Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62548

200
102301
Towards a Dialogical Approach between Christianity and Hinduism: A Comparative Theological Analysis of the Concept of Logos, and Shabd
Abstract:
Since the inception of Christianity, one of the most important precepts has been that of the ‘word becoming flesh.’ Incarnation, as we understand it, is that the ‘word became flesh.’ As we know, it is a commonly held understanding that the concept of Logos was borrowed from the Greek religion. Such understanding has dominated our thought process. This is problematic as it does not draw out the deep roots of Logos. The understanding of Logos also existed in religion such as Hinduism. For the Hindu faith, the understanding of Shabd is pivotal. It could be arguably equated with the understanding of the Logos. The paper looks into the connection of the primal Christian doctrine of the Logos with that of the Hindu understanding of Shabd. The methodology of the paper would be a comparative theological analysis with the New Testament understanding of the Logos with that of the understanding of Shabd as perceived in the different Vedas of the Hindu faith. The paper would come to the conclusion that there is a conceptual connectivity between Logos and the Shabd. As such the understanding of Logos cannot just be attributed to the Greek understanding of Logos, but rather it predates the Greek understanding of Logos by being connected to the Hindu understanding of Shabd. Accordingly, such comparison brings out the implication for a constructive dialogue between Christianity and the Hindu faith.
199
42983
Thai Student Teachers' Prior Understanding of Nature of Science (NOS)
Abstract:
This research aims to study the understanding of 8 aspects of nature of science (NOS). The research participants were 39 General Science student teachers who were selected by purposive sampling. In 2015 academic year, they enrolled in the course of Science Education Learning Management. Qualitative research was used as research methodology to understand how the student teachers propose on NOS. The research instruments consisted of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structure interviews that were used to assess students’ understanding of NOS. Research data was collected by 8 items- questionnaire and was categorized into students’ understanding of NOS, which consisted of complete understanding (CU), partial understanding (PU), misunderstanding (MU) and no understanding (NU). The findings reveal the majority of students’ misunderstanding of NOS regarding the aspects of theory and law(89.7%), scientific method(61.5%) and empirical evidence(15.4%) respectively. From the interview data, the student teachers present their misconceptions of NOS that indicate about theory and law cannot change; science knowledge is gained through experiment only (step by step); science is the things that are around humans. These results suggest that for effective science teacher education, the composition of design of NOS course needs to be considered. Therefore, teachers’ understanding of NOS is necessary to integrate into professional development program/course for empowering student teachers to begin their careers as strong science teachers in schools.
198
86327
South African Students' Statistical Literacy in the Conceptual Understanding about Measures of Central Tendency after Completing Their High School Studies
Abstract:
In South Africa, the High School Mathematics Curriculum provides teachers with specific aims and skills to be developed which involves the understanding about the measures of central tendency. The exploration begins with the definitions of statistical literacy, measurement of central tendency and a discussion on why statistical literacy is essential today. It furthermore discusses the statistical literacy basics involved in understanding the concepts of measures of central tendency. The statistical literacy test on the measures of central tendency, was used to collect data which was administered to 78 first year students direct from high schools. The results indicated that students seemed to have forgotten about the statistical literacy in understanding the concepts of measure of central tendency after completing their high school study. The authors present inferences regarding the alignment between statistical literacy and the understanding of the concepts about the measures of central tendency, leading to the conclusion that there is a need to provide in-service and pre-service training.
197
36759
Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment
Abstract:
This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.
196
15941
Alignment between Understanding and Assessment Practice among Secondary School Teachers
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the alignment of understanding and assessment practices among secondary school teachers. The study was carried out using quantitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 164 teachers who taught Form 1 and 2 from 11 secondary schools in the district of North Kinta, Perak, Malaysia. Data were obtained from 164 respondents who answered Expectation Alignment Understanding and Practices of School Assessment (PEKDAPS) questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0 +. The Cronbach alpha value obtained through PEKDAPS questionnaire pilot study was 0.86. The results showed that teachers' performance in PEKDAPS based on the mean value was less than 3, which means that perfect alignment does not occur between the understanding and practices of school assessment. Two major PEKDAPS sub-constructs of articulation across grade and age and usability of the system were higher than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). The content was focused on PEKDAPs sub-constructs which showed lower than the moderate alignment of the understanding and practices of school assessment (Min=2.0). Another two PEKDAPS sub-constructs of transparency and fairness and the pedagogical implications showed moderate alignment (2.0). The implications of the study is that teachers need to fully understand the importance of alignment among components of assessment, learning and teaching and learning objectives as strategies to achieve quality assessment process.
195
53300
Cultural Snapshot: A Reflection on Project-Based Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding in Teaching and Learning
Abstract:
The fundamental perception used in this study is that teaching and learning activities in Indonesian classroom have potentially generated individual’s sensitivity on cross-cultural understanding. This study aims at investigating Indonesian university students’ perception on cross-cultural understanding after doing Cultural Snapshot Project. The data was critically analyzed through multicultural ideology and diversity theories. The subjects were 30 EFL college students in one of colleges in Indonesia. Each student was assigned to capture a photo which depicted the existence of any cultural manifestation in their surrounding such as discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Students were then requested asked to reflect on the picture by writing a short description on the picture and make an exhibition using their pictures. In the end of the project, students were instructed to fill in questionnaires to show their perception before and after the project. The result reveals that Cultural Snapshot Project has given the opportunity for the students to better realize cross-cultural understanding in their environment. In conclusion, the study shows that Cultural Snapshot Project has specifically enhanced students’ perception of multiculturalism in three major areas: cultural sensitivity and empathy, social tolerance, and understanding of diversity.
194
42988
Community Forest Management Practice in Nepal: Public Understanding of Forest Benefit
Abstract:
In the developing countries like Nepal, the community based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicated the poor understanding.
193
56016
Investigating Students' Understanding about Mathematical Concept through Concept Map
Abstract:
The main purpose of studying lies in improving students’ understanding. Teachers usually use written test to measure students’ understanding about learning material especially mathematical learning material. This common method actually has a lack point, such that in mathematics content, written test only show procedural steps to solve mathematical problems. Therefore, teachers unable to see whether students actually understand about mathematical concepts and the relation between concepts or not. One of the best tools to observe students’ understanding about the mathematical concepts is concept map. The goal of this research is to describe junior high school students understanding about mathematical concepts through Concept Maps based on the difference of mathematical ability. There were three steps in this research; the first step was choosing the research subjects by giving mathematical ability test to students. The subjects of this research are three students with difference mathematical ability, high, intermediate and low mathematical ability. The second step was giving concept mapping training to the chosen subjects. The last step was giving concept mapping task about the function to the subjects. Nodes which are the representation of concepts of function were provided in concept mapping task. The subjects had to use the nodes in concept mapping. Based on data analysis, the result of this research shows that subject with high mathematical ability has formal understanding, due to that subject could see the connection between concepts of function and arranged the concepts become concept map with valid hierarchy. Subject with intermediate mathematical ability has relational understanding, because subject could arranged all the given concepts and gave appropriate label between concepts though it did not represent the connection specifically yet. Whereas subject with low mathematical ability has poor understanding about function, it can be seen from the concept map which is only used few of the given concepts because subject could not see the connection between concepts. All subjects have instrumental understanding for the relation between linear function concept, quadratic function concept and domain, co domain, range.
192
87018
Adaptive E-Learning System Using Fuzzy Logic and Concept Map
Abstract:
This paper proposes an effective adaptive e-learning system that uses a coloured concept map to show the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the chosen subject area. A Fuzzy logic system is used to evaluate the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the domain, and produce a ranked concept list of learning materials to address weaknesses in the learner’s understanding. This system obtains information on the learner's understanding of concepts by an initial pre-test before the system is used for learning and a post-test after using the learning system. A Fuzzy logic system is used to produce a weighted concept map during the learning process. The aim of this research is to prove that such a proposed novel adapted e-learning system will enhance learner's performance and understanding. In addition, this research aims to increase participants' overall understanding of their learning level by providing a coloured concept map of understanding followed by a ranked concepts list of learning materials.
191
2850
Understanding and Political Participation in Constitutional Monarchy of Dusit District Residents
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to study in three areas: (1) to study political understanding and participating of the constitutional monarchy, (2) to study the level of participation. This paper drew upon data collected from 395 Dusit residents by using questionnaire. In addition, a simple random sampling was utilized to collect data. The findings revealed that 94 percent of respondents had a very good understanding of constitution monarchy with a mean of 4.8. However, the respondents overall had a very low level of participation with the mean score of 1.69 and standard deviation of .719.
190
118293
The Impact of a Five-Day Basic Disaster Management Training on Disaster Risk Reduction: Case Study of Indonesia Defense University
Abstract:
Education on disaster management has been made as a mainstream focus of many countries. In Indonesia, this has been emphasized with the direct order of the President of Indonesia to implement disaster education at all levels in both formal and informal education. Indonesia Defense University (IDU) executes this order through Three Pillars of Higher Education, which consists of research, education, and community service. One of them is a five-day disaster management training for 105 participants divided into three batches that consist of faculty members and graduate students. This training uses the 2018 Basic Disaster Management Training Modul issued by the Indonesia National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB). This research aims to analyze the impact of this short training on the trainee’s knowledge and understanding of basic disaster management. This study is a qualitative research with case study approach. The research shows that after five days of training, there as a significant increase in knowledge and understanding of basic disaster management experienced by the trainees with a 61,73% overall increase. The post-training data shows that 61% of the trainees have a very good understanding, 24% with good understanding, 13% with adequate understanding, and 2% with poor understanding. The result suggests that a short-time education with a structured curriculum can successfully increase the knowledge and understanding of disaster management on a basic level and can hypothetically contribute to the effort to reduce disaster risks.
189
46506
Students' Statistical Reasoning and Attitudes towards Statistics in Blended Learning, E-Learning and On-Campus Learning
Abstract:
The present study focused on students' statistical reasoning related to Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing and p-values. Its objective was to test the hypothesis that neither the place (classroom, at a distance, online) nor the medium that actually supports the learning (ICT, internet, books) has an effect on understanding of statistical concepts. In addition, it was expected that students' attitudes towards statistics would not predict understanding of statistical concepts. The sample consisted of 385 undergraduate and postgraduate students from six state and private universities (five in Greece and one in Cyprus). Students were administered two questionnaires: a) the Greek version of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics, and b) a short instrument which measures students' understanding of statistical significance and p-values. Results suggest that attitudes towards statistics do not predict students' understanding of statistical concepts, whereas the medium did not have an effect.
188
86385
Aggressive Behavior Prevention: The Effect of Peace Education and Media Literacy towards Student's Understanding about Aggression
Abstract:
For the last 5 years, there is the never-ending violent act and increased cases regarding aggressive behavior among high school students in Bogor, Indonesia. Those cases caused harm to many people, even death, and lead to the continuation circle of violence. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of using peace education and media literacy in enhancing student’s understanding about aggression, as an effort to prevent aggressive behavior. In terms of methodology, this research was done by quasi-experiment with one group pretest and post-test design. A number of 38 students who were at risk of aggressive behavior from 3 vocational high school were involved to receive a 10 learning session about peace and media literacy. The aggression questionnaire was used to identify participants, supported by student’s record in school. To collect data, the questionnaire for measuring understanding about aggression has been developed and was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire tested. Post-test was carried out after the session ended. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding result showed that the mean score of student’s understanding of aggression was increased, therefore learning session of peace education and media literacy is significantly effective to enhance student’s understanding of aggression. It also showed a meaningful difference of understanding between male and female student’s whereas female students have a better understanding of aggression.
187
94904
A Cross-Sectional Examination of Children’s Developing Understanding of the Rainbow
Authors:
Abstract:
Surprisingly little is known from a research perspective about children’s understanding of rainbows and rainbow formation, and how this understanding changes with increasing age. Yet this kind of research is useful when conceptualizing pedagogy, lesson plans, or more general curricula. The present study aims to rectify this shortcoming. In a cross-sectional approach, children of three different age groups (4-5, 7-8 and 10-11 years) were asked to draw pictures that included rainbows. The pictures will be evaluated according to their scientific representation of rainbows, such as the order of colors, as well as according to any non-scientific conceptions, such as solidity. In addition to the drawings, the children took part in small focus groups where they had to discuss various questions about rainbows and rainbow formation. Similar to the drawings, these conversations will be evaluated around the degree of scientific accuracy of the children’s explanations. Gaining a complete developmental picture of children’s understanding of the rainbow may have important implications for pedagogy in early science education. Many other concepts in science, while not explicitly linked to rainbows and rainbow formation, can benefit from the use of rainbows as illustrations – such as understanding light and color, or the use of prisms. Even in non-science domains, such as art and even storytelling, recognizing the differentiation between fact and myth in relation to rainbows could be of value. In addition, research has pointed out that teachers tend to overestimate the proportion of students’ correct answers, so clarifying the actual level of conceptual understanding is crucial in this respect.
186
42066
Understanding the Genetic Basis of SUDEP
Abstract:
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a rarity. Each year, about one in 150 epileptics, whose seizures are not controlled, may die of SUDEP. It is a leading cause of death in young adults with uncontrolled seizures. Understanding the genetic basis for SUDEP, is crucial given that the rate of sudden death in epilepsy patients is 20 fold that of the general population. We encountered one such case of a young male, a known epileptic, who was brought dead after a sudden collapse. We hereby present a poster discussing the autopsy findings of this case and also highlighting the importance of understanding the genetic basis of SUDEP.
185
22983
“Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example
Authors:
Abstract:
Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.
184
31305
Level of Understanding of the Catholic Doctrines in Relation to the Way of Life of Ignatian Graduates
Abstract:
The study assessed the level of understanding of catholic doctrines in relation to the way of life of Ignatian graduates of Ateneo de Naga University (ADNU). It was conducted to find out if ADNU is successful in leading their students to a deeper moral understanding of the world centered on Jesus Christ through their curriculum, academic programs, activities and practices. This study further evaluated if their graduates live out their Catholic commitment to Christ in their current way of life. It also determined the factors that affected their level of understanding of Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. The descriptive, qualitative, evaluative and correlational analyses determined the level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines and the current way of life of 390 graduates. It also correlated the level of understanding to moral life and worship. The factors that affected the graduates’ level of understanding and their current way of life were measured. A researcher-made instrument was distributed to the respondents either using the traditional way or the online survey to reach out graduates across the globe. Major findings were (1) The weighted mean of graduates’ level of understanding of Catholic doctrines was 4.63. (2) Along moral life, 4.07 while along worship, 3.83. (3) The Catholic doctrines and moral life had Pearson r value of 0.79. The doctrines and worship, 0.87; and worship and moral life, 0.89. (4) The understanding of the doctrines was affected highly by the teacher factor with 4.09 mean. The moral life and worship were affected highly by the teacher and technological factors both ranked 1.5 (4.04). (5) Along Catholic doctrines, the teacher factor had 0.90 r value; and environmental, -0.40. Along moral life, teacher had r value of -0.30; technological (-0.92), socio-economic (-0.93), political (-0.83), and environmental (-0.90). Along worship, the teacher had 0.36 Pearson r value, technological and socio-economic (-0.78), political (-0.73) and environmental (-0.72). Major conclusions were: (1) Graduates had very high level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines as summarized in the Creed which is grounded in the Sacred Scriptures. (2) They live out this Catholic commitment to Christ by obeying the Commandments very extensively but needed more participation in religious and parish activities. They have overwhelming spirituality and religiosity in terms of receiving of sacraments and sacramental practices except reading the Bible and reflecting on its passages. (3) The graduates’ level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines had very strong correlation with their current way of life. (4) Teacher, socio-economic, technological, environmental, and political factors significantly affected their understanding of the Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. (5) The teacher factor had very strong relationship with the doctrines; technological and political, weak; environmental, moderate; and socio-economic, very weak relationship. The teacher factor had weak relationship but the other factors had very strong relationship with moral life and strong relationship with worship.
183
113685
A Qualitative Study of the Efficacy of Teaching for Conceptual Understanding to Enhance Confidence and Engagement in Early Mathematics
Abstract:
Research suggests that the pedagogy we utilize when teaching mathematics contributes to a negative attitude towards the discipline. Worried by this, we have explored teaching mathematics for understanding, fluency, and confidence. We investigated strategies to engage students with the beauty of mathematics, moving them beyond mimicry and memorization. The result is an integrated pedagogy and curriculum arrangement which combines concept-based mathematics with Number Talks, Visible Thinking Routines, and Teaching for Understanding. Our qualitative research shows that students self-report greater self-confidence and heightened engagement with mathematical thinking. Teacher reflections on student learning echo this finding. As a result of this, we advocate for teacher training in the implementation of a concept-based curriculum supplemented with Number Talk strategies.
