Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62319

200
16781
Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.
199
42862
Examining the Role of Soil pH on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrite Oxidising Bacteria
Abstract:
Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (NO3-) via nitrite (NO2-) is a vital process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and is performed by two distinct functional groups; ammonia oxidisers (comprised of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA)) and nitrite oxidising bacteria. Autotrophic nitrification is said to occur in acidic soils, even though most laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia and nitrite oxidising bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. Published studies revealed that soil pH is a major driver for determining the distribution and abundance of AOB and AOA. To determine whether distinct populations of nitrite oxidising bacteria within the lineages of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are adapted to a particular range of pH as observed in ammonia oxidising organisms, the community structure of Nitrospira-like and Nitrobacter-like NOB were examined across a pH gradient (4.5–7.5) by amplifying nitrite oxido-reductase (nxrA) and 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure of both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter changed with soil pH, with distinct populations observed in acidic and neutral soils. The abundance of Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene copies contrasted across the pH gradient. Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, whereas Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA gene abundance increased with increasing pH. Findings indicated that abundance and distributions of soil NOB is influence by soil pH.
198
109665
Effects of Palm Waste Ash Residues on Acidic Soil in Relation to Physiological Responses of Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.)
Abstract:
The use of biosolids from thermal conversion of palm waste for soil fertility enhancement was tested in acidic soil of Southern Nigeria for the growing of Habanero chili pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.). Soil samples from the two sites, showed pH 4.8 and 4.8 for site A and B respectively, below 5.6-6.8 optimum range and other fertility parameters indicating a low threshold for pepper growth. Nursery planting was done at different weeks to determine the optimum planting period. Ash analysis showed that it contains 26% of total K, 20% of total Ca, 0.27% of total P, and pH 11. The two sites were laid for an experiment in randomized complete block design and setup with three replications side by side. Each plot measured 3 x 2 m and a total of 15 plots for each site, four treatments, and one control. Outlined as control, 2, 4, 6 and 8 tonnes/hectare of palm waste ash, the combined average for both sites with correspondent yield after six harvests in one season are; 0, 5.8, 6, 6, 14.5 tonnes/hectare respectively to treatments. Optimum nursery survival rate was high in July; the crop yield was linear to the ash application. Site A had 6% yield higher than site B. Fruit development, weight, and total yield in relation to the control plot showed that palm waste ash is effective for soil amendment, nutrient delivery, and exchange.
197
50710
Effects of Sole and Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Leaf Nutrient Composition and Performance of White Yam
Abstract:
Field experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of yam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 20 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control). The five treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in organic carbon (OC), N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) tuber weights and growth of yam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and OC concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased tuber weights of yam by 36%, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 19%, compared with PM alone. Sole PM increased tuber weight of yam by 15%, compared with NPK. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties, nutrient availability, compared with NPK and the NSF (control). Integrated application of CPA at 10 t ha-1 + PM at 10 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving soil physical properties, increasing nutrient availability and yam performance than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials.
196
44484
Selection of Indigenous Tree Species and Microbial Inoculation for the Restoration of Degraded Uplands
Abstract:
Indigenous tree species are priority planting materials for the National Greening Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Areas for reforestation are marginal grasslands where plant growth is stunted and seedling survival is low. This experiment was conducted to compare growth rates and seedling survival of seven indigenous reforestation species. Narra (Pterocarpus indicus), salago (Wikstroemia lanceolata), kisubeng (Sapindus saponaria), tuai (Biscofia javanica), batino (Alstonia macrophylla), bani (Pongamina pinnata) and ipil (Intsia bijuga) were inoculated with Mykovam® (mycorrhizal fungi) and Bio-N® (N2-fixing bacteria) during pricking. After five months in the nursery, the treated seedlings were planted in degraded upland acidic red soil in Cavinti, Laguna (Luzon). During outplanting, all mycorrhiza inoculated seedlings had 50-80% mycorrhizal roots while the control ones had 5-10% mycorrhizal roots. Mykovam increased height of narra, salago and kisubeng. Stem diameter was bigger in mycorrhizal salago than the control. After two years in the field, Mykovam®+Bio-N® inoculated narra, salago and bani gave 95% survival while non-mycorrhizal tuai gave the lowest survival (25%). Inoculated seedlings grew faster than the control. Highest height increase was in batino (103%), followed by bani (95%), ipil (59%), narra (58%), tuai (53%) and kisubeng was the lowest (10%). Stem diameter was increased by Mykovam® from 13-39% over the control. Highest stem diameter was obtained from narra (50%), followed by bani (40%), batino (36%), ipil (33%), salago (28%), kisubeng and tuai (12%) had the lowest. In conclusion, Mykovam® inoculated batino, bani, narra, salago and ipil can be selected to restore degraded upland acidic red soil in the Philippines.
195
33993
Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil
Abstract:
A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.
194
102083
The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture
Abstract:
Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.
193
53753
Investigation on Natural Pollution Sources to Arsenic in around of Hashtrood City, East Azerbayjan Province
Abstract:
Soil and surface and ground waters pollution to arsenic (As) due to its high potential for food cycle entrance, has high risk for human safety. Also, this pollution can cause quality and quantity decreasing of agricultural products or some lesions in farm animals that due to low knowledge, its reason is unknown, but can relate to As pollution. This study was conducted to investigate level of soil and water pollution by As in Hashtrood city. Based on the region’s information, the surface and ground waters, soil, river sediments, and rock were sampled and analyzed for physico-chemical and As in lab. There are significant differences for mean contents between As in the samples and crust. The maximum levels of As were observed in fly ash sample. Consequently, As pollution was related to geogenic and volcanic eruptions in this region. These mechanisms are diagnosed as As pollution in the region: As release for the rock units, As sorption by oxide minerals in aerobic and acidic to neutral conditions, desorption from oxide surfaces with pH increasing, increasing of As concentration in solution, and consequently pollution.
192
19419
Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil
Abstract:
The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.
191
36500
A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques
Abstract:
Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.
190
74096
The Effect of Solution pH of Chitosan on Antimicrobial Properties of Nylon 6,6 Fabrics
Abstract:
The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against various bacteria and fungi are well known, and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan depends on pH. This study investigates the antimicrobial activity at different pH levels. Nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated with different chitosan solutions. Additionally, samples were treated also in basic conditions to see the antimicrobial activities. AATCC Test Method 100 was followed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 test inoculum. The pH of the chitosan solutions was controlled below 6.5 since chitosan shows its antimicrobial activity only in acidic conditions because of its poor solubility above 6.5. In basic conditions, the samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. It appears from SEM images that the bonded chitosan in the structures exists. In acidic media (ph < 6.5), all samples showed antimicrobial activity. No correlation was found between pH levels and antimicrobial activity in acidic media.
189
48478
Different Methods Anthocyanins Extracted from Saffron
Abstract:
The flowers of saffron contain anthocyanins. Generally, extraction of anthocyanins takes place at low temperatures (below 30 °C), preferably under vacuum (to minimize degradation) and in an acidic environment. In order to extract anthocyanins, the dried petals were added to 30 ml of acidic ethanol (pH=2). Amount of petals, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol percentage which were selected. Total anthocyanin content was a function of both variables of ethanol percent and extraction time.To prepare SW with pH of 3.5, different concentrations of 100, 400, 700, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm of sodium metabisulfite were added to aqueous sodium citrate. At this selected concentration, different extraction times of 20, 40, 60, 120, 180 min were tested to determine the optimum extraction time. When the extraction time was extended from 20 to 60 min, the total recovered anthocyanins of sulfur method changed from 650 to 710 mg/100 g. In the EW method Cellubrix and Pectinex enzymes were added separately to the buffer solution at different concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10%, and 12.5% and held for 2 hours reaction time at an ambient temperature of 40 °C. There was a considerable and significant difference in trends of Acys content of tepals extracted by pectinex enzymes at 5% concentration and AE solution.
188
50150
Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil
Abstract:
Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.
187
10233
Effects of Excess-Iron Stress on Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Efficiency of Yardlong-Bean Plants
Abstract:
Excess-iron (Fe) stresses involved in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation are not understood. Our objectives were to investigate the tolerance of yardlong-bean plants to soil excess-Fe stress and antagonistic effects of organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants on plant root nodulation and stem ureide formation. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 5.3±0.4) and highly variable in Fe concentrations(596±79 mg/kg). The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. The treatment effects were significant on root nodulation, stem ureide, amino acids, plant N/Fe accumulation and bean yields (P< 0.05). The yardlong-bean stem allantoin, amino acids and nitrate concentrations and relative ureide % declined with high soil Fe concentrations (>300 mg/kg). It was concluded that the co-variance of excess Fe stress could inhibit legume symbiotic N fixation efficiency. Organic amendments and rhizobial inoculants could help improve crop tolerance to excess Fe stress.
186
10278
Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
Abstract:
We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.
185
10291
Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava
Abstract:
Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P< 0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.
184
70399
Metabolic and Phylogenetic Profiling of Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains Isolated from NZ Soils of Varying pH
Abstract:
A mixed pasture system of ryegrass-clover is used in New Zealand, where clovers are generally inoculated with commercially available strains of rhizobia. The community of rhizobia living in the soil and the way in which they interact with the plant are affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. In general, bacterial richness and diversity in soil varies by soil pH. pH also affects cell physiology and acts as a master variable that controls the wider soil physiochemical conditions such as P availability, Al release and micronutrient availability. As such, pH can have both primary and secondary effects on soil biology and processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil pH on the genetic diversity and metabolic profile of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating clover. Soils were collected from 12 farms across New Zealand which had a pH(water) range of between 4.9 and 7.5, with four acidic (pH 4.9 – 5.5), four ‘neutral’ (5.8 – 6.1) and four alkaline (6.5 – 7.5) soils. Bacteria were recovered from nodules of Trifolium repens (white clover) and T. subterraneum (subterranean clover) grown in the soils. The strains were cultured and screened against a range of pH-amended media to demonstrate whether they were adapted to pH levels similar to their native soils. The strains which showed high relative growth at a given pH (~20% of those isolated) were selected for metabolic and taxonomic profiling. The Omnilog (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) phenotype array was used to perform assays on carbon (C) utilisation for selected strains. DNA was extracted from the strains which had differing C utilisation profiles and PCR products for both forward and reverse primers were sequenced for the following genes: 16S rRNA, recA, nodC, nodD and nifH (symbiotic).
183
19685
The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility
Abstract:
Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.
182
6822
Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement
Abstract:
Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60&deg;. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.
181
11900
An Engineering Review of Grouting in Soil Improvement Applications
Abstract:
Soil improvement is one of the main concerns of each civil engineer who is working at soil mechanics and geotechnics. Grouting has been used as a powerful treatment for soil improving. In this paper, we have tried to review the grouting application base on grouts which is used and also we have tried to give a general view of grout applications and where and when can be used.
180
2366
Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs
Abstract:
Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.
179
104188
Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants
Abstract:
The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.
178
42790
Matric Suction Effects on Behavior of Unsaturated Soil Slope
Abstract:
Soil slopes are usually located above the groundwater level that are largely unsaturated. It is possible that unsaturated soil of slope has expanded or collapsed as a result of wetting by rain or other factor that this type of soil behavior can cause serious problems including human and financial damage. The main factor causing this difference in behavior of saturated and unsaturated state of soil is matric suction that is created by interface of the soil and water in the soil pores. So far theoretical studies show that matric suction has important effect on the mechanical behavior of soil although the impact of this factor on slope stability has not been studied. This paper presents a numerical study of effect of matric suction on slope stability. The results of the study indicate that safety factor and stability of soil slope increase due to an increasing of matric suction and in view of matric suction leads to more accurate results and safety factor.
177
106714
Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment
Abstract:
This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.
176
80561
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
175
81587
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
174
81589
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
173
81599
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
172
81606
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
171
81839
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
170
81607
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
169
81608
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
168
81605
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
167
81609
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
166
81612
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
165
81614
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
164
81616
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
163
81838
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
162
81588
Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling
Abstract:
Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.
161
101303
The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil
Abstract:
In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.
160
6925
Soil Reinforcement by Fibers Using Triaxial Compression Test
Abstract:
In order to evaluate influences of roots on soil shear strength, monotonic drained and undrained triaxial laboratory tests were carried out on reconstituted specimens at various confining pressure (σc’=50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kPa) and a constant relative density (Dr = 50%). Reinforcement of soil by fibrous roots is crucial for preventing soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, we investigated soil reinforcement by roots of acacia planted in the area of Chlef where shallow landslides and slope instability are frequent. These roots were distributed in soil in two forms: vertically and horizontally. The monotonic test results showed that roots have more impacts on the soil shear strength than the friction angle, and the presence of roots in soil substantially increased the soil shear strength. Also, the results showed that the contribution of roots on the shear strength mobilized increases with increase in the confining pressure.
159
74384
Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies
Abstract:
This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.
158
83639
Effect of Distillery Spentwash Application on Soil Properties and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)
Abstract:
Studies on spent wash utilization as a nutrient source through 'Effect of distillery spentwash application on soil properties and yield of maize (Zea may L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) G)' was carried out in Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study was conducted in fourteen different locations of Malavalli (12) and Maddur taluk (2) involving maize and finger millet as a test crop. The spentwash was characterized for various parameters like pH, EC, total NPK, Na, Ca, Mg, SO₄, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cl content. It was observed from the results that the pH was slightly alkaline (7.45), EC was excess (23.3 dS m⁻¹), total NPK was 0.12, 0.02, and 1.31 percent respectively, Na, Ca, Mg and SO₄ concentration was 664, 1305, 745 and 618 (mg L⁻¹) respectively, total solid content was quite high (6.7%), Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, values were 23.5, 5.70, 3.64, 4.0 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The crops were grown by adopting different crop management practices after application of spentwash at 100 m³ ha⁻¹ to the identified farmer fields. Soil samples were drawn at three stages i.e., before sowing of crop, during crop growth stage and after harvest of the crop at 2 depths (0-30 and 30-60 cm) and analyzed for pH, EC, available K and Na parameters by adopting standard procedures. The soil analysis showed slightly acidic reaction (5.93), normal EC (0.43 dS m⁻¹), medium available potassium (267 kg ha⁻¹) before application of spentwash. Application of spentwash has enhanced pH level of soil towards neutral (6.97), EC 0.25 dS m⁻¹, available K2O to 376 kg ha⁻¹ and sodium content of 0.73 C mol (P+) kg⁻¹ during the crop growth stage. After harvest of the crops soil analysis data indicated a decrease in pH to 6.28, EC of 0.22 dS m⁻¹, available K₂O to 316 kg ha⁻¹ and Na 0.52 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ compared with crop growth stage. The study showed that, there will be enhancement of potassium levels if the spentwash is applied once to dryland. The yields of both the crops were quantified and found to be in the range of 35.65 to 65.55 q ha⁻¹ and increased yield to the extent of 13.36-22.36 percent as compared to control field (11.36-22.33 q ha⁻¹) in maize crop. Also, finger millet yield was increased with the spentwash application to the extent of 14.21-20.49 percent (9.5-17.73 q ha⁻¹) higher over farmers practice (8.15-14.15 q ha⁻¹).
157
64350
Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions
Abstract:
This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.
156
58657
The Effect of Soil Binder and Gypsum to the Changes of the Expansive Soil Shear Strength Parameters
Abstract:
Many methods of soil stabilization that can be done such as by mixing chemicals. In this research, stabilization by mixing the soil using two types of chemical admixture, those are gypsum with a variation of 5%, 10%, and 15% and Soil binder with a concentration of 20 gr / lot of water, 25 gr / lot of water, and 30 gr / lot of water aimed to determine the effect on the soil plasticity index values and comparing the value of shear strength parameters of the mixture with the original soil conditions using a Triaxial UU test. Based on research done shows that with increasing variations in the mix, then the value of plasticity index decreased, which was originally 42% (very high degree of swelling) becomes worth 11.24% (lower Swelling degree) when a mixture of gypsum 15% and 30 gr / Lt water soil binder. As for the value shear, strength parameters increased in all variations of mixture. Admixture with the highest shear strength parameter's value is at 15% the mixture of gypsum and 20 gr / litre of water of soil binder with the 14 day treatment period, which has enhanced the cohesion value of 559.01%, the friction angle by 1157.14%. And a shear strength value of 568.49%. It can be concluded that the admixture of gypsum and soil binder correctly, can increase the value of shear strength parameters significantly and decrease the value of plasticity index of the soil.
