Numerical and Experimental Comparison of Surface Pressures around a Scaled Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion System
Significant legislative changes are set to revolutionise the commercial shipping industry. Upcoming emissions restrictions will force operators to look at technologies that can improve the efficiency of their vessels -reducing fuel consumption and emissions. A device which may help in this challenge is the Ship Wind-Assisted Propulsion system (SWAP), an actively controlled aerofoil mounted vertically on the deck of a ship. The device functions in a similar manner to a sail on a yacht, whereby the aerodynamic forces generated by the sail reach an equilibrium with the hydrodynamic forces on the hull and a forward velocity results. Numerical and experimental testing of the SWAP device is presented in this study. Circulation control takes the form of a co-flow jet aerofoil, utilising both blowing from the leading edge and suction from the trailing edge. A jet at the leading edge uses the Coanda effect to energise the boundary layer in order to delay flow separation and create high lift with low drag. The SWAP concept has been originated by the research and development team at SMAR Azure Ltd. The device will be retrofitted to existing ships so that a component of the aerodynamic forces acts forward and partially reduces the reliance on existing propulsion systems. Wind tunnel tests have been carried out at the de Havilland wind tunnel at the University of Glasgow on a 1:20 scale model of this system. The tests aim to understand the airflow characteristics around the aerofoil and investigate the approximate lift and drag coefficients that an early iteration of the SWAP device may produce. The data exhibits clear trends of increasing lift as injection momentum increases, with critical flow attachment points being identified at specific combinations of jet momentum coefficient, Cµ, and angle of attack, AOA. Various combinations of flow conditions were tested, with the jet momentum coefficient ranging from 0 to 0.7 and the AOA ranging from 0° to 35°. The Reynolds number across the tested conditions ranged from 80,000 to 240,000. Comparisons between 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and the experimental data are presented for multiple Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in the form of normalised surface pressure comparisons. These show good agreement for most of the tested cases. However, certain simulation conditions exhibited a well-documented shortcoming of RANS-based turbulence models for circulation control flows and over-predicted surface pressures and lift coefficient for fully attached flow cases. Work must be continued in finding an all-encompassing modelling approach which predicts surface pressures well for all combinations of jet injection momentum and AOA.
Supersonic Flow around a Dihedral Airfoil: Modeling and Experimentation Investigation
Numerical modeling of fluid flows, whether compressible or incompressible, laminar or turbulent presents a considerable contribution in the scientific and industrial fields. However, the development of an approximate model of a supersonic flow requires the introduction of specific and more precise techniques and methods. For this purpose, the object of this paper is modeling a supersonic flow of inviscid fluid around a dihedral airfoil. Based on the thin airfoils theory and the non-dimensional stationary Steichen equation of a two-dimensional supersonic flow in isentropic evolution, we obtained a solution for the downstream velocity potential of the oblique shock at the second order of relative thickness that characterizes a perturbation parameter. This result has been dealt with by the asymptotic analysis and characteristics method. In order to validate our model, the results are discussed in comparison with theoretical and experimental results. Indeed, firstly, the comparison of the results of our model has shown that they are quantitatively acceptable compared to the existing theoretical results. Finally, an experimental study was conducted using the AF300 supersonic wind tunnel. In this experiment, we have considered the incident upstream Mach number over a symmetrical dihedral airfoil wing. The comparison of the different Mach number downstream results of our model with those of the existing theoretical data (relative margin between 0.07% and 4%) and with experimental results (concordance for a deflection angle between 1° and 11°) support the validation of our model with accuracy.
Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient
Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.
An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances
This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.
Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility
Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.
Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.
An Analytical Study of Small Unmanned Arial Vehicle Dynamic Stability Characteristics
This paper presents an analytical study of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) dynamic stability derivatives. Simulating SUAV dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the earliest design stages is too important and more efficient design aspect. The approach suggested in this paper is using the wind tunnel experiment to collect the aerodynamic data and get the dynamic stability derivatives. AutoCAD Software was used to draw the case study (wildlife surveillance SUAV). The SUAV is scaled down to be 0.25% of the real SUAV dimensions and converted to a wind tunnel model. The model was tested in three different speeds for three different attitudes which are; pitch, roll and yaw. The wind tunnel results were then used to determine the case study stability derivative values, and hence it used to calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for both longitudinal and lateral motions. Finally, the characteristic equation roots were found and discussed in all possible cases.
Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter
In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.