182
98640
Patients' Understanding of Their Treatment Plans and Diagnosis during Discharge in Emergency Ward at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
Abstract:
Background: Understanding the diagnosis and the treatment plan is very important for the patient which reflects the effectiveness of the patient care as well as counseling. Large groups of patients do not understand their emergency care plan or their discharge instructions. With only a little more than 2/3ʳᵈ of the adult population is literate and poorly distributed health service institutions in Nepal, exploring the current status of patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment would help identify interventions to improve patient compliance with the provided care and the treatment outcomes. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify and describe the areas of patients’ understanding and confusion regarding emergency care and discharge instructions at the Emergency ward of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences teaching hospital, Dharan, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 patients discharged from the emergency unit of BPKIHS. Cases who are leaving against medical advice absconded cases and those patients who came just for vaccination are excluded from the study. Patients’ understanding of the treatment plan and diagnosis was measured. Results: There were 60% men in this study. More than half of the participants reported not being able to read English. More than 90% of the respondents reported they could not read their prescription at all. While patient could point out their understanding of their diagnosis at discharge, most of them could not tell the names and the dosage of all the drugs prescribed to them at discharge. More than 95% of the patients could not tell the most common side effects of the drugs that they are prescribed. Conclusions: There is a need to further explore the factors influencing the understanding of the patients regarding their treatment plan. Interventions to understand the health literacy needs and ways to improve the health literacy of the patients are needed.
181
93374
MATLAB Supported Learning and Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functions of Two Variables: Experiences from Wolkite University
Abstract:
A non-equivalent group's quasi-experiment research was conducted at Wolkite University to investigate MATLAB supported learning and students' conceptual understanding in learning Applied Mathematics II using four different comparative instructional approaches: MATLAB supported traditional lecture method, MATLAB supported collaborative method, only collaborative method, and only traditional lecture method. Four intact classes of mechanical engineering groups 1 and 2, garment engineering and textile engineering students were randomly selected out of eight departments. The first three departments were considered as treatment groups and the fourth one 'Textile engineering' was assigned as a comparison group. The departments had 30, 29, 35 and 32 students respectively. The results of the study show that there is a significant mean difference in students' conceptual understanding between groups of students learning through MATLAB supported collaborative method and the other learning approaches. Students who were learned through MATLAB technology-supported learning in combination with collaborative method were found to understand concepts of functions of two variables better than students learning through the other methods of learning. These, hence, are informative of the potential approaches universities would follow for a better students’ understanding of concepts.
180
89337
Exploring a Teaching Method for Elementary Students to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding: Utilizing an American Film
Abstract:
This study explores the effective methods of nurturing elementary students’ cross-cultural understanding. The delivery lecture was conducted in a private elementary school class for understanding cross-cultural differences through the film E.T. (1982). Interviews of care supporters and students were conducted, as well as student discussions were held after the class. The results were carefully observed and analyzed. Suitable findings were obtained, for instance, students’ listening skills improved; further, they deeply thought about the main character’s feelings after watching the movie. Moreover, their interest in studying English as a foreign language increased. In conclusion, more classes where students can express their opinions in front of the class need to be offered; this would enable the students to nurture their critical thinking abilities and build a sense of accomplishment when they are in elementary school. Utilizing films is one of the best ways to provide students good opportunities to engage in discussions on a specific theme. This is particularly true for elementary school students.
179
72800
Android-Based Edugame Application for Earthquakes Disaster Mitigation Education
Abstract:
The earthquakes disaster is an event that can threaten at any moment and cause damage and loss of life. Game earthquake disaster mitigation is a useful educational game to enhance children insight, knowledge, and understanding in the response to the impact of the earthquake. This study aims to build an educational games application on the Android platform as a learning media for earthquake mitigation education and to determine the effect of the application toward children understanding of the earthquake disaster mitigation. The methods were research and development. The development was to develop edugame application for earthquakes mitigation education. The research involved elementary students as a research sample to test the developed application. The research results were valid android-based edugame application, and its the effect of application toward children understanding. The application contains an earthquake simulation video, an earthquake mitigation video, and a game consisting three stages, namely before the earthquake, when the earthquake occur, and after the earthquake. The results of the feasibility test application showed that this application was included in the category of 'Excellent' which the average percentage of the operation of applications by 76%, view application by 67% and contents of application by 74%. The test results of students' responses were 80% that showed that a positive their responses toward the application. The student understanding test results show that the average score of children understanding pretest was 71,33, and post-test was 97,00. T-test result showed that t value by 8,02 more than table t by 2,001. This indicated that the earthquakes disaster mitigation edugame application based on Android platform affects the children understanding about disaster earthquake mitigation.
178
43471
Economic Benefits in Community Based Forest Management from Users Perspective in Community Forestry, Nepal
Authors:
Abstract:
In the developing countries like Nepal, the community-based forest management approach has often been glorified as one of the best forest management alternatives to maximize the forest benefits. Though the approach has succeeded to construct a local level institution and conserve the forest biodiversity, how the local communities perceived about the forest benefits, the question always remains silent among the researchers and policy makers. The paper aims to explore the understanding of forest benefits from the perspective of local communities who used the forests in terms of institutional stability, equity and livelihood opportunity, and ecological stability. The paper revealed that the local communities have mixed understanding over the forest benefits. The institutional and ecological activities carried out by the local communities indicated that they have a better understanding over the forest benefits. However, inequality while sharing the forest benefits, low pricing strategy and its negative consequences in the valuation of forest products and limited livelihood opportunities indicating the poor understanding.
177
35627
Effect of Science Learning Module in Filipino on Content Mastery and Conceptual Understanding of Grade 9 Students
Abstract:
This research investigated the effect of science intervention modules in Filipino and in English on mastery of content (MOC) and conceptual understanding of Grade 9 students in Chemistry. Analysis of content mastery scores revealed a significant difference in the mean scores of the control and experimental group, t (46) = -2.14, p < 0.05. The experimental group achieved an MPS of > 75% in three of the five lessons while none in the control group. Analysis of the pretest and posttest scores of the control group in the test for conceptual understanding (TCU) showed no significant difference, t (18), =1.44, p > 0.05, while pretest and posttest scores of experimental group revealed significant difference, t (29) = -5.08, p < 0.05. Comparison of posttest scores of control and experimental group revealed no significant difference t (42) =1.67, p > 0.05. Performance in TCU and MOC of the control group are not significantly correlated, r (17) =.307, p > 0.05; but significantly correlated, r (27) =.571, p < 0.05, for the experimental group. The intervention module in Filipino promotes conceptual understanding and mastery of content than the module in English.
176
9668
Physical Education Teacher's Interpretation toward Teaching Games for Understanding Model
Authors:
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to evaluate the implementation of teaching games for Understanding model by conducting action to physical education teacher who have got long teaching experience. The research applied Participatory Action Research. The subjects of this research were 19 physical education teachers who had got training of Teaching Games for Understanding. Data collection was conducted intensively through a questionnaire, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), observation, and documentation. The collected data was analysis zed qualitatively and quantitatively. The result showed that physical education teachers had got an appropriate interpretation on TGfU model. Some indicators that were the focus of this research indicated this points; they are: (1) physical education teachers had good understanding toward TGfU model, (2) PE teachers’ competence in applying TGfU model on Physical Education at school were adequate, though some improvement were needed, (3) the influence factors in the implementation of TGfU model, in sequence, were teacher, facilities, environment, and students factors, (4) PE teachers’ perspective toward TGfU model were positively good, although some teachers were less optimistic toward the development of TGfU model in the future.
175
59375
The Formation of Mutual Understanding in Conversation: An Embodied Approach
Abstract:
The mutual understanding in conversation is very important for human relations. This study investigates the mental function of the formation of mutual understanding between two people in conversation using the embodied approach. Forty people participated in this study. They are divided into pairs randomly. Four conversation situations between two (make/listen to fun or pleasant talk, make/listen to regrettable talk) are set for four minutes each, and the finger plethysmogram (200 Hz) of each participant is measured. As a result, the attractors of the participants who reported "I did not understand my partner" show the collapsed shape, which means the fluctuation of their rhythm is too small to match their partner&rsquo;s rhythm, and their cross correlation is low. The autonomic balance of both persons tends to resonate during conversation, and both LLEs tend to resonate, too. In human history, in order for human beings as weak mammals to live, they may have been with others; that is, they have brought about resonating characteristics, which is called self-organization. However, the resonant feature sometimes collapses, depending on the lifestyle that the person was formed by himself after birth. It is difficult for people who do not have a lifestyle of mutual gaze to resonate their biological signal waves with others&rsquo;. These people have features such as anxiety, fatigue, and confusion tendency. Mutual understanding is thought to be formed as a result of cooperation between the features of self-organization of the persons who are talking and the lifestyle indicated by mutual gaze. Such an entanglement phenomenon is called a nonlinear relation. By this research, it is found that the formation of mutual understanding is expressed by the rhythm of a biological signal showing a nonlinear relationship.
174
73857
Study on the Role of Positive Emotions in Developmental Psychology
Abstract:
This paper examines the role of positive emotions in human psychology. By understanding Fredrickson and Lyubomirsky et al.’s on positive emotions, one can better understand people’s intuitive understanding, mental health and well-being. Fredrickson asserts that positive emotions create positive affects and personal resources, and Lyubomirsky et al. relate such positive resources to the creation of happiness and personal development. This paper finds that positive emotions play a significant role in the learning process, and they are instrumental in creating a long-lasting repertoire of personal resources and play an essential role in the development of the intuitive understanding of life variables, resilience in coping with life challenges, and ability to build more successful lives.
173
92297
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
Abstract:
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
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91151
Understanding Workplace Behavior through Organizational Culture and Complex Adaptive Systems Theory
Abstract:
Purpose: This article aims to rethink the phenomena of employee behavior as a product of a system. Both organizational culture and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory emphasize that individual behavior depends on the specific system and the unique organizational culture. These two major theories are both represented in the field of organizational studies; however, they are rarely used together for the comprehensive understanding of workplace behavior. Methodology: By reviewing the literature we use key concepts stemming from organizational culture and CAS theory in order to show the similarities between these theories and create an enriched understanding of employee behavior. Findings: a) Workplace behavior is defined here as social cognition issue. b) Organizations are discussed here as complex systems, and cultures which drive and dictate the cognitive processes of agents in the system. c) Culture gives CAS theory a context which lets us see organizations not just as ever-changing and unpredictable, but as such systems that aim to create and maintain stability by recurring behavior. Conclusion: Applying the knowledge from culture and CAS theory sheds light on our present understanding of employee behavior, also emphasizes the importance of novel ways in organizational research and management.
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16207
Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries
Abstract:
This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.
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24985
Representational Conference Profile of Secondary Students in Understanding Selected Chemical Principles
Abstract:
Assessing students’ understanding in the microscopic level of an abstract subject like chemistry poses a challenge to teachers. Literature reveals that the use of representations serves as an essential avenue of measuring the extent of understanding in the discipline as an alternative to traditional assessment methods. This undertaking explored the representational competence profile of high school students from the University of Santo Tomas High School in understanding selected chemical principles and correlate this with their academic profile in chemistry based on their performance in the academic achievement examination in chemistry administered by the Center for Education Measurement (CEM). The common misconceptions of the students on the selected chemistry principles based on their representations were taken into consideration as well as the students’ views regarding their understanding of the role of chemical representations in their learning. The students’ level of representation task instrument consisting of the main lessons in chemistry with a corresponding scoring guide was prepared and utilized in the study. The study revealed that most of the students under study are unanimously rated as Level 2 (symbolic level) in terms of their representational competence in understanding the selected chemical principles through the use of chemical representations. Alternative misrepresentations were most observed on the students’ representations on chemical bonding concepts while the concept of chemical equation appeared to be the most comprehensible topic in chemistry for the students. Data implies that teachers’ representations play an important role in helping the student understand the concept in a microscopic level. Results also showed that the academic achievement in the chemistry of the students based on the standardized CEM examination has a significant association with the students’ representational competence. In addition, the students’ responses on the students’ views in chemical representations questionnaire evidently showed a good understanding of what a chemical representation or a mental model is by drawing a negative response that these tools should be an exact replica. Moreover, the students confirmed a greater appreciation that chemical representations are explanatory tools.
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46260
Using Collaborative Pictures to Understand Student Experience
Abstract:
Summative feedback forms are used in academia for gathering data on course quality and student understanding. Students answer a series of questions based on the course they are soon to finish in these forms. Feedback forms are notorious for being homogenised and limiting and thus the data captured is often neutral and lacking in tacit emotional responses. This paper contrasts student feedback forms with collaborative drawing. We analyse 19 pictures drawn by international students on a pre-sessional course. Through visuals we present an approach to enable a holistic level of student understanding. Visuals communicate irrespective of possible language, cultural and educational barriers. This paper sought to discover if the pictures mirrored the feedback given on a typical feedback form. Findings indicate a considerable difference in the two approaches and thus we highlight the value of collaborative drawing as a complimentary resource to aid the understanding of student experience.
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55245
Analysis of Developments in the Understanding of In-Service Training in Turkish Public Administration: Personnel Management to Human Resource Management
Abstract:
In line with the new public management approach to provide effective and efficient services necessary to achieve the social goals of public institutions, employees must have the knowledge and skills required by the age. In conjunction with the transition from personnel management to human resources management, it is seen that there is a change in the understanding of in-service training, the understanding of &quot;required in-service training&quot; has switched to the understanding of &quot;continuous in-service training&quot;. However, in terms of in-service training in Turkey, it seems to be trouble at the point of adopting to change. The main purpose of this study is to primarily create a conceptual framework of in-service training and subsequently determine, analyze and discuss the developments and problems faced by in-service training in Turkey in the transition from personnel management to human resources management. In accordance with this purpose, the necessary data of this study were collected using qualitative approaches. Observation and document analysis was used and content analysis was performed on the data gathered in the study. The results of this study, according to data such as the number of institutions requesting in-service training, allocated budget of in-service training, the number of people participating in such training, transition of personnel management to human resources management should not lead to a paradigm shift in Turkey&rsquo;s understanding of in-service training, although this is compulsory for public institutions in accordance with the law in Turkey. In-service training in Turkish public administration is still not implemented effectively and is seen as a social activity for employees and a formality for institutions.
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81690
Gendered Perspectives on the Understanding of the Politics and the Social Life
Authors:
Abstract:
This essay analyses how gendered shaped views influence on our understanding of global politics. To do so, feminism used as a framework theory, thus masculinity is discussed in order to explain the male-dominated international relations (IR) discipline and the differences of reflections on our perspective considering the politics in a broader perspective. Particularly, it is highlighted that the social and cultural structures of societies have also an impact on our views about international relations and politics. From a different perspective, it is aimed that the sociological and cultural impression of the shifted gender perspectives on the political approach of different nations and societies will be examined by drawing on a range of sources. Instead of supporting one feminist theory, this essay engages with all traditions and enriches their arguments. Specifically, the main objective of the essay is hegemonic and plural masculinity on societies. The essay sets things up theoretically by looking at the nature of masculinity – the stage is set to show how this informs our understanding of IR.
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79490
A Review on Pathological Gaming among Adolescents
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Abstract:
This paper presents a review of the literature on behavioral addictions with a particular focus on understanding online gaming habits among adolescents. Extant researches yielded many different sets of antecedent factors for developing pathological online gaming behavior. This paper draws findings from the most-cited publications most closely associated with factors explaining why individuals develop such kind of problematic behavior. What emerges as central to understanding this phenomenon is the presence of multiple variable causes that take into account the individual, the environment and their interaction to explain the risk behavior such as pathological online gaming. In addition to that role of some mediating factors and pull factors has also been discussed, along with the consequences on personal, social and academic performance resulting from such kind of addictive behavior. The paper also makes recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the phenomena studied here by examining the relative contribution of these multiple-risk contexts.
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100881
An Explorative Study: Awareness and Understanding of Dyspraxia amongst Parents of Preschool Children Presenting with Dyspraxia
Abstract:
Dyspraxia affects approximately 5-6% of school aged children. Utilising an ecological framework, this study aimed to (1) explore the awareness and understanding of dyspraxia or similar disorders among preschool parents and (2) to explore what skills are required or sought after by parents of children presenting with dyspraxia. A qualitative methodological approach with an exploratory design was employed in this study. A total of 15 parents were purposively selected from urban mainstream preschools in the Cape Town metropole region. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically according to Braun and Clarke (2006). Participants were knowledgeable of their rights throughout the research process. The findings reveal that parents understanding of dyspraxia hinges on observable characteristics of their children’s abilities in comparison to typically developing children. Although parents are aware of ways to explore various avenues to better assist their child, they desire more social support and skills in terms of resources to inform them about their child’s difficulties as well as different techniques to better manage their child’s condition. Findings indicate that regular contact between preschool teachers and parents of children presenting with dyspraxia is an important factor in children’s academic success. The implications of the findings are related to the awareness of dyspraxia and similar learning disorders among both parents and teachers.
