Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

12
10007474
Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids
Abstract:
Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect is able to change the flow topology: a complex K´arm´an vortex street occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow, giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies, furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.
11
9999580
Application of Vortex Induced Vibration Energy Generation Technologies to the Offshore Oil and Gas Platform: The Preliminary Study
Abstract:

The global demand for continuous and eco-friendly renewable energy as alternative to fossils fuels is large and ever growing in nowadays. This paper will focus on capability of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) phenomenon in generating alternative energy for offshore platform application. In order to maximize the potential of energy generation, the effects of lock in phenomenon and different geometries of cylinder were studied in this project. VIV is the motion induced on bluff body which creates alternating lift forces perpendicular to fluid flow. Normally, VIV is unwanted in order to prevent mechanical failure of the vibrating structures. But in this project, instead of eliminating these vibrations, VIV will be exploited to transform these vibrations into a valuable resource of energy.

10
9998430
Flow Control around Bluff Bodies by Attached Permeable Plates
Abstract:

The aim of present study is to control the unsteady flow structure downstream of a circular cylinder by use of attached permeable plates. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique and dye visualization experiments were performed in deep water and the flow characteristics were evaluated by means of time-averaged streamlines, Reynolds Shear Stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy concentrations. The permeable plate was made of a chrome-nickel screen having a porosity value of β=0.6 and it was attached on the cylinder surface along its midspan. Five different angles were given to the plate (θ=0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o) with respect to the centerline of the cylinder in order to examine its effect on the flow control. It was shown that the permeable plate is effective on elongating the vortex formation length and reducing the fluctuations in the wake region. Compared to the plain cylinder, the reductions in the values of maximum Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy were evaluated as 72.5% and 66%, respectively for the plate angles of θ=45oand 60o which were also found to be suggested for applications concerning the vortex shedding and consequent Vortex-Induced Vibrations.

9
9997036
Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders
Abstract:

Thewake flow behind two yawed side-by-sidecircular  cylinders is investigated using athree-dimensional vorticity probe.  Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and twocylinder  spacing ratios T*  of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T*  = 3.0, there exist  two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and  isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent streamwise  vorticity ~* ωx  is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity ~* ωz .  With the increase of α,  ~* ωx  increases whereas ~* ωz  decreases. At α =  45°, ~* ωx  is about 67% of ~* ωz .For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is  detected in the energy spectrum. The spanwise vorticity contours have  an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity  contours of ~* ω x  and ~* ωz  for T*  = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those  for T*  = 3.0.The independence principle (IP)in terms of Strouhal  numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.

 

8
17120
Weakened Vortex Shedding from a Rotating Cylinder
Authors:
Abstract:

An experimental study of the turbulent near wake of a rotating circular cylinder was made at a Reynolds number of 2000 for velocity ratios, λ between 0 and 2.7. Particle image velocimetry data are analyzed to study the effects of rotation on the flow structures behind the cylinder. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant changes in the vortex formation. Kármán vortex shedding pattern of alternating vortices gives rise to strong periodic fluctuations of a vortex street for λ < 2.0. Alternate vortex shedding is weak and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0 resulting a distorted street with vortices of alternating sense subsequently being found on opposite sides. Only part of the circulation is shed due to the interference in the separation point, mixing in the base region, re-attachment, and vortex cut-off phenomenon. Alternating vortex shedding pattern diminishes and completely disappears when the velocity ratio is 2.7. The shed vortices are insignificant in size and forming a single line of vortex street. It is clear that flow asymmetries will deteriorate vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are large enough, total inhibition of a periodic street occurs.

7
16519
CFD Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Vibrator for Stuck - Pipe Liquidation
Abstract:

Stuck-pipe in drilling operations is one of the most pressing and expensive problems in the oil industry. This paper describes a computational simulation and an experimental study of the hydrodynamic vibrator, which may be used for liquidation of stuck-pipe problems during well drilling. The work principle of the vibrator is based upon the known phenomena of Vortex Street of Karman and the resulting generation of vibrations. We will discuss the computational simulation and experimental investigations of vibrations in this device. The frequency of the vibration parameters has been measured as a function of the wide range Reynolds Number. The validity of the computational simulation and of the assumptions on which it is based has been proved experimentally. The computational simulation of the vibrator work and its effectiveness was carried out using FLUENT software. The research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests and allowed to determine the effect of the granular material features upon the pipe vibration in the well. This study demonstrates the potential of using the hydrodynamic vibrator in a well drilling system.

