with nitric acid has not been known. Thermodynamic feasibility should be done before run experiments in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to determine the parameters those affect nitration of glycerol and nitric acid and chose the operation condition. Many parameters were simulated to verify its possibility to experiment under conditions which would get the highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine and which was the ideal condition to get it. The parameters that need to be studied to obtain the highest conversion of 1, 3-dinitroglycerine were mol ratio of nitric acid/glycerol, reaction temperature, mol ratio of glycerol/dichloromethane and pressure. The highest conversion was obtained in the range of mol ratio of nitric acid /glycerol between 2/1 – 5/1, reaction temperature of 5-25oC and pressure of 1 atm. The parameters that need to be studied further to obtain the highest conversion of 1.3 DNG are mol ratio of nitric acid/glycerol and reaction temperature.
25
10001041
Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis for Overall Efficiency Improvement and Temperature Reduction in Gas Turbines
Abstract:

The paper presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for three turboshaft engines. The first cycle is a Brayton cycle, describing the evolution of a classical turboshaft, based on the Klimov TV2 engine. The other four cycles aim at approaching an Ericsson cycle, by replacing the Brayton cycle adiabatic expansion in the turbine by quasi-isothermal expansion. The maximum quasi- Ericsson cycles temperature is set to a lower value than the maximum Brayton cycle temperature, equal to the Brayton cycle power turbine inlet temperature, in order to decrease the engine NOx emissions. Also, the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine is maintained the same. In two of the considered quasi-Ericsson cycles, the efficiencies of the gas generator turbine, as well as the power/expansion ratio distribution over the stages of the gas generator turbine are maintained the same as for the reference case, while for the other two cases, the efficiencies are increased in order to obtain the same shaft power as in the reference case. For the two cases respecting the first condition, both the shaft power and the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine decrease, while for the other two, the power and efficiency are maintained, as a result of assuming new, more efficient gas generator turbines.

24
10000395
Studies on the Applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in Prediction of Thermodynamic Behavior of Sodium Chloride Aqueous System Containing a Non-Electrolytes
Abstract:

In this study a ternary system containing sodium chloride as solute, water as primary solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent was considered to investigate the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in prediction of sodium solubility in the mixture of water as the solvent and ethanol as the antisolvent. The system was previously studied using by Extended UNIQUAC model by the authors of this study. The comparison between the results of the two models shows an excellent agreement between them (R2=0.99), and also approves the capability of ANN to predict the thermodynamic behavior of ternary electrolyte systems which are difficult to model.

23
9998940
Thermodynamic Analysis of Cascade Refrigeration System Using R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23
Abstract:

The Montreal protocol and Kyoto protocol underlined the need of substitution of CFC’s and HCFC’s due to their adverse impact on atmospheric ozone layer which protects earth from U.V rays. The CFCs have been entirely ruled out since 1995 and a long-term basis HCFCs must be replaced by 2020. All this events motivated HFC refrigerants which are harmless to ozone layer. In this paper thermodynamic analysis of cascade refrigeration system has been done using three different refrigerant pairs R13-R12, R290-R23, and R404A-R23. Effect of various operating parameters i.e. evaporator temperature, condenser temperature, temperature difference in cascade condenser and low temperature cycle condenser temperature on performance parameters viz. COP, exergetic efficiency and refrigerant mass flow ratio have been studied. Thermodynamic analysis shows that out of three refrigerant pairs R12-R13, R290-R23 and R404A-R23 the COP of R290-R23 refrigerant pair is highest.

22
9999145
Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses
Abstract:

In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

21
9998066
Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE
Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

20
9997619
Performance Study of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants
Abstract:

Cascade refrigeration systems employ series of single stage vapor compression units which are thermally coupled with evaporator/condenser cascades. Different refrigerants are used in each of the circuit depending on the optimum characteristics shown by the refrigerant for a particular application. In the present research study, a steady state thermodynamic model is developed which simulates the working of an actual cascade system. The model provides COP and all other system parameters e.g. total compressor work, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy at different state points. The working fluid in low temperature circuit (LTC) is CO2 (R744) while Ammonia (R717), Propane (R290), Propylene (R1270), R404A and R12 are the refrigerants in high temperature circuit (HTC). The performance curves of Ammonia, Propane, Propylene, and R404A are compared with R12 to find its nearest substitute. Results show that Ammonia is the best substitute of R12.