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71921
Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to show how Libya&rsquo;s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya&#39;s understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.
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110230
Understanding How Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism Are Conducted through the Real Estate Sector in the Middle East and North Africa Region
Abstract:
This research seeks to identify how money laundering activities are executed through the real estate sector. This article provides academics with literature on the topic and provides scholars, and practitioners with a better understanding of the risks and challenges involved. Data are gathered through survey in the Middle East and North Africa region and review of the available research. The results of the analysis will help identifying the factors attracting criminals to the real estate sector and develop an understanding of the methods used to launder illicit funds through this sector and the indicators of suspicion for reporting entities. Further analysis reveals the risks posed by money laundering and terrorist financing on the real estate sector and challenges facing states in this regard.
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78577
Damage Assessment and Repair for Older Brick Buildings
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Abstract:
The experience of engineers and architects practicing today is typically limited to current building code requirements and modern construction methods and materials. However, many cities have a mix of new and old buildings with many buildings constructed over one hundred years ago when building codes and construction methods were much different. When a brick building sustains damage, a structural engineer is often hired to determine the cause of damage as well as determine the necessary repairs. Forensic studies of dozens of brick buildings shows an appreciation of historical building methods and materials is needed to correctly identify the cause of damage and design an appropriate repair. Damage on an older, brick building can be mistakenly attributed to storms or seismic events when the real source of the damage is deficient original construction. Assessing and remediating damaged brickwork on older brick buildings requires an understanding of the original construction, an understanding of older repair methods, and, an understanding of current building code requirements.
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70084
Utilization of Learning Resources in Enhancing the Teaching of Science and Technology Courses in Post Primary Institutions in Nigeria
Abstract:
This paper aimed at discussing the important role learning resources play in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and technology courses in post primary institution in Nigeria. The paper highlighted the importance learning resources contributed to the effective understanding of the learners. The use of learning resources in the teaching of these courses will encourage teachers to be more exploratory and the learners to have more understanding. In this paper, different range of learning resources particularly common learning resources (learning resources not design primarily for education purposes) to enrich their teaching. The paper also highlighted how ordinary resource can be turned into an educational resource. Recommendations were proffered in the sourcing of learning resources ie from the market, library, institutions, museums, and dump refuse and concluded that good demonstration on the use of resources will engage the learner’s interest and will develop higher level of conceptual understanding in the learning area.
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93828
Patient Understanding of Health Information: Implications for Organizational Health Literacy in Germany
Abstract:
Introduction: The quality of patient-doctor communication and of written health information is central to organizational health literacy (HL). Whether patients understand their doctors’ explanations and textual material on health, however, is understudied. This study identifies the overall levels of patient understanding of health information and its associations with patients’ social characteristics in outpatient health care in Germany. Materials & Methods: This analysis draws on data collected via a 2017 national health survey with a sample of 6,105 adults. Quality of communication was measured for consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) via the Ask Me 3 program questions, and through a question on written health material. Correlations with social characteristics were explored employing bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Over 90% of all respondents reported that they had understood their doctors’ explanations during the last consultation. Failed understanding was strongly correlated with patients’ very poor health (Odds Ratio [OR]: 5.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.23–12.10; ref. excellent/very good health), current health problem (OR: 6.54, CI: 1.70–25.12; ref. preventive examination) and age 65 years and above (OR: 2.97, CI: 1.10–8.00; ref. 18 to 34 years). Fewer patients answered they understood written material well (86.7% for las visit at GP, 89.7% at SP). Understanding written material poorly was highly associated with basic education (OR: 4.20, CI: 2.76–6.39; ref. higher education) and 65 years old and above (OR: 2.66, CI: 1.43–4.96). Discussion: Overall ratings of oral patient-doctor communication and written communication of health information are high. Yet, a considerable share of patients reports not-understanding their doctors and poor understanding of the written health-related material. Interventions that can contribute to improving organizational HL in outpatient care in Germany include HL training for doctors, reducing system barriers to easily-accessible health information for patients and combining oral and written health communication means. Conclusion: This work adds to the study of organizational HL in Germany. To increase patient understanding of health-relevant information and thereby possibly reduce health disparities, meeting the communication needs especially of persons in different age groups, with basic education and in very poor health is suggested.
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46281
Cognitive Development Theories as Determinant of Children's Brand Recall and Ad Recognition: An Indian Perspective
Abstract:
In the past decade, there has been an explosion of research that has examined children’s understanding of TV advertisements and its persuasive intent, socialization of child consumer and child psychology. However, it is evident from the literature review that no studies in this area have covered advertising messages and its impact on children’s brand recall and ad recognition. Copywriters use various creative devices to lure the consumers and very impressionable consumers such as children face far more drastic effects of these creative ways of persuasion. On the basis of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical basis for predicting/understanding children’s response and understanding, a quasi-experiment was carried out for the study, that manipulated measurement timing and advertising messages (familiar vs. unfamiliar) keeping gender and age group as two prominent factors. This study also examines children’s understanding of Advertisements and its elements, predominantly - Language, keeping in view Fishbein’s model. Study revealed significant associations between above mentioned factors and children’s brand recall and ad identification. Further, to test the reliability of the findings on larger sample, bootstrap simulation technique was used. The simulation results are in accordance with the findings of experiment, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from the study can be generalized for entire children’s (as consumers) market in India.
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18292
From the Bright Lights of the City to the Shadows of the Bush: Expanding Knowledge through a Case-Based Teaching Approach
Abstract:
Concern about the lack of knowledge of quality teaching and teacher retention in rural and remote areas of Australia, has caused academics to improve pre-service teachers’ understanding of this problem. The participants in this study were forty students enrolled in an undergraduate educational course (EDO3341 Teaching in rural and remote communities) at the University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba in 2012. This study involved an innovative case-based teaching approach in order to broaden their generally under-informed understanding of teaching in a rural and remote area. Three themes have been identified through analysing students’ critical reflections: learning expertise, case-based learning support and authentic learning. The outcomes identified the changes in pre-service teachers’ understanding after they have deepened their knowledge of the realities of teaching in rural and remote areas.
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100518
Changes in Student Definition of De-Escalation in Professional Peace Officer Education
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Abstract:
Since the release of the 21st century policing report in the United States, the techniques of de-escalation have received a lot of attention and focus in political systems, policy changes, and the media. The challenge in professional peace officer education is that there is a vast range of defining de-escalation and understanding the various techniques involved, many of which are based on popular media. This research surveyed professional peace officer education university students on their definition of de-escalation and the techniques associated with de-escalation before specific communications coursework was completed. The students were then surveyed after the communication coursework was completed to determine the changes in defining and understanding de-escalation techniques. This research has found that clearly defining de-escalation and emphasizing the broad range of techniques available enhances the students&rsquo; understanding and application of proper de-escalation. This research demonstrates the need for professional peace officer education to move students from media concepts of law enforcement to theoretical concepts.
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124842
The Research Experiences of Supervisors and Postgraduate Research Students at One South African Higher Education Institution
Abstract:
Successful postgraduate supervision involves possessing research capabilities, being knowledgeable in specific disciplines, understanding interpersonal relations, exercising mentoring/guidance skills and having appropriate knowledge of own institutional regulatory systems for postgraduate studies. On the other hand, postgraduate students are expected to know what the postgraduate journey entails and the elements and requirements of a postgraduate study. This paper sought to explore and analyse the research experiences of supervisors and postgraduate research students at one South African higher education institution. The study was qualitative in nature and a case study design was followed. The sample was purposively selected and comprised 25 postgraduate students and 20 postgraduate supervisors from one Faculty of the said university. The study findings revealed that there was no clear contract or memorandum of understanding between the postgraduate students and their supervisors. As a result, both supervisors and postgraduate students were not aware of their responsibilities. Both supervisors and postgraduate students complained about the non-availability of postgraduate facilities and resources for postgraduate students. The results further revealed that the allocation of students to supervisors who are not experts in a particular field was a challenge for both postgraduate students and supervisors. The results also revealed that the supervisors were not happy about the commitment of the postgraduate students towards their studies. The supervisors also complained about the postgraduate students who cannot work independently. Based on the findings, the authors recommended that a memorandum of understanding between a postgraduate student and a supervisor might solve some of the challenges. We further recommended a match between the supervisor’s expertise and the student’s focus area.
155
88422
A Framework for Systemically Understanding and Increasing Compliance with Water Regulation in Time Limited and Uncertain Contexts
Abstract:
Traditionally, non-compliance in water regulation has been understood to be attributable to lack of information or knowledge of regulations. In other words, it is confusing behavioural change and education with communication or regulations. However, compliance is a complex response to water regulation factors including 1) knowledge and understanding of regulations; 2) perception that resources are overregulated; 3) presence of regulatory officers in the field; 4) accurate communication of what is being protected; 5) time lag between behavioral change projects and observation of outcomes and 6) how success of behavioral change is measured and evaluated. This paper presents a framework for designing education and behavioral change projects by understanding non-compliance in terms of the interaction of its factors, including a process for prioritizing projects, actions, evaluation and monitoring of outcomes. By taking a systemic approach to compliance, a more directed type of actions can be efficiently identified and prioritized, preventing the reactive nature of education and behavioral change projects.
154
38221
Preservice Science Teachers' Understanding of Equitable Assessment
Abstract:
Learning is dependent on cognitive and physical differences as well as other differences such as ethnicity, language, and culture. Furthermore, these differences also influence how students show their learning. Assessment is an integral part of learning and teaching process and is essential for effective instruction. In order to provide effective instruction, teachers need to provide equal assessment opportunities for all students to see their learning difficulties and use them to modify instruction to aid learning. Successful assessment practices are dependent upon the knowledge and value of teachers. Therefore, in order to use assessment to assess and support diverse students learning, preservice and inservice teachers should hold an appropriate understanding of equitable assessment. In order to prepare teachers to help them support diverse student learning, as a first step, this study aims to explore how preservice teachers’ understand equitable assessment. 105 preservice science teachers studying at teacher preparation program in a large university located at Eastern part of Turkey participated in the current study. A questionnaire, preservice teachers’ reflection papers and interviews served as data sources for this study. All collected data qualitatively analyzed to develop themes that illustrate preservice science teachers’ understanding of equitable assessment. Results of the study showed that preservice teachers mostly emphasized fairness including fairness in grading and fairness in asking questions not out of covered concepts for equitable assessment. However, most of preservice teachers do not show an understanding of equity for providing equal opportunities for all students to display their understanding of related content. For some preservice teachers providing different opportunities (providing extra time for non-native speaking students) for some students seems to be unfair for other students and therefore, these kinds of refinements do not need to be used. The results of the study illustrated that preservice science teachers mostly understand equitable assessment as fairness and less highlight the role of using equitable assessment to support all student learning, which is more important in order to improve students’ achievement of science. Therefore, we recommend that more opportunities should be provided for preservice teachers engage in a more broad understanding of equitable assessment and learn how to use equitable assessment practices to aid and support all students learning trough classroom assessment.
153
30591
Teaching Buddhist Meditation: An Investigation into Self-Learning Methods
Abstract:
Meditation is in the process of becoming a globalized practice and its benefits have been widely acknowledged. The first wave of internationalized meditation techniques and practices was represented by Chan and Zen Buddhism and a new wave of practice has arisen in Thailand as part of the Phra Dhammakaya temple movement. This form of meditation is intended to be simple and straightforward so that it can easily be taught to people unfamiliar with the basic procedures and philosophy. This has made Phra Dhammakaya an important means of outreach to the international community. One notable aspect is to encourage adults to become like children to perform it – that is, to return to a naïve state prior to the adoption of ideology as a means of understanding the world. It is said that the Lord Buddha achieved the point of awakening at the age of seven and Phra Dhammakaya has a program to teach meditation to both children and adults. This brings about the research question of how practitioners respond to the practice of meditation and how should they be taught? If a careful understanding of how children behave can be achieved, then it will help in teaching adults how to become like children (albeit idealized children) in their approach to meditation. This paper reports on action research in this regard. Personal interviews and focus groups are held with a view to understanding self-learning methods with respect to Buddhist meditation and understanding and appreciation of the practices involved. The findings are considered in the context of existing knowledge about different learning techniques among people of different ages. The implications for pedagogical practice are discussed and learning methods are outlined.
152
117273
Evaluating the Understanding of the University Students (Basic Sciences and Engineering) about the Numerical Representation of the Average Rate of Change
Abstract:
The present study aimed to evaluate the understanding of the students in Tehran universities (Iran) about the numerical representation of the average rate of change based on the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO). In the present descriptive-survey research, the statistical population included undergraduate students (basic sciences and engineering) in the universities of Tehran. The samples were 604 students selected by random multi-stage clustering. The measurement tool was a task whose face and content validity was confirmed by math and mathematics education professors. Using Cronbach&#39;s Alpha criterion, the reliability coefficient of the task was obtained 0.95, which verified its reliability. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-squared and independent t-tests) under SPSS-24 software. According to the SOLO model in the prestructural, unistructural, and multistructural levels, basic science students had a higher percentage of understanding than that of engineering students, although the outcome was inverse at the relational level. However, there was no significant difference in the average understanding of both groups. The results indicated that students failed to have a proper understanding of the numerical representation of the average rate of change, in addition to missconceptions when using physics formulas in solving the problem. In addition, multiple solutions were derived along with their dominant methods during the qualitative analysis. The current research proposed to focus on the context problems with approximate calculations and numerical representation, using software and connection common relations between math and physics in the teaching process of teachers and professors.
151
71236
Identifying Necessary Words for Understanding Academic Articles in English as a Second or a Foreign Language
Abstract:
This paper identifies three common structures in English sentences that are important for understanding academic texts, regardless of the characteristics or background of the readers or whether they are reading English as a second or a foreign language. Adapting a model from the Humanities, the explication of texts used in literary studies, the paper analyses sample sentences to reveal structures that enable the reader not only to decide which words are necessary for understanding the main ideas but to make the decision without knowing the meaning of the words. By their very syntax noun structures point to the key word for understanding them. As a rule, the key noun is followed by easily identifiable prepositions, relative pronouns, or verbs and preceded by single adjectives. With few exceptions, the modifiers are unnecessary for understanding the idea of the sentence. In addition, sentences are often structured by lists in which the items frequently consist of parallel groups of words. The principle of a list is that all the items are similar in meaning and it is not necessary to understand all of the items to understand the point of the list. This principle is especially important when the items are long or there is more than one list in the same sentence. The similarity in meaning of these items enables readers to reduce sentences that are hard to grasp to an understandable core without excessive use of a dictionary. Finally, the idea of subordination and the identification of the subordinate parts of sentences through connecting words makes it possible for readers to focus on main ideas without having to sift through the less important and more numerous secondary structures. Sometimes a main idea requires a subordinate one to complete its meaning, but usually, subordinate ideas are unnecessary for understanding the main point of the sentence and its part in the development of the argument from sentence to sentence. Moreover, the connecting words themselves indicate the functions of the subordinate structures. These most frequently show similarity and difference or reasons and results. Recognition of all of these structures can not only enable students to read more efficiently but to focus their attention on the development of the argument and this rather than a multitude of unknown vocabulary items, the repetition in lists, or the subordination in sentences are the one necessary element for comprehension of academic articles.
150
74607
Construction of the Large Scale Biological Networks from Microarrays
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the sustainable goals of the system biology is understanding gene-gene interactions. Hence, gene regulatory networks (GRN) need to be constructed for understanding the disease ontology and to reduce the cost of drug development. To construct gene regulatory from gene expression we need to overcome many challenges such as data denoising and dimensionality. In this paper, we develop an integrated system to reduce data dimension and remove the noise. The generated network from our system was validated via available interaction databases and was compared to previous methods. The result revealed the performance of our proposed method.
149
12862
A Web-Based Self-Learning Grammar for Spoken Language Understanding
Abstract:
One of the major goals of Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS) is to understand what the user utters. In the SDS domain, the Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) Module classifies user utterances by means of a pre-definite conceptual knowledge. The SLU module is able to recognize only the meaning previously included in its knowledge base. Due the vastity of that knowledge, the information storing is a very expensive process. Updating and managing the knowledge base are time-consuming and error-prone processes because of the rapidly growing number of entities like proper nouns and domain-specific nouns. This paper proposes a solution to the problem of Name Entity Recognition (NER) applied to a SDS domain. The proposed solution attempts to automatically recognize the meaning associated with an utterance by using the PANKOW (Pattern based Annotation through Knowledge On the Web) method at runtime. The method being proposed extracts information from the Web to increase the SLU knowledge module and reduces the development effort. In particular, the Google Search Engine is used to extract information from the Facebook social network.