155
92819
Effect of Various Tillage Systems on Soil Compaction
Abstract:
The prime importance of tillage is that it prepares the land where the seed easily germinate and later the plant can well establish. Using different types of equipments driven manually or by powered, machines make the soil suitable to place the seeds into the desirable depth. Moreover, tillage loosens the compacted layers. Heavy equipment and tillage implements can cause damage to the soil structure. Effect of various tillage methods on soil compaction was studied in Rabi season of 2013-14 at village Ladwa, Hisar, Haryana (India). The experiments studied the effect of six tillage treatments i.e. no tillage or zero tillage (T1), tillage with rotavator (T2), disc harrow (T3), rotavator + sub soiler (T4), disc harrow + sub soiler (T5) and power harrow (T6) on soil compaction. Soil compaction was measured before tillage and after sowing at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing. No change in soil resistance was recorded before and after no tillage treatment. Maximum soil resistance was found in zero tillage followed by disc harrow up to 150 mm soil depth. Minimum soil resistance was found in rotavator immediately after the tillage treatment. However, the soil resistance approached the same level as it had been before the tillage after the soil strata where the implement cannot reach.
154
26275
Application of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge on the Growth of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Effect on Soil Properties, Nutrients and Heavy Metals
Abstract:
The paper industry performs an essential role in the global economy of the world. A study was conducted on the paper mill sludge that is applied on the Khaya senegalensis for 1 year planning period at University Agriculture Park, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia to determine the growth of Khaya senegalensis, soil properties, nutrients concentrations and effects on the status of heavy metals. Paper Mill Sludge (PMS) and composted Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) were used with different rates of nitrogen (0, 150, 300 and 600 kg ha-1) at the ratio of 1:1 (Recycled Paper Mill Sludge (RPMS) : Empty Fruit Brunch (EFB). The growth parameters were measured twice a month for 1 year. Plant nutrients and heavy metal uptake were determined. The paper mill sludge has the potential to be a supplementary N fertilizer as well as a soil amendment. The application of RPMS with N, significantly contributed to the improvement in plant growth parameters such as plant height (4.24 m), basal diameter (10.30 cm), total plant biomass and improved soil physical and chemical properties. The pH, EC, available P and total C in soil were varied among the treatments during the planting period. The treatments with raw and RPM compost had higher pH values than those applied with inorganic fertilizer and control. Nevertheless, there was no salinity problem recorded during the planting period and available P in soil treated with raw and RPMS compost was higher than the control plots that reflects the mineralization of organic P from the decomposition of pulp sludge. The weight of the free and occluded light fractions of carbon concentration was significantly higher in the soils treated with raw and RPMS compost. The application of raw and composted RPMS gave significantly higher concentration of the heavy metals, but the total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were below the critical values. Hence, the paper mill sludge can be successfully used as soil amendment in acidic soil without any serious threat. The use of paper mill sludge for the soil fertility, shows improvement in land application signifies a unique opportunity to recycle sludge back to the land to alleviate the potential waste management problem.
153
111245
Soil Compaction by a Forwarder in Timber Harvesting
Abstract:
Industrial plantation forest is the producer of logs in Indonesia. Several companies of industrial plantation forest have been successfully planted with fast-growing species, and it entered their annual harvesting period. Heavy machines such as forwarders are used in timber harvesting to extract logs from stump to landing site. The negative impact of using such machines are loss of topsoil and soil compaction. Compacted soil is considered unfavorable for plant growth. The research objectives were to analyze the soil bulk density, rut, and cone index of the soil caused by a forwarder passes, to analyze the relation between several times of forwarder passes to the increase of soil bulk density. A Valmet forwarder was used in this research. Soil bulk density at soil surface and cone index from the soil surface to the 50 cm depth of soil were measured at the harvested area. The result showed that soil bulk density increase with the increase of the Valmet forwarder passes. Maximum soil bulk density occurred after 5 times forwarder Valmet passed. The cone index tended to increase from the surface until 50 cm depth of soil. Rut formed and high soil bulk density indicated the soil compaction occurred by the forwarder operation.
152
7517
The Impact of Low-Concentrated Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Foodborne Pathogens
Abstract:
Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is an alternative with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination. It is produced by membrane electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution in water ionizers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentrated AEW in reducing selected foodborne pathogens and to examine its bactericidal effect on cellular structures of Escherichia coli. E. coli and S. aureus cells were undetectable after 10 minutes of contact with electrolyzed salt solutions. Non-electrolyzed solutions did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. AE water was found to destroy the cellular structures of the E. coli. The use of more concentrated salt solutions and prolonged electrolysis time from 5 to 10 minutes resulted in a greater changes of rods shape as compared to the control and non-electrolyzed NaCl solutions. This research showed that low-concentrated acid electrolyzed water is an effective method to significantly reduce pathogenic microorganisms and indicated its potential application for decontamination of meat.
151
44907
Effect of Treated Peat Soil on the Plasticity Index and Hardening Time
Abstract:
Soil Stabilization has been widely implemented in the construction industry nowadays. Peat soil is well known as one of the most problematic soil among the engineers. The procedures need to take into account both physical and engineering properties of the stabilized peat soil. This paper presents a result of plasticity index and hardening of treated peat soil with various dosage of additives. In order to determine plasticity of the treated peat soil, atterberg limit test which comprises plastic limit and liquid limit test has been conducted. Determination of liquid limit in this experimental study is by using cone penetrometer. Vicat testing apparatus has been used in the hardening test which the penetration of the plunger is recorded every one hour for 24 hours. The results show that the plasticity index of peat soil stabilized with 80% FAAC and 20% OPC has the lowest plasticity index and recorded the fastest initial setting time. The significant of this study is to promote greener solution for future soil stabilization industry.
150
15564
Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation
Abstract:
Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.
149
108173
Bioremediation Influence on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils
Abstract:
Today soil contamination is an unavoidable issue; Irrespective of environmental impact, which happens during the soil contaminating and remediating process, the influence of this phenomenon on soil has not been searched thoroughly. In this study, unconfined compression and compaction tests were done on samples, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results show that rising in the amount of oil, cause decreased optimum water content and maximum dry density and increased strength. However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent.
148
44288
Studying the Impact of Soil Characteristics in Displacement of Retaining Walls Using Finite Element
Abstract:
In this paper, using the finite element method, the effect of soil and wall characteristics was investigated. Thirty and two different models were studied by different parameters. These studies could calculate displacement at any height of the wall for frictional-cohesive soils. The main purpose of this research is to determine the most effective soil characteristics in reducing the wall displacement. Comparing different models showed that the overall increase in internal friction angle, angle of friction between soil and wall and modulus of elasticity reduce the replacement of the wall. In addition, increase in special weight of soil will increase the wall displacement. Based on results, it can be said that all wall displacements were overturning and in the backfill, soil was bulging. Results show that the highest impact is seen in reducing wall displacement, internal friction angle, and the angle friction between soil and wall. One of the advantages of this study is taking into account all the parameters of the soil and walls replacement distribution in wall and backfill soil. In this paper, using the finite element method and considering all parameters of the soil, we investigated the impact of soil parameter in wall displacement. The aim of this study is to provide the best conditions in reducing the wall displacement and displacement wall and soil distribution.
147
101222
Contribution to the Study of the Rill Density Effects on Soil Erosion: Laboratory Experiments
Abstract:
Rills begin to be generated once overland flow shear capacity overcomes the soil surface resistance. This resistance depends on soil texture, the arrangement of soil particles and on chemical and physical properties. The rill density could affect soil erosion, especially when the distance between the rills (interrill) contributes to the variation of the rill characteristics, and consequently on sediment concentration. To investigate this point, agricultural sandy soil, a soil tray of 0.2x1x3m³ and a piece of hardwood rectangular in shape to build up rills were the base of this work. The results have shown that small lines have been developed between the rills and the flow acceleration increased in comparison to the flow on the flat surface (interrill). Sediment concentration increased with increasing rill number (density).
146
26304
Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008
Authors:
Abstract:
A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.
145
15269
Microbiological Analysis of Soil from Onu-Ebonyi Contaminated with Inorganic Fertilizer
Abstract:
Microbiological analysis of soil from Onu-Ebonyi Izzi local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria contaminated with inorganic fertilizer was carried out with a view to determine the effect of the fertilizer on the microbial flora of the soil. soil samples were analyzed for microbial burden. the result showed that the following organisms were isolated with their frequency of their occurrence as follows:pseudomonas species (33.3%) and aspergillus species (54.4%) had the highest frequncy of occurence in the whole sample of batches, while streptococcus species had 6.0% and Geotrichum species (5.3%) had the least and other predominant microorganism isolated: bacillus species,staphylococcus species and vibrio species, Escherichia species, rhzizopus species, mucor species and fusaruim species. From the result, it could be concluded that the soil was contaminated and this could affect adversely the fertility of the soil .
144
28848
Computer Simulations of Stress Corrosion Studies of Quartz Particulate Reinforced ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites
Authors:
Abstract:
The stress corrosion resistance of ZA-27 / TiO2 metal matrix composites (MMC’s) in high temperature acidic media has been evaluated using an autoclave. The liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method was used to fabricate MMC’s. TiO2 particulates of 50-80 µm in size are added to the matrix. ZA-27 containing 2,4,6 weight percentage of TiO2 are prepared. Stress corrosion tests were conducted by weight loss method for different exposure time, normality and temperature of the acidic medium. The corrosion rates of composites were lower to that of matrix ZA-27 alloy under all conditions.
143
23947
Mite Soil as Biological Indicators the Quality of the Soil in the Forested Area of the Coast of Algeria
Abstract:
The majority of the mite soil contributes to decompose the organic matter in the soil, the richness or poverty is a way of knowing the quality of the soil, in this regard we studied the ecological side of the soil mite in a forest park «coast of Algeria». 6 by taking soil samples every month for the year 2010/2011 .The samples are collected and extracted using the technique of Berlese Tullgren. It was obtained 604 individuals. These riches can indicate the fertility of soil and knead the high proportion of organic material in it. The largest number observed in the spring, followed by the separation of the 252 individuals fall 222 individuals and then the summer with 106 individuals and winter 80 individuals. Among the 18 families obtained. Scheloribatidae is the most dominant with 30.6% followed by Ceratozetidae with 16%, then Euphthiracaridae 14%. The families remain involved with low percentages. the diversity index Schanonweaver varied between 2.3 bits in the summer and 3.83 bits in the spring. As the results of the analysis statistic confirm the existence of a clear difference between the four seasons and the richness of soil mite and diversity.
142
49519
Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and Its Impacts on the Mountainous Watershed Hydrology in Northwest China
Abstract:
Heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties directly affects hydrological processes at different scales. Understanding heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties such as soil moisture is therefore essential for modeling watershed ecohydrological processes, particularly in hard to access, topographically complex mountainous watersheds. This study maps spatial variations of soil moisture by in situ observation network that consists of sampling points, zones, and tributaries, and monitors corresponding hydrological variables of air and soil temperatures, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and runoff in the Upper Reach of the Heihe River Watershed, a second largest inland river (terminal lake) with a drainage area of over 128,000 km² in Northwest China. Subsequently, the study uses a hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate the effects of heterogeneity of soil moisture on watershed hydrological processes. The spatial clustering method, Full-Order-CLK was employed to derive five soil heterogeneous zones (Configuration 97, 80, 65, 40, and 20) for soil input to SWAT. Results show the simulations by the SWAT model with the spatially clustered soil hydraulic information from the field sampling data had much better representation of the soil heterogeneity and more accurate performance than the model using the average soil property values for each soil type derived from the coarse soil datasets. Thus, incorporating detailed field sampling soil heterogeneity data greatly improves performance in hydrologic modeling.
141
7336
Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.
140
55160
Effect of Humic Acids on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality
Abstract:
The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of the behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment leads to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding soil aggregation and the interactions at soil solid-liquid interface.
139
23192
Using Electro-Biogrouting to Stabilize of Soft Soil
Abstract:
This paper describes a new method of soil stabilisation, electro-biogrouting (EBM), for improvement of soft soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This method uses an applied voltage gradient across the soil to induce the ions and bacteria cells through the soil matrix, resulting in CaCO3 precipitation and an increase of the soil shear strength in the process. The EBM were used effectively with two injection methods; bacteria injection and products of bacteria injection. The bacteria cells, calcium ions and urea were moved across the soil by electromigration and electro osmotic flow respectively. The products of bacteria (CO3-2) were moved by electromigration. The results showed that the undrained shear strength of the soil increased from 6 to 65 and 70 kPa for first and second injection method respectively. The injection of carbonate solution and calcium could be effectively flowed in the clay soil compare to injection of bacteria cells. The detection of CaCO3 percentage and its corresponding water content across the specimen showed that the increase of undrained shear strength relates to the deposit of calcite crystals between soil particles.
138
14384
Investigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion: A Case Study of Kasilian Watershed, Northern Iran
Abstract:
Many of the impact of climate change will material through change in soil erosion which were rarely addressed in Iran. This paper presents an investigation of the impacts of climate change soil erosin for the Kasilian basin. LARS-WG5 was used to downscale the IPCM4 and GFCM21 predictions of the A2 scenarios for the projected periods of 1985-2030 and 2080-2099. This analysis was carried out by means of the dataset the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) of Trieste. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Results indicate that soil erosion increase or decrease, depending on which climate scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods.
137
49812
Seasonal and Monthly Field Soil Respiration Rate and Litter Fall Amounts of Kasuga-Yama Hill Primeval Forest
Abstract:
The seasonal (January, April, July and October) and monthly soil respiration rate and the monthly litter fall amounts were examined in the laurel-leaved (B_B-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (B_B-2 and PW) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The change of the seasonal soil respiration rate corresponded to that of the soil temperature. The soil respiration rate was higher in October when fresh organic matter was supplied in the forest floor than in April in spite of the same temperature. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-1 was higher than that of B_B-2, which corresponded to more numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate method and by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-1 than that of B_B-2. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-2 was higher than that of PW, which corresponded to more microbial biomass by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-2 than that of PW. The correlation coefficient with the seasonal soil respiration and the soil temperature was higher than that of the monthly soil respiration. The soil respiration carbon was more than the litter fall carbon. It was suggested that the soil respiration included in the carbon dioxide which was emitted by the plant root and soil animal, or that the litter fall supplied to the forest floor included in animal and plant litter.
136
37928
Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method
Abstract:
Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.
135
11788
Laboratory Testing Regime for Quantifying Soil Collapsibility
Abstract:
Collapsible soils go through radical rearrangement of their particles when triggered by water, stress or/and vibration, causing loss of volume. This loss of volume in soil as seen in foundation failures has caused millions of dollars’ worth of damages to public facilities and infrastructure and so has an adverse effect on the society and people. Despite these consequences and the several studies that are available, more research is still required in the study of soil collapsibility. Discerning the pedogenesis (formation) of soils and investigating the combined effects of the different geological soil properties is key to elucidating and quantifying soils collapsibility. This study presents a novel laboratory testing regime that would be undertaken on soil samples where the effects of soil type, compactive variables (moisture content, density, void ratio, degree of saturation) and loading are analyzed. It is anticipated that results obtained would be useful in mapping the trend of the combined effect thus the basis for evaluating soil collapsibility or collapse potentials encountered in construction with volume loss problems attributed to collapse.
134
62296
Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement
Abstract:
Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.