19
9997678
A TIPSO-SVM Expert System for Efficient Classification of TSTO Surrogates
Abstract:

Fully reusable spaceplanes do not exist as yet. This implies that design-qualification for optimized highly-integrated forebody-inlet configuration of booster-stage vehicle cannot be based on archival data of other spaceplanes. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel TIPSO-SVM expert system methodology. A non-trivial problem related to optimization and classification of hypersonic forebody-inlet configuration in conjunction with mass-model of the two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle is solved. The hybrid-heuristic machine learning methodology is based on two-step improved particle swarm optimizer (TIPSO) algorithm and two-step support vector machine (SVM) data classification method. The efficacy of method is tested by first evolving an optimal configuration for hypersonic compression system using TIPSO algorithm; thereafter, classifying the results using two-step SVM method. In the first step extensive but non-classified mass-model training data for multiple optimized configurations is segregated and pre-classified for learning of SVM algorithm. In second step the TIPSO optimized mass-model data is classified using the SVM classification. Results showed remarkable improvement in configuration and mass-model along with sizing parameters.

18
13470
Modeling and Investigation of Volume Strain at Large Deformation under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading in Semi Crystalline Polymer
Abstract:
This study deals with the experimental investigation and theoretical modeling of Semi crystalline polymeric materials with a rubbery amorphous phase (HDPE) subjected to a uniaxial cyclic tests with various maximum strain levels, even at large deformation. Each cycle is loaded in tension up to certain maximum strain and then unloaded down to zero stress with N number of cycles. This work is focuses on the measure of the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage during this kind of tests. On the basis of thermodynamics of relaxation processes, a constitutive model for large strain deformation has been developed, taking into account the damage effect, to predict the complex elasto-viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior of material. A direct comparison between the model predictions and the experimental data show that the model accurately captures the material response. The model is also capable of predicting the influence damage causing volume variation.
17
1389
Thermodynamic, Structural and Transport Properties of Molten Copper-Thallium Alloys
Abstract:
A self-association model has been used to understand the concentration dependence of free energy of mixing (GM), heat of mixing (HM), entropy of mixing (SM), activity (a) and microscopic structures, such as concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit (Scc(0)) and Warren-Cowley short range order parameter ( 1 α )for Cu- Tl molten alloys at 1573K. A comparative study of surface tension of the alloys in the liquid state at that temperature has also been carried out theoretically as function of composition in the light of Butler-s model, Prasad-s model and quasi-chemical approach. Most of the computed thermodynamic properties have been found in agreement with the experimental values. The analysis reveals that the Cu-Tl molten alloys at 1573K represent a segregating system at all concentrations with moderate interaction. Surface tensions computed from different approaches have been found to be comparable to each other showing increment with the composition of copper.
16
8763
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application
Abstract:
Most buildings have been using anchor bolts commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt. The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed along the grain and phase boundaries.
15
573
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory
Abstract:
The equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb(II) by a Spore Forming Bacillus (MGL 75) were investigated at different experimental conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equilibrium adsorption models were applied to describe the biosorption of the metal ions by MGL 75 biomass. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the other models. Maximum adsorption capacities q max for lead (II) and cadmium (II) were found equal to 158.73mg/g and 91.74 mg/g by Langmuir model. The values of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation showed that adsorption process is a physiosorption process. The thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) changes were also calculated, and the values indicated that the biosorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Experiment data were also used to study biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities and related correlation coefficients were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.
14
3979
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butan-2-ol - Ethanol - Water, Pentan-1-ol - Ethanol - Water and Toluene - Acetone - Water Systems
Abstract:
Experimental liquid-liquid equilibra of butan-2-ol - ethanol -water; pentan-1-ol - ethanol - water and toluene - acetone - water ternary systems were investigated at (25oC). The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. The distribution coefficients (D) and separation factors (S) of the immiscibility region were evaluated for the three systems.
13
13964
A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand
Abstract:
The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.
12
13564
Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents
Abstract:
Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The 120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior catalyst.
11
5684
Numerical Study of Hypersonic Glide Vehicle based on Blunted Waverider
Abstract:
The waverider is proved to be a remarkably useful configuration for hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) in terms of the high lift-to-drag ratio. Due to the severe aerodynamic heating and the processing technical restriction, the sharp leading edge of waverider should be blunted, and then the flow characteristics and the aerodynamic performance along the trajectory will change. In this paper, the flow characteristics of a HGV, including the rarefied gas effect and transition phenomenon, were studied based on a reference trajectory. A numerical simulation was carried out to study the performance of the HGV under a typical condition.
10
14753
Effects of Superheating on Thermodynamic Performance of Organic Rankine Cycles
Abstract:
Recently ORC(Organic Rankine Cycle) has attracted much attention due to its potential in reducing consumption of fossil fuels and its favorable characteristics to exploit low-grade heat sources. In this work thermodynamic performance of ORC with superheating of vapor is comparatively assessed for various working fluids. Special attention is paid to the effects of system parameters such as the evaporating temperature and the turbine inlet temperature on the characteristics of the system such as maximum possible work extraction from the given source, volumetric flow rate per 1 kW of net work and quality of the working fluid at turbine exit as well as thermal and exergy efficiencies. Results show that for a given source the thermal efficiency increases with decrease of the superheating but exergy efficiency may have a maximum value with respect to the superheating of the working fluid. Results also show that in selection of working fluid it is required to consider various criteria of performance characteristics as well as thermal efficiency.
9
2533
Techno-Economics Study to Select Optimum Desalination Plant for Asalouyeh Combined Cycle Power Plant in Iran
Abstract:

This research deals with techno economic analysis to select the most economic desalination method for Asalouyeh combined cycle power plant . Due to lack of fresh water, desalination of sea water is necessary to provide required DM water of Power Plant. The most common desalination methods are RO, MSF, MED, and MED–TVC. In this research, methods of RO, MED, and MED– TVC have been compared. Simulation results show that recovery of heat of exhaust gas of main stack is optimum case for providing DM water required for injected steam of MED desalination. This subject is very important because of improving thermal efficiency of power plant using extra heat recovery. Also, it has been shown that by adding 3 rows of finned tube to de-aerator evaporator, which is very simple and low cost, required steam for generating 5200 m3/day of desalinated water is obtainable.

8
7164
Estimating the Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds in Four Biodiesels Using the UNIFAC Procedure
Abstract:
This work considered the thermodynamic feasibility of scrubbing volatile organic compounds into biodiesel in view of designing a gas treatment process with this absorbent. A detailed vapour – liquid equilibrium investigation was performed using the original UNIFAC group contribution method. The four biodiesels studied in this work are methyl oleate, methyl palmitate, methyl linolenate and ethyl stearate. The original UNIFAC procedure was used to estimate the infinite dilution activity coefficients of 13 selected volatile organic compounds in the biodiesels. The calculations were done at the VOC mole fraction of 9.213x10-8. Ethyl stearate gave the most favourable phase equilibrium. A close agreement was found between the infinite dilution activity coefficient of toluene found in this work and those reported in literature. Thermodynamic models can efficiently be used to calculate vast amount of phase equilibrium behaviour using limited number of experimental data.
7
6420
Efficiency of Compact Organic Rankine Cycle System with Rotary-Vane-Type Expander for Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery
Abstract:
This paper describes the experimental efficiency of a compact organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with a compact rotary-vane-type expander. The compact ORC system can be used for power generation from low-temperature heat sources such as waste heat from various small-scale heat engines, fuel cells, electric devices, and solar thermal energy. The purpose of this study is to develop an ORC system with a low power output of less than 1 kW with a hot temperature source ranging from 60°C to 100°C and a cold temperature source ranging from 10°C to 30°C. The power output of the system is rather less due to limited heat efficiency. Therefore, the system should have an economically optimal efficiency. In order to realize such a system, an efficient and low-cost expander is indispensable. An experimental ORC system was developed using the rotary-vane-type expander which is one of possible candidates of the expander. The experimental results revealed the expander performance for various rotation speeds, expander efficiencies, and thermal efficiencies. Approximately 30 W of expander power output with 48% expander efficiency and 4% thermal efficiency with a temperature difference between the hot and cold sources of 80°C was achieved.
6
195
A Study on the Effects of Thermodynamic Nonideality and Mass Transfer on Multi-phase Hydrodynamics Using CFD Methods
Abstract:

Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.


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