148
52305
An Attempt to Improve Student´s Understanding on Thermal Conductivity Using Thermal Cameras
Abstract:
Many thermal phenomena are present and play a substantial role in our daily lives. This presence makes the study of this area at both High School and University levels a very widely explored topic in the literature. However, a lot of important concepts to a meaningful understanding of the world are neglected at the expense of a traditional approach with senseless algebraic problems. In this work, we intend to show how the introduction of new technologies in the classroom, namely thermal cameras, can work in our favor to make a clearer understanding of many of these concepts, such as thermal conductivity. The use of thermal cameras in the classroom tends to diminish the everlasting abstractness in thermal phenomena as they enable us to visualize something that happens right before our eyes, yet we cannot see it. In our study, we will provide the same amount of heat to metallic cylindrical rods of the same length, but different materials in order to study the thermal conductivity of each one. In this sense, the thermal camera allows us to visualize the increase in temperature along each rod in real time enabling us to infer how heat is being transferred from one part of the rod to another. Therefore, we intend to show how this approach can contribute to the exposure of students to more enriching, intellectually prolific, scenarios than those provided by traditional approaches.
147
77179
Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.
146
107128
The Musician as the Athlete: Psychological Response to Injury
Abstract:
Athletes experience injuries that can have both a physical and psychological impact on the individual. In such instances, athletes are able to rely on the established field of sports psychology to facilitate holistic rehabilitation. Musicians, like athletes rely on their bodies to perform in much the same way athletes do and are also susceptible to injury. Due to the similar performative nature of succeeding as an athletes or a musician, these careers share many of the same primary psychological concerns and therefore it is reasonable that athletes and musicians may require similar rehabilitation post-injury. However, musicians face their own unique psychological challenges and understanding the needs of an injured athlete can serve as a foundation for understanding the injured musician but is not enough to fully rehabilitate an injured musician. The current research surrounding musicians and their injuries is primarily focused on physiological aspects of injury and rehabilitation; the psychological aspects have not yet received adequate attention resulting in poor musician rehabilitation post- injury. This review paper uses current models of psychological response to injury in athletes to draw parallels with the psychological response to injury in musicians. Search engines such as Medline and PsycInfo were systematically searched using specific key words, such as psychological response, injury, athlete, and musician. Studies that focused on post-injury psychology of either the musician or the athlete were included. Within the literature there is evidence to support psychological responses, unique to the musician, that are not accounted for by current models of response in athletes. The models of psychological response to injury in athletes are inadequate tools for application to the musician. Future directions for performance arts research that can fill the gaps in our understanding and modeling of musicians’ response to injury are discussed. A better understanding of the psychological impact of injuries on musicians holds significant implications for health care practitioners working with injured musicians. Understanding the unique barriers musicians face post-injury, and how support for this population must be tailored to properly suit musicians’ needs will aid in more holistic rehabilitation and a higher likelihood of musician’s returning to pre-injury performance levels.
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26572
The Evaluation of Islamic Concept in Contemporary Mosque Design with the Case of Study: Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia
Abstract:
Today the crisis of understanding in Islamic values has been extended to the architectural design. The majority of Muslim Architects when they designed Islamic Architectural building always stuck in cultural symbols, forms of facade, carvings calligraphy, and all of things which intimately associated with middle eastern culture. As well as the interpretation of symbols form, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carving in the interior of the mosque, and the other elements in the building which interpreted to the middle east culture. So here there are problems in understanding the meaning of Islam with Kaffah (overall), which appeared a distortion of understanding to distinguish between cultural and theological values in a design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with case studies in Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia. The building evaluation are focused in building function , aesthetic, comfort, and security. And finally from this research should be found the results of the integrated design evaluation of a contemporary mosque which based on the study of the Quran and Hadith.
144
82455
Culture Sensitization: Understanding German Culture by Learning German
Abstract:
In today’s era of Globalization, arises the need that students and professionals relocate temporarily or permanently to another country in order to pursue their respective academic and career goals. This involves not only learning the local language of the country but also integrating oneself into the native culture. This paper explains the method of understanding a nation’s culture through the study of its language. The method uses language not as a series of rules that connect words together but as a social practice in which one can actively participate. It emphasizes on how culture provides an environment in which languages can flourish and how culture dictates the interpretation of the language especially in case of German. This paper introduces language and culture as inseparable entities, as two sides of the same coin.
143
75637
Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol
Abstract:
Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)
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115171
Conflict Causes within Construction Projects; Conflict Interaction across Project Phases
Abstract:
The projects in the construction industry have significantly increased, given its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries. Reflecting upon the complex nature and involvement of various agents, the study aims to analyze the conflicts cause within construction projects. Therefore, the study strived to come out with understanding the levels of conflict interaction across project phases. However, this conducted by investigating the association between antecedents and apparent conflicts inherent in. The study used a qualitative approach for collecting the data through a quantitative, semi-structured method. Formation of a questionnaire survey has been conducted for over 30 respondents. However, the survey came out with the identification of 25 conflict cause categories, which can take place in different construction project phases, including pre-design phase, pre-construction phase, construction phase, commissioning, and completion phase. For example, conflicts associated with inconsistencies or discrepancies within or between project documents, which took place at tendering time in the pre-construction phase were relatable with the selection of material specifications that should be supplied or used in the construction projects at the construction phase. Its analysis can provide comprehensive understanding, trace the root of the problem, which offers a roadmap to deepen the understanding of the conflict conditions and ‘course of action’ necessary for project management strategy actions toward avoiding or minimizing conflict causes at project life.
141
36843
A Review on Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing
Abstract:
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful tool for prediction which can be trained based on a set of examples and thus, it would be useful for nonlinear image processing. The present paper reviews several paper regarding applications of ANN in image processing to shed the light on advantage and disadvantage of ANNs in this field. Different steps in the image processing chain including pre-processing, enhancement, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization by using ANN are summarized. Furthermore, results on using multi artificial neural networks are presented.
140
59771
The Characteristics of Islamic Concept In Contemporary Mosque Design With The Case Modulation of Study: Kauman Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia
Abstract:
Age of onset of the crisis makes more advanced understanding of the values of Islam that has been etched in architectural design. The majority Muslim mosque architecture designing buildings when they designed the architecture of Islam has always stuck in a cultural symbol, the shape of the facade, carving calligraphy, and all things that are closely related to the culture of the Middle East. As well as the interpretation of symbols, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carvings inside the mosque, and the other elements in the building which is interpreted by middle eastern culture. So here we have a problem understanding the meaning of Islam with kaf fah (overall), which appears distorted understanding to distinguish between cultural values and theological in design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with a case study in Masjid Kauman Yogyakarta Indonesia. building characteristics focused on the function of the building, history, aesthetics, comfort, and safety. The results of this study should be found on the evaluation of the integrated design of contemporary mosques are based on a study of the Quran and Hadith.
139
91178
An Analytical and Inductive Study of the Aspect and Impact of the Prophetic Traditions in Understating Quran and Its Interpretation
Abstract:
In present day we see in our surroundings and in different societies of the world an uprising approach of understanding Quran without the help of Hadith and Sunnah. As they believe that ‘Quran is sufficient for our guidance’. They do not give any preference to Prophetic traditions (Hadith and Sunnah), to understand or realize the actual meaning and purpose of the reveling of Quranic verses. Based on the afore mentioned idea we are going to pin point an analytical and inductive study of tafsir Ahkâm-ul Qu’ran by: Ibn-ul Arabi al-Mâliki. In this study we are trying to show the importance of Hadith and Sunnah in interpretation and understanding of Quran by presenting various examples from tafsir Ahkâm-ul Quran. This book is for being an important source in the relative filed of Ahkam-ul Quran we are going to highlight the method of Ibn-ul Arabi in dealing with Quranic verses in the light of Hadith. Furthermore, the impact of quoting different types of hadith in Tefsir is also taken into account. Besides, while citing these Prophetic traditions it is also inevitable to kept in view the sciences of hadith and its application on the context in order to orientate the proper meaning. The study also includes the scrutiny of these narrations by their chain of narrators and text to ensure the perfection of these prophetic traditions. So that, a person can have accesses to the righteous understanding and interpretation of the Holy Quran.
138
82001
Vegetation Integrated with Architecture: A Comparative Study in Vijayawada
Abstract:
Due to high dense areas, there is a continuous increase in the global warming and urban pollution, thus integrating green with the built environment is vital. The paper deals with the understanding of vegetation in architecture and how a proper design strategy can aim at improving not only the performances of buildings but also the outdoor climate. In the present scenario of cities, one cannot inhale pure air. Vegetations combat global warming by absorbing the carbon emitted by vehicles, lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning plants, and reducing the energy used for climate control in buildings by the use of plants which can reduce the carbon emission and thus, making the environment less polluted. A comparative study of areas, neighborhood and dwelling unit has been used as a scope for understanding different scenarios and scale. By comparing a system (area; building) with and without vegetation, and then finding out the difference. Understanding the Vijayawada city by taking its past and present conditions, and how these changes have affected the environment and people at a macro and micro level. Built environment and climactic performance at the building level and surrounding spaces are the areas that are covered in the study.
137
73020
The Rigor and Relevance of the Mathematics Component of the Teacher Education Programmes in Jamaica: An Evaluative Approach
Abstract:
For over fifty years there has been widespread dissatisfaction with the teaching of Mathematics in Jamaica. Studies, done in the Jamaican context highlight that teachers at the end of training do not have a deep understanding of the mathematics content they teach. Little research has been done in the Jamaican context that targets the advancement of contextual knowledge on the problem to ultimately provide a solution. The aim of the study is to identify what influences this outcome of teacher education in Jamaica so as to remedy the problem. This study formatively evaluated the curriculum documents, assessments and the delivery of the curriculum that are being used in teacher training institutions in Jamaica to determine their rigor -the extent to which written document, instruction, and the assessments focused on enabling pre-service teachers to develop deep understanding of mathematics and relevance- the extent to which the curriculum document, instruction, and the assessments are focus on developing the requisite knowledge for teaching mathematics. The findings show that neither the curriculum document, instruction nor assessments ensure rigor and enable pre-service teachers to develop the knowledge and skills they need to teach mathematics effectively.
136
53262
Decoding Mental Disorders: The Value of Practical Experience in Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of practical experience with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as a microcosm of mental disorders, in psychology students’ attempt to fully understand it in all of its intricacies. The study follows a one-year program where students of psychology volunteer at a school for Autistic children of ages 3-18. The individual levels of experience with, and theoretical understanding of, ASD varies measurably amongst the volunteers; these volunteers are then intermittently interviewed, observed and surveyed throughout the program in order to determine any decline or growth in their understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder. A panel of professionals all of whom are active in the world of ASD (headmasters of Autistic schools, psychologists, child development specialists, special needs teachers, parents of autistic children and Occupational Therapists) were used specifically for this study, in order to develop the guideline for understanding ASD that will be used comparatively against the information gained from the volunteers in order to establish the individual results. The paper concludes by illustrating how psychology has a responsibility to the community to understand disorders past what is academic and theoretical, and how increasing student experience with a disorder can aid in a more holistic psychological approach to mental disorders in the future.
135
12258
Understand and Redefine Lean Product Development
Abstract:
Lean has long been linked with manufacturing, but its application claimed also by other functions such as product development and services. However, there is a challenge on understanding and defining lean in each function context. This paper aims to investigate the literature that focus mainly on PD process improvement, obtain better understanding and redefine LPD in systematic way. In addition to that, the paper attempts to summarize various proposed transformation strategies, definitions, identifying features of manufacturing and product development that would help to redefining lean in product development context. Finally we redefine LPD in organized way that encompasses different steps such as stage gate, communication and information, events, learning, innovation, knowledge and value creation.
134
2657
Influence of Loudness Compression on Hearing with Bone Anchored Hearing Implants
Abstract:
Bone Anchored Hearing Implants (BAHI) are routinely used in patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, e.g. if conventional air conduction hearing aids cannot be used. New sound processors and new fitting software now allow the adjustment of parameters such as loudness compression ratios or maximum power output separately. Today it is unclear, how the choice of these parameters influences aided speech understanding in BAHI users. In this prospective experimental study, the effect of varying the compression ratio and lowering the maximum power output in a BAHI were investigated. Twelve experienced adult subjects with a mixed hearing loss participated in this study. Four different compression ratios (1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 2.0) were tested along with two different maximum power output settings, resulting in a total of eight different programs. Each participant tested each program during two weeks. A blinded Latin square design was used to minimize bias. For each of the eight programs, speech understanding in quiet and in noise was assessed. For speech in quiet, the Freiburg number test and the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50, 65, and 80 dB SPL were used. For speech in noise, the Oldenburg sentence test was administered. Speech understanding in quiet and in noise was improved significantly in the aided condition in any program, when compared to the unaided condition. However, no significant differences were found between any of the eight programs. In contrast, on a subjective level there was a significant preference for medium compression ratios of 1.3 to 1.6 and higher maximum power output.
133
32306
Exploration and Exploitation within Operations
Abstract:
Exploration and exploitation capabilities are both important within Operations as means for improvement when managed separately, and for establishing dynamic improvement capabilities when combined in balance. However, it is unclear what exploration and exploitation capabilities imply in improvement and development work within an operations context. So in order to better understand how to develop exploration and exploitation capabilities within operations, the main characteristics of these constructs needs to be identified and further understood. Thus, the objective of this research is to increase the understanding about exploitation and exploration characteristics, to concretize what they translates to within the context of improvement and development work in an operations unit, and to identify practical challenges. A literature review and a case study are presented. In the literature review, different interpretations of exploration and exploitation are portrayed, key characteristics have been identified, and a deepened understanding of exploration and exploitation characteristics is described. The case in the study is an operations unit, and the aim is to explore to what extent and in what ways exploration and exploitation activities are part of the improvement structures and processes. The contribution includes an identification of key characteristics of exploitation and exploration, as well as an interpretation of the constructs. Further, some practical challenges are identified. For instance, exploration activities tend to be given low priority, both in daily work as in the manufacturing strategy. Also, the overall understanding about the concepts of exploitation and exploration (or any similar aspect of dynamic improvement capabilities) is very low.
132
18015
Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake
Abstract:
Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.
131
18425
The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.
130
113895
Thomas Kuhn, the Accidental Theologian: An Argument for the Similarity of Science and Religion
Abstract:
Applying Kuhn’s model of paradigm shifts in science to cases of doctrinal change in religion has been a common area of study in recent years. Few authors, however, have sought an explanation for the ease with which this model of theory change in science can be applied to cases of religious change. In order to provide such an explanation of this analytic phenomenon, this paper aims to answer one central question: Why is it that a theory that was intended to be used in an analysis of the history of science can be applied to something as disparate as the doctrinal history of religion with little to no modification? By way of answering this question, this paper begins with an explanation of Kuhn’s model and its applications in the field of religious studies. Following this, Massa’s recently proposed explanation for this phenomenon, and its notable flaws will be explained by way of framing the central proposal of this article, that the operative parts of scientific and religious changes function on the same fundamental concept of changes in understanding. Focusing its argument on this key concept, this paper seeks to illustrate its operation in cases of religious conversion and in Kuhn’s notion of the incommensurability of different scientific paradigms. The conjecture of this paper is that just as a Pagan-turned-Christian ceases to hear Thor’s hammer when they hear a clap of thunder, so too does a Ptolemaic-turned-Copernican-astronomer cease to see the Sun orbiting the Earth when they view a sunrise. In both cases, the agent in question has undergone a similar change in universal understanding, which provides us with a fundamental connection between changes in religion and changes in science. Following an exploration of this connection, this paper will consider the implications that such a connection has for the concept of the division between religion and science. This will, in turn, lead to the conclusion that religion and science are more alike than they are opposed with regards to the fundamental notion of understanding, thereby providing an answer to our central question. The major finding of this paper is that Kuhn’s model can be applied to religious cases so easily because changes in science and changes in religion operate on the same type of change in understanding. Therefore, in summary, science and religion share a crucial similarity and are not as disparate as they first appear.
129
51384
A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates
Abstract:
Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties
128
19786
An Investigation of Environmental Education Knowledge for Sustainable Development in High School Sectors in UK
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate student’s awareness, Knowledge and understanding of environmental issues for sustainable development. Findings revealed that; despite the positive attitude shown by students towards environmental education, a relatively low level of understanding of environmental concept was recorded in school settings regardless of efforts by government and other environmental agencies at creating awareness about environmental related issues. This brought about the investigation of students environmental education knowledge in high school settings. About 205 Students were randomly selected for data collection using validated instruments titled student’s knowledge and attitude questionnaire as well as student’s response to questions (interview) concerning global warming. T-test statistics, chi-square and simple percentage were the major statistical tools employed in data analysis. This study revealed that environment based-education (school curriculum) as well as efforts by government/environmental agencies (mass media) plays a major role in promoting students understanding, of environmental concepts, awareness of major environmental issues and positive attitude towards natural environment.