133
24018
Soil Loss Assessment at Steep Slope: A Case Study at the Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia
Authors:
Abstract:
The study was in order to assess soil erosion at plot scale Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) erosion model and Geographic Information System (GIS) technique have been used for the study 8 plots in Guthrie Corridor Expressway, Selangor, Malaysia. The USLE model estimates an average soil loss soil integrating several factors such as rainfall erosivity factor(R ), Soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), vegetation cover factor as well as conservation practice factor (C &P) and Results shows that the four plots have very low rates of soil loss, i.e. NLDNM, NDNM, PLDM, and NDM having an average soil loss of 0.059, 0.106, 0.386 and 0.372 ton/ha/ year, respectively. The NBNM, PLDNM and NLDM plots had a relatively higher rate of soil loss, with an average of 0.678, 0.757 and 0.493ton/ha/year. Whereas, the NBM is one of the highest rate of soil loss from 0.842 ton/ha/year to maximum 16.466 ton/ha/year. The NBM plot was located at bare the land; hence the magnitude of C factor(C=0.15) was the highest one.
132
80403
Acid-Responsive Polymer Conjugates as a New Generation of Corrosion Protecting Materials
Abstract:
Protection of metals is a critical issue in industry. The annual cost of corrosion in the world is estimated to be about 2.5 trillion dollars and continuously increases. Therefore, there is a need for developing novel protection approaches to improve corrosion protection. We designed and synthesized smart polymer/corrosion inhibitor conjugates as new generations of corrosion protecting materials. Firstly, a polymerizable acrylate derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), an effective corrosion inhibitor, containing acid-labile β-thiopropionate linkage was prepared in three steps. Then, it was copolymerized with ethyl acrylate in the presence of 1,1′-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ABCN) by radical polymerization. Nanoparticles with an average diameter of 140 nm were prepared from the polymer conjugate by the miniemulsion-solvent evaporation process. The release behavior of 8HQ from the the nanoparticles was studied in acidic (pH 3.5) and neutral media (pH 7.0). The release profile showed a faster release of 8HQ in acidic medium in comparison with neutral medium. Indeed 100% of 8HQ was released after 14 days in acidic medium whereas only around 15% of 8HQ was released during the same period at neutral pH. Therefore, the polymer conjugate nanoparticles are suitable materials as additives or to form coatings on metal substrates for corrosion protection.
131
28484
A Study of Some Water Relations and Soil Salinity Using Geotextile Mat under Sprinkler System
Authors:
Abstract:
This work aimed to study the influence of a geotextile material under sprinkler irrigation on the availability of soil moisture content and salinity of 40 cm top soil profile. Field experiment was carried out to measure soil moisture content, soil salinity and water application efficiency under sprinkler irrigation system. The results indicated that, the mats placed at 20 cm depth leads to increasing of the availability of soil moisture content in the root zone. The results further showed increases in water application efficiency because of using the geotextile material. In addition, soil salinity in the root zone decreased because of increasing soil moisture content.
130
38023
The Sensitivity of Electrical Geophysical Methods for Mapping Salt Stores within the Soil Profile
Abstract:
Soil salinization is one of the most hazardous phenomenons accelerating the land degradation processes. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Geophysical method has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil sampling, EM38 and 2D conductivity imaging have been evaluated for their ability to delineate and map the level of salinity variations at Second Ponds Creek. The three methods have shown that the subsoil in the study area is saline. Salt variations were successfully observed under either method. However, EM38 reading and 2D inversion data show a clear spatial structure comparing to EC1:5 of soil samples in spite of that all soil samples, EM38 and 2D imaging were collected from the same location. Because EM38 readings and 2D imaging data are a weighted average of electrical soil conductance, it is more representative of soil properties than the soil samples method. The mapping of subsurface soil at the study area has been successful and the resistivity imaging has proven to be an advantage. The soil salinity analysis (EC1:5) correspond well to the true resistivity bringing together a good result of soil salinity. Soil salinity clearly indicated by previous investigation EM38 have been confirmed by the interpretation of the true resistivity at study area.
129
19051
Some Characteristics and Identification of Fungi Contaminated by Alkomos Cement Factory
Abstract:
Soil samples were collected from and around Alkomos cement factory, Alkomos town, Libya. Soil physiochemical properties were determined. In addition, olive leaves were scanned for their fungal content. This work can conclude that the results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Alkomos cement factory in Libya has had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area. The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Different responses were found in each season and each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil and leaves was lowest at 100 m from the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to the control area and 250 m from the factory.
128
36737
Peat Soil Stabilization Methods: A Review
Abstract:
Peat soil is formed naturally through the accumulation of organic matter under water and it consists of more than 75% organic substances. Peat is considered to be in the category of problematic soil, which is not suitable for construction, due to its high compressibility, high moisture content, low shear strength, and low bearing capacity. Since this kind of soil is generally found in many countries and different regions, finding desirable techniques for stabilization of peat is absolutely essential. The purpose of this paper is to review the various techniques applied for stabilizing peat soil and discuss outcomes of its improved mechanical parameters and strength properties. Recognizing characterization of stabilized peat is one of the most significant factors for architectural structures; as a consequence, various strategies for stabilization of this susceptible soil have been examined based on the depth of peat deposit.
127
2506
Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand
Abstract:
Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.
126
17623
Dynamic Compaction Assessment for Improving Pasdaran Highway
Abstract:
Dynamic compression as a method of soil improvement in recent decades has been considered by engineers and experts. Three methods mainly, deep dynamic compaction, soil density, dynamic and rapid change have been proposed and implemented to improve subgrade conditions of highway road. Northern highway route in Tabriz (Pasdaran), Iran that was placed on the manual soil was the main concern. Engineering properties of soil have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Among the three methods rapid dynamic compaction for highway has been suggested to improve the soil subgrade conditions.
125
105060
Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil
Abstract:
This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.
124
48585
Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics of Soil pH around the Balikesir City, Turkey
Abstract:
Determination of soil pH surface distribution in urban areas is substantial for sustainable development. Changes on soil properties occur due to functions on performed in agriculture, industry and other urban functions. Soil pH is important to effect on soil productivity which based on sensitive and complex relation between plant and soil. Furthermore, the spatial variability of soil reaction is necessary to measure the effects of urbanization. The objective of this study was to explore the spatial variation of soil pH quality and the influence factors of human land use on soil Ph around Balikesir City using data for 2015 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). For this, soil samples were taken from 40 different locations, and collected with the method of "Systematic Random" from the pits at 0-20 cm depths, because anthropologic sourced pollutants accumulate on upper layers of soil. The study area was divided into a grid system with 750 x 750 m. GPS was used to determine sampling locations, and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique was used to analyze the spatial distribution of pH in the study area and to predict the variable values of un-exampled places with the help from the values of exampled places. Natural soil acidity and alkalinity depend on interaction between climate, vegetation, and soil geological properties. However, analyzing soil pH is important to indirectly evaluate soil pollution caused by urbanization and industrialization. The result of this study showed that soil pH around the Balikesir City was neutral, in generally, with values were between 6.5 and 7.0. On the other hand, some slight changes were demonstrated around open dump areas and the small industrial sites. The results obtained from this study can be indicator of important soil problems and this data can be used by ecologists, planners and managers to protect soil supplies around the Balikesir City.
123
93366
Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria
Abstract:
Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.
122
105967
Experimental Investigation of the Failure Behavior of a Retaining Wall Constructed with Soil Bags
Abstract:
This paper aims to analyse the failure behaviour of the retaining wall constructed with soil bags that are formed by filling river sand into woven bags (geosynthetics). Model tests were conducted to obtain the failure mode of the wall, and shear tests on two-layers and five-layers of soil bags were designed to investigate the mechanical characteristics of the interface of soil bags. The test results show that the slip surface in the soil bags-constructed retaining wall is ladder-like due to the inter-layer insertion of soil bags, and the wall above the ladder-like surface undergoes a rigid body translation. The insertion strengthens the shear strength of two-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Meanwhile, it affects the shape of the slip surface of the five-layer staggered-stacked soil bags. Finally, the interlayer resisting friction of soil bags is found to be related to the shape of the slip surface.
121
65988
Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model
Abstract:
Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated to sugarcane productivity. Soil beneath the tractor&rsquo;s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help to understand such effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with increase of number of tire&rsquo;s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force, the maximum error was about 16%.
120
110519
Study Effect of Soil Compaction and Height on Pipe Ovality for Buried Steel Pipe
Abstract:
In this paper, the numerical study of buried steel pipe in the soil is investigated. The buried pipeline under soil weight after embankment on the pipe leads to the ovality of pipe. In this paper also it is considered the percentage of soil compaction, soil height on the steel pipe, and external load of the mechanical excavator on the steel pipe, and finally, the effect of these on the rate of pipe ovality investigated. Furthermore, the effect of pipes thickness on ovality has investigated. The result shows that an increasing percentage of soil compaction has more effect on reducing the percentage of ovality, and if the percentage of soil compaction increases, we can use the pipe whit less thickness. Finally, the ovality rate of pipe and acceptance criteria of pipe diameter up to yield stress is investigated.
119
104879
Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure
Abstract:
In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.
118
43830
Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil
Abstract:
The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.
117
56496
Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.
116
26938
Developing a Town Based Soil Database to Assess the Sensitive Zones in Nutrient Management
Abstract:
For this study, a town based soil database created in Gümüşçay District of Biga Town, Çanakkale, Turkey. Crop and livestock production are major activities in the district. Nutrient management is mainly based on commercial fertilizer application ignoring the livestock manure. Within the boundaries of district, 122 soil sampling points determined over the satellite image. Soil samples collected from the determined points with the help of handheld Global Positioning System. Labeled samples were sent to a commercial laboratory to determine 11 soil parameters including salinity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Based on the test results soil maps for mentioned parameters were developed using remote sensing, GIS, and geostatistical analysis. In this study we developed a GIS database that will be used for soil nutrient management. Methods were explained and soil maps and their interpretations were summarized in the study.
115
95784
Rhizosphere Microbiome Involvement in the Natural Suppression of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Disease Suppressive Soil
Abstract:
The rhizosphere microbiome elucidate multiple functioning in the soil suppressiveness against plant pathogens. Soybean rhizosphere microbial communities may involve in the natural suppression of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations in disease suppressive soils. To explore these ecological mechanisms of microbes, a long term monoculture suppressive soil were taken into account for further investigation to test the disease suppressive ability by using different treatments. The designed treatments are as, i) suppressive soil (S), ii) conducive soil (C), iii) conducive soil mixed with 10% (w/w) suppressive soil (CS), iv) suppressive soil treated at 80°C for 1 hr (S80), and v) suppressive soil treated with formalin (SF). By using an ultra-high-throughput sequencing approach, we identified the key bacterial and fungal taxa involved in SCN suppression. The Phylum-level investigation of bacteria revealed that Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the rhizosphere soil of soybean seedlings were more abundant in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. The phylum-level analysis of fungi in rhizosphere soil indicated that relative abundance of Ascomycota was higher in suppressive soil than in the conducive soil, where Basidiomycota was more abundant. Transferring suppressive soil to conducive soil increased the population of Ascomycota in the conducive soil by lowering the populations of Basidiomycota. The genera, such as, Pochonia, Purpureocillium, Fusarium, Stachybotrys that have been well documented as bio-control agents of plant nematodes were far more in the disease suppressive soils. Our results suggested that the plants engage a subset of functional microbial groups in the rhizosphere for initial defense upon nematode attack and protect the plant roots later on by nematodes to response for suppression of SCN in disease-suppressive soils.
114
65179
Delineation of Soil Physical Properties Using Electrical Conductivity, Case Study: Volcanic Soil Simulation Model
Abstract:
The value changes of soil physical properties in the agricultural area are giving impacts on soil fertility. This can be caused by excessive usage of inorganic fertilizers and imbalances on organic fertilization. Soil physical parameters that can be measured include soil electrical conductivity, water content volume, soil porosity, dielectric permittivity, etc. This study used the electrical conductivity and volume water content as the measured physical parameters. The study was conducted on volcanic soil obtained from agricultural land conditioned with NPK fertilizer and salt in a certain amount. The dimension of the conditioned soil being used is 1 x 1 x 0.5 meters. By using this method, we can delineate the soil electrical conductivity value of land due to changes in the provision of inorganic NPK fertilizer and the salinity in the soil. Zone with the additional 1 kg of salt has the dimension of 60 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 1 cm in thickness while zone with the additional of 10 kg NPK fertilizer has the dimensions of 70 cm in width, 20 cm in depth and 3 cm in thickness. This salt addition resulted in EC values changes from the original condition. Changes of the EC value tend to occur at a depth of 20 to 40 cm on the line 1B at 9:45 dS/cm and line 1C of 9.35 dS/cm and tend to have the direction to the Northeast.
113
73651
Utilization of Logging Residue to Reduce Soil Disturbance of Timber Harvesting
Abstract:
Industrial plantation forest in Indonesia was developed in 1983, and since then, several companies have been successfully planted a total area of concessionaire approximately 10 million hectares. Currently, these plantation forests have their annual harvesting period. In the timber harvesting process, amount part of the trees generally become logging residue. Tree parts such as branches, twigs, defected stem and leaves are unused section of tree on the ground after timber harvesting. The use of heavy machines in timber harvesting area has caused damage to the forest soil. The negative impact of such machines includes loss of topsoil, soil erosion, and soil compaction. Forest soil compaction caused reduction of forest water infiltration, increase runoff and causes difficulty for root penetration. In this study, we used logging residue as soil covers on the passages passed by skidding machines in order to observe the reduction soil compaction. Bulk density of soil was measured and analyzed after several times of skidding machines passage on skid trail. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of logging residue on reducing soil compaction. The research was taken place at one of the industrial plantation forest area of South Sumatra Indonesia. The result of the study showed that percentage increase of soil compaction bare soil was larger than soil surface covered by logging residue. The maximum soil compaction occurred after 4 to 5 passes on soil without logging residue or bare soil and after 7 to 8 passes on soil cover by logging residue. The use of logging residue coverings could reduce soil compaction from 45% to 60%. The logging residue was effective in decreasing soil disturbance of timber harvesting at the plantation forest area.
112
1427
Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand
Abstract:
Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.
111
6142
Characteristics of Clayey Subgrade Soil Mixed with Cement Stabilizer
Abstract:
Clayey soil is considered weakest subgrade soil from civil engineering point of view under moist condition. These swelling soils attract and absorb water and losses their strength. Certain inherent properties of these clayey soils need modification for their bulk use in the construction of highways/runways pavements and embankments, etc. In this paper, results of clayey subgrade modified with cement stabilizer is presented. Investigation includes evaluation of specific gravity, Atterberg’s limits, grain size distribution, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and CBR value of the clayey soil and cement treated clayey soil. A series of proctor compaction and CBR tests (un-soaked and soaked) are carried out on clayey soil and clayey soil mixed with cement stabilizer in 2%, 4% & 6% percentages to the dry weight of soil. In CBR test, under soaked condition best results are obtained with 6% of cement. However, the difference between the CBR value by addition of 4% and 6% cement is not much. Therefore from economical consideration addition of 4% cement gives the best result after soaking period of 90 days.
110
78092
An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient
Abstract:
Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.
109
38693
Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines
Abstract:
Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.
108
86573
The Effect of Conservative Tillage on Physical Properties of Soil and Yield of Rainfed Wheat
Abstract:
In order to study the effect of conservative tillage on a number of physical properties of soil and the yield of rainfed wheat, an experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was conducted in a field in Aliabad County, Iran. The study treatments included: T1) Conventional method, T2) Combined moldboard plow method, T3) Chisel-packer method, and T4) Direct planting method. During early October, the study soil was prepared based on these treatments in a field which was used for rainfed wheat farming in the previous year. The apparent specific gravity of soil, weighted mean diameter (WMD) of soil aggregates, soil mechanical resistance, and soil permeability were measured. Data were analyzed in MSTAT-C. Results showed that the tillage practice had no significant effect on grain yield (p < 0.05). Soil permeability was 10.9, 16.3, 15.7 and 17.9 mm/h for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively.