Half Model Testing for Canard of a Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
Due to the interference effects, the intrinsic
aerodynamic parameters obtained from the individual component
testing are always fundamentally different than those obtained for
complete model testing. Consideration and limitation for such testing
need to be taken into account in any design work related to the
component buildup method. In this paper, the scaled model of a
straight rectangular canard of a hybrid buoyant aircraft is tested at 50
m/s in IIUM-LSWT (Low Speed Wind Tunnel). Model and its
attachment with the balance are kept rigid to have results free from
the aeroelastic distortion. Based on the velocity profile of the test
section’s floor; the height of the model is kept equal to the
corresponding boundary layer displacement. Balance measurements
provide valuable but limited information of overall aerodynamic
behavior of the model. Zero lift coefficient is obtained at -2.2o and
the corresponding drag coefficient was found to be less than that at
zero angle of attack. As a part of the validation of low fidelity tool,
plot of lift coefficient plot was verified by the experimental data and
except the value of zero lift coefficients, the overall trend has under
predicted the lift coefficient. Based on this comparative study, a
correction factor of 1.36 is proposed for lift curve slope obtained
from the panel method.
Risk of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Recycled Aggregate Concrete
The intensive use of natural aggregates, near cities and towns, associated to the increase of the global population, leads to its depletion and increases the transport distances. The uncontrolled deposition of construction and demolition waste in landfills and city outskirts, causes pollution and takes up space. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete preparation would contribute to mitigate the problem. However, it arises the problem that the high water absorption of recycled aggregate decreases the bleeding rate of concrete, and when this gets lower than the evaporation rate, plastic shrinkage cracking occurs. This phenomenon can be particularly problematic in hot and windy curing environments. Cracking facilitates the flow of liquid and gas into concrete which attacks the reinforcement and degrades the concrete. These factors reduce the durability of concrete structures and consequently the lifetime of buildings. A ring test was used, cured in a wind tunnel, to evaluate the plastic shrinkage cracking sensitivity of recycled aggregate concrete, in order to implement preventive means to control this phenomenon. The role of several aggregate properties on the concrete segregation and cracking mechanisms were also discussed.
Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic Development Testing
The study of the aerodynamics related to the
improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the
objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on
structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel.
The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more
limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. Therefore, this
research aims to design and construction of a wind tunnel to perform
aerodynamic analysis in bodies of cars, seeking greater efficiency.
Therefore, this research aims to design and construction of a wind
tunnel to perform aerodynamic analysis in bodies of cars, seeking
greater efficiency. For this, a methodology for wind tunnel type
selection is designed to be built, taking into account the various
existing configurations in which chose to build an open circuit tunnel,
due to the lower complexity of construction and installation;
operational simplicity and low cost. The guidelines for the project
were teaching: the layer that limits study and analyze specimens with
different geometries. For the variation of pressure in the test, section
of a switched gauge used a pitot tube. Thus, it was possible to obtain
quantitative and qualitative results, which proved to be satisfactory.
Aerodynamic Study of Vehicle Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel for Analysis of Bodies
The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians’ comfort, and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20V generated by a thread of 2,5mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.
Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube
Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.
The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body
The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.
Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Turbulent Flow around the Panorama Giustinelli Building for VAWT Application
A boundary layer wind tunnel facility has been
adopted in order to conduct experimental measurements of the flow field around a model of the Panorama Giustinelli Building, Trieste
(Italy). Information on the main flow structures has been obtained by means of flow visualization techniques and has been compared to the
numerical predictions of the vortical structures spread on top of the roof, in order to investigate the optimal positioning for a vertical-axis
wind energy conversion system, registering a good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical predictions.
Drag Analysis of an Aircraft Wing Model withand without Bird Feather like Winglet
This work describes the aerodynamic characteristic for
aircraft wing model with and without bird feather like winglet. The
aerofoil used to construct the whole structure is NACA 653-218
Rectangular wing and this aerofoil has been used to compare the
result with previous research using winglet. The model of the
rectangular wing with bird feather like winglet has been fabricated
using polystyrene before design using CATIA P3 V5R13 software
and finally fabricated in wood. The experimental analysis for the
aerodynamic characteristic for rectangular wing without winglet,
wing with horizontal winglet and wing with 60 degree inclination
winglet for Reynolds number 1.66×105, 2.08×105 and 2.50×105 have
been carried out in open loop low speed wind tunnel at the
Aerodynamics laboratory in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The
experimental result shows 25-30 % reduction in drag coefficient and
10-20 % increase in lift coefficient by using bird feather like winglet
for angle of attack of 8 degree.
Design and Performance Analysis of a Supersonic Diffuser for Plasma Wing Tunnel
Plasma Wind Tunnels (PWT) are extensively used for screening and qualification of re-entry Thermel Protection System (TPS) materials. Proper design of a supersonic diffuser for plasma wind tunnel is of importance for achieving good pressurerecovery (thereby reducing vacuum pumping requirement & run time costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuations from propagating costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuationnts the details of a rapid design methodology successfully employed for designing supersonic diffuser for high power (several megawatts)plasma wind tunnels and numerical performance analysis of a diffuser configuration designed for one megawatt power rated plasma wind tunnel(enthalpy ~ 30 MJ/kg) using FLUENT 6.3® solver for different diffuser operating sub-atmospheric back-pressures.