127
97207
The Effect of Context in Eliminating Interpretation Problems of Screen Subtitles for the Promotion of Intelligible Film Language
Abstract:
Arguably viewers hardly benefit from screen subtitles due to the inconsistency between scenarios and their subtitles. Research in this area will provide an understanding of the association between these scenarios and subtitles via context. It attempts to eliminate the inconsistency existing between contexts and screen subtitles providing insights into the problem. Specifically, the study aims at examining the extent to which the understanding of screen subtitles largely depends on the force of linguistic and situational contexts. This is because the context is assumed to have a powerful effect on the interpretation of the source text. Both descriptive and experimental methods were adopted for data collection. These included a test and paper-pencil-questionnaires where participants provided their impressions about the role of context in eliminating interpretation problems of screen subtitles. Participants developed a good background about screen subtitles watching films. Results showed that context forms a powerful element in understanding screen subtitles. Results also revealed that communicative translation fits well screen translation boosting the contextual meaning. The association of context and communicative translation makes subtitles globally more economical and intelligible. Context forms a central element for film language to be intelligible.
126
6277
Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in ELT Classes: A Pedagogical Perspective
Abstract:
For long, there has been a belief that a reader can easily comprehend a text if he is strong enough in vocabulary and grammatical knowledge but there was no account for the ability of understanding different subjects based on readers’ understanding of the surrounding world which is called world background knowledge. This paper attempts to investigate the reading comprehension process applying the schema theory as an influential factor in comprehending texts, in order to prove the important role of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Based on the discussion, some teaching methods are suggested for employing world background knowledge for an elaborated teaching of reading comprehension in an active learning environment in EFL classes.
125
111059
The History of the Birth of Tunisian Higher Accounting Education
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to trace the historical evolution of Tunisian higher accounting education and to understand and highlight the circumstances of its birth and its development. A documentary study (archival documents, official documents, public speeches, etc.), as well as semi-directive interviews with key actors, were carried out as part of this research work. These interviews aim to fill a lack of information on this subject and to confirm events addressed by other sources, but for which it lacks the elements necessary for a good understanding. After having put forward the specificities of the Tunisian context, we will, first of all, proceed to a review of the literature related to our theme in various contexts of the world. Then, we will present the evolution of the accounting curriculum by highlighting the circumstances of its birth and those of the successive reforms led by the Tunisian government. The study of higher accounting education in Tunisia and its evolution has several interests. The first lies in understanding the circumstances of its birth and its evolution in relation to the historical, socio-economic, and political context of the country. The second is to propose a reading grid that allows an understanding of the reforms that led to the university accountancy accounting course as we know it today. And, the third, aims to complete the literature on the processes of evolution of higher education accounting, by treating a different context, in order to provide additional knowledge necessary to compare experiences in this area around the world.
124
120387
Use of Mobile Phone Applications in Teaching Precalculus
Abstract:
The K-12 Curriculum in the Philippines shed light to mathematics education as it recognizes the use of smartphones/mobile phones as appropriate tools necessary in teaching mathematics. However, there were limited pieces of evidence on the use of these devices in teaching and learning process. This descriptive study developed lessons integrating the use of mobile phone applications with basis on low-level competencies of students in Precalculus and determined its effects on students’ conceptual understanding, procedural skills, and attitudes towards Precalculus. Employing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) scheme in the study, lessons developed were conducted among Grade 11 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture for the academic year 2018-2019. This study found that there is a significant difference between the competency levels of students along conceptual understanding and procedural skills prior to and after the conduct of lessons developed. Also, it disclosed that the use of mobile phone applications had positive effects on students’ attitudes towards Precalculus. Thus, the use of mobile phone applications in teaching Precalculus can enrich students’ understanding of concepts and procedural skills (solving and graphing skills) and can increase students’ motivation, self-confidence, and enjoyment in dealing with Precalculus.
123
108710
Use of Mobile Phone Applications in Teaching Precalculus
Abstract:
The K-12 Curriculum in the Philippines shed light to mathematics education as it recognizes the use of smartphones/mobile phones as appropriate tools necessary in teaching mathematics. However, there were limited pieces of evidence on the use of these devices in teaching and learning process. This descriptive study developed lessons integrating the use of mobile phone applications with basis on low-level competencies of students in precalculus and determined its effects on students’ conceptual understanding, procedural skills, and attitudes towards precalculus. Employing Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) scheme in the study, lessons developed were conducted among Grade 11 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture for the academic year 2018-2019. This study found that there is a significant difference between the competency levels of students along with conceptual understanding and procedural skills prior to and after the conduct of lessons developed. Also, it disclosed that the use of mobile phone applications had positive effects on students’ attitudes towards precalculus. Thus, the use of mobile phone applications in teaching precalculus can enrich students’ understanding of concepts and procedural skills (solving and graphing skills) and can increase students’ motivation, self-confidence, and enjoyment in dealing with precalculus.
122
69317
Assessing Female Students' Understanding of the Solar System Concepts by Implementing I-Cube Technology
Abstract:
This study examined the female students’ understanding for the solar system concepts through the utilization of the I-Cube technology as a virtual reality technology. The study conducted in Qatar University for samples of students of eighth and ninth preparatory grade students in the State of Qatar. The research framework comprises designated quantitative research designs and methods of data collection and analysis including pre- and post-conceptual exams. This research based on experimental method design that focuses on students’ performance and conceptual questions. A group of 120 students from the eighth and ninth groups were divided into two pools of 60 students each, where the two 60-student groups represent the designated control and treatment groups. It must be mentioned that the students were selected randomly from the eighth and ninth grades. The solar system lesson of interest was taught by teacher candidates (senior students at the college of Education at QU), who taught both the experimental group (integrating I-cube) in virtual lab in Qatar University and control group (without integrating this technology) in one of independent school in the State of Qatar. It is noteworthy to mention that the students usually face some difficulties to learn by imagining real situation such as solar system and inner planet lesson. Collected data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and one-way ANCOVA using SPSS Statistics. The obtained results revealed that integrating I-Cube technology has significantly enhanced female students’ conceptual understanding of the solar system. Interestingly, our findings demonstrated the applicability of utilizing integrating I-Cube technology toward enhancing the students’ understanding regarding subjects of interests within the landscapes of basic sciences.
121
76999
The Performance of Modern Eugenics: Ballroom of the Skies as a Method of Understanding American Social Eugenics
Abstract:
Using a disability studies approach, this paper analyzes the American science fiction novel Ballroom of the Skies as way to address and access narratives of American exceptionalism in relation to global struggle. Combined with a critical race studies analysis of identity and cultural practice, this essay seeks to find parallels between the treatment of disability and the treatment of the racialized body in literature to forcibly reread potential for multiple assemblages of identity in the speculated futures of science fiction. Thinking through this relationship, the essay constructs a thematic understanding of social eugenics as practiced in American culture.
120
115330
Perception and Control in the Age of Surrealism: A Critical History and a Survey of Pita Amor’s Poetic Ontology
Authors:
Abstract:
Within the common vein of social understanding, surrealism is often understood to rely on disconcerting images and fragmented collage, both in its visual representation and literary manifestations. By tracing the history and literature of surrealism, the author makes the argument that there were certain factions within Latin America that employed characteristics of surrealism in order to reach some sense of understanding, and not to further complicate or disorient -an aim that most closely aligns to Freudian psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis should, however, be a comparable practice only to understand how Latin American surrealism had more of a concrete goal than its European counterpart. The primary subject of the paper is the Mexican poet, Pita Amor, who has retroactively been associated with the movement; and therefore, it should be duly noted that the adjective, surrealism, only applies to her as something that describes traits within the literary lexicon.
119
81994
Understanding the Impact of Ambience, Acoustics, and Chroma on User Experience through Different Mediums and Study Scenarios
Abstract:
Humans that inhabit a designed space consciously or unconsciously accept the spaces which have an impact on how they perceive, feel and act accordingly. Spaces that are more interactive and communicative with the human senses become more interesting. Interaction in architecture is the art of building relationships between the user and the spaces. Often spaces are form-based, function-based or aesthetically pleasing spaces but they are not interactive with the user which actually has a greater impact on how the user perceives the designed space and appreciate it. It is very necessary for a designer to understand and appreciate the human character and design accordingly, wherein the user gets the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves rather than the designed space dictating the user how to perceive or feel in that space. In this interaction between designed spaces and the user, a designer needs to understand the spatial potential and user’s needs because the design language varies with varied situations in accordance with these factors. Designers often have the tendency to construct spaces with their perspectives, observations, and sense the space in their range of different angles rather than the users. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the potential of the space by understanding different factors and improve the quality of space with the help of creating better interactive spaces. For an interaction to occur between the user and space, there is a need for some medium. In this paper, light, color, and sound will be used as the mediums to understand and create interactions between the user and space, considering these to be the primary sources which would not require any physical touch in the space and would help in triggering the human senses. This paper involves in studying and understanding the impact of light, color and sound on different typologies of spaces on the user through different findings, articles, case studies and surveys and try to get links between these three mediums to create an interaction. This paper also deals with understanding in which medium takes an upper hand in a varied typology of spaces and identify different techniques which would create interactions between the user and space with the help of light, color, and sound.
118
83483
Understanding the Selectional Preferences of the Twitter Mentions Network
Abstract:
Users in social networks either unicast or broadcast their messages. At mention is the popular way of unicasting for Twitter whereas general tweeting could be considered as broadcasting method. Understanding the information flow and dynamics within a Social Network and modeling the same is a promising and an open research area called Information Diffusion. This paper seeks an answer to a fundamental question - understanding if the at-mention network or the unicasting pattern in social media is purely random in nature or is there any user specific selectional preference? To answer the question we present an empirical analysis to understand the sociological aspects of Twitter mentions network within a social network community. To understand the sociological behavior we analyze the values (Schwartz model: Achievement, Benevolence, Conformity, Hedonism, Power, Security, Self-Direction, Stimulation, Traditional and Universalism) of all the users. Empirical results suggest that values traits are indeed salient cue to understand how the mention-based communication network functions. For example, we notice that individuals possessing similar values unicast among themselves more often than with other value type people. We also observe that traditional and self-directed people do not maintain very close relationship in the network with the people of different values traits.
117
9724
Grounded Theory of Consumer Loyalty: A Perspective through Video Game Addiction
Abstract:
Game addiction has become an extremely important topic in psychology researchers, particularly in understanding and explaining why individuals become addicted (to video games). In previous studies, effect of online game addiction on social responsibilities, health problems, government action, and the behaviors of individuals to purchase and the causes of making individuals addicted on the video games has been discussed. Extending these concepts in marketing, it could be argued than the phenomenon could enlighten and extending our understanding on consumer loyalty. This study took the Grounded Theory approach, and found that motivation, satisfaction, fulfillments, exploration and achievements to be part of the important elements that builds consumer loyalty.
116
67986
Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation
Abstract:
A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.
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86615
Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation into the Relationship between Pressure and Velocity Distributions within a Microfluidic Feedback Oscillator
Abstract:
Fluidic oscillators are being utilised in an increasing number of applications in a wide variety of areas; these include on-board vehicle cleaning systems, flow separation control on aircraft and in fluidic circuitry. With this increased use, there is a further understanding required for the mechanics of the fluidics of the fluidic oscillator and why they work in the manner that they do. ANSYS CFX has been utilized to visualise the pressure and velocity within a microfluidic feedback oscillator. The images demonstrate how the pressure vortices build within the oscillator at the points where the velocity is diverted from linear motion through the oscillator. With an enhanced understanding of the pressure and velocity distributions within a fluidic oscillator, it will enable users of microfluidics to more greatly tailor fluidic nozzles to their specification.
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24971
The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows
Abstract:
This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.
113
35649
An Approach to Specify Software Requirements in Semantic Form
Abstract:
Requirements of a software project serve as a guideline for the entire project team which enable the team towards producing the right outcome. As requirements are the key in deciding the success of the project, it should be specified in an unambiguous manner. Also, the requirements should be complete and consistent. It should be interpreted in the same way by the entire software project team as the customer interprets. Specifying requirements in textual manner is common in software development. This leads to poor understanding of the requirements which results in more errors and degraded quality. There are some literatures which focus on semantic way of specifying functional requirement which ensure the consistency and completeness of requirements. Alternately in the work, a method is proposed to map the syntactic requirements with corresponding semantics in the form of ontologies. This improves the understanding of requirements, prevents errors and improves quality.
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76378
The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students
Abstract:
Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers&rsquo; experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.
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48024
The Lacuna in Understanding of Forensic Science amongst Law Practitioners in India
Abstract:
Forensic science uses all branches of science for criminal investigation and trial and has increasingly emerged as an important tool in the administration of justice. However, the growth and development of this field in India has not been as rapid or widespread as compared to the more developed Western countries. For successful administration of justice, it is important that all agencies involved in law enforcement adopt an inter-professional approach towards forensic science, which is presently lacking. In light of the alarmingly high average acquittal rate in India, this study aims to examine the lack of understanding and appreciation of the importance and scope of forensic evidence and expert opinions amongst law professionals such as lawyers and judges. Based on a study of trial court cases from Delhi and surrounding areas, the study underline the areas in forensics where the criminal justice system has noticeably erred. Using this information, the authors examine the extent of forensic understanding amongst legal professionals and attempt to conclusively identify the areas in which they need further appraisal. A cross-sectional study done using a structured questionnaire was conducted amongst law professionals across age, gender, type and years of experience in court, to determine their understanding of DNA, fingerprints and other interdisciplinary scientific materials used as forensic evidence. In our study, we understand the levels of understanding amongst lawyers with regards to DNA and fingerprint evidence, and how it affects trial outcomes. We also aim to understand the factors that prevent credible and advanced awareness amongst legal personnel, amongst others. The survey identified the areas in modern and advanced forensics, such as forensic entomology, anthropology, cybercrime etc., in which Indian legal professionals are yet to attain a functional understanding. It also brings to light, what is commonly termed as the ‘CSI-effect’ in the Western courtrooms, and provides scope to study the existence of this phenomenon and its effects on the Indian courts and their judgements. This study highlighted the prevalence of unchallenged expert testimony presented by the prosecution in criminal trials and impressed upon the judicial system the need for independent analysis and evaluation of the scientist’s data and/or testimony by the defense. Overall, this study aims to define a clearer and rigid understanding of why legal professionals should have basic understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of forensic sciences. Based on the aforementioned findings, the author suggests various measures by which judges and lawyers might obtain an extensive knowledge of the advances and promising potentialities of forensic science. This includes promoting a forensic curriculum in legal studies at Bachelor’s and Master’s level as well as in mid-career professional courses. Formation of forensic-legal consultancies, in consultation with the Department of Justice, will not only assist in training police, military and law personnel but will also encourage legal research in this field. These suggestions also aim to bridge the communication gap that presently exists between law practitioners, forensic scientists and the general community’s awareness of the criminal justice system.
110
13647
Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control
Abstract:
The software evolution control requires a deep understanding of the changes and their impact on different system heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite condition for the success of the evolutionary process. The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change concerned.
109
85068
Toward the Understanding of Shadow Port's Growth: The Level of Shadow Port
Abstract:
The term ‘shadow port’ is used to describe a port whose markets are dominated by an adjacent port that has a more competitive capability. Recently, researchers have put effort into studying the mechanisms of how a regional port, in the shadow of a nearby predominant port which is a capital city port, can compete and grow. However, such mechanism is still unclear. This study thus focuses on understanding the growth of shadow port and the type of shadow port by using the two capital city ports of Thailand; Bangkok port (the former main port) and Laem Chabang port (the current main port), as the case study. By developing an understanding of the mechanisms of shadow, port could ultimately lead to an increase in the competitiveness. In this study, a framework of opportunity capture (introduced by Magala, 2004) will be used to create a framework for the study of the growth of the selected shadow port. In the process of building this framework, five groups of port development experts, consisting of government, council, academia, logistics provider and industry, will be interviewed. To facilitate this work, the Noticing, Collecting and Thinking model which was developed by Seidel (1998) will be used in an analysis of the dataset. The resulting analysis will be used to classify the type of shadow port. The type of these ports will be a significant factor for developing a feasible strategic guideline for the future management planning of ports, particularly, shadow ports, and then to increase the competitiveness of a nation’s maritime transport industry, and eventually lead to a boost in the national economy.
108
40105
Curriculum Development in South African Higher Education Institutions: Key Considerations
Abstract:
Core business in a university centers on a curriculum. Teaching, learning, assessment and university products all have a bearing on the curriculum. In this discussion paper, the researchers engage in theoretical underpinnings of curriculum development in universities in South Africa. The paper is hinged on the realization that meaningful curriculum development is only possible if academic staff member has a thorough understanding of curriculum, curriculum design principles, and processes. Such understanding should be informed by theory. In this paper, the researchers consider curriculum, curriculum orientations, and the role of learning outcomes in curriculum development. Important and key considerations in module/course design are discussed and relevant examples given. The issue of alignment, as an important aspect of module/course design, is also explained and exemplified. Conclusions and recommendations are made.