6
1394
Self-Excited Vibration in Hydraulic Ball Check Valve
Abstract:
This paper describes an experimental, theoretical model and numerical study of concentrated vortex flow past a sphere in a hydraulic check valve. The phenomenon of the rotation of the ball around the axis of the device through which liquid flows has been found. That is, due to the rotation of the sphere in the check valve vibration is caused. We observe the rotation of the sphere around the longitudinal axis of the check valve. This rotation is induced by a vortex shedding from the sphere. We will discuss computational simulation and experimental investigations of this strong sphere rotation. The frequency of the sphere vibration and interaction with the check valve wall has been measured as a function of the wide range Reynolds Number. The validity of the computational simulation and of the assumptions on which it is based has been proved experimentally. This study demonstrates the possibility to control the vibrations in a hydraulic system and proves to be very effective suppression of the self-excited vibration.
5
14199
Efficient Numerical Model for Studying Bridge Pier Collapse in Floods
Abstract:
High level and high velocity flood flows are potentially harmful to bridge piers as evidenced in many toppled piers, and among them the single-column piers were considered as the most vulnerable. The flood flow characteristic parameters including drag coefficient, scouring and vortex shedding are built into a pier-flood interaction model to investigate structural safety against flood hazards considering the effects of local scouring, hydrodynamic forces, and vortex induced resonance vibrations. By extracting the pier-flood simulation results embedded in a neural networks code, two cases of pier toppling occurred in typhoon days were reexamined: (1) a bridge overcome by flash flood near a mountain side; (2) a bridge washed off in flood across a wide channel near the estuary. The modeling procedures and simulations are capable of identifying the probable causes for the tumbled bridge piers during heavy floods, which include the excessive pier bending moments and resonance in structural vibrations.
4
13437
Numerical Simulations of Cross-Flow around Four Square Cylinders in an In-Line Rectangular Configuration
Abstract:
A two-dimensional numerical simulation of crossflow around four cylinders in an in-line rectangular configuration is studied by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Special attention is paid to the effect of the spacing between the cylinders. The Reynolds number ( Re ) is chosen to be e 100 R = and the spacing ratio L / D is set at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0. Results show that, as in the case of four cylinders in an inline rectangular configuration , flow fields show four different features depending on the spacing (single square cylinder, stable shielding flow, wiggling shielding flow and a vortex shedding flow) are observed in this study. The effects of spacing ratio on physical quantities such as mean drag coefficient, Strouhal number and rootmean- square value of the drag and lift coefficients are also presented. There is more than one shedding frequency at small spacing ratios. The mean drag coefficients for downstream cylinders are less than that of the single cylinder for all spacing ratios. The present results using the LBM are compared with some existing experimental data and numerical studies. The comparison shows that the LBM can capture the characteristics of the bluff body flow reasonably well and is a good tool for bluff body flow studies.
3
10612
Vortex Shedding on Combined Bodies at Incidence to a Uniform Air Stream
Abstract:
Vortex-shedding phenomenon of the flow around combined two bodies having various geometries and sizes has been investigated experimentally in the Reynolds number range between 4.1x103 and 1.75x104. To see the effect of the rotation of the bodies on the vortex shedding, the combined bodies were rotated from 0° to 180°. The combined models have a cross section composing of a main circular cylinder and an attached circular or square cylinder. Results have shown that Strouhal numbers for two cases were changed considerably with the angle of incidence, while it was found to be largely independent of Reynolds number at 150. Characteristics of the vortex formation region and location of flow attachments, reattachments, and separations were observed by means of the flow visualizations. Depending on the inclination angle the effects of flow attachment, separation and reattachment on vortex-shedding phenomenon have been discussed.
2
10616
Vortex Shedding at the End of Parallel-plate Thermoacoustic Stack in the Oscillatory Flow Conditions
Abstract:
This paper investigates vortex shedding processes occurring at the end of a stack of parallel plates, due to an oscillating flow induced by an acoustic standing wave within an acoustic resonator. Here, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to quantify the vortex shedding processes within an acoustic cycle phase-by-phase, in particular during the “ejection" of the fluid out of the stack. Standard hot-wire anemometry measurement is also applied to detect the velocity fluctuations near the end of the stack. Combination of these two measurement techniques allowed a detailed analysis of the vortex shedding phenomena. The results obtained show that, as the Reynolds number varies (by varying the plate thickness and drive ratio), different flow patterns of vortex shedding are observed by the PIV measurement. On the other hand, the time-dependent hot-wire measurements allow obtaining detailed frequency spectra of the velocity signal, used for calculating characteristic Strouhal numbers. The impact of the plate thickness and the Reynolds number on the vortex shedding pattern has been discussed. Furthermore, a detailed map of the relationship between the Strouhal number and Reynolds number has been obtained and discussed.
1
285
The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels
Abstract:
Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to 1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.

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