107
39776
The Influense of Alternative Farming Systems on Physical Parameters of the Soil
Abstract:
Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high quality food products and retain the viability and fertility of soil. The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2013. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In different farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and green manure catch crops used for fertilization both in the soil low in humus and in the soil moderate in humus. In the 0–20 cm depth layer, it had a more significant effect on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, in which catch crops had been grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil moderate in humus content, compared with the soil low in humus, bulk density was by 1.4 % lower, and porosity by 1.8 % higher. The research findings create a possibility to make improvements in alternative cropping systems by choosing organic fertilizers and catch crops’ combinations that have the sustainable effect on soil and that maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote a development of organic agriculture.
106
90618
Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes
Abstract:
Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.
105
25951
Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the modal characteristics and on the dynamic response of current structures. The objective is on the overall behaviour of a real structure of five storeys reinforced concrete (R/C) building typically encountered in Algeria. Sensitivity studies are undertaken in order to study the effects of frequency content of the input motion, frequency of the soil-structure system, rigidity and depth of the soil layer on the dynamic response of such structures. This investigation indicated that the rigidity of the soil layer is the predominant factor in soil-structure interaction and its increases would definitely reduce the deformation in the R/C structure. On the other hand, increasing the period of the underlying soil will cause an increase in the lateral displacements at story levels and create irregularity in the distribution of story shears. Possible resonance between the frequency content of the input motion and soil could also play an important role in increasing the structural response.
104
43569
Determination and Qsar Modelling of Partitioning Coefficients for Some Xenobiotics in Soils and Sediments
Abstract:
For organic xenobiotics, sorption to Aldrich humic acid is a key process controlling their mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and fate in the soil. Hydrophobic organic compounds possessing either acid or basic groups can be partially ionized (deprotonated or protonated) within the range of natural soil pH. For neutral and ionogenicxenobiotics including (neutral, acids and bases) sorption coefficients normalized to organic carbon content, Koc, have measured at different pH values. To this end, the batch equilibrium technique has been used, employing SPME combined with GC-MSD as an analytical tool. For most ionogenic compounds, sorption has been affected by both pH and pKa and can be explained through Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The results demonstrate that when assessing the environmental fate of ionogenic compounds, their pKa and speciation under natural conditions should be taken into account. A new model has developed to predict the relationship between log Koc and pH with full statistical evaluation against other existing predictive models. Neutral solutes have displayed a good fit with the classical model using log Kow as log Koc predictor, whereas acidic and basic compounds have displayed a good fit with the LSER approach and the new proposed model. Measurement limitations of the Batch technique and SPME-GC-MSD have been found with ionic compounds.
103
39880
Dynamics of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Contents and Stocks along a Salinity Gradient
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68±4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89±3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19±1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26±0.39 ms/cm). Soil total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil total nitrogen (TC) and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. Based on these data, soil organic carbon density (SOCD), soil microbial biomass carbon density (MBCD), soil nitrogen density (TCD) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen density (MBND) were calculated at four sites. The results showed that the mean concentrations of TC, SOC, MBC, TN and MBN showed a general deceasing tendency with increasing salinities in the top 30 cm of soils. The values of SOCD, MBCD, TND and MBND exhibited similar tendency along the salinity gradient. As for profile distribution pattern, The C/N ratios ranged from 8.28 to 56. 51. Higher C/N ratios were found in samples with high salinity. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of TC, SOC and MBC at four sampling sites were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), indicating that salinity could inhibit soil carbon accumulation. However, no significant relationship was observed between TN, MBN and salinity (P > 0.05).
102
1335
Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids
Abstract:
The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.
101
47093
Disaggregation of Coarser Resolution Radiometer Derived Soil Moisture to Finer Scales
Abstract:
Soil moisture is a key hydrologic state variable and is intrinsically linked to the Earth's water, climate and carbon cycles. On ecological point of view, the soil moisture is a fundamental natural resource providing the transpirable water for plants. Soil moisture varies both temporally and spatially due to spatiotemporal variation in rainfall, vegetation cover, soil properties and topography. Satellite derived soil moisture provides spatio-temporal extensive data. However, the spatial resolution of a typical satellite (L-band radiometry) is of the order of tens of kilometers, which is not good enough for developing efficient agricultural water management schemes at the field scale. In the present study, the soil moisture from radiometer data has been disaggregated using blending approach to achieve higher resolution soil moisture data. The radiometer estimates of soil moisture at a 40 km resolution have been disaggregated to 10 km, 5 km and 1 km resolutions. The disaggregated soil moisture was compared with the observed data, consisting of continuous sensor based soil moisture profile measurements, at three monitoring sites and extensive spatial near-surface soil moisture measurements, concurrent with satellite monitoring in the 500 km2 study watershed in the Eastern India. The estimated soil moisture status at different spatial scales can help in developing efficient agricultural water management schemes to increase the crop production and water use efficiency.
100
92521
Geochemical Baseline and Origin of Trace Elements in Soils and Sediments around Selibe-Phikwe Cu-Ni Mining Town, Botswana
Abstract:
Heavy metals may occur naturally in rocks and soils, but elevated quantities of them are being gradually released into the environment by anthropogenic activities such as mining. In order to address issues of heavy metal water and soil pollution, a distinction needs to be made between natural and anthropogenic anomalies. The current study aims at characterizing the spatial distribution of trace elements and evaluate site-specific geochemical background concentrations of trace elements in the mine soils examined, and also to discriminate between lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of enrichment around a copper-nickel mining town in Selibe-Phikwe, Botswana. A total of 20 Soil samples, 11 river sediment, and 9 river water samples were collected from an area of 625m² within the precincts of the mine and the smelter. The concentrations of metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, As, Pb, and Co) were determined by using an ICP-MS after digestion with aqua regia. Major elements were also determined using ED-XRF. Water pH and EC were measured on site and recorded while soil pH and EC were also determined in the laboratory after performing water elution tests. The highest Cu and Ni concentrations in soil are 593mg/kg and 453mg/kg respectively, which is 3 times higher than the crustal composition values and 2 times higher than the South African minimum allowable levels of heavy metals in soils. The level of copper contamination was higher than that of nickel and other contaminants. Water pH levels ranged from basic (9) to very acidic (3) in areas closer to the mine/smelter. There is high variation in heavy metal concentration, eg. Cu suggesting that some sites depict regional natural background concentrations while other depict anthropogenic sources.
99
67463
Seepage Modelling of Jatigede Dam Towards Cisampih Village Based on Analysis Soil Characteristic Using Method Soil Reaction to Water, West Java Indonesia
Abstract:
Development of Jatigede Dam that was the mega project in Indonesia, since 1963. Area of around Jatigede Dam is complex, it has structural geology active fault, and as possible can occur landslide. This research focus on soil test. The purpose of this research to know soil quality Jatigede Dam which caused by water seepage of Jatigede Dam, then can be made seepage modelling around Jatigede Dam including Cisampih Village. Method of this research is SRW (Soil Reaction to Water). There are three samples are taken nearby Jatigede Dam. Four paramaters to determine water seepage such as : V ( velocity of soil to release water), Dl (Ability of soil to release water), Ds (Ability of soil to absorb water), Dt (Ability of soil to hold water). meanwhile, another proscess of interaction beetween water and soil are produced angle, which is made of water flow and vertikal line. Called name SIAT. SIAT has two type is na1 and na2. Each samples has a value from the first sample is 280,333(degree), the second 270 (degree) and the third 270 (degree). The difference na1 is, water interaction towards Dt value angle, while na2 is water interaction towards Dl and Ds value angle. Result of calculating SRW method, first till third sample has a value 7, 11,5 and 9. Based on data, interpreted in around teritory of Jatigede Dam, will get easier impact from water seepage because, condition soil reaction too bad so, it can not hold water.
98
24745
Response of Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction with Varying Soil Types
Abstract:
Over the years, it has been extensively established that the practice of assuming a structure being fixed at base, leads to gross errors in evaluation of its overall response due to dynamic loadings and overestimations in design. The extent of these errors depends on a number of variables; soil type being one of the major factor. This paper studies the effect of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) on multi-storey buildings with varying under-laying soil types after proper validation of the effect of SSI. Analysis for soft, stiff and very stiff base soils has been carried out, using a powerful Finite Element Method (FEM) software package ANSYS v14.5. Results lead to some very important conclusions regarding time period, deflection and acceleration responses.
97
29934
Farmers' Perspective on Soil Health in the Indian Punjab: A Quantitative Analysis of Major Soil Parameters
Abstract:
Although soil health, which is recognized as one of the key determinants of sustainable agricultural development, can be measured by a range of physical, chemical and biological parameters, the widely used parameters include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil health is largely affected by the occurrence of natural events or human activities and can be improved by various land management practices. A database of 120 soil samples collected from farmers’ fields spread across three major agro-climatic zones of Punjab suggested that the average pH, EC, OC, P and K was 8.2 (SD = 0.75, Min = 5.5, Max = 9.1), 0.27 dS/m (SD = 0.17, Min = 0.072 dS/m, Max = 1.22 dS/m), 0.49% (SD = 0.20, Min = 0.06%, Max = 1.2%), 19 mg/kg soil (SD = 22.07, Min = 3 mg/kg soil, Max = 207 mg/kg soil) and 171 mg/kg soil (SD = 47.57, Min = 54 mg/kg soil, Max = 288 mg/kg soil), respectively. Region-wise, pH, EC and K were the highest in south-western district of Ferozpur whereas farmers in north-eastern district of Gurdaspur had the best soils in terms of OC and P. The soils in the central district of Barnala had lower OC, P and K than the respective overall averages while its soils were normal but skewed towards alkalinity. Besides agro-climatic conditions, the size of landholding and farmer education showed a significant association with Soil Fertility Index (SFI), a composite index calculated using the aforementioned parameters’ normalized weightage. All the four stakeholder groups cited the current cropping patterns, burning of rice crop residue, and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers for change in soil health. However, the current state of soil health in Punjab is unclear, which needs further investigation based on temporal data collected from the same field to see the short and long-term impacts of various crop combinations and varied cropping intensity levels on soil health.
96
15183
The Predicted Values of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) by Using the Measurements of the Soil Resistivity Method (DC)
Abstract:
The CBR test is widely used in the assessment of granular materials in base, subbase and subgrade layers of road and airfield pavements. Despite the success of this method, but it depends on a limited numbers of soil samples. This limitation do not adequately account for the spatial variability of soil properties. Thus, assessment is derived using these cursory soil data are likely to contain errors and thus make interpretation and soil characterization difficult. On the other hand quantitative methods of soil inventory at the field scale involve the design and adoption of sampling regimes and laboratory analysis that are time consuming and costly. In the latter case new technologies are required to efficiently sample and observe the soil in the field. This is particularly the case where soil bearing capacity is prevalent, and detailed quantitative information for determining its cause is required. In this paper, an electrical resistivity method DC is described and its application in Elg'deem Dirt road, located in Gasser Ahmad - Misurata, Libya. Results from the DC instrument were found to be correlated with the CBR values (r2 = 0.89). Finally, it is noticed that, the correlation can be used with experience for determining CBR value using basic soil electrical resistivity measurements and checked by few CBR test representing a similar range of CBR.
95
23801
Chemical Characteristics of Soils Based on Toposequence Under Wet Tropical Area Bukit Sarasah Padang
Abstract:
Topography is a factor affecting soil characteristics. Chemical characteristics of a soil is a factor determining the productivity of the land. A research was conducted in Bukit Sarasah Padang, an area receiving > 5000 mm rainfall annually. The purpose of this research was to determine the chemical characteristics of soils at sequence topography in hill-slope of Bukit Sarasah. Soils were sampled at 3 different altitudes in the research area from 315 m – 515 m asl with 100 m interval. At each location, soil samples were taken from two depths (0-20 cm and 30-50 cm) for soil chemical characteristics (pH, CEC, organic-C, N-total, C/N, Ca-, Mg-, K-, Na-, Al-, and H-exchangeable). Based on the data resulted, it was found that there was a tendency of decreasing soil organic matter (SOC) content by increasing location from 315 to 515 m asl as well as from the top 0-20 cm to 30-50 cm soil depth. The same tendency was also found for the CEC, pH, N-total, and C/N ratio of the soil. On the other hand, exchangeable-Al and -H tended to increase by increasing elevation in Bukit Sarasah. There was no significant difference found for the concentration of exchangeable cations among the elevations and between the depths. The soil chemical characteristics on the top 20 cm were generally better than those on 30-50 cm soil depth, however, different elevation did not gave significant difference of the concentration.
94
82400
On the Fixed Rainfall Intensity: Effects on Overland Flow Resistance, Shear Velocity and on Soil Erosion
Abstract:
Raindrops and overland flow both are erosive parameters but they do not act by the same way. The overland flow alone tends to shear the soil horizontally and concentrates into rills. In the presence of rain, the soil particles are removed from the soil surface in the form of a uniform sheet layer. In addition to this, raindrops falling on the flow roughen the water and soil surface depending on the flow depth, and retard the velocity, therefore influence shear velocity and Manning&rsquo;s factor. To investigate this part, agricultural sandy soil, rainfall simulator and a laboratory soil tray of 0.2x1x3 m were the base of this work. Five overland flow depths of 0; 3.28; 4.28; 5.16; 5.60; 5.80 mm were generated under a rainfall intensity of 217.2 mm/h. Sediment concentration control is based on the proportionality of depth/microtopography. The soil loose is directly related to the presence of rain splash on thin sheet flow. The effect of shear velocity on sediment concentration is limited by the value of 5.28 cm/s. In addition to this, the rain splash reduces the soil roughness by breaking the soil crests. The rainfall intensity is the major factor influencing depth and soil erosion. In the presence of rainfall, the shear velocity of the flow is due to two simultaneous effects. The first, which is horizontal, comes from the flow and the second, vertical, is due to the raindrops.
93
49821
Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades
Abstract:
This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.
92
46088
The Effect of Different Level Crop Load and Humic Substance Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar
Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate effects of Control (C), 18 bud/vine, 23 bud/vine, 28 bud/vine, 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications on yield and yield components of Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar. The results were obtained as the highest cluster weight (302.31 g) with 18 bud/vine application; the highest berry weight (6.31 g) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) and (6.79 g) with 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications; the highest maturity index (36.95) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application; the highest L* color intensity (33.99) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil); the highest a* color intensity (1.53) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, grape juice yield and b* color intensity values were not found statistically significant.
91
50722
Testing Method of Soil Failure Pattern of Sand Type as an Effort to Minimize the Impact of the Earthquake
Abstract:
Nowadays many people do not know the soil failure pattern as an important part in planning the under structure caused by the loading occurs. This is because the soil is located under the foundation, so it cannot be seen directly. Based on this study, the idea occurs to do a study for testing the soil failure pattern, especially the type of sand soil under the foundation. The necessity of doing this to the design of building structures on the land which is the initial part of the foundation structure that met with waves/vibrations during an earthquake. If the underground structure is not strong it is feared the building thereon more vulnerable to the risk of building damage. This research focuses on the search of soil failure pattern, which the most applicable in the field with the loading periodic re-testing of a particular time with the help of the integrated video visual observations performed. The results could be useful for planning under the structure in an effort to try the upper structure is minimal risk of the earthquake.
90
111757
Analysis of Vapor-Phase Diffusion of Benzene from Contaminated Soil
Abstract:
Understanding the effective diffusion of benzene vapor in the soil-atmosphere interface is important as an intrusion of benzene into the atmosphere from the soil is largely driven by diffusion. To analyze the vertical one dimensional effective diffusion of benzene vapor in porous medium with high water content, diffusion experiments were conducted in soil columns using Andosol soil and Toyoura silica sand with different water content; for soil water content was from 0 to 30 wt.% and for sand it was from 0.06 to 10 wt.%. In soil, a linear relation was found between water content and effective diffusion coefficient while the effective diffusion coefficient didn’t change in the sand with increasing water. A numerical transport model following unsteady-state approaches based on Fick’s second law was used to match the required time for a steady state of the gas phase concentration profile of benzene to the experimentally measured concentration profile gas phase in the column. The result highlighted that both the water content and porosity might increase vertical diffusion of benzene vapor in soil.
