A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons
CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength, and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.
Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load
The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.
Experimental Investigation of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Strip under Impact Loading
Many buildings and bridges are damaged due to impact loading, explosions, terrorist attacks and wars. Most of the damaged structures members such as beams, columns and slabs are not totally failed and it can be repaired. Nowadays, carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP has been wildly used in strengthening and retrofitting the structures members. CFRP can rector the load carrying capacity of the damaged structures members to make them serviceable. An experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the impact behaviour of the damaged beams repaired with CFRP. The tested beams had different degrees of damage and near surface mounted technique NSM was used to install the CFRP. A heavy drop weight impact test machine was used to conduct the experimental work. The study investigated the impact strength, stiffness, cracks and deflection of the CFRP repaired beams. The results show that CFRP significantly increased the impact resistance of the damaged beams. CFRP increased the damaged beams stiffness and reduced the deflection. The results showed that the NSM technique is more effective in repairing beams and preventing the debonding of the CFRP.
Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis
The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.
Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.
Repair and Strengthening of Plain and FRC Shear Deficient Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP Sheets
This paper presents experimental and analytical study on the behavior of repaired and strengthened shear critical RC beams using externally bonded CFRP bi-directional fabrics. The use of CFRP sheets to repair or strengthen RC beams has been repetitively studied and proven feasible. However, the use of combined repair techniques and applying that method to both plain and FRC beams can maximize the shear capacity of RC shear deficient beams. A total of twelve slender beams were tested under four-point bending. The test parameters included CFRP layout, number of layers and fiber direction, injecting cracks before applying repairing sheets, enhancing the flexural capacity to differentiate between shear repair and strengthening techniques, and concrete matrix types. The findings revealed that applying CFRP sheets increased the overall shear capacity, the amount and orientation of wrapping is of prime importance in both repairing and strengthening, CFRP wrapping could change the failure mode from shear to flexural shear, the use of crack injection combined to CFRP wrapping further improved the shear capacity while, applying the previous method to FRC beams enhanced both shear capacity and failure ductility. Acceptable agreement was found between predicted shear capacities using the Canadian code and the experimental results of the current study.
Shear Strengthening of RC T-Beams by Means of CFRP Sheets
This research aimed to experimentally and analytically investigate the contribution of bonded web carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets to the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. Two strengthening techniques using CFRP strips were applied along the shear-span zone: the first one is vertical U-jacket and the later is vertical strips bonded to the beam sides only. Fibers of both U-jacket and side sheets were vertically oriented (θ = 90°). Test results showed that the strengthening technique with U-jacket CFRP sheets improved the shear strength particularly. Three mechanisms of failure were recognized for the tested beams depending upon the end condition of the bonded CFRP sheet. Although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket CFRP sheets showed more or less a ductile behavior at a higher loading level up to a load level just before failure. As a consequence, these beams approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility. Moreover, the obtained results concerning both the strains induced in the CFRP sheets and the maximum loads are used to study the applicability of the analytical models proposed in this study (ACI code) to predict: the nominal shear strength of the strengthened beams.
Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading
This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.
A Study on the Comparatison of Mechanical and Thermal Properties According to Laminated Orientation of CFRP through Bending Test
In rapid industrial development has increased the demand for high-strength and lightweight materials. Thus, various CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) with composite materials are being used. The design variables of CFRP are its lamination direction, order, and thickness. Thus, the hardness and strength of CFRP depend much on their design variables. In this paper, the lamination direction of CFRP was used to produce a symmetrical ply [0°/0°, -15°/+15°, -30°/+30°, -45°/+45°, -60°/+60°, -75°/+75°, and 90°/90°] and an asymmetrical ply [0°/15°, 0°/30°, 0°/45°, 0°/60° 0°/75°, and 0°/90°]. The bending flexure stress of the CFRP specimen was evaluated through a bending test. Its thermal property was measured using an infrared camera. The symmetrical specimen and the asymmetrical specimen were analyzed. The results showed that the asymmetrical specimen increased the bending loads according to the increase in the orientation angle; and from 0°, the symmetrical specimen showed a tendency opposite the asymmetrical tendency because the tensile force of fiber differs at the vertical direction of its load. Also, the infrared camera showed that the thermal property had a trend similar to that of the mechanical properties.
Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers
This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.
The Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Exposed for Different Environment Conditions
The repair and strengthening of concrete structures is a big challenge for the concrete industry for both engineers and contractors. Due to increasing economical constraints, the current trend is to repair/upgrade deteriorated and functionally obsolete structures rather than replacing them with new structures. CFRP has been used previously by air space industries regardless of the high costs. The decrease in the costs of the composite materials, as results of the technology improvement, has made CFRP an alternative to conventional materials for many applications. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams externally strengthened with CFRP composites exposed for three years for the following conditions: (a) room temperature, (b) cyclic ponding in 15% salt-water solution, (c) hot-water of 65oC, and (d) rapid freeze/thaw cycles. Results indicated that the after three years of various environmental conditions, the bond strength between the concrete beams and CFRP sheets was not affected. No signs of separation or debonding of CFRP sheets were observed before testing. Also, externally strengthening RC beams with CFRP sheets leads to a substantial increase in the ductility of concrete structures. This is a result of forcing the concrete to undergo inelastic deformation, resulting in compression failure of the structure after yielding of steel reinforcement. In addition, exposure to heat water tank for three years reduces the ultimate load by about 11%. This 11% reduction in the ultimate load equates to about 53%, 46% and 68% loss of the gain of the strength attributed to the CFRP of 2/3 Layer, 1 Layers and 2 Layers CFRP Sheets respectively. This mean that with decreasing of number of layers the environmental exposure had an efficient effect on concrete by protection concrete from environmental effect and adverse effect on the bond performance.
Determination of Fatigue Limit in Post Impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Polymer (CFRP) Specimens Using Self Heating Methodology
This paper presents the experimental identification of the fatigue limit for pristine and impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy polymer (CFRP) woven composites based on the relatively new self-heating methodology for composites. CFRP composites of [0/90]8 and quasi isotropic configurations prepared using hand-layup technique are subjected to low energy impacts (20 J energy) simulating a barely visible impact damage (BVID). Runway debris strike, tool drop or hailstone impact can cause a BVID on an aircraft fuselage made of carbon composites and hence understanding the post-impact fatigue response of CFRP laminates is of immense importance to the aerospace community. The BVID zone on the specimens is characterized using X-ray Tomography technique. Both pristine and impacted specimens are subjected to several blocks of constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loading keeping R-ratio a constant but with increments in the mean loading stress after each block. The number of loading cycles in each block is a subjective parameter and it varies for pristine and impacted CFRP specimens. To monitor the temperature evolution during fatigue loading, thermocouples are pasted on the CFRP specimens at specific locations. The fatigue limit is determined by two strategies, first is by considering the stabilized temperature in every block and second is by considering the change in the temperature slope per block. The results show that both strategies can be adopted to determine the fatigue limit in both pristine and impacted CFRP composites.
Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application
Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: One is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.
Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure
The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.
Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam
Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.
Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions
This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.
Non-Linear Finite Element Investigation on the Behavior of CFRP Strengthened Steel Square HSS Columns under Eccentric Loading
Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite materials have proven to have valuable properties and suitability to be used in the construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones due to its effectiveness, ease of implementation and many more. In the present study, a numerical finite element investigation has been conducted using ANSYS 18.1 to study the behavior of square HSS AISC sections under eccentric compressive loading strengthened with CFRP materials. A three-dimensional finite element model for square HSS section using shell element was developed. Application of CFRP strengthening was incorporated in the finite element model by adding an additional layer of shell elements. Both material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated in the model. The developed finite element model was applied to simulate experimental studies done by past researchers and it was found that good agreement exists between the current analysis and past experimental results, which established the acceptability and validity of the developed finite element model to carry out further investigation. Study was then focused on some selected non-compact AISC square HSS columns and the effects of number of CFRP layers, amount of eccentricities and cross-sectional geometry on the strength gain of those columns were observed. Load was applied at a distance equal to the column dimension and twice that of column dimension. It was observed that CFRP strengthening is comparatively effective for smaller eccentricities. For medium sized sections, strengthening tends to be effective at smaller eccentricities as well. For relatively large AISC square HSS columns, with increasing number of CFRP layers (from 1 to 3 layers) the gain in strength is approximately 1 to 38% to that of unstrengthened section for smaller eccentricities and slenderness ratio ranging from 27 to 54. For medium sized square HSS sections, effectiveness of CFRP strengthening increases approximately by about 12 to 162%. The findings of the present study provide a better understanding of the behavior of HSS sections strengthened with CFRP subjected to eccentric compressive load.
Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strips
Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in flexure using externally bonded composite laminate of high tensile strength is easy and of the minimum cost compared to traditional methods such as increasing the concrete section depth or reinforcement that requires formwork and curing which affect the structure usability. One of the main limitations of this technique is debonding of the externally bonded laminate, either by end delamination or by mid-span flexural crack-induced debonding. ACI 440.2-08 suggests that using side-bonded FRP laminate in the flexural strengthening of RC beams may serve to limit the extent and width of flexural cracks. Consequently, this technique may decrease the effect of flexural cracks on initiating the mid-span debonding; i.e. delays the flexural crack-induced debonding. Furthermore, bonding the FRP strips to the side of the beam may offer an attractive, practical solution when the soffit of this beam is not accessible. This paper presents an experimental programme designed to investigate the effect of using externally bonded CFRP laminate on the sides of reinforced concrete beams and compares the results to those of bonding the CFRP laminate to the soffit of the beams. In addition, the paper discusses the effect of using end anchorage by U-wrapping the CFRP strips at their end zones with CFRP sheets for beams strengthened with soffit-bonded and side-bonded CFRP strips. Thus, ten rectangular reinforced concrete beams were tested to failure in order to study the effect of changing the location of the externally bonded laminate on the flexural capacity and ductility of the strengthened beams. Pultruded CFRP strips were bonded to the soffit of the beams or their sides to check the possibility of limiting the flexural cracking in mid-span region, which is the main reason for mid-span debonding. Pre-peg CFRP sheets were used near the support as U-wrap for the beam to act as an end-anchorage for the externally bonded strips in order to delay/prevent the end delamination. Strength gains of 38% and 43% were recorded for the soffit-bonded and the side-bonded composite strips with end U-wrapped sheets, respectively. Furthermore, beams with end sheets applied as an end anchorage showed higher ductility than those without these sheets.
The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes in Copolyamide Nonwovens on the Properties of CFRP Laminates
In recent years there has been increasing interest in many industries, such as the aviation, automotive, and military industries, in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). This is because of the excellent properties of CFRP, which are characterized by very high strength and stiffness in relation to their mass, low density (almost twice as low as aluminum and more than five times as low as steel), and corrosion resistance. However, they do not have sufficient electrical conductivity, which is required in some applications. Therefore, work is underway to improve their electrical conductivity, for example, by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the CFRP structure. CNTs possess excellent properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, high Young’s modulus, and high tensile strength. An idea developed by our team is a modification of CFRP by the use of thermoplastic nonwovens containing CNTs. Nanocomposite fibers were made from three different masterbatches differing in the content of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and then nonwovens that differed in areal weight were produced using a thermo-press. The out of autoclave method was used to fabricate the laminates from commercial carbon-epoxy prepreg dedicated to aviation applications - one without the nonwovens (reference) and five containing nonwovens placed between each prepreg layer. The volume of electrical conductivity of the manufactured laminates was measured in three directions. In order to investigate the adhesion between carbon fibers and nonwovens, the microstructure of the produced laminates was observed. The mechanical properties of the CFRP composites were measured in a short-beam shear test. In addition, the influence of thermoplastic nonwovens on the thermos-mechanical properties of laminates was analyzed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The studies were carried out within grant no. DOB-1-3/1/PS/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.
Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS
Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.
Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites
The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.
Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading
In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.
Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.
Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.
Creep Behaviour of Heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC Beams Assembled by Bonding: Experimental and Analytical Investigation
The purpose of this research was to investigate the creep behaviour of the heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC beams. New developments have been done to further improve the structural performance, such as strengthening of the timber (glulam) beam by bonding composite material combine with an ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) internally reinforced with or without carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. However, in the design of wooden structures, in addition to the criteria of strengthening and stiffness, deformability due to the creep of wood, especially in horizontal elements, is also a design criterion. Glulam, UHPFRC and CFRP may be an interesting composite mix to respond to the issue of creep behaviour of composite structures made of different materials with different rheological properties. In this paper, we describe an experimental and analytical investigation of the creep performance of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams assembled by bonding. The experimental investigations creep behaviour was conducted for different environments: in- and outside under constant loading for approximately a year. The measured results are compared with numerical ones obtained by an analytical model. This model was developed to predict the creep response of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams based on the creep characteristics of the individual components. The results show that heterogeneous glulam-UHPFRC beams provide an improvement in both the strengthening and stiffness, and can also effectively reduce the creep deflection of wooden beams.
A Technology of Hot Stamping and Welding of Carbon Reinforced Plastic Sheets Using High Electric Resistance
In recent years, environmental problems and energy problems typified by global warming are intensifying, and transportation devices are required to reduce the weight of structural materials from the viewpoint of strengthening fuel efficiency regulations and energy saving. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) used in this research is attracting attention as a structural material to replace metallic materials. Among them, thermoplastic CFRP is expected to expand its application range in terms of recyclability and cost. High formability and weldability of the unidirectional CFRP sheets conducted by a proposed hot stamping process were proposed, in which the carbon fiber reinforced plastic sheets are heated by a designed technique. In this case, the CFRP sheets are heated by the high electric voltage applied through carbon fibers. In addition, the electric voltage was controlled by the area ratio of exposed carbon fiber on the sample surfaces. The lower exposed carbon fiber on the sample surface makes high electric resistance leading to the high sample temperature. In this case, the CFRP sheets can be heated to more than 150 °C. With the sample heating, the stamping and welding technologies can be carried out. By changing the sample temperature, the suitable stamping condition can be detected. Moreover, the proper welding connection of the CFRP sheets was proposed. In this study, we propose a fusion bonding technique using thermoplasticity, high current flow, and heating caused by electrical resistance. This technology uses the principle of resistance spot welding. In particular, the relationship between the carbon fiber exposure rate and the electrical resistance value that affect the bonding strength is investigated. In this approach, the mechanical connection using rivet is also conducted to make a comparison of the severity of welding. The change of connecting strength is reflected by the fracture mechanism. The low and high connecting strength are obtained for the separation of two CFRP sheets and fractured inside the CFRP sheet, respectively. In addition to the two fracture modes, micro-cracks in CFRP are also detected. This approach also includes mechanical connections using rivets to compare the severity of the welds. The change in bond strength is reflected by the destruction mechanism. Low and high bond strengths were obtained to separate the two CFRP sheets, each broken inside the CFRP sheets. In addition to the two failure modes, micro cracks in CFRP are also detected. In this research, from the relationship between the surface carbon fiber ratio and the electrical resistance value, it was found that different carbon fiber ratios had similar electrical resistance values. Therefore, we investigated which of carbon fiber and resin is more influential to bonding strength. As a result, the lower the carbon fiber ratio, the higher the bonding strength. And this is 50% better than the conventional average strength. This can be evaluated by observing whether the fracture mode is interface fracture or internal fracture.
Durability Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates under Sustained Bending in Distilled Water and Seawater Immersions: Effects on the Visco-Elastic Properties
This paper presents effects of distilled water, seawater and sustained bending strains of 30% and 50% ultimate strain at room temperature, on the durability of unidirectional pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. In this study, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to investigate the synergic effects of the immersions and bending strains on the visco-elastic properties of (CFRP) such as storage modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature. The study reveals that the storage modulus and glass transition temperature increase while tan delta peak decreases in the initial stage of both immersions due to the progression of curing. The storage modulus and Tg subsequently decrease and tan delta increases due to the matrix plasticization. The blister induced damages in the unstrained seawater samples enhance water uptake and cause more serious degradation of Tg and storage modulus than in water immersion. Increasing sustained bending decreases Tg and storage modulus in a long run for both immersions due to resin matrix cracking and debonding. The combined effects of immersions and strains are not clearly reflected due to the statistical effects of DMA sample sizes and competing processes of molecular reorientation and postcuring.
