Effects of Gelatin on Characteristics and Dental Pathogen Inhibition by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Ascorbic Acid
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and silver nitrate as a precursor. The effects of gelatin (G) on particle characteristics and dental pathogen inhibition were investigated. The spectra of AgNPs and G-AgNPs were compared using UV-Vis and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The obtained AgNPs and G-AgNPs showed the maximum absorption at 410 and 430 nm, respectively, and EDX spectra of both systems confirmed Ag element. Scanning electron microscope showed that AgNPs and G-AgNPs were spherical in shape. Particles size, size distribution, and zeta potential were determined using dynamic light scattering approach. The size of AgNPs and G-AgNPs were 56 ± 2.4 and 67 ± 3.6 nm, respectively with a size distribution of 0.23 ± 0.03 and 0.19 ± 0.02, respectively. AgNPs and G-AgNPs exhibited negative zeta potential of 24.1 ± 2.7 mV and 32.7 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the obtained AgNPs and G-AgNPs against three strains of dental pathogenic bacteria; Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using broth dilution method. AgNPs and G-AgNPs showed the strongest inhibition against S. gordonii with the MIC of 0.05 and 0.025 mg/mL, respectively and the MBC of 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity test of AgNPs and G-AgNPs on human breast cancer cells using MTT assay indicated that G-AgNPs (0.1 mg/mL) was significantly stronger toxic than AgNPs with the cell inhibition of 91.1 ± 5.4%. G-AgNPs showed significantly less aggregation after storage at room temperature for 90 days than G-AgNPs.