89
30601
Reviewing Soil Erosion in Greece
Abstract:
Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, scientific publications related to soil erosion studies in Greece were reviewed and categorized. To accomplish this, the online search engine of Scopus was used. The key words were “soil”, “erosion” and “Greece.” An analysis of the published articles was conducted at three levels: i) type of publication, ii) chronologic and iii) thematic. A hundred and ten publications published in scientific journals were reviewed. The results showed that the awareness regarding the soil erosion in Greece has increased only in the last decades. The publications covered a wide range of thematic categories such as the type of studied areas, the physical phenomena that trigger and influence the soil erosion, the negative anthropogenic impacts on them, the assessment tools that were used in order to examine the threat and the proper management. The analysis of these articles was significant and necessary in order to find the scientific gaps of soil erosion studies in Greece and help enhance the sustainability of soil management in the future.
88
61689
Evaluation of Different Fertilization Practices and Their Impacts on Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in Two Agroecological Zones of Ghana
Abstract:
Renewed interest in soil management aimed at improving the productive capacity of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) soils has called for the need to analyse the long term effect of different fertilization systems on soil. This study was conducted in two agroecological zones (i.e., Guinea Savannah (GS) and Deciduous forest (DF)) of Ghana to evaluate the impacts of long term (> 5 years) fertilization schemes on soil chemical and microbial properties. Soil samples under four different fertilization schemes (inorganic, inorganic and organic, organic, and no fertilization) were collected from 20 farmers` field in both agroecological zones. Soil analyses were conducted using standard procedures. All average soil quality parameters except extractable C, potential mineralizable nitrogen and CEC were significantly higher in DF sites compared to GS. Inorganic fertilization proved superior in soil chemical and microbial biomass especially in GS zone. In GS, soil deterioration index (DI) revealed that soil quality deteriorated significantly (−26%) under only organic fertilization system whereas soil improvement was observed under inorganic and no fertilization sites. In DF, either inorganic or organic and inorganic fertilization showed significant positive effects on soil quality. The high soil chemical composition and enhanced microbial biomass in DF were associated with the high rate of inorganic fertilization.
87
3345
Heavy Metal of Soil in Wastewater, Irrigated Agricultural Soil in a Surrounding Area of the Nhue River, Vietnam
Abstract:
Waste from industrial sources, serves as sources of water for irrigating farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals in the soils. Soil samples were collected from the different locations from upstream to downstream of the Nhue River to evaluate heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals in the soil samples in the farmland area were much higher than the background level in that area (1.2-2.6 mg/kg for Cd, 42-60 mg/kg for Cr, 22-62mg/kg for Cu, 30-86 mg/kg for Pb, 119-245 mg/kg for Zn, and 26-57 mg/kg for Ni), and exceeded the level of Vietnamese standard for agricultural soil for all heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn except soil samples at upstream and downstream of the Nhue River.
86
62921
Experimental and Finite Element Analysis for Mechanics of Soil-Tool Interaction
Abstract:
In this paper a 3-D finite element (FE) investigation of soil-blade interaction is described. The effects of blade&rsquo;s shape and rake angle are examined both numerically and experimentally. The soil is considered as an elastic-plastic granular material with non-associated Drucker-Prager material model. Contact elements with different properties are used to mimic soil-blade sliding and soil-soil cutting phenomena. A separation criterion is presented and a procedure to evaluate the forces acting on the blade is given and discussed in detail. Experimental results were derived from tests using soil bin facility and instruments at the University of Saskatchewan. During motion of the blade, load cells collect data and send them to a computer. The measured forces using load cells had noisy signals which are needed to be filtered. The FE results are compared with experimental results for verification. This technique can be used in blade shape optimization and design of more complicated blade&rsquo;s shape.
85
20200
Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
Abstract:
Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, &beta;-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, &beta;-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman&rsquo;s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.
84
57064
The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89
Abstract:
Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.
83
70895
The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89
Abstract:
Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.
82
70894
The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89
Abstract:
Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.
81
62101
Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications
Abstract:
Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.
80
68673
Effect of Cement Amount on California Bearing Ratio Values of Different Soil
Abstract:
Due to continued growth and rapid development of road construction in worldwide, road sub-layers consist of soil layers, therefore, identification and recognition of type of soil and soil behavior in different condition help to us to select soil according to specification and engineering characteristic, also if necessary sometimes stabilize the soil and treat undesirable properties of soils by adding materials such as bitumen, lime, cement, etc. If the soil beneath the road is not done according to the standards and construction will need more construction time. In this case, a large part of soil should be removed, transported and sometimes deposited. Then purchased sand and gravel is transported to the site and full depth filled and compacted. Stabilization by cement or other treats gives an opportunity to use the existing soil as a base material instead of removing it and purchasing and transporting better fill materials. Classification of soil according to AASHTOO system and USCS help engineers to anticipate soil behavior and select best treatment method. In this study soil classification and the relation between soil classification and stabilization method is discussed, cement stabilization with different percentages have been selected for soil treatment based on NCHRP. There are different parameters to define the strength of soil. In this study, CBR will be used to define the strength of soil. Cement by percentages, 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% added to soil for evaluation effect of added cement to CBR of treated soil. Implementation of stabilization process by different cement content help engineers to select an economic cement amount for the stabilization process according to project specification and characteristics. Stabilization process in optimum moisture content (OMC) and mixing rate effect on the strength of soil in the laboratory and field construction operation have been performed to see the improvement rate in strength and plasticity. Cement stabilization is quicker than a universal method such as removing and changing field soils. Cement addition increases CBR values of different soil types by the range of 22-69%.
79
42873
The Effect of Biochar, Inoculated Biochar and Compost Biological Component of the Soil
Abstract:
Biochar can be produced from the waste matter and its application has been associated with returning of carbon in large amounts into the soil. The impacts of this material on physical and chemical properties of soil have been described. The biggest part of the research work is dedicated to the hypothesis of this material’s toxic effects on the soil life regarding its effect on the soil biological component. At present, it has been worked on methods which could eliminate these undesirable properties of biochar. One of the possibilities is to mix biochar with organic material, such as compost, or focusing on the natural processes acceleration in the soil. In the experiment has been used as the addition of compost as well as the elimination of toxic substances by promoting microbial activity in aerated water environment. Biochar was aerated for 7 days in a container with a volume of 20 l. This way modified biochar had six times higher biomass production and reduce mineral nitrogen leaching. Better results have been achieved by mixing biochar with compost.
78
90507
Soil and the Gut Microbiome: Supporting the 'Hygiene Hypothesis'
Abstract:
Background: According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ the current rise in allergies and autoimmune diseases stems mainly from reduced microbial exposure due, amongst other factors, to urbanisation and distance from soil. However, this hypothesis is based on epidemiological and not biological data. Useful insights into the underlying mechanisms of this hypothesis can be gained by studying our interaction with soil. Soil microbiota may be directly ingested or inhaled by humans, enter the body through skin-soil contact or using plants as vectors. This study aims to examine the ability of soil microbiota to colonise the gut, study the interaction of soil microbes with the immune system and their potential protective activity. Method: The nutrition of the rats was supplemented daily with fresh or autoclaved soil for 21 days followed by 14 days of no supplementations. Faecal samples were collected throughout and analysed using 16S sequencing. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and tissues and digesta were collected. Results/Conclusion: Results showed significantly higher richness and diversity following soil supplementation even after recovery. Specific soil microbial groups identified as able to colonise the gut. Of particular interest was the mucosal layer which emerged as a receptive host for soil microorganisms. Histological examination revealed innate and adaptive immune activation. Findings of this study reinforce the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ by demonstrating the ability of soil microbes to colonise the gut and activate the immune system. This paves the way for further studies aimed to examine the interaction of soil microorganisms with the immune system.
77
47906
Laboratory Investigation of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Calcium Chloride
Abstract:
Chemical stabilization is a technique commonly used to improve the expansive soil properties. In this regard, an attempt has been made to evaluate the influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) stabilizer on the engineering properties of expansive soil. A series of laboratory experiments including consistency limits, free swell, compaction, and shear strength tests were performed to investigate the effect of CaCl2 additive with various percentages 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% for improving expansive soil. The results obtained shows that the increase in the percentage of CaCl2 decreased the liquid limit and plasticity index leading to significant reduction in the free swell index. This, in turn, increased the maximum dry density and decreased the optimum moisture content which results in greater strength. The unconfined compressive strength of soil stabilized with 5% CaCl2 increased approximately by 50% as compared to virgin soil. It can be concluded that CaCl2 had shown promising influence on the strength and swelling properties of expansive soil, thereby giving an advantage in improving problematic expansive soil.
76
98907
Laboratory Studies to Assess the Effect of Recron Fiber on Soil Subgrade Characteristics
Abstract:
Stabilization of weak subgrade soil is mainly aimed for the improvement of soil strength and its durability. Highway engineers are concerned to get the soil material or system that will hold under the design use conditions and for the designed life of the engineering project. The present study envisages the effect of Recron fibres mixed in different proportion (up to 1% by weight of dry soil) on Atterberg limits, Compaction of the soil, California bearing ratio (CBR) values and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the soil. The present study deals with the influence of varying in length (20 mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm) and percentage (0.25 %, 0.50 %, 0.75 % and 1.0 %) of fibre added to the soil samples. The aim of study is to determine the reinforcing effect of randomly distributed fibres on the Compaction characteristics, penetration resistance and unconfined compressive strength of soils. The addition of fibres leads to an increase in the optimum moisture content and decrease in maximum dry density. With the addition of the fibres, the increases in CBR and UCS values are observed. The test result shows higher CBR and unconfined compressive strength value for the soil reinforced with 0.5% Recron fibre, once keeping aspect ratio as 160.
75
35804
Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System
Abstract:
Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.
74
48178
Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms
Abstract:
The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 &deg;C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites&rsquo; concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.
73
71051
Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials
Abstract:
Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.
72
100070
Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains
Abstract:
Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.
71
17449
Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement
Abstract:
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPCs were produced by using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effects of different aqueous solution and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0 g/ 0.35 ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting times and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in basic solution but a longer setting time in acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using acidic solution with sodium alginate; however it was lower than using the basic solution.
70
39772
Estimation of Soil Erosion Potential in Herat Province, Afghanistan
Abstract:
Estimation of soil erosion is economically and environmentally important in Herat, Afghanistan. Degradation of soil has negative impact (decreased soil fertility, destroyed soil structure, and consequently soil sealing and crusting) on life of Herat residents. Water and wind are the main erosive factors causing soil erosion in Herat. Furthermore, scarce vegetation cover, exacerbated by socioeconomic constraint, and steep slopes accelerate soil erosion. To sustain soil productivity and reduce soil erosion impact on human life, due to sustaining agricultural production and auditing the environment, it is needed to quantify the magnitude and extent of soil erosion in a spatial domain. Thus, this study aims to estimate soil loss potential and its spatial distribution in Herat, Afghanistan by applying RUSLE in GIS environment. The rainfall erosivity factor ranged between values of 125 and 612 (MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1). Soil erodibility factor varied from 0.036 to 0.073 (Mg h MJ-1 mm-1). Slope length and steepness factor (LS) values were between 0.03 and 31.4. The vegetation cover factor (C), derived from NDVI analysis of Landsat-8 OLI scenes, resulting in range of 0.03 to 1. Support practice factor (P) were assigned to a value of 1, since there is not significant mitigation practices in the study area. Soil erosion potential map was the product of these factors. Mean soil erosion rate of Herat Province was 29 Mg ha-1 year-1 that ranged from 0.024 Mg ha-1 year-1 in flat areas with dense vegetation cover to 778 Mg ha-1 year-1 in sharp slopes with high rainfall but least vegetation cover. Based on land cover map of Afghanistan, areas with soil loss rate higher than soil loss tolerance (8 Mg ha-1 year-1) occupies 98% of Forests, 81% rangelands, 64% barren lands, 60% rainfed lands, 28% urban area and 18% irrigated Lands.
69
38394
The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)
Abstract:
The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of an innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholder's and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.
68
35597
Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)
Authors:
Abstract:
Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.
67
79500
Laboratory Calibration of Soil Pressure Transducer for a Specified Field Application
Abstract:
Nowadays soil pressure transducers are widely used to measure the soil stress states in laboratory and field experiments. The soil pressure transducers, investigated here, are traditional diaphragm-type earth pressure cells (DEPC) based on strain gauge principle. It is found that the output of these sensors varies with the soil conditions as well as the position of a sensor. Therefore, it is highly recommended to calibrate the pressure sensors based on the similar conditions of their intended applications. The factory calibration coefficients of the EPCs are not reliable to use since they are normally calibrated by applying fluid (a special type of oil) pressure only over load sensing zone, which does not represent the actual field conditions. Thus, the calibration of these sensors is utmost important, and they play a pivotal role for assessing earth pressures precisely. In the present study, TML soil pressure sensor is used to compare its sensitivity under different calibration systems, for example, fluid calibration, and static load calibration with or without soil. The results report that the sensor provides higher sensitivity (more accurate results) under soil calibration system.
66
78540
Effect of Slag Application to Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield on Acid Sulphate Soils with Different Pyrite Depth
Abstract:
The expansion of marginal soil such as acid sulphate soils for the development of staple crops, including rice was unavoidable. However, acid sulphate soils were less suitable for rice field due to the low fertility and the threats of pyrite oxidation. An experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design was designed to investigate the effect of slag in stabilizing soil reaction (pH), improving soil fertility and rice yield. Experiments were conducted in two locations with different pyrite depth. The results showed that slag application was able to decrease the exchangeable Al and available iron (Fe) as well as increase the soil pH, available-P, soil exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. Furthermore, the slag application increased the plant nutrient uptakes, particularly N, P, K, followed by the increasing of rice yield significantly. Nutrients availability, nutrient uptake, and rice yield were higher in the shallow pyrite soil instead of the deep pyrite soil. In addition, slag application was economically feasible due to the ability to reduce standard fertilizer requirements.
65
44245
Prediction of Unsaturated Permeability Functions for Clayey Soil
Abstract:
Desiccation cracks following drainage-humidification cycles. With water loss, mainly due to evaporation, suction in the soil increases, producing volumetric shrinkage and tensile stress. When the tensile stress reaches tensile strength, the soil cracks. Desiccation cracks networks can directly control soil hydraulic properties. The aim of this study was for quantifying the hydraulic properties for examples the water retention curve, the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function, the shrinkage dynamics in Tibar soil- clay soil in the Northern of Tunisia. Then a numerical simulation of unsaturated hydraulic properties for a crack network has been attempted. The finite elements code ‘CODE_BRIGHT’ can be used to follow the hydraulic distribution in cracked porous media.
64
79638
Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in a Selected Barangay in the Philippines
Abstract:
Soil-transmitted helminth infection remains to be one of the leading public health problem worldwide, which is common in the rural developing regions especially among children. This study aimed to detect the presence of soil transmitted helminths among children and its associated transmission factors. Descriptive cross sectional research was the design used in the study and questionnaires were administered. Stool samples were collected among the samples (n=108) and were analyzed using kato thick method. Results showed that 61 out of 108 respondents are infected by soil transmitted helminth infection with A. lumbricoides the highest, followed by hookworm and T. trichuria. Parent's educational attainment, hand washing practices, and water sources were found to be associated with presence of Soil Transmitted Helminth infection.
63
25744
3D Finite Element Analysis for Mechanics of Soil-Tool Interaction
Abstract:
This paper is part of a study to develop robots for farming. As such power requirement to operate equipment attach to such robots become an important factor. Soil-tool interaction play major role in power consumption, thus predicting accurately the forces which act on the blade during the farming is prime importance for optimal designing of farm equipment. In this paper a finite element investigation for tillage tools and soil interaction is described by using an inelastic constitutive material law for agriculture application. A 3-dimentional (3D) nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) is developed to examine behavior of a blade with different rake angles moving in a block of soil, and to estimate the blade force. The soil model considered is an elastic-plastic with non-associated Drucker-Prager material model. Special use of contact elements are employed to consider connection between soil-blade and soil-soil surfaces. The FEA results are compared with experiment ones, which show good agreement in accurately predicting draft forces developed on the blade when it moves through the soil. Also, a very good correlation was obtained between FEA results and analytical results from classical soil mechanics theories for straight blades. These comparisons verified the FEA model developed. For analyzing complicated soil-tool interactions and for optimum design of blades, this method will be useful.