Punching Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Internal Square Patches of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer
This research presents a strengthening technique for enhancing the punching shear resistance of concrete flat slabs. Internal square patches of CFRP were centrally installed inside 450*450mm concrete panels during casting at a chosen distance from the tension face to produce six simply supported samples. The dimensions of those patches ranged from 50*50mm to 360*360mm. All the examined slabs contained the same amount of tensile reinforcement, had identical dimensions, were designed according to the American Concrete Institute code (ACI) and tested to failure. Compared to the control unstrengthened spacemen, all the strengthened slabs have shown an enhancement in punching capacity and stiffness. This enhancement has been found to be proportional to the area of the installed CFRP patches. In addition to the reasonably enhanced stiffness and punching shear, this strengthening technique can change the slab failure mode from shear to flexural.
Structural Assessment of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads
This study examines the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings analytically. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force-time history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and the 'impact point' of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more efficient at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.
Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes
The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.
Experimental Investigation of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) Wrap
Inadequate design of seismic structures and use of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) remains the major aspect of structure failure. Parametric investigation (LSC) beams based on experimental work using externally applied Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) warp in flexural behavior is studied. The ambition is to know the behavior of beams under loading condition, and its strengthening enhancement after inducing crack is studied, Moreover comparison of results using abacus software is studied. Results show significant enhancement in load carrying capacity, experimental work is compared with abacus software. The research is based on the conclusion that various existing structure but inadequacy in seismic design could increase the load carrying capacity by applying CFRP techniques, which not only strengthened but also provide them to resist even larger potential earthquake by improving its strength as well as ductility.
Influence of Thermal Damage on the Mechanical Strength of Trimmed CFRP
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) are widely used for advanced applications, in particular in aerospace, automotive and wind energy industries. Once cured to near net shape, CFRP parts need several finishing operations such as trimming, milling or drilling in order to accommodate fastening hardware and meeting the final dimensions. The present research aims to study the effect of the cutting temperature in trimming on the mechanical strength of high performance CFRP laminates used for aeronautics applications. The cutting temperature is of great importance when dealing with trimming of CFRP. Temperatures higher than the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the resin matrix are highly undesirable: they cause degradation of the matrix in the trimmed edges area, which can severely affect the mechanical performance of the entire component. In this study, a 9.50 mm diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool with six flutes was used to trim 24-plies CFRP laminates. A 300 m/min cutting speed and 1140 mm/min feed rate were used in the experiments. The tool was heated prior to trimming using a blowtorch, for temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C. The temperature at the cutting edge was measured using embedded K-Type thermocouples. Samples trimmed for different cutting temperatures, below and above Tg, were mechanically tested using three-points bending short-beam loading configurations. New cutting tools as well as worn cutting tools were utilized for the experiments. The experiments with the new tools could not prove any correlation between the length of cut, the cutting temperature and the mechanical performance. Thus mechanical strength was constant, regardless of the cutting temperature. However, for worn tools, producing a cutting temperature rising up to 450°C, thermal damage of the resin was observed. The mechanical tests showed a reduced mean resistance in short beam configuration, while the resistance in three point bending decreases with increase of the cutting temperature.
Influence of Low and Extreme Heat Fluxes on Thermal Degradation of Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymers
This study considers the influence of different irradiation scenarios on the thermal degradation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). Real threats are simulated, such as fires with long-lasting low heat fluxes and nuclear heat flashes with short-lasting high heat fluxes. For this purpose, coated and uncoated quasi-isotropic samples of the commercially available CFRP HexPly® 8552/IM7 are thermally irradiated from one side by a cone calorimeter and a xenon short-arc lamp with heat fluxes between 5 and 175 W/cm² at varying time intervals. The specimen temperature is recorded on the front and backside as well as at different laminate depths. The CFRP is non-destructively tested with ultrasonic testing, infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro-focused computed X-Ray tomography (μCT). Destructive tests are performed to evaluate the mechanical properties in terms of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), compressive and tensile strength. The irradiation scenarios vary significantly in heat flux and exposure time. Thus, different heating rates, radiation effects, and temperature distributions occur. This leads to unequal decomposition processes, which affect the sensitivity of the strength type and damage behaviour of the specimens. However, with the use of surface coatings, thermal degradation of composite materials can be delayed.
The Effect of the Adhesive Ductility on Bond Characteristics of CFRP/Steel Double Strap Joints Subjected to Dynamic Tensile Loadings
In recent years, the technique adhesively-bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has found its way into civil engineering applications and it has attracted a widespread attention as a viable alternative strategy for the retrofitting of civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. When adopting this method, adhesive has a significant role and controls the general performance and degree of enhancement of the strengthened and/or upgraded structures. This is because the ultimate member strength is highly affected by the failure mode which is considerably dependent on the utilised adhesive. This paper concerns with experimental investigations on the effect of the adhesive used on the bond between CFRP patch and steel plate under medium impact tensile loading. Experiment were conducted using double strap joints and these samples were prepared using two different types of adhesives, Araldite 420 and MBrace saturant. Drop mass rig was used to carry out dynamic tests at impact speeds of 3.35, 4.43 and m/s while quasi-static tests were implemented at 2mm/min using Instrone machine. In this test program, ultimate load-carrying capacity and failure modes were examined for all loading speeds. For both static and dynamic tests, the adhesive type has a significant effect on ultimate joint strength. It was found that the double strap joints prepared using Araldite 420 showed higher strength than those prepared utilising MBrace saturant adhesive. Failure mechanism for joints prepared using Araldite 420 is completely different from those samples prepared utilising MBrace saturant. CFRP failure is the most common failure pattern for joints with Araldite 420, whereas the dominant failure for joints with MBrace saturant adhesive is adhesive failure.
A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera
Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size(∅8,∅10,∅12,∅14) and depth(1.2mm,2.4mm).
Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement
The paper deals with current issues in the research of advanced methods to increase the reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with the additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.
Integration of Load Introduction Elements into Fabrics
Lightweight design plays an important role in the automotive industry. Especially the combination of metal and CFRP shows great potential for future vehicle concepts. This requires joining technologies that are cost-efficient and appropriate for the materials involved. Previous investigations show that integrating load introduction elements during CFRP part manufacturing offers great advantages in mechanical performance. However, it is not yet clear how to integrate the elements in an automated process without harming the fiber structure. In this paper, a test rig is build up to investigate the effect of different parameters during insert integration experimentally. After a short description of the experimental equipment, preliminary tests are performed to determine a set of important process parameters. Based on that, the planning of design of experiments is given. The interpretation and evaluation of the test results show that with a minimization of the insert diameter and the peak angle less harm on the fiber structure can be achieved. Furthermore, a maximization of the die diameter above the insert shows a positive effect on the fiber structure. At the end of this paper, a theoretical description of alternative peak shaping is given and then the results get validated on the basis of an industrial reference part.
A New Instrumented Drop-Weight Test Machine for Studying the Impact Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams
Structures can be subjected to impact loading from various sources like earthquake, tsunami, missiles and explosions. The impact loading can cause different degrees of damage to concrete structures. The demand for strengthening and rehabilitation of damaged structures is increasing. In recent years, Car0bon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) matrix composites has gain more attention for strengthening and repairing these structures. To study the impact behaviour of the reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP, a heavy impact test machine was designed and manufactured .The machine included a newly designed support system for beams together with various instrumentation. This paper describes the support design configuration of the impact test machine, instrumentation and dynamic analysis of the concrete beams. To evaluate the efficiency of the new impact test machine, experimental impact tests were conducted on simple supported reinforced concrete beam. Different methods were used to determine the impact force and impact response of the RC beams in terms of inertia force, maximum deflection, reaction force and fracture energy. The manufactured impact test machine was successfully used in testing RC beams under impact loading and used successfully to test the reinforced concrete beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP under impact loading.
Effect of Temperature Condition in Extracting Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene Reinforced by Recycled Carbon Fibers
The purpose of this study is to investigate the proper condition in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of composite molded by injection method. Recycled carbon fibers were extracted from wasted CFRP by pyrolyzing epoxy matrix of CFRP under air atmosphere at different temperature conditions 400, 600 and 800°C in this study. Recycled carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene (RCF/PP) pellets were prepared using twin screw extruder. The RCF/PP specimens were molded into dumbbell shaped specimens using injection molding machine. The tensile strength of recycled carbon fiber was decreased with rising pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C. However, superior mechanical properties of tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture strain of RCF/PP specimen were obtained when the extracting temperature was 600°C. Almost fibers in RCF/PP specimens were aligned in the mold filling direction in this study when the extracting temperature was 600°C. To discuss the results, the failure mechanisms of RCF/PP specimens was shown schematically. Finally, it was concluded that the temperature condition at 600°C should be selected in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of RCF/PP composite molded by injection method.