Application of Fuzzy Logic Approach for an Aircraft Model with and without Winglet
The measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments
acting on an aircraft model is important for the development of wind
tunnel measurement technology to predict the performance of the full
scale vehicle. The potentials of an aircraft model with and without
winglet and aerodynamic characteristics with NACA wing No. 65-3-
218 have been studied using subsonic wind tunnel of 1 m × 1 m
rectangular test section and 2.5 m long of Aerodynamics Laboratory
Faculty of Engineering (University Putra Malaysia). Focusing on
analyzing the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft model, two
main issues are studied in this paper. First, a six component wind
tunnel external balance is used for measuring lift, drag and pitching
moment. Secondly, Tests are conducted on the aircraft model with
and without winglet of two configurations at Reynolds numbers
1.7×105, 2.1×105, and 2.5×105 for different angle of attacks. Fuzzy
logic approach is found as efficient for the representation,
manipulation and utilization of aerodynamic characteristics.
Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the
relationship between lift and drag coefficients, with free-stream
velocities and angle of attacks, and to illustrate how fuzzy logic
might play an important role in study of lift aerodynamic
characteristics of an aircraft model with the addition of certain
winglet configurations. Results of the developed fuzzy logic were
compared with the experimental results. For lift coefficient analysis,
the mean of actual and predicted values were 0.62 and 0.60
respectively. The coreelation between actual and predicted values
(from FLS model) of lift coefficient in different angle of attack was
found as 0.99. The mean relative error of actual and predicted valus
was found as 5.18% for the velocity of 26.36 m/s which was found to
be less than the acceptable limits (10%). The goodness of fit of
prediction value was 0.95 which was close to 1.0.
New Hybrid Method to Correct for Wind Tunnel Wall- and Support Interference On-line
Because support interference corrections are not properly
understood, engineers mostly rely on expensive dummy measurements
or CFD calculations. This paper presents a method based on uncorrected wind tunnel measurements and fast calculation techniques
(it is a hybrid method) to calculate wall interference, support interference and residual interference (when e.g. a support member
closely approaches the wind tunnel walls) for any type of wind tunnel and support configuration. The method provides with a simple formula
for the calculation of the interference gradient. This gradient is
based on the uncorrected measurements and a successive calculation
of the slopes of the interference-free aerodynamic coefficients. For the latter purpose a new vortex-lattice routine is developed that corrects
the slopes for viscous effects. A test case of a measurement on a wing proves the value of this hybrid method as trends and orders of
magnitudes of the interference are correctly determined.
Wind-tunnel Measurement of the Drag-reducing Effect of Compliant Coating
A specially designed flat plate was mounted vertically
over the axial line in the wind tunnel of the Aerospace Department of
the Pusan National University. The plate is 2 m long, 0.8 m high and 8
cm thick. The measurements were performed in velocity range from
15 to 60 m/s. A sand paper turbulizer was placed close to the plate nose
to provide fully developed turbulent boundary layer over the most part
of the plate. Strain balances were mounted in the trailing part of the
plate to measure the skin friction drag over removable insertions of
0.55×0.25m2 size. A set of the insertions was designed and
manufactured: 3mm thick polished metal surface and three compliant
surfaces. The compliant surfaces were manufactured of a silicone
rubber Silastic® S2 (Dow Corning company). To modify the
viscoelastic properties of the rubber, its composition was varied: 90%
of the rubber + 10% catalyst (standard), 92.5% + 7.5% (weak), 85% +
15% (strong). Modulus of elasticity and the loss tangent were
measured accurately for these materials in the frequency range from
40 Hz to 3 KHz using the unique proposed technique.
Analytical and Experimental Methods of Design for Supersonic Two-Stage Ejectors
In this paper the supersonic ejectors are
experimentally and analytically studied. Ejector is a device that
uses the energy of a fluid to move another fluid. This device works
like a vacuum pump without usage of piston, rotor or any other
moving component. An ejector contains an active nozzle, a passive
nozzle, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. Since the fluid viscosity
is large, and the flow is turbulent and three dimensional in the
mixing chamber, the numerical methods consume long time and
high cost to analyze the flow in ejectors. Therefore this paper
presents a simple analytical method that is based on the precise
governing equations in fluid mechanics. According to achieved
analytical relations, a computer code has been prepared to analyze
the flow in different components of the ejector. An experiment has
been performed in supersonic regime 1.5
Application of RP Technology with Polycarbonate Material for Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication
Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal
and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways
to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid
prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype
manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly
reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This
study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability
to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost
effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel
model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind
tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid
prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using
polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing
covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack
range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively
good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping
Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models.
It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models
constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be
used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database