62
45312
Effect of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Productivity of Nutrient-Depleted Tropical Alfisol
Abstract:
An experiment was carried out for three consecutive years at Owo, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of cocoyam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 7.5 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control), arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) corm and cormel weights and growth of cocoyam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic carbon (OC) concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased corm and cormel weights, plant height and leaf area of cocoyam by 40, 39, 42, and 48%, respectively, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 13, 12, 15 and 7%, respectively, compared with PM alone. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties compared with NPK and the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM applied at 7.5 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving cocoyam yield and growth parameters, soil and leaf nutrient composition.
61
57123
Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture
Abstract:
Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard&rsquo;s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.
60
23496
Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field
Abstract:
The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.
59
6272
Comparative Study on the Effect of Compaction Energy and Moisture Content on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil
Abstract:
Lateritic soils are found in abundance and are the most common types of soils used in construction of roads and embankments in Nigeria. Strength properties of the soils depend on the amount of compaction applied and the amount of water available in the soil at the time of compaction. In this study, the influence of the compactive effort and that of the amount of water in the soil in the determination of the shear strength properties of lateritic soil was investigated. Lateritic soil sample was collected from an existing borrow pit in Kano, Nigeria and its basic characteristics were determined and the soil was classified according to AASHTO classification method. The soil was then compacted under various compactive efforts and at wide range of moisture contents. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) at each compactive effort was determined. Unconfined undrained triaxial test was carried out to determine the shear strength properties of the soil under various conditions of moisture and energy. Preliminary results obtained indicated that the soil is an A-7-5 soil. The final results obtained shows that as the compaction energy is increased, both the cohesion and friction angle increased irrespective of the moisture content used in the compaction. However, when the amount of water in the soil was increased and compaction effort kept constant, only the cohesion of the soil increases while the friction angle shows no any pattern of variation. It was also found that the highest values for cohesion and friction angle were obtained when the soil was compacted at the highest energy and at OMC.
58
111026
Evaluation of Numerical Modeling of Jet Grouting Design Using in-situ Loading Test
Abstract:
Jet grouting is one of the methods of improving and increasing the strength and bearing of soil. High pressure injection, in which high velocity or high pressure water or grout, is injected through the nozzles into the soil and damages the structure. During this process, a part of the soil and grout particles come out of the drill borehole, and the other part is mixed up with the grout in place, as a result of this process, a mass of modified soil is created. The purpose of this method is to change the soil into a mixture of soil and cement, commonly known as 'soil-cement'. In this paper, first, the principles of high pressure injection and then the effective parameters in the jet grouting method (JG) are described. Then the tests on the samples taken from the columns formed from the excavation around the soil-cement columns, as well as the static loading test on the created column, are discussed. In the other part of this paper, the soil behavior models for numerical modeling in PlAXIS software is mentioned. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of numerical modeling based on in-situ static loading tests. The results indicate an acceptable agreement between the results of the tests mentioned and the modeling results. Also, modeling with this software as an appropriate option for technical feasibility can be used to soil improvement using jet grouting.
57
32763
Predicting the Adsorptive Capacities of Biosolid as a Barrier in Soil to Remove Industrial Contaminants
Abstract:
The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To protect the groundwater, in this study, we proceeded to test the reliability of a bio solid as barrier to prevent the migration of a very dangerous pollutant ‘Cadmium’ through the different soil layers. The follow-up the influence of several parameters, such as: turbidity, pluviometry, initial concentration of cadmium and the nature of soil, allow us to find the most effective manner to integrate this barrier in the soil. From the results obtained, we noted the effective intervention of the barrier. Indeed, the recorded passing quantities are lowest for the highest rainfall; we noted that the barrier has a better affinity towards higher concentrations; the most retained amounts of cadmium has been in the top layer of the two types of soil, while the lowest amounts of cadmium are recorded in the inner layers of soils.
56
33497
The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought
Abstract:
Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1–V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1–V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3–V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.
55
2186
Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field
Abstract:
Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.
54
96360
Numerical Investigation of Soft Clayey Soil Improved by Soil-Cement Columns under Harmonic Load
Abstract:
Deep soil mixing is one of the improvement methods in geotechnical engineering which is widely used in soft soils. This article investigates the consolidation behavior of a soft clay soil which is improved by soil-cement column (SCC) by numerical modeling using Plaxis2D program. This behavior is simulated under vertical static and cyclic load which is applied on the soil surface. The static load problem is the simulation of a physical model test in an axisymmetric condition which uses a single SCC in the model center. The results of numerical modeling consist of settlement of soft soil composite, stress on soft soil and column, and excessive pore water pressure in the soil show a good correspondence with the test results. The response of soft soil composite to the cyclic load in vertical direction also compared with the static results. Also the effects of two variables namely the cement content used in a SCC and the area ratio (the ratio of the diameter of SCC to the diameter of composite soil model, a) is investigated. The results show that the stress on the column with the higher value of a, is lesser compared with the stress on other columns. Different rate of consolidation and excessive pore pressure distribution is observed in cyclic load problem. Also comparing the results of settlement of soil shows higher compressibility in the cyclic load problem.
53
61946
Immediate and Long-Term Effect of the Sawdust Usage on Shear Strength of the Clayey Silt Soil
Abstract:
Using some additives is very common method to improve the soil properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity; and to reduce the settlement and lateral deformation. Soil reinforcement with natural materials is an attractive method to improve the soil properties because of their low cost. However, the studies conducted by using natural additive are very limited. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the immediate and long-term effects of the sawdust on the shear strength behavior of a clayey silt soil obtained in Arnavutkoy in Istanbul with sawdust. Firstly, compaction tests were conducted to be able to optimum moisture content for every percentage of sawdust. The samples were obtained from compacted soil at optimum moisture content. UU Triaxial Tests were conducted to evaluate the response of randomly distributed sawdust on the strength of low plasticity clayey silt soil. The specimens were tested with 1%, 2% and 3% content of sawdust. It was found that the undrained shear strength of clay soil with 1%, 2% and 3% sawdust were increased respectively 4.65%, 27.9% and 39.5% higher than the soil without additive. At 5%, shear strength of clay soil decreased by 3.8%. After 90 days cure period, the shear strength of the soil with 1%, 2%, 3% and %5 increased respectively 251%, 302%, 260% and 153%. It can be said that the effect of the sawdust usage has a remarkable effect on the undrained shear strength of the soil. Besides the increasing undrained shear strength, it was also found that the sawdust decreases the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index by 5.5%, 2.9 and 10.9% respectively.
52
3327
Wetting-Drying Cycles Effect on Piles Embedded in a Very High Expansive Soil
Abstract:
The behavior of model piles embedded in a very high expansive soil was investigated, a specially manufactured saturation-drying tank was used to apply three cycles of wetting and drying to the expansive soil surrounding the model straight shaft and under reamed piles, the relative movement of the piles with respect to the soil surface was recorded with time, also the exerted uplift pressure of the piles due to soil swelling was recorded. The behavior of unloaded straight shaft and under reamed piles was investigated. Two design charts were presented for straight shaft and under reamed piles one for the required pile depth for zero upward movement due to soil swelling, the other for the required pile depth to exert zero uplift pressure when the soil swells. Under reamed piles showed a decrease in upward movement of 20% to 40%, and an uplift pressure decrease of 10% to 30%.
51
87676
Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria
Abstract:
This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.
50
15288
Influence of Compactive Efforts on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Bagasse Ash Treated Black Cotton Soil
Abstract:
This study examines the influence of compactive efforts on hydraulic conductivity behaviour of compacted black cotton soil treated with bagasse ash which is necessary in assessing the performance of the soil - bagasse ash mixture for use as a suitable barrier material in waste containment application. Black cotton soil treated with up to 12% bagasse ash (obtained from burning the fibrous residue from the extraction of sugar juice from sugarcane) by dry weight of soil for use in waste containment application. The natural soil classifies as A-7-6 or CH in accordance with the AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System, respectively. The treated soil samples were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2, and +4 % of optimum moisture contents and compacted using four compactive efforts of Reduced British Standard Light (RBSL), British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH). The results obtained show that hydraulic conductivity decreased with increase in bagasse ash content, moulding water content and compaction energy.
49
91879
Soil-Geopolymer Mixtures for Pavement Base and Subbase Layers
Abstract:
This research deals with the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and shrinkage characteristics of flyash-based soil-geopolymer mixtures. Medium and high plastic soils were obtained from local construction projects. Class F flyash was used with a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution to develop soil-geopolymer mixtures. Several mixtures were compacted, cured at different curing conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), linear shrinkage, and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the study demonstrated that the soil-geopolymer mixtures fulfilled the UCS criteria of cement treated design (CTD) and cement stabilized design (CSD) as recommended by the department of transportation for pavement base and subbase layers. It was found that soil-geopolymer demonstrated either similar or better UCS and shrinkage characteristics relative to conventional soil-cement mixtures. The SEM analysis revealed that microstructure of soil-geopolymer mixtures exhibited development and steady growth of geopolymerization during the curing period. Based on mechanical, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics it was suggested that the soil-geopolymer mixtures, has an immense potential to be used as pavement subgrade, subbase, and base layers.
48
8294
Features of Soil Formation in the North of Western Siberia in Cryogenic Conditions
Abstract:
A large part of Russia is located in permafrost areas. These areas are widely used because there are concentrated valuable natural resources. Therefore to explore of cryosols it is important due to the significant increase of anthropogenic stress as well as the problem of global climate change. In the north of Western Siberia permafrost phenomena is widespread. Permafrost as a factor of soil formation and cryogenesis as a process have a great impact on the soil formation of these areas. Based on the research results of permafrost-affected soils tundra landscapes formed in the central part of the Tazovskiy Peninsula in cryogenic conditions, data were obtained which characterize the morphological features of soils. The specificity of soil cover distribution and manifestation of soil-forming processes within the study area are noted. Permafrost features such as frost cracking, cryoturbation, thixotropy, movement of humus are formed. The formation of these features is increased with the development of the territory. As a consequence, there is a change in the components of the environment and the destruction of the soil cover.
47
47615
Soil Micromorphological Analysis from the Hinterland of the Pharaonic Town, Sai Island, Sudan
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of the investigations of soil/sediment sequences associated with the New Kingdom town at Sai Island, Sudan. During the course of this study, geoarchaeological surveys have been undertaken in the vicinity of this Pharaonic town within the island and the soil block samples for soil micromorphological analysis were accordingly collected. The intention was to better understand the archaeological site in its environmental context and the nature of the land surface prior to the establishment of the settlement. Soil micromorphology, a very powerful geoarchaeological methodology, is concerned with the description, measurement and interpretation of soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale. Since soil profiles themselves are archives of their own history, soil micromorphology investigates the environmental and cultural signatures preserved within buried soils and sediments. A study of the thin sections from these soils/sediments has been able to provide robust data for providing interesting insights into the various nuances of this site, for example, the nature of the topography and existent environmental condition during the time of Pharaonic site establishment. These geoarchaeological evaluations have indicated that there is a varied hidden landscape context for this pharaonic settlement, which indicates a symbiotic relationship with the Nilotic environmental system.
46
5748
Bioremediation of PAHs-Contaminated Soil Using Land Treatment Processes
Abstract:
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in crude oil and its derivatives contaminate soil and also increase carcinogen and mutagen contamination, which is a concern for researchers. Land farming is one of the methods that remove pollutants from the soil by native microorganisms. It seems that this technology is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and causes less debris problem to be disposed. This study aimed to refine the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil-contaminated soil using the land farming method. In addition to examine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by GC-FID, some characteristics such as soil microbial respiration and dehydrogenase, peroxidase, urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme concentration were also measured. The results showed that after land farming process the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dropped to 50 percent. The results showed that the enzyme concentration is reduced by reducing the concentration of hydrocarbons and microbial respiration. These results emphasize the process of land farming for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil by indigenous microorganisms.
45
55983
Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil
Abstract:
Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.
44
59289
Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Soil Response in the Discrete Element Method Simulation
Abstract:
This paper attempts to bridge the soil properties and the mechanical response of soil in the discrete element method (DEM) simulation. The artificial neural network (ANN) was therefore adopted, aiming to reproduce the stress-strain-volumetric response when soil properties are given. 31 biaxial shearing tests with varying soil parameters (e.g., initial void ratio and interparticle friction coefficient) were generated using the DEM simulations. Based on these 45 sets of training data, a three-layer neural network was established which can output the entire stress-strain-volumetric curve during the shearing process from the input soil parameters. Beyond the training data, 2 additional sets of data were generated to examine the validity of the network, and the stress-strain-volumetric curves for both cases were well reproduced using this network. Overall, the ANN was found promising in predicting the soil behavior and reducing repetitive simulation work.
43
113759
Experimental Testing of a Synthetic Mulch to Reduce Runoff and Evaporative Water Losses
Abstract:
The most severe limitation for plant production in arid areas is water. Rainfall events are rare but can have pulses of high intensity. As a result, crusts are formed, which decreases infiltration into the soil, and results additionally in erosive losses of soil. Direct evaporation of water from the wetted soil can account for large fractions of the water stored in the soil. Different kinds of mulches have been used to decrease the loss of water in arid and semi-arid region. This study aims to evaluate the effect of polystyrene styrofoam pellets mulch on soil infiltration, runoff, and evaporation as a more efficient and economically viable mulch alternative. Polystyrene styrofoam pellets of two sizes (0.5 and 1 cm diameter) will be placed on top of the soil in two mulch layer depths (1 and 2 cm), in addition to the non-mulched treatment. The rainfall simulator will be used as an artificial source of rain. The preliminary results in the prototype experiment indicate that polystyrene styrofoam pellets decreased runoff, increased soil-water infiltration. We are still testing the effect of these pellets on decreasing the soil-water evaporation.
42
41490
Neutral Sugar Contents of Laurel-leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
Abstract:
Soil neutral sugar contents in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined using the Waksman’s approximation analysis to clarify relations with the neutral sugar constituted the soil organic matter and the microbial biomass. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2) trees for analysis. The water and HCl soluble neutral sugars increased microbial biomass of the laurel-leaved forest soil. Arabinose, xylose, and galactose of the HCl soluble fraction were used immediately in comparison with other neutral sugars. Rhamnose, glucose, and fructose of the HCl soluble fraction were re-composed by the microbes.
41
62735
Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil
Abstract:
The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11&times;10-5 compared with 8.61&times;10-6.&nbsp;
40
91300
Tree Resistance to Wind Storm: The Effects of Soil Saturation on Tree Anchorage of Young Pinus pinaster
Abstract:
Windstorm damage to European forests has ecological, social and economic consequences of major importance. Most trees during storms are uprooted. While a large amount of work has been done over the last decade on understanding the aerial tree response to turbulent wind flow, much less is known about the root-soil interface, and the impact of soil moisture and root-soil system fatiguing on tree uprooting. Anchorage strength is expected to be reduced by water-logging and heavy rain during storms due to soil strength decrease with soil water content. Our paper is focused on the maritime pine cultivated on sandy soil, as a representative species of the Forêt des Landes, the largest cultivated forest in Europe. This study aims at providing knowledge on the effects of soil saturation on root anchorage. Pulling experiments on trees were performed to characterize the resistance to wind by measuring the critical bending moment (Mc). Pulling tests were performed on 12 maritime pines of 13-years old for two unsaturated soil conditions that represent the soil conditions expected in winter when wind storms occur in France (w=11.46 to 23.34 % gg⁻¹). A magnetic field digitizing technique was used to characterize the three-dimensional architecture of root systems. The soil mechanical properties as function of soil water content were characterized by laboratory mechanical measurements as function of soil water content and soil porosity on remolded samples using direct shear tests at low confining pressure ( < 15 kPa). Remarkably Mc did not depend on w but mainly on the root system morphology. We suggested that the importance of soil water conditions on tree anchorage depends on the tree size. This study gives a new insight on young tree anchorage: roots may sustain by themselves anchorage, whereas adhesion between roots and surrounding soil may be negligible in sandy soil.