Mechanical Behavior of Corroded RC Beams Strengthened by NSM CFRP Rods
Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete leads to several major defects. Firstly, a reduction in the crosssectional area of the reinforcement and in its ductility results in premature bar failure. Secondly, the expansion of the corrosion products causes concrete cracking and steel–concrete bond deterioration and also affects the bending stiffness of the reinforced concrete members, causing a reduction in the overall load-bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams. This paper investigates the validity of a repair technique using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods to restore the mechanical performance of corrosion-damaged RC beams. In the NSM technique, the CFRP rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. Experimental results were obtained on two beams: a corroded beam that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 25 years and a control beam, (both are 3 m long) repaired in bending only. Each beam was repaired with one 6-mm-diameter NSM CFRP rod. The beams were tested in a three-point bending test up to failure. Overall stiffness and crack maps were studied before and after the repair. Ultimate capacity, ductility and failure mode were also reviewed. Finally some comparisons were made between repaired and non-repaired beams in order to assess the effectiveness of the NSM technique. The experimental results showed that the NSM technique improved the overall characteristics (ultimate load capacity and stiffness) of the control and corroded beams and allowed sufficient ductility to be restored to the repaired corroded elements, thus restoring the safety margin, despite the non-classical mode of failure that occurred in the corroded beam, with the separation of the concrete cover due to corrosion products.
Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.
A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods
The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated. the reality is, however, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is loaded from outside. to supplement such demerit, three lamination methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations, presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method, it was approximately 0.78% higher.
Research of the Load Bearing Capacity of Inserts Embedded in CFRP under Different Loading Conditions
Continuous carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) exhibit a high application potential for lightweight structures due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties. Embedded metal elements, so-called inserts, can be used to join structural CFRP parts. Drilling of the components to be joined can be avoided using inserts. In consequence, no bearing stress is anticipated. This is a distinctive benefit of embedded inserts, since continuous CFRP have low shear and bearing strength. This paper aims at the investigation of the load bearing capacity after preinduced damages from impact tests and thermal-cycling. In addition, characterization of mechanical properties during dynamic high speed pull-out testing under different loading velocities was conducted. It has been shown that the load bearing capacity increases up to 100% for very high velocities (15 m/s) in comparison with quasi-static loading conditions (1.5 mm/min). Residual strength measurements identified the influence of thermal loading and preinduced mechanical damage. For both, the residual strength was evaluated afterwards by quasi-static pull-out tests. Taking into account the DIN EN 6038 a high decrease of force occurs at impact energy of 16 J with significant damage of the laminate. Lower impact energies of 6 J, 9 J, and 12 J do not decrease the measured residual strength, although the laminate is visibly damaged - distinguished by cracks on the rear side. To evaluate the influence of thermal loading, the specimens were placed in a climate chamber and were exposed to various numbers of temperature cycles. One cycle took 1.5 hours from -40 °C to +80 °C. It could be shown that already 10 temperature cycles decrease the load bearing capacity up to 20%. Further reduction of the residual strength with increasing number of thermal cycles was not observed. Thus, it implies that the maximum damage of the composite is already induced after 10 temperature cycles.
A Finite Element Model to Study the Behaviour of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with near Surface Mounted Technique
Near surface mounted reinforcement (NSM) technique is one of the promising techniques used nowadays to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In the NSM technique, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. This paper studies the non-classical mode of failure ‘the separation of concrete cover’ according to experimental and numerical FE modelling results. Experimental results and numerical modelling results of a 3D finite element (FE) model using the commercial software Abaqus and 2D FE model FEMIX were obtained on two beams, one corroded (25 years of corrosion procedure) and one control (A1CL3-R and A1T-R) were each repaired in bending using NSM CFRP rod and were then tested up to failure. The results showed that the NSM technique increased the overall capacity of control and corroded beams despite a non-classical mode of failure with separation of the concrete cover occurring in the corroded beam due to damage induced by corrosion. Another FE model used external steel stirrups around the repaired corroded beam A1CL3-R which failed with the separation of concrete cover, this model showed a change in the mode of failure form a non-classical mode of failure by the separation of concrete cover to the same mode of failure of the repaired control beam by the crushing of compressed concrete.
Numerical Analysis of the Aging Effects of RC Shear Walls Repaired by CFRP Sheets: Application of CEB-FIP MC 90 Model
Creep deformation of concrete is often responsible for excessive deflection at service loads which can compromise the performance of elements within a structure. Although laboratory test may be undertaken to determine the deformation properties of concrete, these are time-consuming, often expensive and generally not a practical option. Therefore, relatively simple empirically design code models are relied to predict the creep strain. This paper reviews the accuracy of creep and shrinkage predictions of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls structures strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets, which is characterized by a widthwise varying fibre volume fraction. This review is yielded by CEB-FIB MC90 model. The time-dependent behavior was investigated to analyze their static behavior. In the numerical formulation, the adherents and the adhesives are all modelled as shear wall elements, using the mixed finite element method. Several tests were used to dem¬onstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. Numerical results from the present analysis are presented to illustrate the significance of the time-dependency of the lateral displacements.
Finite Element Simulation of RC Exterior Beam-Column Joints Using Damage Plasticity Model
In the present study, 3D simulation of a typical exterior (RC) beam–column joint (BCJ) strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet are carried out. Numerical investigations are performed using a nonlinear finite element ( FE) analysis by incorporating damage plasticity model (CDP), for material behaviour the concrete response in compression, tension softening were used, linear plastic with isotropic hardening for reinforcing steel, and linear elastic lamina material model for CFRP sheets using the commercial FE software ABAQUS. The numerical models developed in the present study are validated with the results obtained from the experiment under monotonic loading using the hydraulic Jack in displacement control mode. The experimental program includes casting of deficient BCJ loaded to failure load for both un-strengthened and strengthened BCJ. The failure mode, and deformation response of CFRP strengthened and un-strengthened joints and propagation of damage in the components of BCJ are discussed. Finite element simulations are compared with the experimental result and are noted to yield reasonable comparisons. The damage plasticity model was able to capture with good accuracy of the ultimate load and the mode of failure in the beam column joint.
Geometric Model to Study the Mechanism of Machining and Predict the Damage Occurring During Milling of Unidirectional CFRP
The applications of composite materials in aerospace, sporting and automotive industries need high quality machined surfaces and dimensional accuracy. Some studies have been done to understand the fiber failure mechanisms encountered during milling machining of CFRP composites but none are capable of explaining the exact nature of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms encountered in the milling machining process. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the orientation-based fiber failure mechanisms occurring on the slot edges during CFRP milling machining processes.
The occurrence of damage is predicted by a schematic explanation based on the mechanisms of material removal which in turn depends upon fiber cutting angles. A geometric model based on fiber cutting angle and fiber orientation angle is proposed that defines the critical and safe zone during machining and predicts the occurrence of delamination.
Milling machining experiments were performed on composite samples of varying fiber orientations to verify the proposed theory. Mean fiber pulled out length was measured from the microscopic images of the damaged area to quantify the amount of damage produced. By observing the damage occurring for different fiber orientation angles and fiber cutting angles for up-milling and down-milling edges and correlating it with the material removal mechanisms as described earlier, it can be concluded that the damage/delamination mainly depends on the portion of the fiber cutting angles that lies within the critical cutting angle zone.
Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography
This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.