107
40222
Bilingual Gaming Kit to Teach English Language through Collaborative Learning
Abstract:
This paper aims to teach English (secondary language) by bridging the understanding between the Regional language (primary language) and the English Language (secondary language). Here primary language is the one a person has learned from&nbsp;birth&nbsp;or within the critical period, while secondary language would be any other language one learns or speaks. The paper also focuses on evolving old teaching methods to a contemporary participatory model of learning and teaching. Pilot studies were conducted to gauge an understanding of student&rsquo;s knowledge of the English language. Teachers and students were interviewed and their academic curriculum was assessed as a part of the initial study. Extensive literature study and design thinking principles were used to devise a solution to the problem. The objective is met using a holistic learning kit/card game to teach children word recognition, word pronunciation, word spelling and writing words. Implication of the paper is a noticeable improvement in the understanding and grasping of English language. With increasing usage and applicability of English as a second language (ESL) world over, the paper becomes relevant due to its easy replicability to any other primary or secondary language. Future scope of this paper would be transforming the idea of participatory learning into self-regulated learning methods. With the upcoming govt. learning centres in rural areas and provision of smart devices such as tablets, the development of the card games into digital applications seems very feasible.
106
69927
Reflections on Lyotard's Reading of the Kantian Sublime and Its Political Import
Abstract:
The paper revisits Jean-François Lyotard’s interpretation of the Kantian Sublime as a tool for understanding politics after modernity. In 1985 Lyotard announces the end of rational politics based on consensus and claims that new strategies are urged to recognize the political imperatives of marginalized groups. The charm of the sublime as a reflective judgment is grounded on the fact that the judgment of sublime is free from any notion of consensus or common sense in particular. Lyotard interprets this feature of the sublime as a respect for heterogeneity and for him aesthetic judgments can be a model for understanding justice in postmodern times, in which it seems hard to follow a single universal law among different phrase regimes. More importantly, the Kantian sublime speaks to what Lyotard addresses as the incommensurability of phase genres. The present paper shall try to evaluate Lyotard’s employment of the Kantian notion of the sublime in relation to its possible political import.
105
57084
Media Diplomacy in the Age of Social Networks towards a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Diplomatic Cyber Engagement
Abstract:
This study addresses media diplomacy as an integral component of public diplomacy which emerged in the United States in the post-World War II era and found applications in other countries around the world. The study seeks to evolve a conceptual framework for understanding the practice of public diplomacy through social networks, often referred to as social engagement diplomacy. This form of diplomacy is considered far more ahead of the other two forms associated with both government controlled and independent media. The cases of the Voice of America Arabic Service and the 1977 CBS interviews with the late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin are cited in this study as reflecting the two traditional models. The new social engagement model sees public diplomacy as an act of communication that seeks to effect changes in target audiences through a process of persuasion shaped by discourse orientations and technological features. The proposed conceptual framework for social, diplomatic engagement draws on an open communication environment, an empowered audience, an interactive and symmetrical process of communication, multimedia-based flows of information, direct and credible feedback, distortion and high risk. The writer believes this study would be helpful in providing appropriate knowledge pertaining to our understanding of social diplomacy and furnishing concrete insights into how diplomats could harness virtual space to maximize their goals in the global environment.
104
65399
Linguistic Analysis of Holy Scriptures: A Comparative Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Western Hermeneutical Tradition
Authors:
Abstract:
The tradition of linguistic analysis in Islam and Christianity has developed independently of each other in lieu of the social developments specific to their historical context. However, recently increasing number of Muslim academics educated in the West have tried to apply the Western tradition of linguistic interpretation to the Qur’anic text while completely disregarding the Islamic linguistic tradition used and developed by the traditional scholars over the centuries. The aim of the paper is to outline the linguistic tools and methods used by the traditional Islamic scholars for the purpose of interpretating the Holy Qur’an and shed light on how they contribute towards a better understanding of the text compared to their Western counterparts. This paper carries out a descriptive-comparative study of the linguistic tools developed and perfected by the traditional scholars in Islam for the purpose of textual analysis of the Qur’an as they have been described in the authentic works of Usul Al Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and the principles of textual analysis employed by the Western hermeneutical tradition for the study of the Bible. First, it briefly outlines the independent historical development of the two traditions emphasizing the final normative shape that they have taken. Then it draws a comparison of the two traditions highlighting the similarities and the differences existing between them. In the end, the paper demonstrates the level of academic excellence achieved by the traditional linguistic scholars in their efforts to develop appropriate tools of textual interpretation and how these tools are more suitable for interpreting the Qur’an compared to the Western principles. Since the aim of interpreters of both the traditions is to try and attain an objective understanding of the Scriptures, the emphasis of the paper shall be to highlight how well the Islamic method of linguistic interpretation contributes to an objective understanding of the Qur’anic text. The paper concludes with the following findings: The Western hermeneutical tradition of linguistic analysis developed within the Western historical context. However, the Islamic method of linguistic analysis is much more highly developed and complex and serves better the purpose of objective understanding of the Holy text.
103
15197
Teaching Ethical Behaviour: Conversational Analysis in Perspective
Abstract:
In the past researchers have questioned the effectiveness of ethics training in higher education. Also, there are observations that support the view that ethical behaviour (range of actions)/ethical decision making models used in the past make use of vignettes to explain ethical behaviour. The understanding remains in the perspective that these vignettes play a limited role in determining individual intentions and not actions. Some authors have also agreed that there are possibilities of differences in one’s intentions and actions. This paper makes an attempt to fill those gaps by evaluating real actions rather than intentions. In a way this study suggests the use of an experiential methodology to explore Berlo’s model of communication as an action along with orchestration of various principles. To this endeavor, an attempt was made to use conversational analysis in the pursuance of evaluating ethical decision making behaviour among students and middle level managers. The process was repeated six times with the set of an average of 15 participants. Similarities have been observed in the behaviour of students and middle level managers that calls for understanding that both the groups of individuals have no cognizance of their actual actions. The deliberations derived out of conversation were taken a step forward for meta-ethical evaluations to portray a clear picture of ethical behaviour among participants. This study provides insights for understanding demonstrated unconscious human behaviour which may fortuitously be termed both ethical and unethical.
102
92715
A Study of Generation Y's Career Attitude at Workplace
Abstract:
Today's workplace, flooded by millennial Generation or known also as Generation Y. A common problem that faced by the company towards Gen Y is a high turnover rate, attitudes problem, communication style, and different work style than the older generation. This is common in private sector. The objective of this study is to get a better understanding of the Gen Y Career Attitude at the workplace. The subject of this study is focusing on 430 respondent of Gen Y which age between 20 – 35 years old who works for a private company. The Questionnaire as primary data source captured 9 aspects of career attitude based on Career Attitudes Strategy Inventory (CASI). This Survey distributes randomly among Gen Y in the IT Industry (125 Respondent) and Manufacture Company (305 Respondent). A Random deep interview was conducted to get the better understanding of the etiology of their primary obstacles. The study showed that most of Indonesia Gen Y have a moderate score on Job satisfaction but in the other aspects, Gen Y has the lowest score on Skill Development, Career Worries, Risk-Taking Style, Dominant Style, Work Involvement, Geographical Barrier, Interpersonal Abuse, and Family Commitment. The top 5 obstacles outside that 9 aspects that faced by Gen Y are 1. Lower communication & networking support; 2. Self-confidence issues; 3. Financial Problem; 4. Emotional issues; 5. Age. We also found that parent perspective toward the way they are nurturing their child are not aligned with their child’s real life. This research fundamentally helps the organization and other Gen Y’s Stakeholders to have a better understanding of Gen Y Career Attitude at the workplace.
101
62349
Aerodynamic Sound from a Sawtooth Plate with Different Thickness
Abstract:
The effect of sawtooth plate thickness on the aerodynamic noise generated in flow at a Reynolds number of 150 is numerically investigated. Two types of plate thickness (hthick=0.2D and hthin=0.02D) are proposed. Flow simulations are carried out using Direct Numerical Simulation, whereas the calculation of aerodynamic noise radiated from the flow is solved using Curle’s equation. It is found that the flow behavior of thin sawtooth plate, consisting counter-rotating-vortices, is more complex than that of the thick plate. This then explains well the generated sound in both plates cases. Sound generated from thin plat is approximately 0.5 dB lower than the thick plate. Findings from current study provide better understanding of the flow and noise behavior in edge serrations via understanding the case of a sawtooth plate.
100
36836
Uderstanding Females' Perspective of Healthy Parental Involvement in Their University's Lives
Abstract:
Despite growing evidence that parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives affects the way they perceive the community around them, little effort has been made to address the importance of this relationship and how it affect the adolescents' interaction with their environment. Adolescents are influenced by their parents while they are growing up and this socialization process services to shape the adolescents sense of self, influencing not only how adolescents feel about themselves, but affecting how they interact with their surroundings. In order to effectively understand this issue, it is important to understand the adolescents’ understanding of healthy parental involvement in their lives, in addition to the obstacles that hinder their communication styles with their parents. Understanding parental involvement in their adolescents’ lives will provide further understanding of the role that social work can perform in this field. The rationale for undertaking this study grew out of the literature on adolescents’ studies in addition to the researchers’ interaction with freshmen female students, who are still in the adolescent stage, in the university. The primary purpose of this study was to understand female adolescents’ awareness of healthy parental involvement in their freshmen year in the university life, as well as obstacles that might hinder that healthy involvement. Using semi-structured interview with a purposive sample of the first year female students in the university, the study managed to determine if the type of parental involvement and parental emotional responsiveness between the adolescents and their parents affects the way they interact with their environment, in addition, to determine the obstacles that hamper the communication between adolescents and their parents.
99
61135
The Right to Engage in Collective Bargaining in South Africa: An Exploratory Analysis
Abstract:
Whilst the system of collective bargaining is well-researched in South Africa, recent studies reveal that this is an area of law and practice that is poorly understood. Despite the growing attention being paid by most scholars to the role of collective bargaining in the labour relations system, only a handful of the studies have considered collective bargaining as a mechanism of dispute resolution. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the current understanding of the right to engage in collective bargaining in South Africa to assess the extent to which collective bargaining is used to resolve labour disputes. The overall objective is to offer a deeper understanding of the role of collective bargaining in dispute resolution process within the South African constitutional labour law context. To this end, the paper examines the applicable legal framework of collective bargaining to address two fundamental questions that are critical to the proper understanding of the functioning of the South African collective labour dispute resolution system. The first concerns the extent to which the current South African legislative framework supports the fundamental labour rights entrenched in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The second addresses the role of trade unions in collective dispute resolution processes and the extent to which they can best utilize collective bargaining to resolve labour disputes. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the findings to stimulate further research and to enhance the constitutional development of collective labour rights in South Africa.
98
71943
Biochemical Approach to Renewable Energy: Enhancing Students' Perception and Understanding of Science of Energy through Integrated Hands-On Laboratory
Abstract:
Acute power shortage in Pakistan requires an urgent attention to take preliminary steps to spread energy awareness at all levels. One such initiative is taken at Habib University (HU), Pakistan, through renewable energy course, one of the core offerings, where students are trained to investigate various aspects of renewable energy concepts. The course is offered to all freshmen enrolled at HU regardless of their academic backgrounds and degree programs. A four-credit modular course includes both theory and laboratory elements. Hands-on laboratories play an important role in science classes, particularly to enhance the motivation and deep understanding of energy science. A set of selected hands-on activities included in course introduced students to explore the latest developments in the field of renewable energy such as dye-sensitized solar cells, gas chromatography, global warming, climate change, fuel cell energy and power of biomass etc. These projects not only helped HU freshmen to build on energy fundamentals but also provided them greater confidence in investigating, questioning and experimenting with renewable energy related conceptions. A feedback survey arranged during and end of term revealed the effectiveness of the hands-on laboratory to enhance the common understanding of real world problems related to energy such as awareness of energy saving, the level of concern about global climate change, environmental pollution and science of energy behind the energy usage.
97
39538
Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk
Abstract:
Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.
96
35716
Impact of Social Media in Shaping Perceptions on Filipino Muslim Identity
Abstract:
Social Media plays a crucial role in influencing Philippine public opinion with regard to a variety of socio-political issues. This became evident in the massacre of 44 members of the Special Action Force (SAF 44) tasked by the Philippine government to capture one of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation’s most wanted terrorists. The incident was said to be perpetrated by members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters. Part of the online discourse within Philippine cyberspace sparked intense debates on Filipino Muslim identity, with several Facebook viral posts linking Islam as a factor to the tragic event. Facebook is considered to be the most popular social media platform in the Philippines. As such, this begs the question of the extent to which social media, specifically Facebook, shape the perceptions of Filipinos on Filipino Muslims. This study utilizes Habermas’ theory of communicative action as it offers an explanation on how public sphere such as social media could be a network for communicating information and points of view through free and open dialogue among equal citizens to come to an understanding or common perception. However, the paper argues that communicative action which is aimed at reaching understanding free from force, and strategic action which is aimed at convincing someone through argumentation may not necessarily be mutually exclusive since reaching an understanding can also be considered as a result of convincing someone through argumentation. Moreover, actors may clash one another in their ideas before reaching common understanding, hence the presence of force. Utilizing content analysis on the Facebook posts with Islamic component that went viral after the massacre of the SAF 44, this paper argues that framing the image of Filipino Muslims through Facebook reflects both communicative and strategic actions. Moreover, comment threads on viral posts manifest force albeit implicit.
95
16270
Audio-Visual Aids and the Secondary School Teaching
Abstract:
In this complex society of today where experiences are innumerable and varied, it is not at all possible to present every situation in its original colors hence the opportunities for learning by actual experiences always are not at all possible. It is only through the use of proper audio visual aids that the life situation can be trough in the class room by an enlightened teacher in their simplest form and representing the original to the highest point of similarity which is totally absent in the verbal or lecture method. In the presence of audio aids, the attention is attracted interest roused and suitable atmosphere for proper understanding is automatically created, but in the existing traditional method greater efforts are to be made in order to achieve the aforesaid essential requisite. Inspire of the best and sincere efforts on the side of the teacher the net effect as regards understanding or learning in general is quite negligible.
94
84604
Fostering Positive Mindset: Grounded Theory Study of Self-Awareness in Emerging Adults
Abstract:
The transformative aspect of emerging adulthood brings about a development of self-processes, including changes in self-esteem and personal goals. Success in this life stage entails the emotional growth necessary to navigate the demands and challenges of college life. Understanding the concept of self-awareness within this particular age group sheds light on emerging adults’ internal world and the transformative aspect of their emotional growth. Uncovering the thoughts' processes that foster or hinder self-awareness is important to the understanding of how emerging adults learn to make themselves positive or negative. However, existing research in self-awareness has explored this phenomenon mostly using quantitative research methodology or through tying an individual’s level of self-awareness to specific actions or outcomes. Little is known about the process of how college students emerging adults notice and monitor their inner thoughts and emotions. Methodology and theoretical orientation: A grounded theory study using in-depth semi-structured interview was utilized. Nine interviews have been conducted. A constructionist framework was employed to generate a theory as for how self-awareness facilitates specific patterns of thinking in emerging adults. The choice of grounded theory emanates from a lack of knowledge regarding underlying thinking procedures and internal states that emerging adult college students navigate in an attempt to make meaning out of the new academic experience and life stage. Findings: Initial data analysis generated the following categories of the theory: (a) a non-judgmental perception of negative thinking and negative emotions that allow for a better understanding of the self; (b) negative state of mind is easy to overcome when it is accepted and acknowledged; (c) knowledge of the actual and desired self-generates an intentional decision to shift to a positive mindset. Preliminary findings indicate that college academic and social environment foster a new understanding of the self that yield a change in mindset and in self-knowledge.
93
125520
Digitalising the Instruction: Between Technology Integration and Instrumental Use
Abstract:
The relentless pace of technology development in the last two decades has pervaded much of the recent educational discourse on a nation-wide scale. The rippling echoes of the buzz that account for the myriad of advantages the new technologies bring to the pedagogical activity has inevitably transcended from the western world to the Algerian educational contexts. Attempts have been made by Algerian practitioners to heed this digital advancement and push their instructional practices forward. However, due to the still largely existing first-order barriers as exemplified in the forms of deficient institutional infrastructure and unavailability of sufficient digital materials, the results of those attempts have polarised the views of Algerian academics regarding technology integration within higher education context. Hence, this study aims at measuring the possibility of integrating technology in our classrooms in a way that conforms to the philosophy of hybrid education. It also attempts to re-consider teachers’ understanding of technology integration in our context. Furthermore, the purpose of this research is also to reveal the level of teachers’ awareness regarding the distinction between technology integration and instrumental use. In view of the nature of these aims, a mixed-methods mode of investigation has been adopted to collect both qualitative and quantitative data from different perspectives. The data collection tools comprise of an observation as well as students’ and teachers’ questionnaires. The findings show that despite the fact that the examined context is not without its technological limitations, technology integration can be successfully incorporated contingent on teachers' level of knowledge and agency. Technology integration in Algerian universities does not proceed as the bedrock theory of it entails due to issues within teachers' general understanding of utilizing technology in class. It seems that technology is a means to an end, depending on the teachers who make use of it in order to deliver lessons (PowerPoint presentation) and issue commands (Facebook posting). Teachers' ability to clearly discern between integrating technology in their practices versus employing it as an instrument of instruction needs further consideration in order to establish a solid understanding of technology integration within higher education context.