39
49522
The Utilisation of Two Types of Fly Ashes Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation
Abstract:
This study represents the results of an experimental work using two types of fly ashes as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation. The fly ashes (FA1 and FA2) used in this study are by-products resulting from an incineration processes between 800 and 1200 ˚C. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were initially conducted on soil treated with different percentages of FA1 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) to identify the optimum FA1 content. Then FA1 was chemically activated by FA2 which has high alkalinity by blending the optimum content of FA1 with different portions of FA2. The improvement levels were evaluated dependent on the results obtained from consistency limits and compaction tests along with the results of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests which were conducted on specimens of soil treated with FA1 and FA2 and exposed to different periods of curing (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). The results indicated that the FA1 and FA2 used in this study effectively improved the physical and geotechnical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.17 with 12% of FA1; however, there was a slight increase in IP with the use of FA2. Meanwhile, 12% of FA1 was identified as the optimum percentage improving the UCS of stabilised soil significantly. Furthermore, FA2 was found effective as a chemical activator to FA1 where the UCS was improved significantly after using FA2.
38
40824
Characterization of Crustin from Litopenaeus vannamei
Abstract:
A crustin gene, LV-SWD1, previously found in the hemocyte cDNA library of Litopenaeus vannamei, contains the open reading frames of 288 bp encoding a putative protein of 96 amino acid residues. The putative signal peptides of the LV-SWD1 were identified using the online SignalP 3.0 with predicted cleavage sites between Ala24-Val25, resulting in 72 residue mature protein with calculated molecular mass of 7.4 kDa and predicted pI of 8.5. This crustin contains a Arg-Pro rich region at the amino-terminus and a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the carboxyl-terminus. In order to characterize their properties and biological activities, the recombinant crustin protein was produced in the Escherichia coli expression system. Antimicrobial assays showed that the growth of Bacillus subtilis was inhibited by this recombinant crustin with MIC of about 25-50 µM.
37
104417
Enhanced Degradation of Endosulfan in Soil Using Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) and Endosulfan Tolerant Bacterium Strains
Abstract:
Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide is of environmental concern due to its apparent persistence and toxicity. It has been reported as contaminants in soil, air, and water and is bioaccumulated and magnified in ecosystems. The combined use of microorganisms and plants has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion, endosulfan degradation in soil and endosulfan accumulation in different plant parts. Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) was grown in endosulfan spiked soil and inoculated with endosulfan tolerant bacterial strains. Endosulfan residues from different parts of plants and soil were extracted and estimated by using gas chromatograph equipped with 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The inoculation of bacterial strains into the soil with plants showed a beneficial effect on endosulfan degradation and plant biomass production. Maximum endosulfan (90%) degradation was observed after 120 days of bacterial inoculation in the soil. Furthermore, there was significantly less endosulfan accumulation in roots and shoots of bacterial strains inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated endosulfan tolerant bacterial strains to increase the remediation of endosulfan contaminated soil.
36
26238
Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Reclaimed Land Area of Kasur
Authors:
Abstract:
The tannery effluents contaminated about 400 acres land area in Kasur, Pakistan, has been reclaimed by removing polluted water after the long term effluent logging from the nearby tanneries. In an effort to describe the status of reclaimed soil for agricultural practices, the results of physicochemical analysis of the soil are reported in this article. The concentrations of the parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), Available Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), and Sodium (Na) were determined by standard methods of analysis and results were computed and compared with various international standards for agriculture recommended by international organizations, groups of experts and or individual researchers. The results revealed that pH, EC, OM, OC, K, and Na are in accordance with the prescribed limits but P in soil exceeds the satisfactory range of P in agricultural soil. Thus, the reclaimed soil in Kasur can be inferred fit for the purpose of agricultural activities.
35
44489
Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties
Abstract:
Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.
34
17956
Enzymatic Esterification of Sardine Oil Processed in Morocco
Abstract:
The global objective of this study is to upgrade the sardine oil processed in Morocco by using enzymatic solutions. The specific objective of this part of study is to optimize the various parameters involved in enzymatic deacidification of fish oil processed in Morocco: pressure, ratio of oil/novozymes 435, ratio of oil/glycerol, temperature. The best deacidification yields were obtained with: -A temperature of 70 °C; -A ratio -Oil/Glycerol: 2% (% P); -A ratio -Oil/Novozyme 435: 1% (% P); -A pressure: 15 to 25 mbar. On the other hand, the study of the effect of initial oil acidity showed that whatever the acidity of the oil studied (very acidic, or low acidic), the final yields are high. Acidity does not reduce the reaction efficiency. From an industrial point of view, this represents a competitive advantage to consider. This eco-friend enzymatic solution may allows Moroccan fish oil producers to achieve acid number values that meet the standard.
33
49798
Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction in Buildings
Abstract:
Since the evolution of computational tools and simulation software, there has been considerable increase in research on Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) to decrease the computational time and increase accuracy in the results. To aid the designer with a proper understanding of the response of structure in different soil types, the presented paper compares the deformation, shear stress, acceleration and other parameters of multi-storey building for a specific input ground motion using Response-spectrum Analysis (RSA) method. The response of all the models of different heights have been compared in different soil types. Finite Element Simulation software, ANSYS, has been used for all the computational purposes. Overall, higher response is observed with SSI, while it increases with decreasing stiffness of soil.
32
39766
Shear Strength Parameters of an Unsaturated Lateritic Soil
Abstract:
The geotechnical projects demand the appropriate knowledge of soil characteristics and parameters. The determination of geotechnical soil parameters can be done by means of laboratory or in situ tests. In countries with tropical weather, like Brazil, unsaturated soils are very usual. In these soils, the soil suction has been recognized as an important stress state variable, which commands the geo-mechanical behavior. Triaxial and direct shear tests on saturated soils samples allow determine only the minimal soil shear strength, in other words, no suction contribution. This paper briefly describes the triaxial test with controlled suction as well as discusses the influence of suction on the shear strength parameters of a lateritic tropical sandy soil from a Brazilian research site. In this site, a sample pit was excavated to retrieve disturbed and undisturbed soil blocks. The samples extracted from these blocks were tested in laboratory to represent the soil from 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 m depth. The stress curves and shear strength envelopes determined by triaxial tests varying suction and confining pressure are presented and discussed. The water retention characteristics on this soil complement this analysis. In situ CPT tests were also carried out at this site in different seasons of the year. In this case, the soil suction profile was determined by means of the soil water retention. This extra information allowed assessing how soil suction also affected the CPT data and the shear strength parameters estimative via correlation. The major conclusions of this paper are: the undisturbed soil samples contracted before shearing and the soil shear strength increased hyperbolically with suction; and it was possible to assess how soil suction also influenced CPT test data based on the water content soil profile as well as the water retention curve. This study contributed with a better understanding of the shear strength parameters and the soil variability of a typical unsaturated tropical soil.
31
6203
Shock Response Analysis of Soil-Structure Systems Induced by Near-Fault Pulses
Abstract:
Shock response analysis of the soil–structure systems induced by near–fault pulses is investigated. Vibration transmissibility of the soil–structure systems is evaluated by Shock Response Spectra (SRS). Medium–to–high rise buildings with different aspect ratios located on different soil types as well as different foundations with respect to vertical load bearing safety factors are studied. Two types of mathematical near–fault pulses, i.e. forward directivity and fling step, with different pulse periods as well as pulse amplitudes are selected as incident ground shock. Linear versus nonlinear Soil–Structure Interaction (SSI) condition are considered alternatively and the corresponding results are compared. The results show that nonlinear SSI is likely to amplify the acceleration responses when subjected to long–period incident pulses with normalized period exceeding a threshold. It is also shown that this threshold correlates with soil type, so that increased shear–wave velocity of the underlying soil makes the threshold period decrease.
30
103571
Agro-Measures Influence Soil Physical Parameters in Alternative Farming
Abstract:
Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high-quality food products and sustain the viability and fertility of the soil. Plant nutrition in all ecosystems depends not only on fertilization intensity or soil richness in organic matter but also on soil physical parameters –bulk density, structure, pores with the optimum moisture and air ratio available to plants. The field experiments of alternative (sustainable and organic) farming systems were conducted at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In alternative farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and catch crops for green manure were used for fertilization both in the soil with low and moderate humus contents. It had a more significant effect in the 0–20 cm depth layer on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, where catch crops were grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil of farming systems without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil with moderate humus content, compared with the soil with low humus content, bulk density was by 1.4% lower, and porosity by 1.8% higher. The research findings allow to make improvements in alternative farming systems by choosing appropriate combinations of organic fertilizers and catch crops that have a sustainable effect on soil and maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote the development of organic agriculture.
29
54661
Estimating Soil Erosion Using Universal Soil Loss Equation and Gis in Algash Basin
Abstract:
Soil erosion is globally known for adverse effects on social, environmental and economical aspects which directly or indirectly influence the human life. The area under study suffers from problems like water quality, river and agricultural canals bed rise due to high sediment load brought by Algash River from upstream (Eritrea high land), the current study utilized from remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) to estimate the annual soil loss using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The USLE is widely used over the world which basically relies on rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), topographic factor (LS), cover management factor (C) and support practice factor (P). The result of the study showed high soil loss in the study area, this result was illustrated in a form of map presenting the spatial distribution of soil loss amounts which classified into seven zones ranging from very slight zone (less than 2 ton/ha.year) to very severe (100-500 ton/ha.year), also the total soil loss from the whole study area was found to be 32,916,840.87 ton/ha.year. These kinds of results will help the experts of land management to give a priority for the severely affected zones to be tackled in an appropriate way.
28
10476
The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact
Abstract:
The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.
27
67744
Soil Arching Effect in Columnar Embankments: A Numerical Study
Abstract:
Column-supported embankments provide a practical and efficient solution for construction on soft soil due to the low cost and short construction times. In the recent years, geosynthetic have been used in combination with column systems to support embankments. The load transfer mechanism in these systems is a combination of soil arching effect, which occurs between columns and membrane effect of the geosynthetic. This paper aims at the study of soil arching effect on columnar embankments using finite element software, ABAQUS. An axisymmetric finite element model is generated and using this model, parametric studies are carried out. Thus the effects of various factors such as height of embankment fill, elastic modulus of pile and tensile stiffness of geosynthetic, on soil arching have been studied. The development of negative skin friction along the pile-soil interface have also been studied and the results obtained from this study are compared with the current design methods.
26
26185
Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni Irrigation Project Site Located in Assam, India
Abstract:
In the present paper, Ground Response Analysis at the Rukni irrigation project has been thoroughly investigated. Surface level seismic hazard is mainly used by the practical Engineers for designing the important structures. Surface level seismic hazard can be obtained accounting the soil factor. Structures on soft soil will show more ground shaking than the structure located on a hard soil. The Surface level ground motion depends on the type of soil. Density and shear wave velocity is different for different types of soil. The intensity of the soil amplification depends on the density and shear wave velocity of the soil. Rukni irrigation project is located in the North Eastern region of India, near the Dauki fault (550 Km length) which has already produced earthquakes of magnitude (Mw= 8.5) in the past. There is a probability of a similar type of earthquake occuring in the future. There are several faults also located around the project site. There are 765 recorded strong ground motion time histories available for the region. These data are used to determine the soil amplification factor by incorporation of the engineering properties of soil. With this in view, three of soil bore holes have been studied at the project site up to a depth of 30 m. It has been observed that in Soil bore hole 1, the shear wave velocity vary from 99.44 m/s to 239.28 m/s. For Soil Bore Hole No 2 and 3, shear wave velocity vary from 93.24 m/s to 241.39 m/s and 93.24m/s to 243.01 m/s. In the present work, surface level seismic hazard at the project site has been calculated based on the Probabilistic seismic hazard approach accounting the soil factor.
25
46474
Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil
Abstract:
Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.
24
75019
The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region
Abstract:
The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67 g.cm⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29 g.cm⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.
23
21566
Mathematical Model for Flow and Sediment Yield Estimation on Tel River Basin, India
Abstract:
Soil erosion is a slow and continuous process and one of the prominent problems across the world leading to many serious problems like loss of soil fertility, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, sedimentation deposits etc. In this paper remote sensing and GIS based methods have been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield. Tel River basin which is the second largest tributary of the river Mahanadi laying between latitude 19° 15' 32.4"N and, 20° 45' 0"N and longitude 82° 3' 36"E and 84° 18' 18"E chosen for the present study. The catchment was discretized into approximately homogeneous sub-areas (grid cells) to overcome the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was computed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Various parameters for USLE was determined as a function of land topography, soil texture, land use/land cover, rainfall, erosivity and crop management and practice in the watershed. The concept of transport limited accumulation was formulated and the transport capacity maps were generated. The gross soil erosion was routed to the catchment outlet. This study can help in recognizing critical erosion prone areas of the study basin so that suitable control measures can be implemented.
22
32947
Plane of Equal Settlement above HDD’s Borehole before Operational Condition
Abstract:
This study is a review of the nature of soil arching that develops in the upper layer of soil during drilling processes before pulling product pipe inside the hole. This study is based on the results of some parametric studies which are investigating the behavior of drained sandy soil above HDD borehole using Plaxis finite element solution. The influence of drilling mud injection in these series of analyses has been ignored. However, a suitable drilling mud pressure helps to achieve stable arch when the height of soil cover over the drilling borehole is not enough. In this study, the soil response to the formation of a HDD borehole is compared to arching theory developed by Terzaghi (1943). It is found that Terzaghi’s approach is capable of describing all of the behaviour seen when a stable arch forms. According to the numerical results, a suitable safe depth of 4D, D is borehole diameter, is suggested for typical range of HDD borehole in sandy soil.
21
17371
Development of 3D Particle Method for Calculating Large Deformation of Soils
Abstract:
In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) Particle method without using grid was developed for analyzing large deformation of soils instead of using ordinary finite element method (FEM) or finite difference method (FDM). In the 3D Particle method, the governing equations were discretized by various particle interaction models corresponding to differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was incorporated into the 3D Particle method to determine soil failure. The yielding and hardening behavior of soil before failure was also considered by varying viscosity of soil. First of all, an unconfined compression test was carried out and the large deformation following soil yielding or failure was simulated by the developed 3D Particle method. The results were also compared with those of a commercial FEM software PLAXIS 3D. The developed 3D Particle method was able to simulate the 3D large deformation of soils due to soil yielding and calculate the variation of normal and shear stresses following clay deformation.
20
8592
Effect of Oil Contamination on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy Soils
Abstract:
Oil leakage from the pipelines and the tanks carrying them, or during oil extraction, could lead to the changes in the characteristics and properties of the soil. In this paper, conducting a series of experimental cyclic triaxial tests, the effects of oil contamination on the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is investigated. The studied specimens are prepared by mixing the Firoozkuh sand with crude oil in 4, 8 and 12 percent by soil dry weight. The results show that the oil contamination up to 8% causes an increase in the soil liquefaction resistance and then with increase in the contamination, the liquefaction resistance decreases.
19
107540
Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip
Abstract:
Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.
18
76274
Environmental Potential of Biochar from Wood Biomass Thermochemical Conversion
Authors:
Abstract:
Soil polluted with hydrocarbons spills is a major global concern today. As a response to this issue, our experimental study tries to put in evidence the option to choose for one environmentally friendly method: use of the biochar, despite to a classical procedure; incineration of contaminated soil. Biochar represents the solid product obtained through the pyrolysis of biomass, its additional use being as an additive intended to improve the quality of the soil. The positive effect of biochar addition to soil is represented by its capacity to adsorb and contain petroleum products within its pores. Taking into consideration the capacity of the biochar to interact with organic contaminants, the purpose of the present study was to experimentally establish the effects of the addition of wooden biomass-derived biochar on a soil contaminated with oil. So, the contaminated soil was amended with biochar (10%) produced by pyrolysis in different operational conditions of the thermochemical process. After 25 days, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil treated with biochar was measured. An analytical method as Soxhlet extraction was adopted to estimate the concentrations of total petroleum products (TPH) in the soil samples: This technique was applied to contaminated soil, also to soils remediated by incineration/adding biochar. The treatment of soil using biochar obtained from pyrolysis of the Birchwood led to a considerable decrease in the concentrations of petroleum products. The incineration treatments conducted under experimental stage to clean up the same soil, contaminated with petroleum products, involved specific parameters: temperature of about 600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and treatment time 30 and 60 minutes. The experimental results revealed that the method using biochar has registered values of efficiency up to those of all incineration processes applied for the shortest time.