Investigation on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Retrofitted with CFRP
The aim of this thesis is to provide numerical analyses of reinforced concrete beams-column joints with/without CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) in order to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of strengthened beamcolumn joints. A comprehensive literature survey prior to this study revealed that published studies are limited to a handful only; the results are inconclusive and some are even contradictory. Therefore in order to improve on this situation, following that review, a numerical study was designed and performed as presented in this thesis. For the numerical study, dimensions, end supports, and characteristics of the beam and column models were the same as those chosen in an experimental investigation performed previously where ten beamcolumn joint were tested tofailure. Finite element analysis is a useful tool in cases where analytical methods are not capable of solving the problem due to the complexities associated with the problem. The cyclic behaviour of FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam-columns joints is such a case. Interaction of steel (longitudinal and stirrups), concrete and FRP, yielding of steel bars and stirrups, cracking of concrete, the redistribution of stresses as some elements unload due to crushing or yielding and the confinement of concrete due to the presence of FRP are some of the issues that introduce the complexities into the problem.Numerical solutions, however, can provide further in formation about the behaviour in lieu of the costly experiments or complex closed form solutions. This thesis presents the results of a numerical study on beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loads that are strengthened with CFRP wraps or strrips in a variety of configurations. The analyses are performed by Abaqus finite element program and are calibrated with the experiments. A range of issues in beam-column joints including the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves of joints, are investigated.The numerical results for different configurations of strengthening are compared. Finally, the computed numerical results are compared with those obtained from experiments. the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves obtained from numerical analysis for all joints were in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.The results obtained from the numerical analysis in most cases implies that this method is conservative and therefore can be used in design applications with confidence.
Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars
Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.
An Innovation and Development System for a New Hybrid Composite Technology in Aerospace Industry
Present and future lightweight design represents an important key to successful implementation of energy-saving, fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport in the aerospace and automotive industry. In this context the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) which are distinguished by their outstanding mechanical properties at relatively low weight, promise significant improvements. Due to the reduction of the total mass, with the resulting lowered fuel or energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the operational phase, commercial aircraft and future vehicles will increasingly be made of CFRP. An auspicious technology for the efficient and economic production of high performance thermoset composites and hybrid structures for future lightweight applications is the combination of carbon fibre sheet moulding compound (SMC), tailored continuous carbon fibre reinforcements and metallic components in a one-shot pressing and curing process. This paper deals with a new hybrid composite technology for aerospace industries, which was developed with the help of a universal innovation and development system. This system supports the management of idea generation, the methodical development of innovative technologies and the achievement of the industrial readiness of these technologies.
Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Coupled Shear Walls Strengthened with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Reinforced concrete (RC) coupled shear walls (CSWs) are very effective structural systems in resisting lateral loads due to winds and earthquakes and are particularly used in medium- to high-rise RC buildings. However, most of existing old RC structures were designed for gravity loads or lateral loads well below the loads specified in the current modern seismic international codes. These structures may behave in non-ductile manner due to poorly designed joints, insufficient shear reinforcement and inadequate anchorage length of the reinforcing bars. This has been the main impetus to investigate an appropriate strengthening method to address or attenuate the deficiencies of these structures. The objective of this paper is to twofold: (i) evaluate the seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete coupled shear walls under reversed cyclic loading; and (ii) investigate the seismic performance of RC CSWs strengthened with externally bonded (EB) carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. To this end, two CSWs were considered as follows: (a) the first one is representative of old CSWs and therefore was designed according to the 1941 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC, 1941) with conventionally reinforced coupling beams; and (b) the second one, representative of new CSWs, was designed according to modern NBCC 2015 and CSA/A23.3 2014 requirements with diagonally reinforced coupling beam. Both CSWs were simulated using ANSYS software. Nonlinear behavior of concrete is modeled using multilinear isotropic hardening through a multilinear stress strain curve. The elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain curve is used to simulate the steel material. Bond stress–slip is modeled between concrete and steel reinforcement in conventional coupling beam rather than considering perfect bond to better represent the slip of the steel bars observed in the coupling beams of these CSWs. The old-designed CSW was strengthened using CFRP sheets bonded to the concrete substrate and the interface was modeled using an adhesive layer. The behavior of CFRP material is considered linear elastic up to failure. After simulating the loading and boundary conditions, the specimens are analyzed under reversed cyclic loading. The comparison of results obtained for the two unstrengthened CSWs and the one retrofitted with EB CFRP sheets reveals that the strengthening method improves the seismic performance in terms of strength, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity.
Effect of Different FRP Wrapping and Thickness of Concrete Cover on Fatigue Bond Strength of Spliced Concrete Beam
This paper presents results of an ongoing research program at University of Waterloo to study the effect of external FRP sheet wrap confinement along a lap splice of reinforced concrete (RC) beams on their fatigue bond strength. Fatigue loading of RC beams containing a lap splice resulted in an increase in the number and width of cracks, an increase in deflection and a decrease of the bond strength between the steel rebar and the surrounding concrete. The phase of the research described here consists of monotonic and fatigue tests of thirty two reinforced concrete beam with dimensions 2200⨉350⨉250 mm. Each beam was reinforced with two 20M bars lap spliced in the constant moment region of the tension zone and two 10M bars in the compression zone outside the constant moment region. The test variables were the presence or absence of a FRP wrapping, the type of the FRP wrapping (GFRP or CFRP), the type of loading and the fatigue load range. The test results for monotonic loading showed that the stiffness of all beams was almost same, but that the FRP sheet wrapping increased the bond strength and the deflection at ultimate load. All beams tested under fatigue loading failed by a bond failure except one CFRP wrapped beam that failed by fatigue of the main reinforcement. The FRP sheet increased the bond strength for all specimens under fatigue loading.
Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology
Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.
Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)
This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0°/+45°/-45°/0°] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.
Experimental Analysis of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement
The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre - reinforced polymer. The paper describes experimental testing of composite timber-concrete beam with FRP reinforcement and compares results with FEM analysis.
Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis
This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.
Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns
FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.
Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids
In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.
Non-Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids
In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that by means of active thermography defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.
Non-Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids
In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that by means of active thermography defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.
Design of Nano-Reinforced Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Wheel for Lightweight Vehicles with Integrated Electrical Hub Motor
The increasing attention is given to the issues of environmental pollution and climate change is exponentially stimulating the development of electrically propelled vehicles powered by renewable energy, in particular, the solar one. Given the small amount of solar energy that can be stored and subsequently transformed into propulsive energy, it is necessary to develop vehicles with high mechanical, electrical and aerodynamic efficiencies along with reduced masses. The reduction of the masses is of fundamental relevance especially for the unsprung masses, that is the assembly of those elements that do not undergo a variation of their distance from the ground (wheel, suspension system, hub, upright, braking system). Therefore, the reduction of unsprung masses is fundamental in decreasing the rolling inertia and improving the drivability, comfort, and performance of the vehicle. This principle applies even more in solar propelled vehicles, equipped with an electric motor that is connected directly to the wheel hub. In this solution, the electric motor is integrated inside the wheel. Since the electric motor is part of the unsprung masses, the development of compact and lightweight solutions is of fundamental importance. The purpose of this research is the design development and optimization of a CFRP 16 wheel hub motor for solar propulsion vehicles that can carry up to four people. In addition to trying to maximize aspects of primary importance such as mass, strength, and stiffness, other innovative constructive aspects were explored. One of the main objectives has been to achieve a high geometric packing in order to ensure a reduced lateral dimension, without reducing the power exerted by the electric motor. In the final solution, it was possible to realize a wheel hub motor assembly completely comprised inside the rim width, for a total lateral overall dimension of less than 100 mm. This result was achieved by developing an innovative connection system between the wheel and the rotor with a double purpose: centering and transmission of the driving torque. This solution with appropriate interlocking noses allows the transfer of high torques and at the same time guarantees both the centering and the necessary stiffness of the transmission system. Moreover, to avoid delamination in critical areas, evaluated by means of FEM analysis using 3D Hashin damage criteria, electrospun nanofibrous mats have been interleaved between CFRP critical layers. In order to reduce rolling resistance, the rim has been designed to withstand high inflation pressure. Laboratory tests have been performed on the rim using the Digital Image Correlation technique (DIC). The wheel has been tested for fatigue bending according to E/ECE/324 R124e.
Buckling Analysis of Composite Shells under Compression and Torsional Loads: Numerical and Analytical Study
Advanced lightweight laminated composite shells are increasingly being used in all types of modern structures, for enhancing their structural efficiency and performance. Such thin-walled structures are susceptible to buckling when subjected to various loading. This paper focuses on the buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsional loads. Effects of fiber orientation on the maximum buckling load of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) shells are optimized. Optimum fiber angles have been calculated analytically by using MATLAB program. Numerical models have been carried out by using Finite Element Method program ABAQUS. Results from analytical and numerical analyses are also compared.
Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading
Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.
Finite Element Analysis of the Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers
Most of the concrete bridges in Nepal constructed during 90's and before are made up of low strength ordinary concrete which might be one of the reasons for damage in higher magnitude earthquake. Those bridges were designed by the outdated bridge codes which might not account the large seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic vulnerability of the existing single column ordinary concrete bridge pier by finite element modeling, using the software Seismostruct. The existing bridge pier capacity has been assessed using nonlinear pushover analysis and performance is compared after retrofitting those pier models with CFRP. Furthermore, the seismic evaluation was made by conducting cyclic loading test at different drift percentage. The performance analysis of bridge pier by nonlinear pushover analysis is further validated by energy dissipation phenomenon measured from the hysteric loop for each model of ordinary concrete piers.
Numerical Prediction of Bearing Strength on Composite Bolted Joint Using Three Dimensional Puck Failure Criteria
Mechanical fasteners especially bolting is commonly
used in joining carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite
structures due to their good joinability and easy for maintenance
characteristics. Since this approach involves with notching, a proper
progressive damage model (PDM) need to be implemented and
verified to capture existence of damages in the structure. A three
dimensional (3D) failure criteria of Puck is established to predict the
ultimate bearing failure of such joint. The failure criteria incorporated
with degradation scheme are coded based on user subroutine executed
in Abaqus. Single lap joint (SLJ) of composite bolted joint is used as
target configuration. The results revealed that the PDM adopted here
could sufficiently predict the behaviour of composite bolted joint up
to ultimate bearing failure. In addition, mesh refinement near holes
increased the accuracy of predicted strength as well as computational
Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of MWCNTs-Modified Epoxy Resin
An industrial epoxy adhesive used in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)-strengthening systems was modified by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were fabricated using solvent-assisted dispersion method and ultrasonic mixing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were conducted to study the effect of nanotubes dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composite. Experimental results showed a substantial enhancement in the decomposition temperature and tensile properties of epoxy composite, while, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was slightly reduced due to the solvent effect. The morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by SEM. It was proved that using solvent improves the nanotubes dispersion. However, at contents higher than 2 wt. %, nanotubes started to re-bundle in the epoxy matrix which negatively affected the final properties of epoxy composite.
New Techniques to Decrease the Interfacial Stress in Steel Beams Strengthened With FRP Laminates
One major problem when using bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer is the presence of high inter facial stresses near the end of the composite laminate which might govern the failure of the strengthening schedule. It is known that the decrease of FRP plate thickness and the fitness of adhesive reduce the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way is to use a plate with a non uniform section or tapered ends and softer adhesive at the edges. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJ) and tapering plate on the inter facial stress distribution in the adhesive layer, this paper presents the results of a study of application of two adhesives with different stiffnesses (bi-adhesive) along the joint strength length between the CFRP-strengthened steel beam for tapered and untapered plate on the distribution of inter facial stresses. A stiff adhesive was applied in the middle portion of the joint strength, while a low modulus adhesive was applied towards the edges prone to stress concentrations.
Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Testing for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Various Aerospace Composite Materials by Laser Vibrometry
Air-coupled ultrasonic is the contactless ultrasonic measurement approach which has become widespread for material characterization in Aerospace industry. It is always essential for the requirement of lightest weight, without compromising the durability. To archive the requirements, composite materials are widely used. This paper yields analysis of the air-coupled ultrasonics for composite materials such as CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer) and GLARE (Glass Fiber Metal Laminate) and honeycombs for the design of modern aircrafts. Laser vibrometry could be the key source of characterization for the aerospace components. The air-coupled ultrasonics fundamentals, including principles, working modes and transducer arrangements used for this purpose is also recounted in brief. The emphasis of this paper is to approach the developed NDT techniques based on the ultrasonic guided waves applications and the possibilities of use of laser vibrometry in different materials with non-contact measurement of guided waves. 3D assessment technique which employs the single point laser head using, automatic scanning relocation of the material to assess the mechanical displacement including pros and cons of the composite materials for aerospace applications with defects and delaminations.
Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing
This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic
In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.
Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading
This paper present the experimental work on the seismic performance of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested at ±0.01%, ±0.1%, ±0.25%, ±0.5%, ±0.75% and ±1.0% drifts until the structure achieves its strength degradation. After that, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. A similar testing approach is applied to the specimen after repair and retrofit. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22 in pushing direction and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.
Effect of the Concrete Cover on the Bond Strength of the FRP Wrapped and Non-Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beam with Lap Splice under Uni-Direction Cyclic Loading
Many of the reinforced concrete structures subject to cyclic load constructed before the modern bond and fatigue design code. One of the main issue face on exists structure is the bond strength of the longitudinal steel bar and the surrounding concrete. A lap splice is a common connection method to transfer the force between the steel rebar in a reinforced concrete member. Usually, the lap splice is the weak connection on the bond strength. Fatigue flexural loading imposes severe demands on the strength and ductility of the lap splice region in reinforced concrete structures and can lead to a brittle and sudden failure of the member. This paper investigates the effect of different concrete covers on the fatigue bond strength of reinforcing concrete beams containing a lap splice under a fatigue loads. It includes tests of thirty-seven beams divided into three groups. Each group has beams with 30 mm and 50 mm clear side and bottom concrete covers. The variables that were addressed where the concrete cover, the presence or absence of CFRP or GFRP sheet wrapping, the type of loading (monotonic or fatigue) and the fatigue load ranges. The test results showed that an increase in the concrete cover led to an increase in the bond strength under both monotonic and fatigue loading for both the unwrapped and wrapped beams. Also, the FRP sheets increased both the fatigue strength and the ductility for both the 30 mm and the 50 mm concrete covers.
Detection of Defects in CFRP by Ultrasonic IR Thermographic Method
In the paper introduced the diagnostic technique making possible the research of internal structures in composite materials reinforced fibres using in different applications. The main reason of damages in structures of these materials is the changing distribution of load in constructions in the lifetime. Appearing defect is largely complicated because of the appearance of disturbing of continuity of reinforced fibres, binder cracks and loss of fibres adhesiveness from binders. Defect in composite materials is usually more complicated than in metals. At present, infrared thermography is the most effective method in non-destructive testing composite. One of IR thermography methods used in non-destructive evaluation is vibrothermography. The vibrothermography is not a new non-destructive method, but the new solution in this test is use ultrasonic waves to thermal stimulation of materials. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR thermography in inspecting composite materials will be presented. The ThermoSon computer program for computing 3D dynamic temperature distribuions in anisotropic layered solids with subsurface defects subject to ulrasonic stimulation was used to optimise heating parameters in the detection of subsurface defects in composite materials. The program allows for the analysis of transient heat conduction and ultrasonic wave propagation phenomena in solids. The experiments at MIAT were fulfilled by means of FLIR SC 7600 IR camera. Ultrasonic stimulation was performed with the frequency from 15 kHz to 30 kHz with maximum power up to 2 kW.
Hierarchical Optimization of Composite Deployable Bridge Treadway Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Effective deployable bridges that are characterized by an increased capacity to weight ratio are recently needed for post-disaster rapid mobility and military operations. In deployable bridging, replacing metals as the fabricating material with advanced composite laminates as lighter alternatives with higher strength is highly advantageous. This article presents a hierarchical optimization strategy of a composite bridge treadway considering maximum strength design and bridge weight minimization. Shape optimization of a generic deployable bridge beam cross-section is performed to achieve better stress distribution over the bridge treadway hull. The developed cross-section weight is minimized up to reserving the margins of safety of the deployable bridging code provisions. Hence, the strength of composite bridge plates is maximized through varying the plies orientation. Different loading cases are considered of a tracked vehicle patch load. The orthotropic plate properties of a composite sandwich core are used to simulate the bridge deck structural behavior. Whereas, the failure analysis is conducted using Tsai-Wu failure criterion. The naturally inspired particle swarm optimization technique is used in this study. The proposed technique efficiently reduced the weight to capacity ratio of the developed bridge beam.
Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Non-Destructive Testing on Complex Structure
Composite material is widely used to replace conventional material, especially in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of the devices. It is formed by combining reinforced materials together via adhesive bonding to produce a bulk material with alternated macroscopic properties. In bulk composites, degradation may occur in microscopic scale, which is in each individual reinforced fiber layer or especially in its matrix layer such as delamination, inclusion, disbond, void, cracks, and porosity. In this paper, we focus on the detection of defect in matrix layer which the adhesion between the composite plies is in contact but coupled through a weak bond. In fact, the adhesive defects are tested through various nondestructive methods. Among them, pulsed phase thermography (PPT) has shown some advantages providing improved sensitivity, large-area coverage, and high-speed testing. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient numerical model to study the application of PPT to the nondestructive inspection of weak bonding in composite material. The resulting thermal evolution field is comprised of internal reflections between the interfaces of defects and the specimen, and the important key-features of the defects presented in the material can be obtained from the investigation of the thermal evolution of the field distribution. Computational simulation of such inspections has allowed the improvement of the techniques to apply in various inspections, such as materials with high thermal conductivity and more complex structures.
Analytical and Numerical Results for Free Vibration of Laminated Composites Plates
The reinforcement and repair of concrete structures by bonding composite materials have become relatively common operations. Different types of composite materials can be used: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) as well as functionally graded material (FGM). The development of analytical and numerical models describing the mechanical behavior of structures in civil engineering reinforced by composite materials is necessary. These models will enable engineers to select, design, and size adequate reinforcements for the various types of damaged structures. This study focuses on the free vibration behavior of orthotropic laminated composite plates using a refined shear deformation theory. In these models, the distribution of transverse shear stresses is considered as parabolic satisfying the zero-shear stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates without using shear correction factors. In this analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained by using the Hamilton’s principle. The accuracy of the developed model is demonstrated by comparing our results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. Besides, a finite-element analysis is used to calculate the natural frequencies of laminated composite plates and is compared with those obtained by the analytical approach.
Structural and Modal Analyses of an s1223 High-Lift Airfoil Wing for Drone Design
Structural analyses are commonly employed to test the integrity of aircraft component systems in the design stage to demonstrate the capability of the structural components to withstand what it was designed for, as well as to predict potential failure of the components. The analyses are also essential for weight minimization and selecting the most resilient materials that will provide optimal outcomes. This research focuses on testing the structural nature of a high-lift low Reynolds number airfoil profile design, the Selig S1223, under certain loading conditions for a drone model application. The wing (ribs, spars, and skin) of the drone model was made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer and designed in SolidWorks, while the finite element analysis was carried out in ANSYS mechanical in conjunction with the lift and drag forces that were derived from the aerodynamic airfoil analysis. Additionally, modal analysis was performed to calculate the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the wing structure. The structural strain and stress determined the minimal deformations under the wing loading conditions, and the modal analysis showed the prominent modes that were excited by the given forces. The research findings from the structural analysis of the S1223 high-lift airfoil indicated that it is applicable for use in an unmanned aerial vehicle as well as a novel reciprocating-airfoil-driven vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) drone model.
Model-Based Fault Diagnosis in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Particle Filtering
Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP) used as aircraft structure are subject to lightning strike, putting structural integrity under risk. Indirect damage may occur after a lightning strike where the internal structure can be damaged due to excessive heat induced by lightning current, while the surface of the structures remains intact. Three damage modes may be observed after a lightning strike: fiber breakage, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply cracks. The assessment of internal damage states in composite is challenging due to complicated microstructure, inherent uncertainties, and existence of multiple damage modes. In this work, a model based approach is adopted to diagnose faults in carbon composites after lighting strikes. A resistor network model is implemented to relate the overall electrical and thermal conduction behavior under simulated lightning current waveform to the intrinsic temperature dependent material properties, microstructure and degradation of materials. A fault detection and identification (FDI) module utilizes the physics based model and a particle filtering algorithm to identify damage mode as well as calculate the probability of structural failure. Extensive simulation results are provided to substantiate the proposed fault diagnosis methodology with both single fault and multiple faults cases. The approach is also demonstrated on transient resistance data collected from a IM7/Epoxy laminate under simulated lightning strike.
Micro-Meso 3D FE Damage Modelling of Woven Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite under Quasi-Static Bending
This research presents a three-dimensional finite element modelling strategy to simulate damage in a quasi-static three-point bending analysis of woven twill 2/2 type carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite on a micro-meso level using cohesive zone modelling technique. A meso scale finite element model comprised of a number of plies was developed in the commercial finite element code Abaqus/explicit. The interfaces between the plies were explicitly modelled using cohesive zone elements to allow for debonding by crack initiation and propagation. Load-deflection response of the CRFP within the quasi-static range was obtained and compared with the data existing in the literature. This provided validation of the model at the global scale. The outputs resulting from the global model were then used to develop a simulation model capturing the micro-meso scale material features. The sub-model consisted of a refined mesh representative volume element (RVE) modelled in texgen software, which was later embedded with cohesive elements in the finite element software environment. The results obtained from the developed strategy were successful in predicting the overall load-deflection response and the damage in global and sub-model at the flexure limit of the specimen. Detailed analysis of the effects of the micro-scale features was carried out.
Influence of Random Fibre Packing on the Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Plastic
The longitudinal compressive strength of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) possess a large stochastic variability, which limits efficient application of composite structures. This study aims to address how the random fibre packing affects the uncertainty of FRP compressive strength. An novel approach is proposed to generate random fibre packing status by a combination of Latin hypercube sampling and random sequential expansion. 3D nonlinear finite element model is built which incorporates both the matrix plasticity and fibre geometrical instability. The matrix is modeled by isotropic ideal elasto-plastic solid elements, and the fibres are modeled by linear-elastic rebar elements. Composite with a series of different nominal fibre volume fractions are studied. Premature fibre waviness at different magnitude and direction is introduced in the finite element model. Compressive tests on uni-directional CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic) are conducted following the ASTM D6641. By a comparison of 3D FE models and compressive tests, it is clearly shown that the stochastic variation of compressive strength is partly caused by the random fibre packing, and normal or lognormal distribution tends to be a good fit the probabilistic compressive strength. Furthermore, it is also observed that different random fibre packing could trigger two different fibre micro-buckling modes while subjected to longitudinal compression: out-of-plane buckling and twisted buckling. The out-of-plane buckling mode results much larger compressive strength, and this is the major reason why the random fibre packing results a large uncertainty in the FRP compressive strength. This study would contribute to new approaches to the quality control of FRP considering higher compressive strength or lower uncertainty.
Modelling of Exothermic Reactions during Carbon Fibre Manufacturing and Coupling to Surrounding Airflow
Carbon fibres are fibrous materials with a carbon atom amount of more than 90%. They combine excellent mechanicals properties with a very low density. Thus carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are very often used in lightweight design and construction. The precursor material is usually polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based and wet-spun. During the production of carbon fibre, the precursor has to be stabilized thermally to withstand the high temperatures of up to 1500 °C which occur during carbonization. Even though carbon fibre has been used since the late 1970s in aerospace application, there is still no general method available to find the optimal production parameters and the trial-and-error approach is most often the only resolution. To have a much better insight into the process the chemical reactions during stabilization have to be analyzed particularly. Therefore, a model of the chemical reactions (cyclization, dehydration, and oxidation) based on the research of Dunham and Edie has been developed. With the presented model, it is possible to perform a complete simulation of the fibre undergoing all zones of stabilization. The fiber bundle is modeled as several circular fibers with a layer of air in-between. Two thermal mechanisms are considered to be the most important: the exothermic reactions inside the fiber and the convective heat transfer between the fiber and the air. The exothermic reactions inside the fibers are modeled as a heat source. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have been performed to estimate the amount of heat of the reactions. To shorten the required time of a simulation, the number of fibers is decreased by similitude theory. Experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results of the fibre temperature during stabilization. The experiments for the validation were conducted on a pilot scale stabilization oven. To measure the fibre bundle temperature, a new measuring method is developed. The comparison of the results shows that the developed simulation model gives good approximations for the temperature profile of the fibre bundle during the stabilization process.