92
14645
An Investigation of Thai Passengers’ Level of Understanding and Awareness: Cabin Crew Safety Briefing
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to study Thai passengers’ level of understanding and awareness of the cabin crew safety briefing in the airplane during the preparation to take off and landing. It is important to know if Thai passengers pay attention to cabin crew safety briefing and to suggest a better way to draw their attention. The independent variables included gender, age, income, levels of education, travelling purpose, and travelling frequency while the dependent variables was level of awareness. A simple random sampling method was utilized to get 400 respondents. The findings revealed the ranking the first three levels of importance by highest mean to lowest mean as follows: (1) It is important to listen to cabin crew safety briefing; (2) Cabin crew briefing is interesting; (3) Information from cabin crew safety briefing is easy to understand. In addition, the overall means was 3.27 with 0.800 SD.
91
39690
Levels of Students’ Understandings of Electric Field Due to a Continuous Charged Distribution: A Case Study of a Uniformly Charged Insulating Rod
Abstract:
Electric field is an important fundamental concept in electrostatics. In high-school, generally Thai students have already learned about definition of electric field, electric field due to a point charge, and superposition of electric fields due to multiple-point charges. Those are the prerequisite basic knowledge students holding before entrancing universities. In the first-year university level, students will be quickly revised those basic knowledge and will be then introduced to a more complicated topic&mdash;electric field due to continuous charged distributions. We initially found that our freshman students, who were from the Faculty of Science and enrolled in the introductory physic course (SCPY 158), often seriously struggled with the basic physics concepts&mdash;superposition of electric fields and inverse square law and mathematics being relevant to this topic. These also then resulted on students&rsquo; understanding of advanced topics within the course such as Gauss&#39;s law, electric potential difference, and capacitance. Therefore, it is very important to determine students&#39; understanding of electric field due to continuous charged distributions. The open-ended question about sketching net electric field vectors from a uniformly charged insulating rod was administered to 260 freshman science students as pre- and post-tests. All of their responses were analyzed and classified into five levels of understandings. To get deep understanding of each level, 30 students were interviewed toward their individual responses. The pre-test result found was that about 90% of students had incorrect understanding. Even after completing the lectures, there were only 26.5% of them could provide correct responses. Up to 50% had confusions and irrelevant ideas. The result implies that teaching methods in Thai high schools may be problematic. In addition for our benefit, these students&rsquo; alternative conceptions identified could be used as a guideline for developing the instructional method currently used in the course especially for teaching electrostatics.
90
51919
The Relationship between Hot and Cool Executive Function and Theory of Mind in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Executive function (EF) refers to a set of future-oriented and goal-directed cognitive skills that are crucial for problem solving and social behaviour, as well as the ability to organise oneself. It has been suggested that EF could be conceptualised as two distinct but interrelated constructs, one emotional (hot) and one cognitive (cool), as it facilitates both affective and cognitive regulation. Cool EF has been found to be strongly related to Theory of Mind (ToM) that is the ability to infer mental states, but research has not taken into account the association between hot EF and ToM in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to date. The present study investigates the associations between both hot and cool EF and ToM in school-aged children with ASD. This cross-sectional study assesses 79 school-aged children with ASD (7-15 years) and 91 controls matched for age and IQ, on tasks tapping cool EF (working memory, inhibition, planning), hot EF (effective decision making, delay discounting), and ToM (emotional understanding and false/no false belief). Significant group differences in each EF measure support a global executive dysfunction in ASD. Strong associations between hot EF and ToM in ASD are reported for the first time (i.e. ToM emotional understanding and delay discounting). These findings highlight that hot EF also makes a unique contribution to the developmental profile of ASD. Considering the role of both hot and cool EF in association with ToM in individuals with ASD may aid in gaining a greater understanding not just of how these complex multifaceted cognitive abilities relate to one another, but their joint role in the distinct developmental pathway followed in ASD.
89
46610
Agriroofs and Agriwalls: Applications of Food Production in Green Roofs and Green Walls
Abstract:
Green roofs and walls are a rising technology in the global sustainable architectural industry. The idea takes great steps towards the future of sustainable design due to its many benefits. However, there are many barriers and constraints. Economical, structural, and knowledge barriers prevent the spread of the usage of green roofs and living walls. Understanding the benefits and expanding them will spread the idea. Benefits provided by these green spots interrupt and maintain the current urban cover. Food production is one of the benefits of green roofs. It can save money and energy spent in food transportation. The goal of this paper is to put a better understanding of implementing green systems. The paper aims to identify gains versus challenges facing the technology. It surveys with case studies buildings with green roofs and walls used for food production.
88
21423
Teaching the Meaning of the Holy Quran Using Modern Technology
Abstract:
Among the Muslims, the Holy Quran is taught from early childhood and generally by the age of 7-8 years the reading of the entire Quran is completed by most of the children in Muslim families. During this period excellent reciter’s are selected to teach and emphasis is laid on correct reading, pronunciation and memorization. Following these years, the parents lay emphasis on the recitation of the Quran on daily basis. During the month of Ramadan the entire Quran is read one or more times and there are considerable number of Muslims who complete the entire Quran once or more each calendar month. Many Muslims do not know Arabic and for them message in the Quran is what others tell them and often they have no idea about this Guidance sent to them. This deficiency is reflected in many ways, both among people living in Muslim or non-Muslim countries. Due to the deficiency in knowledge about Islamic teachings, the foundations of Islam are being eroded by a variety of forces. In an attempt to guard against the non-Islamic influences, every Muslim must have a clear understanding of the Islamic teachings and requirements. The best guidance can be provided by the understanding of the Holy Quran. However, we are faced with the problem that often the Quran is taught in a way that fails to develop an interest and understanding of the message from Allah. Looking at the teaching of other subjects both scientific and non-scientific, at school, college or University levels, it is obvious that the advances in teaching methodologies using electronic technology have had a major impact, where both the understanding and the interest of the students are significantly elevated. We attempted to teach the meaning of the Holy Quran to children and adults using a scientific and modern approach using slide presentation and animations. The results showed almost 100% increase in the understanding of the Quran message; all attendees claimed they developed an increased interest in the study of the Holy Quran and did not lose track or develop boredom throughout the lectures. They learnt the information and remembered it more effectively. The love for Allah and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) increased significantly. The fear of Allah and love of Heaven developed significantly. Historical facts and the stories of the past nations became clearer and the Greatness of the Creator was strongly felt. Several of attendees wanted to become better Muslims and to spread the knowledge of Islam. In this presentation, the adopted teaching method will be first presented and demonstrated to the audience using a short Surah from the Quran, followed by discussion on the results achieved during our study. We will endeavor to convey to the audience that there is a need to adopt a more scientific approach to teach the Quran so that a greater benefit is achieved by all.
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20304
Unsupervised Sentiment Analysis for Indonesian Political Message on Twitter
Abstract:
In this work, we perform new approach for analyzing public sentiment towards the presidential candidate in the 2014 Indonesian election that expressed in Twitter. In this study we propose such procedure for analyzing sentiment over Indonesian political message by understanding the behavior of Indonesian society in sending message on Twitter. We took different approach from previous works by utilizing punctuation mark and Indonesian sentiment lexicon that completed with the new procedure in determining sentiment towards the candidates. Our experiment shows the performance that yields up to 83.31% of average precision. In brief, this work makes two contributions: first, this work is the preliminary study of sentiment analysis in the domain of political message that has not been addressed yet before. Second, we propose such method to conduct sentiment analysis by creating decision making procedure in which it is in line with the characteristic of Indonesian message on Twitter.
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88508
Deaf Inmates in Canadian Prisons: Addressing Discrimination through Staff Training Videos with Deaf Actors
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Abstract:
Deaf inmates, whose first or preferred language is a Signed Language, experience barriers to accessing the necessary two-way communication with correctional staff, and the educational and social programs that will enhance their eligibility for conditional release from the federal prison system in Canada. The development of visual content to enhance the knowledge and skill development of correctional staff is a contemporary strategy intended to significantly improve the correctional experience for deaf inmates. This presentation reports on the development of two distinct training videos created to enhance staff’s understanding of the needs of deaf inmates; one a two-part simulation of an interaction with a deaf inmate, the second an interview with a deaf academic. Part one of video one demonstrates the challenges and misunderstandings inherent in communicating across languages without a qualified sign language interpreter; the second part demonstrates the ease of communication when communication needs are met. Video two incorporates the experiences of a deaf academic to provide the cultural grounding necessary to educate staff in the unique experiences associated with being a visual language user. Lack of staff understanding or awareness of deaf culture and language must not be acceptable reasons for the inadequate treatment of deaf visual language users in federal prisons. This paper demonstrates a contemporary approach to meeting the human rights and needs of this unique and often ignored inmate subpopulation. The deaf community supports this visual approach to enhancing staff understanding of the unique needs of this population. A study of its effectiveness is currently underway.
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11794
Quantitative Characterization of Single Orifice Hydraulic Flat Spray Nozzle
Abstract:
The single orifice hydraulic flat spray nozzle was evaluated with two global imaging techniques to characterize various aspects of the resulting spray. The two techniques were high resolution flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A CCD camera with 29 million pixels was used to capture shadowgraph images to realize ligament formation and collapse as well as droplet interaction. Quantitative analysis was performed to give the sizing information of the droplets and ligaments. This camera was then applied with a PIV system to evaluate the overall velocity field of the spray, from nozzle exit to droplet discharge. PIV images were further post-processed to determine the inclusion angle of the spray. The results from those investigations provided significant quantitative understanding of the spray structure. Based on the quantitative results, detailed understanding of the spray behavior was achieved.
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69757
Human Talent Management: A Research Agenda
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to enhance the theoretical and conceptual understanding of human talent management (HTM). With the help of extensive review of existing literature, we proposed a conceptual framework and few propositions to elucidate the influential relationship of competency focus, talent pooling, talent investment, and talenting orientation with value creation of a firm. It is believed that human talent management model will enhance the understanding of talent management orientation among practitioners and academicians. Practitioners will be able to align HTM orientation with business strategy wisely to yield better value for business (Shareholders, Employees, Owners, Customers, agents, and other stakeholders). Future research directions will explain how human talent management researchers will work on the integration of relationship and contribute towards the maturity of talent management by further exploring and validating the model empirically to enhance the body of knowledge.
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42363
Contextualizing Communication through Culture and Social Structure: An Exploration of Media Life
Abstract:
Communication is a social phenomenon which mediates to our everyday life and it creates, maintains, builds, circulates, and propagates for a common identity the society. The symbolic forms of communication such as aural, sounds, oral expressions, signs, and language as means of communication are being used in everyday life in helping to identify as construction of social reality. These symbolic forms of communication are treated as the social process in everyday life. Therefore, there is an intrinsic relationship between communication and culture to understand media life for village communities. Similarly, the interface of communication with social life is reflected upon it’s formulation of the notions of social structure and culture. It has been observed that there is an overlapping and new phenomenonal change of media life among marginalized communities in general and village communities in particular. Therefore, this paper is an outcome of decadal stock of literature and an empirical investigation on understanding of communication in a tribal village in India. It has examined the idea of American scientist Edward T. Hall “the culture is communication, and the communication is culture” in village society on understanding media life. Thus, the Harold Innis’s theoretical idea of “communication” has been critically examined in these contexts since author tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinarity on understanding media life through communication and culture which is embedded in socio-cultural life bearing on epistemological and ontological implications. The paper tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinary and historical trajectories of communication embedded with other social science disciplines; and also tries to map these studies relevant for the future directions and engagement which would have bearing on epistemological and ontological implications in the field of media and communication.
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40324
Hermeneutical Understanding of 2 Cor. 7:1 in the Light of Igbo Cultural Concept of Purification
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The concepts of pollution or contamination and purification or ritual cleansing are very important concepts among traditional Africans. This is because in relation to human behaviors and attitudes, they constitute on the one hand what could be referred to as moral demands and on the other, what results in the default of such demands. The many taboos which a man has to observe are not to be regarded as things mechanical which do not touch the heart, but that the avoidance is a sacred law respected by the community. In breaking it, you offend the divine power’. Researches have shown that, Africans tenaciously hold the belief that, moral values are based upon the recognition of the divine will and that sin in the community must be expelled if perfect peace is to be enjoyed. Sadly enough, these moral values are gradually eroding in contemporary times. Thus, this study proposal calls for a survey of the passage from an African cultural context; how it can enhance the understanding of the text, as well as how it can complement its scholarly interpretation with the view of institutionalizing the concept of holiness as a means of bringing the people closer to God, and also instilling ethical purity and righteousness.
81
95362
An Experimental Study on the Coupled Heat Source and Heat Sink Effects on Solid Rockets
Abstract:
Enhancing the rocket efficiency by controlling the external factors in solid rockets motors has been an active area of research for most of the terrestrial and extra-terrestrial system operations. Appreciable work has been done, but the complexity of the problem has prevented thorough understanding due to heterogenous heat and mass transfer. On record, severe issues have surfaced amounting to irreplaceable loss of mankind, instruments, facilities, and huge amount of money being invested every year. The coupled effect of an external heat source and external heat sink is an aspect yet to be articulated in combustion. Better understanding of this coupled phenomenon will induce higher safety standards, efficient missions, reduced hazard risks, with better designing, validation, and testing. The experiment will help in understanding the coupled effect of an external heat sink and heat source on the burning process, contributing in better combustion and fire safety, which are very important for efficient and safer rocket flights and space missions. Safety is the most prevalent issue in rockets, which assisted by poor combustion efficiency, emphasizes research efforts to evolve superior rockets. This signifies real, engineering, scientific, practical, systems and applications. One potential application is Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M). The study may help in: (i) Understanding the effect on efficiency of core engines due to the primary boosters if considered as source, (ii) Choosing suitable heat sink materials for space missions so as to vary the efficiency of the solid rocket depending on the mission, (iii) Giving an idea about how the preheating of the successive stage due to previous stage acting as a source may affect the mission. The present work governs the temperature (resultant) and thus the heat transfer which is expected to be non-linear because of heterogeneous heat and mass transfer. The study will deepen the understanding of controlled inter-energy conversions and the coupled effect of external source/sink(s) surrounding the burning fuel eventually leading to better combustion thus, better propulsion. The work is motivated by the need to have enhanced fire safety and better rocket efficiency. The specific objective of the work is to understand the coupled effect of external heat source and sink on propellant burning and to investigate the role of key controlling parameters. Results as of now indicate that there exists a singularity in the coupled effect. The dominance of the external heat sink and heat source decides the relative rocket flight in Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M).
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83853
A Study of Small Business Failure: Impact of Leadership and the Leadership Process
Abstract:
Small businesses are important to the United States economy, yet the majority struggle to remain relevant and close before their fifth year. This qualitative study explored small business failure by comparing the experiences of small-business owners to understand their involvement with leadership during the early stages of the business, and the impact of this on the firms’ ability to survive. Participants’ experiences from two groups were compared to glean an understanding of the leadership process, how leadership differs between the groups, and to see what themes or constructs emerged that could help to explain the high failure rate. Leadership was perceived to be important when envisioning a path for the future and when providing a platform for employees to succeed. Those who embraced leadership as a skillset were more likely to get through the challenges of the early developmental years while those ignoring the importance of leadership were more likely to close prematurely. These findings suggest a disconnect with regards to the understanding, role, and benefits of leadership in small organizations, particularly young organizations in the early stages of development.
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60037
Not Three Gods but One: Why Reductionism Does Not Serve Our Theological Discourse
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Abstract:
The triune nature of God is one of the most complex doctrines of Christianity, and its complexity is further compounded when one considers the incarnation. However, many of the difficulties and paradoxes associated with our idea of the divine arise from our adherence to reductionist ontology. In order to move our theological discourse forward, in respect to divine and human nature, a holistic interpretation of our profession of faith is necessary. The challenge of a holistic interpretation is that it questions our ability to make any statement about the genuine, ontological individuation of persons (both divine and human), and in doing so raises the issue of whether we are, ontologically, bound to descend in to a form of pan(en)theism. In order to address the ‘inevitable’ slide in to pan(en)theism. The impact of two forms of holistic interpretation, Boolean and Non-Boolean, on our concept of personhood will be examined. Whilst a Boolean interpretation allows for a greater understanding of the relational nature of the Trinity, it is the Non-Boolean interpretation which has greater ontological significance. A Non-Boolean ontology, grounded in our scientific understanding of the nature of the world, shows our quest for individuation rests not in ontological fact but in epistemic need, and that it is our limited epistemology that drives our need to divide that which is ontologically indivisible. This discussion takes place within a ‘methodological’, rather than ‘doctrinal’ approach to science and religion - examining assumptions and methods that have shaped our language and beliefs about key doctrines, rather than seeking to reconcile particular Christian doctrines with particular scientific theories. Concluding that Non-Boolean holism is the more significant for our doctrine is, in itself, not enough. A world without division appears much removed from the distinct place of man and divine as espoused in our creedal affirmation, to this end, several possible interpretations for understanding Non-Boolean human – divine relations are tentatively put forward for consideration.