17
7217
Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes
Abstract:
In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.
16
37548
Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin
Abstract:
In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.
15
32044
Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil from Flood Affected Area
Abstract:
In mid-December 2014, the biggest flood event occurred in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially at Dabong area, Kelantan. As a consequent of flood disaster, the heavy metals concentration in soil may changes and become harmful to the environment due to the pollution that deposited in soil. This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal concentration from flood affected area. Sample have been collected and analysed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (As) were chosen for the heavy metals concentration. The result indicated that the heavy metal concentration did not exceed the limit. In-situ parameters also were carried out, were the results showed the range of soil pH (6.5-6.8), temperature (25°C – 26.5°C), and moisture content (1-2), respectively. The results from this study can be used as a base data to improve the soil quality and for consideration of future land use activities.
14
99376
Removal of Diesel by Soil Washing Technologies Using a Non-Ionic Surfactant
Abstract:
A large number of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons and the limitation of the current bioremediation methods continue being the drawback for an efficient recuperation of these under safe conditions. In this regard, soil washing by degradable surfactants is an alternative option knowing the capacity of surfactants to desorb oily organic compounds. The aim of this study was the establishment of the washing conditions of a soil polluted with diesel, using a nonionic surfactant. A soil polluted with diesel was used. This was collected near to a polluted railway station zone. The soil was dried at room temperature and sieved to a mesh size 10 for its physicochemical and biological characterization. Washing of the polluted soil was performed with surfactant solutions in a 1:5 ratio (5g of soil per 25 mL of the surfactant solution). This was carried out at 28±1 °C and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The factors tested were the Tween 80 surfactant concentration (1, 2, 5 and 10%) and the treatment time. Residual diesel concentration was determined every 24 h. The soil was of a sandy loam texture with a low concentration of organic matter (3.68%) and conductivity (0.016 dS.m- 1). The soil had a pH of 7.63 which was slightly alkaline and a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon content (TPH) of 11,600 ± 1058.38 mg/kg. The high TPH content could explain the low microbial count of 1.1105 determined as UFC per gram of dried soil. Within the range of the surfactant concentration tested for washing the polluted soil under study, TPH removal increased proportionally with the surfactant concentration. 5080.8 ± 422.2 ppm (43.8 ± 3.64 %) was the maximal concentration of TPH removed after 72 h of contact with surfactant pollution at 10%. Despite the high percentage of hydrocarbons removed, it is assumed that a higher concentration of these could be removed if the washing process is extended or is carried out by stages. Soil washing through the use of surfactants as a desorbing agent was found to be a viable and effective technology for the rapid recovery of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons.
13
109929
The Effects of pH on p53 Phosphorylation by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase
Authors:
Abstract:
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine-threonine kinase, which is the major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is activated upon the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the cells. ATM phosphorylates the proteins involved in apoptotic responses, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, etc. Tumor protein p53, known as p53 is one of these proteins that phosphorylated by ATM. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 residue leads to p53 stabilization in the cells. Often enzymes activity is affected by hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In order to find the optimal pH range for ATM activity, steady-state kinetic assays were performed at acidic and basic pH ranges. Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 is determined by using ELISA. The results indicated that the phosphorylation rate was better at basic pH range compared with the acidic pH range. This could be due to enzyme stability, or enzyme-substrate interaction is pH dependent.
12
40529
Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium
Abstract:
Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).
11
38115
The Effects of Soil Chemical Characteristics on Accumulation of Native Selenium by Zea mays Grains in Maize Belt in Kenya
Abstract:
Selenium which is an-antioxidant is important for human health enters food chain through crops. In Kenya Zea mays is consumed by 96% of population hence is a cheap and convenient method to provide selenium to large number of population. Several soil factors are known to have antagonistic effects on selenium speciation hence the uptake by Zea mays. No investigation in Kenya has been done to determine the effects of soil characteristics (pH, Tcarbon, CEC, Eh) affect accumulation of selenium in Zea mays grains in Maize Belt in Kenya. About 100 Zea mays grain samples together with 100 soil samples were collected from the study site, put in separate labeled Ziplocs and were transported to laboratories at room temperature for analysis. Maize grains were analyzed for selenium while soil samples were analyzed for pH, Cat Ion Exchange Capacity, total carbon, and electrical conductivity. The mean selenium in Zea mays grains varied from 1.82 ± 0.76 mg/Kg to 11±0.86 mg/Kg. There was no significant difference between selenium levels between different grain batches {χ (Df =76) = 26.04 P= 1.00} The pH levels varied from 5.43± 0.58 to 5.85± 0.32. No significant correlations between selenium in grains and soil pH (Pearson’s correlations = - 0.143), and between selenium levels in grains and the four (pH,Tcarbon,CEC,Eh) soil chemical characteristics {F (4,91) = 0.721 p = 0.579} was observed.It can be concluded that the soil chemical characteristics in the study site did not significantly affect the accumulation of native selenium in Zea mays grains.
10
111178
Assessing Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Westleigh Soil under Shrub Encroached Rangeland, Limpopo Province, South Africa
Abstract:
Accurate quantification of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to land cover transformations, associated with shrub encroachment is crucial because deeper lying horizons have been shown to have greater capacity to sequester SOC. Despite this, in-depth soil carbon dynamics remain poorly understood, especially in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) in shrub-encroached and open grassland sites. To achieve this, soil samples were collected vertically at 10 cm depth intervals under both sites. The results showed that SOC was on average 19% and 13% greater in the topsoil and subsoil respectively, under shrub-encroached grassland compared to open grassland. In both topsoil and subsoil, lower SOCs were found under shrub-encroached (4.53 kg m⁻² and 3.90 kgm⁻²) relative to open grassland (4.39 kgm⁻² and 3.67 kgm⁻²). These results demonstrate that deeper soil horizon play a critical role in the storage of SOC in savanna grassland.
9
3036
Effects of Post-Emergence Herbicides on Soil Micro-Flora and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Pea Field
Abstract:
The effect of post emergence herbicides on soil micro-flora and nitrogen fixing bacteria was studied in pea field. Pea (Pisum sativum) was grown and treated with one or a mixture of two of several herbicides 2 weeks after sowing. Soil samples were collected 2 weeks after herbicides application. Average number of colony forming units per gram of soil of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were determined. Average number of nodules per plant was obtained at the end of the growing season. The results of the study showed MCPB, Bentazon, MCPB+Fluozifop-p-butyl, Bentazon+Fluozifop-p-butyl, Metribuzin, Flouzifop-p-butyl+Metribuzin, Cycloxydin, and Sethoxydin increased the population of soil fungi, with 4 to 10 times compared with the control. The herbicides used showed no significant effects on nitrogen fixing bacteria. The effects of herbicides on soil bacteria and actinomycetes were different. The study showed the use of herbicides could influence the biological balance of soil microflora, which has an important role in soil fertility and microbial ecosystem.
8
87924
A Study of Combined Mechanical and Chemical Stabilisation of Fine Grained Dredge Soil of River Jhelum
Abstract:
After the recent devastating flood in Kashmir in 2014, dredging of the local water bodies, especially Jhelum River has become a priority for the government. Local government under the project name of &#39;Comprehensive Flood Management Programme&#39; plans to undertake an increase in discharge of existing flood channels by removal of encroachments and acquisition of additional land, dredging and other works of the water bodies. The total quantity of soil to be dredged will be 16.15 lac cumecs. Dredged soil is a major component that would result from the project which requires disposal/utilization. This study analyses the effect of cement and sand on the engineering properties of soil. The tests were conducted with variable additions of sand (10%, 20% and 30%), whereas cement was added at 12%. Samples with following compositions: soil-cement (12%) and soil-sand (30%) were tested as well. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the engineering characteristics of soil, i.e., compaction, strength, and CBR characteristics. The strength characteristics of the soil were determined by unconfined compressive strength test and direct shear test. Unconfined compressive strength of the soil was tested immediately and for a curing period of seven days. CBR test was performed for unsoaked, soaked (worst condition- 4 days) and cured (4 days) samples.
7
44684
Preparation of Magnetothermally Responsive Polymer Multilayer Films for Controlled Release Applications from Surfaces
Abstract:
Externally triggered and effective release of therapeutics from polymer nanoplatforms is one of the key issues in cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to prepare polymer multilayer films which are stable at physiological conditions (little or no drug release) but release drug molecules at acidic pH and via application of AC magnetic field. First, novel stimuli responsive diblock copolymers composed of pH- and temperature-responsive blocks were synthesized. Then, block copolymer micelles with pH-responsive core and temperature responsive coronae will be obtained via pH-induced self-assembly of these block copolymers in aqueous environment. A model anticancer drug, e.g. Doxorubicin will be loaded in the micellar cores. Second, superparamagnetic nanoparticles will be synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles and drug loaded block copolymer micelles will be used as building blocks to construct the multilayers. To mimic the acidic nature of the tumor tissues, Doxorubicin release from the micellar cores will be induced at acidic conditions. Moreover, Doxorubicin release from the multilayers will be facilitated via magnetothermal trigger. Application of AC magnetic field will induce the heating of magnetic nanoparticles resulting in an increase in the temperature of the polymer platform. This increase in temperature is expected to trigger conformational changes on the temperature-responsive micelle coronae and facilitate the release of Doxorubicin from the surface. Such polymer platform may find use in biomedical applications.
6
8961
Soil and Environmental Management Awareness as Professional Competency of the Agricultural Extension Officers for Their Plans Implementation
Abstract:
Agricultural Extension Officers’ (AEOs) competency level in soil and environmental management awareness is important for interacting with farming communities of different types of soil. Questionnaire was developed for all AEOs for data collection to know the present position and needed position of competency on Likert scale from 01-05 by assigning very low (01) and very high (05). Wide gap was found in competency of suitability of various soil types for horticultural and agronomic crops and reclamation of saline soil. We observed that suitability ranking of various soil types for horticultural crops (Diff. = 1.21), agronomic crops (Diff. = 1.20) and soil borne diseases (Diff. = 1.19) were the top three important competencies where training or improvement is needed. To better fill this gap we recommend that professional qualification of AEOs should be enhanced and training opportunities should be provided to them particularly to deal with soil and environmental management awareness. Thus training opportunities may increase their competency and will add highly skilled manpower to the system for sustainable development to protect environment. It is therefore, recommended that AEOs may be provided pre and in service trainings of soil environmental management in order to equip them with a capacity to work with farming community effectively to boost the living standard of farming community and alleviate poverty for environmental protection.
5
53466
Soil Moisture Regulation in Irrigated Agriculture
Abstract:
Seepage capillary anomalies in the active layer of soil, related to the soil water movement, often cause variation of soil hydrophysical properties and become one of the main objectives of the hydroecology. It is necessary to mention that all existing equations for computing the seepage flow particularly from soil channels, through dams, bulkheads, and foundations of hydraulic engineering structures are preferable based on the linear seepage law. Regarding the existing beliefs, anomalous seepage is based on postulates according to which the fluid in free volume is characterized by resistance against shear deformation and is presented in the form of initial gradient. According to the above-mentioned information, we have determined: Equation to calculate seepage coefficient when the velocity of transition flow is equal to seepage flow velocity; by means of power function, equations for the calculation of average and maximum velocities of seepage flow have been derived; taking into consideration the fluid continuity condition, average velocity for calculation of average velocity in capillary tube has been received.
4
63424
Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads
Abstract:
Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two types of soil: Clayey and sandy containing non-reinforced and reinforced soil. The samples comprised three types of geotextiles with different characteristics (150, 200, 300 g/m2) and depths (H= 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm), and were grouped into two forms, one-layered and two-layered, based on the sample materials in order to perform defined tests. The results showed that the soil bearing characteristics increased when one layer of geotextile was used in clayey and sandy samples reinforced by geotextile. However, the bearing capacity of the soil, in the presence of a geotextile layer material with depth of more than 30 mm, had no remarkable effect. Furthermore, when the two-layered geotextile was applied in material samples, although it increased the soil resistance, it also showed that through the addition of a number or weights of geotextile into samples, the natural composition of the soil changed and the results are unreliable.
3
50355
Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia
Abstract:
Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.
2
52991
Soil Quality Response to Long-Term Intensive Resources Management and Soil Texture
Abstract:
The investigations on soil conservation are one of the most important topics in modern agronomy. Soil management practices have great influence on soil physico-chemical quality and GHG emission. Research objective: To reveal the sensitivity and vitality of soils with different texture to long-term antropogenisation on Cambisol in Central Lithuania and to compare them with not antropogenised soil resources. Methods: Two long-term field experiments (loam on loam; sandy loam on loam) with different management intensity were estimated. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 cm depths. Soil available P and K contents were determined by ammonium lactate extraction, total N by the dry combustion method, SOC content by Tyurin titrimetric (classical) method, texture by pipette method. In undisturbed core samples soil pore volume distribution, plant available water (PAW) content were determined. A closed chamber method was applied to quantify soil respiration (SR). Results: Long-term resources management changed soil quality. In soil with loam texture, within 0-10, 10-20 and 30-35 cm soil layers, significantly higher PAW, SOC and mesoporosity (MsP) were under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). However, total porosity (TP) under NT was significantly higher only in 0-10 cm layer. MsP acted as dominant factor for N, P and K accumulation in adequate layers. P content in all soil layers was higher under NT than in CT. N and K contents were significantly higher than under CT only in 0-10 cm layer. In soil with sandy loam texture, significant increase in SOC, PAW, MsP, N, P and K under NT was only in 0-10 cm layer. TP under NT was significantly lower in all layers. PAW acted as strong dominant factor for N, P, K accumulation. The higher PAW the higher NPK contents were determined. NT did not secure chemical quality within deeper layers than CT. Long-term application of mineral fertilisers significantly increased SOC and soil NPK contents primarily in top-soil. Enlarged fertilization determined the significantly higher leaching of nutrients to deeper soil layers (CT) and increased hazards of top-soil pollution. Straw returning significantly increased SOC and NPK accumulation in top-soil. The SR on sandy loam was significantly higher than on loam. At dry weather conditions, on loam SR was higher in NT than in CT, on sandy loam SR was higher in CT than in NT. NPK fertilizers promoted significantly higher SR in both dry and wet year, but suppressed SR on sandy loam during usual year. Not antropogenised soil had similar SOC and NPK distribution within 0-35 cm layer and depended on genesis of soil profile horizons.
1
10029
Bearing Capacity of Sulphuric Acid Content Soil
Abstract:
Tests were conducted to determine the property of soil with variation of H2SO4 content for soils under different stage. The soils had varying amounts of plasticity’s ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior was investigated for different conditions, covering a range of compactive efforts and water contents. The soil characteristic curves were more sensitive to changes in compaction effort than changes in compaction water content. In this research paper two types of water (Ground water Ph =7.9, Turbidity= 13 ppm; Cl =2.1mg/l and surface water Ph =8.65; Turbidity=18.5; Cl=1mg/l) were selected of Bhilai Nagar, State-Chhattisgarh, India which is mixed with a certain type of soil. Results shows that by the presence of ground water day by day the particles are becoming coarser in 7 days thereafter its size reduces; on the other hand by the presence of surface water the courser particles are disintegrating, finer particles are accumulating and also the dry density is reduces. Plasticity soils retained the smallest water content and the highest plasticity soils retained the highest water content at a specified suction. In addition, soil characteristic for soils to be compacted in the laboratory and in the field are still under process for analyzing the bearing capacity. The bearing capacity was reduced 2 to 3 times in the presence of H2SO4.