A Study on Reinforced Concrete Beams Enlarged with Polymer Mortar and UHPFRC
Many studies have been done on the repair and strengthening method of concrete structure, so far. The traditional retrofit method was to attach fiber sheet such as CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer), GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer) and AFRP (Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer) on the concrete structure. However, this method had many downsides in that there are a risk of debonding and an increase in displacement by a shortage of structure section. Therefore, it is effective way to enlarge the structural member with polymer mortar or Ultra-High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) as a means of strengthening concrete structure. This paper intends to investigate structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams enlarged with polymer mortar and compare the experimental results with analytical results. Nonlinear finite element analyses were conducted to compare the experimental results and predict structural behavior of retrofitted RC beams accurately without cost consuming experimental process. In addition, this study aims at comparing differences of retrofit material between commonly used material (polymer mortar) and recently used material (UHPFRC) by conducting nonlinear finite element analyses. In the first part of this paper, the RC beams having different cover type were fabricated for the experiment and the size of RC beams was 250 millimeters in depth, 150 millimeters in width and 2800 millimeters in length. To verify the experiment, nonlinear finite element models were generated using commercial software ABAQUS 6.10-3. From this study, both experimental and analytical results demonstrated good strengthening effect on RC beam and showed similar tendency. For the future, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict the effect of strengthened RC beam. In the second part of the study, the main parameters were type of retrofit materials. The same nonlinear finite element models were generated to compare the polymer mortar with UHPFRCC. Two types of retrofit material were evaluated and retrofit effect was verified by analytical results.
Computational Analysis of Thermal Degradation in Wind Turbine Spars' Equipotential Bonding Subjected to Lightning Strikes
Rotor blades of large, modern wind turbines are highly susceptible to downward lightning strikes, as well as to triggering upward lightning; consequently, it is necessary to equip them with an effective lightning protection system (LPS) in order to avoid any damage. The performance of existing LPSs is affected by carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) structures, which lead to lightning-induced damage in the blades, e.g. via electrical sparks. A solution to prevent internal arcing would be to electrically bond the LPS and the composite structures such that to obtain the same electric potential. Nevertheless, elevated temperatures are achieved at the joint interfaces because of high contact resistance, which melts and vaporises some of the epoxy resin matrix around the bonding. The produced high-pressure gasses open up the bonding and can ignite thermal sparks. The objective of this paper is to predict the current density distribution and the temperature field in the adhesive joint cross-section, in order to check whether the resin pyrolysis temperature is achieved and any damage is expected. The finite element method has been employed to solve both the current and heat transfer problems, which are considered weakly coupled. The mathematical model for electric current includes Maxwell-Ampere equation for induced electric field solved together with current conservation, while the thermal field is found from heat diffusion equation. In this way, the current sub-model calculates Joule heat release for a chosen bonding configuration, whereas the thermal analysis allows to determining threshold values of voltage and current density not to be exceeded in order to maintain the temperature across the joint below the pyrolysis temperature, therefore preventing the occurrence of outgassing. In addition, it provides an indication of the minimal number of bonding points. It is worth to mention that the numerical procedures presented in this study can be tailored and applied to any type of joints other than adhesive ones for wind turbine blades. For instance, they can be applied for lightning protection of aerospace bolted joints. Furthermore, they can even be customized to predict the electromagnetic response under lightning strikes of other wind turbine systems, such as nacelle and hub components.
Structural Monitoring of Externally Confined RC Columns with Inadequate Lap-Splices, Using Fibre-Bragg-Grating Sensors
A major issue of the structural assessment and rehabilitation of existing RC structures is the inadequate lap-splicing of the longitudinal reinforcement. Although prohibited by modern Design Codes, the practice of arranging lap-splices inside the critical regions of RC elements was commonly applied in the past. Today this practice is still the rule, at least for conventional new buildings. Therefore, a lot of relevant research is ongoing in many earthquake prone countries. The rehabilitation of deficient lap-splices of RC elements by means of external confinement is widely accepted as the most efficient technique. If correctly applied, this versatile technique offers a limited increase of flexural capacity and a considerable increase of local ductility and of axial and shear capacities. Moreover, this intervention does not affect the stiffness of the elements and does not affect the dynamic characteristics of the structure. This technique has been extensively discussed and researched contributing to vast accumulation of technical and scientific knowledge that has been reported in relevant books, reports and papers, and included in recent Design Codes and Guides. These references are mostly dealing with modeling and redesign, covering both the enhanced (axial and) shear capacity (due to the additional external closed hoops or jackets) and the increased ductility (due to the confining action, preventing the unzipping of lap-splices and the buckling of continuous reinforcement). An analytical and experimental program devoted to RC members with lap-splices is completed in the Lab. of RC/NTU of Athens/GR. This program aims at the proposal of a rational and safe theoretical model and the calibration of the relevant Design Codes’ provisions. Tests, on forty two (42) full scale specimens, covering mostly beams and columns (not walls), strengthened or not, with adequate or inadequate lap-splices, have been already performed and evaluated. In this paper, the results of twelve (12) specimens under fully reversed cyclic actions are presented and discussed. In eight (8) specimens the lap-splices were inadequate (splicing length of 20 or 30 bar diameters) and they were retrofitted before testing by means of additional external confinement. The two (2) most commonly applied confining materials were used in this study, namely steel and FRPs. More specifically, jackets made of CFRP wraps or light cages made of mild steel were applied. The main parameters of these tests were (i) the degree of confinement (internal and external), and (ii) the length of lap-splices, equal to 20, 30 or 45 bar diameters. These tests were thoroughly instrumented and monitored, by means of conventional (LVDTs, strain gages, etc.) and innovative (optic fibre-Bragg-grating) sensors. This allowed for a thorough investigation of the most influencing design parameter, namely the hoop-stress developed in the confining material. Based on these test results and on comparisons with the provisions of modern Design Codes, it could be argued that shorter (than the normative) lap-splices, commonly found in old structures, could still be effective and safe (at least for lengths more than an absolute minimum), depending on the required ductility, if a properly arranged and adequately detailed external confinement is applied.
In-Process Integration of Resistance-Based, Fiber Sensors during the Braiding Process for Strain Monitoring of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) are used in a wide variety of applications due to its advantageous properties and design versatility. The braiding process enables the manufacture of components with good toughness and fatigue strength. However, failure mechanisms of CFRPs are complex and still present challenges associated with their maintenance and repair. Within the broad scope of structural health monitoring (SHM), strain monitoring can be applied to composite materials to improve reliability, reduce maintenance costs and safely exhaust service life. Traditional SHM systems employ e.g. fiber optics, piezoelectrics as sensors, which are often expensive, time consuming and complicated to implement. A cost-efficient alternative can be the exploitation of the conductive properties of fiber-based sensors such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy – that can be utilized as sensors within composite structures to achieve strain monitoring. This allows the structure to provide feedback via electrical signals to a user which are essential for evaluating the structural condition of the structure. This work presents a strategy for the in-process integration of resistance-based sensors (Elektrisola Feindraht AG, CuNi23Mn, Ø = 0.05 mm) into textile preforms during its manufacture via the braiding process (Herzog RF-64/120) to achieve strain monitoring of braided composites. For this, flat samples of instrumented composite laminates of carbon fibers (Toho Tenax HTS40 F13 24K, 1600 tex) and epoxy resin (Epikote RIMR 426) were manufactured via vacuum-assisted resin infusion. These flat samples were later cut out into test specimens and the integrated sensors were wired to the measurement equipment (National Instruments, VB-8012) for data acquisition during the execution of mechanical tests. Quasi-static tests were performed (tensile, 3-point bending tests) following standard protocols (DIN EN ISO 527-1 & 4, DIN EN ISO 14132); additionally, dynamic tensile tests were executed. These tests were executed to assess the sensor response under different loading conditions and to evaluate the influence of the sensor presence on the mechanical properties of the material. Several orientations of the sensor with regards to the applied loading and sensor placements inside the laminate were tested. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were made by programming a data acquisition code (LabView) written for the measurement equipment. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were then correlated to the strain/stress state for the tested samples. From the assessment of the sensor integration approach it can be concluded that it allows for a seamless sensor integration into the textile preform. No damage to the sensor or negative effect on its electrical properties was detected during inspection after integration. From the assessment of the mechanical tests of instrumented samples it can be concluded that the presence of the sensors does not alter significantly the mechanical properties of the material. It was found that there is a good correlation between resistance measurements from the integrated sensors and the applied strain. It can be concluded that the correlation is of sufficient accuracy to determinate the strain state of a composite laminate based solely on the resistance measurements from the integrated sensors.