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82476
The Importance of Organized and Non-Organized Bildung for a Comprehensive Term of Bildung
Abstract:
The German word Bildung in a comprehensive understanding can be defined as the development of the personality and as a process, which lasts from birth, or even before birth, until death. Gaining experience, acquiring abilities and knowledge as a lifelong learning process is what Bildung means. The development of the personality is intransitive because of the personality’s development itself, and transitive because of influences on the formation of a person by individuals and institutions. In public and political discussions, the term Bildung is understood with a constricted usage as education at schools. This leads to the research question, which consequences this limited comprehension of the term Bildung implies and how a comprehensive term of Bildung has to be defined. In discussions, Bildung is limited to its formal part. The limited understanding prevents from accurate analyses and discussions as well as adequate actions. This hypothesis and the research issue will be processed by theoretical analyses of the factors of Bildung, guideline-controlled expert interviews and a qualitative content analysis. The limited understanding on the term Bildung is a methodological problem. This results in inaccuracies in the analysis of the processes of Bildung and their effects on the development of personality structures. On the one hand, an individual is influenced by formal structures in the system of Bildung (e.g. schools) and on the other hand an individual is influenced by gained individual and informal personality and character attributes. In general, too little attention is given to these attributes and individual qualifications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate informative terms so the educational process with all its facets could be considered and applicable analyses can be made. If the informative terms can be defined, it´s also possible to identify and discuss the components of a comprehensive term Bildung to enable correct action.
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25531
Improving Our Understanding of the in vivo Modelling of Psychotic Disorders
Abstract:
Psychosis is ranked as the third most disabling medical condition in the world by the World Health Organization. Despite a substantial amount of research in recent years, available treatments are not universally effective and have a wide range of adverse side effects. Since many clinical drug candidates are identified through in vivo modelling, a deeper understanding of these models, and their strengths and limitations, might help us understand reasons for difficulties in psychosis drug development. To provide an unbiased summary of the preclinical psychosis literature we performed a systematic electronic search of PubMed for publications modelling a psychotic disorder in vivo, identifying 14,721 relevant studies. Double screening of 11,000 publications from this dataset so far established 2403 animal studies of psychosis, with the most common model being schizophrenia (95%). 61% of these models are induced using pharmacological agents. For all the models only 56% of publications test a therapeutic treatment. We propose a systematic review of these studies to assess the prevalence of reporting of measures to reduce risk of bias, and a meta-analysis to assess the internal and external validity of these animal models. Our findings are likely to be relevant to future preclinical studies of psychosis as this generation of strong empirical evidence has the potential to identify weaknesses, areas for improvement and make suggestions on refinement of experimental design. Such a detailed understanding of the data which inform what we think we know will help improve the current attrition rate between bench and bedside in psychosis research.
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67228
Continuity of Place-Identity: Identifying Regional Components of Kerala Architecture through 1805-1950
Abstract:
Man has the need to know and feel as a part of the historical continuum and it is this continuum that reinforces his identity. Architecture and the built environment contribute to this identity as established by the various identity theories exploring the relationship between the two. Architecture which is organic has been successful in maintaining a continuum of identity until the advent of globalization when the world saw a drastic shift to architecture of ‘placelessness’. The answer to the perfect synthesis of ‘universalization’ and ‘regionalism’ is an ongoing quest. However, history has established a smooth transition from vernacular to colonial to modern unlike the architecture of today. The traditional Kerala architecture has evolved from the tropical climate, geography, local needs, materials, skills and foreign influences. It is unique in contrast to the architecture of the neighboring states as a result of the geographical barriers however influenced by the architecture of the Orient due to trade relations. Through 1805 to 1950, the European influence on the architecture of Kerala resulted in the emergence of the colonial style which managed to establish a continuum of the traditional architecture. The paper focuses on the identification of the components of architecture that established the continuity of place-identity in the architecture of Kerala and examines the transition from the traditional Kerala architecture to colonial architecture during the colonial period. Visual surveys based on the principles of urban design, cognitive mapping, typology analysis followed by the strong understanding of the morphological and built environment along with the matrix method are the research tools used. The understanding of these components of continuity can be useful in creating buildings which people can relate to in the present day. South-Asia shares the history of colonialism and the understanding of these components can pave the way for further research on how to establish a regional identity in the era of globalization.
75
113652
The Bully in the Boat: Discovering Co-Destructive Transformative Value in Olympic and Elite Rowers
Abstract:
This paper explores a distinctive perspective of resources which are integrated to co-destroy transformative value in sport. Combining previously published transformative service research and sports literature with data from twenty in-depth interviews with elite and Olympic rowers, our study uncovers the co-destructive resources of ‘interpersonal misbehavior’ and ‘sport misbehavior’. We also identified transformative value in sport is multi-dimensional, encompassing important benefits that support well-being. This research has important implications for transformative sport service research, recommending the need to embrace a transformative service lens to value, a more holistic understanding of co-destruction, and the need to utilise multi-dimensional frameworks to ensure greater insights into sport and sports services and their impact on sportsperson’s well-being. Gaining this understanding will encourage sport managers, sporting bodies to justify resources that they integrate based upon their impact on co-destruction of value.
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2980
Students’ Perceptions on Educational Game for Learning Programming Subject: A Case Study
Abstract:
Educational games (EG) are regarded as a promising teaching and learning tool for the new generation. Growing number of studies and literatures can be found in EG studies. Both academic researchers and commercial developers come out with various educational games prototypes and titles. Despite that, acceptance of educational games still lacks among the students. It is important to understanding students’ perceptions of EG, since they are the main stakeholder of the technology. Thus, this study seeks to understand perceptions of undergraduates’ students using a framework originated from user acceptance theory. The framework consists of six constructs with twenty-eight items. Data collection was done on 180 undergraduate students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur using self-developed online EG called ROBO-C. Data analysis was done using descriptive, factor analysis and correlations. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, attitude, and enjoyment factors were found significantly correlated with the intention to use EG. This study provides more understanding towards the use of educational games among students.
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104798
The Victim as a Public Actor: Understanding the Victim’s Role as an Agent of Accountability
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This paper argues that the scholarship to date on victims in the criminal process has mainly adopted a private conception of victims –as bearers of individual interests, rights, and remedies– rather than a conception of the victim as an actor with public functions and interests, who has historically and continuously taken on an active role in the common law tradition. This conception enables a greater understanding of the various developments around victim participation in common law criminal justice systems and provides a useful analytical tool to understand the different roles of victims in England and Wales and the United States. Indeed, the main focus on individual rights and the conception of the victim as a private entity undermines the distinctive and increasing role victims play in the wider criminal justice process as agents of accountability through administrative-based processes within and outside courts, including private prosecutions, internal review processes within prosecutorial agencies, judicial review, and ombudsmen processes.
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21084
Emotional Intelligence: A Panacea in the Management and Marketing of Hospitality and Tourism Good and Services
Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence constitutes powerful psychological forces that can strongly influence performance in behaviour, interaction and relationship management. Surprisingly how emotions are interpreted and employed in marketing of hospitality experience have had limited comprehension. Marketing of hospitality experiences have important emotional dimensions which the traditional marketing techniques tend to underplay. Guest and host relationship are challenged by mutual hospitableness obligations; suggesting that the commercial practice of delivering satisfactory guest experience has much to gain from traditional understanding of hospitality. By understanding the emotion-based hospitality transaction between guests and hosts, customers’ experiences can be delivered over and against competitor pressure. In this paper, marketing strategies and tactics in hospitality and tourism are principally concerned with adjusting each of the 6P & T elements (i.e. product, place, price and promotion; and adding people, processes and Time in service contexts), to provide a competitive offer (experience) to customers.
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72702
Harvard Lawyers Perception of Intellectual Property and Digital Rights
Abstract:
The near future will bring significant changes to contemporary organizations and management, because of the rapidly increasing role of immaterial goods and knowledge workers. The area of copyright, IP, as well as digital (non-material) goods and media redistribution seems to be one of the major challenges for the economy and society in general, and management and organization studies in particular. The proposed paper shows the views and perceptions of fairness of digital media sharing among Harvard Law School LL.M. students, basing on 50 qualitative interviews and 100 questionnaires. The researcher took an ethnographic approach to the study and joined the 2016 Harvard LL.M. Facebook group, which allowed natural socializing and joining for in-person events and private parties more easily. After making acquaintance with many of the students, the researcher conducted a quantitative questionnaire with 100 respondents, allowing to better understand the respondents perception of fairness in digital files sharing in different contexts (depending on the price of the media, its availability, regional licensing, status of the copyright holder, etc.). Basing on the results of the questionnaire, the researcher followed up with long-term, open ended, loosely structured ethnographic interviews (50 interviews were conducted) to further deepen the understanding of the results. The major finding of the study is that Harvard lawyers, in spite of the highest possible understanding of law, as well as professional standards, generally approve of digital piracy in certain contexts. Interestingly, they are also more likely to approve of it if they work for the government rather than the private sector. The conclusions from this study allow a better understanding of how ‘fairness’ is perceived by the younger generation of law professionals, and also open grounds for a more rational licensing policing.
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112832
Structuring Paraphrases: The Impact Sentence Complexity Has on Key Leader Engagements
Abstract:
Soldiers are taught about the importance of effective communication with repetition of the phrase, “Communication is key.” They receive training in preparing for, and carrying out, interactions between foreign and domestic leaders to gain crucial information about a mission. These interactions are known as Key Leader Engagements (KLEs). For the training of KLEs, doctrine mandates the skills needed to conduct these “engagements” such as how to: behave appropriately, identify key leaders, and employ effective strategies. Army officers in training learn how to confront leaders, what information to gain, and how to ask questions respectfully. Unfortunately, soldiers rarely learn how to formulate questions optimally. Since less complex questions are easier to understand, we hypothesize that semantic complexity affects content understanding, and that age and education levels may have an effect on one’s ability to form paraphrases and judge their quality. In this study, we looked at paraphrases of queries as well as judgments of both the paraphrases’ naturalness and their semantic similarity to the query. Queries were divided into three complexity categories based on the number of relations (the first number) and the number of knowledge graph edges (the second number). Two crowd-sourced tasks were completed by Amazon volunteer participants, also known as turkers, to answer the research questions: (i) Are more complex queries harder to paraphrase and judge and (ii) Do age and education level affect the ability to understand complex queries. We ran statistical tests as follows: MANOVA for query understanding and two-way ANOVA to understand the relationship between query complexity and education and age. A probe of the number of given-level queries selected for paraphrasing by crowd-sourced workers in seven age ranges yielded promising results. We found significant evidence that age plays a role and marginally significant evidence that education level plays a role. These preliminary tests, with output p-values of 0.0002 and 0.068, respectively, suggest the importance of content understanding in a communication skill set. This basic ability to communicate, which may differ by age and education, permits reproduction and quality assessment and is crucial in training soldiers for effective participation in KLEs.
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98291
Designing User Interfaces for Just in Time Enterprise Solution
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Abstract:
Introduction: One of the most important criteria for technology to sustain and grow is through it’s elaborate and intuitive design methodology and design thinking. Designing for enterprise applications that cater to Just in Time Technology is one of the most challenging and detailed processes any User Experience Designer would come across. Description: The basic principles of Design, when applied to tailor to these technologies, creates an immense challenge and that’s how a set of redefined and revised design principles that can be applied to designing any Just In Time manufacturing solution. Findings: The thorough process of understanding the end user, their existing pain points which they’ve faced in the real world, their responsibilities and expectations, the core needs and last but not the least the demands, creates havoc nurturing of the design methodologies for the Just in Time solutions. With respect to the business aspect, design and design principles play a strong role in any form of innovation. Conclusion: Innovation and knowledge about the latest technologies are the keywords in the manufacturing industry. It becomes crucial for the product development team to be precise in their understanding of the technology and being sure of end users expectation.
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80801
Harmonic Data Preparation for Clustering and Classification
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Abstract:
The rapid increase in the size of databases required to store power quality monitoring data has demanded new techniques for analysing and understanding the data. One suggested technique to assist in analysis is data mining. Preparing raw data to be ready for data mining exploration take up most of the effort and time spent in the whole data mining process. Clustering is an important technique in data mining and machine learning in which underlying and meaningful groups of data are discovered. Large amounts of harmonic data have been collected from an actual harmonic monitoring system in a distribution system in Australia for three years. This amount of acquired data makes it difficult to identify operational events that significantly impact the harmonics generated on the system. In this paper, harmonic data preparation processes to better understanding of the data have been presented. Underlying classes in this data has then been identified using clustering technique based on the Minimum Message Length (MML) method. The underlying operational information contained within the clusters can be rapidly visualised by the engineers. The C5.0 algorithm was used for classification and interpretation of the generated clusters.
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21000
Positioning Organisational Culture in Knowledge Management Research
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Abstract:
This paper proposes a conceptual model for understanding the impact of organisational culture on knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. It is suggested that organisational culture should be assessed as a multi-level construct comprising artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions. A holistic view of organisational culture and knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance, is presented. A comprehensive review of previous literature was undertaken in the development of the conceptual model. Taken together, the literature and the proposed model reveal possible relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance. Potential implications of organisational culture levels for the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge are elaborated. In addition, the paper offers possible new insight into the impact of organisational culture on various knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. A number of possible relationships between organisational culture factors, knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance were employed to examine such relationships. The research model highlights the multi-level components of organisational culture. These are: the artifacts, the espoused beliefs and values, and the underlying assumptions. Through a conceptualisation of the relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance, the study provides practical guidance for practitioners during the implementation of knowledge management processes. The focus of previous research on knowledge management has been on understanding organisational culture from the limited perspective of promoting knowledge creation and sharing. This paper proposes a more comprehensive approach to understanding organisational culture in that it draws on artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions, and reveals their impact on the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge which can affect overall organisational performance.
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32637
Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides
Abstract:
Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used on a wide range of materials including ceramics. The complete understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials needs further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behaviour as a function of microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, addressing some of the key issues and challenges faced in the research.
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85118
Future Metro Station: Remodeling Underground Environment Based on Experience Scenarios and IoT Technology
Abstract:
The project Future Station (FS) seek for a deeper understanding of metro station. The main idea of the project is enhancing the underground environment by combining new architectural design with IoT technology. This research shows the understanding of the metro environment giving references regarding traditional design approaches and IoT combined space design. Based on the analysis, this research presents design alternatives in two metro stations those are chosen for a testbed. It also presents how the FS platform giving a response to travelers and deliver the benefit to metro operators. In conclusion, the project describes methods to build future metro service and platform that understand traveler’s intentions and giving appropriate services back for enhancing travel experience. It basically used contemporary technology such as smart sensing grid, big data analysis, smart building, and machine learning technology.
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47112
Applying Hybrid Graph Drawing and Clustering Methods on Stock Investment Analysis
Abstract:
Stock investment decisions are often made based on current events of the global economy and the analysis of historical data. Conversely, visual representation could assist investors’ gain deeper understanding and better insight on stock market trends more efficiently. The trend analysis is based on long-term data collection. The study adopts a hybrid method that combines the Clustering algorithm and Force-directed algorithm to overcome the scalability problem when visualizing large data. This method exemplifies the potential relationships between each stock, as well as determining the degree of strength and connectivity, which will provide investors another understanding of the stock relationship for reference. Information derived from visualization will also help them make an informed decision. The results of the experiments show that the proposed method is able to produced visualized data aesthetically by providing clearer views for connectivity and edge weights.
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103630
A Study on Puzzle-Based Game to Teach Elementary Students to Code
Abstract:
In this study, we developed a puzzle game based on coding and a web-based management system to observe the user's learning status in real time and maximize the understanding of the coding of elementary students. We have improved upon and existing coding game which cannot be connected to textual language coding or comprehends learning state. We analyzed the syntax of various coding languages for the curriculum and provided a menu to convert icon into textual coding languages. In addition, the management system includes multiple types of tutoring, real-time analysis of user play data and feedback. Following its application in regular elementary school software classes, students reported positive effects on understanding and interest in coding were shown by students. It is expected that this will contribute to quality improvement in software education by providing contents with proven educational value by breaking away from simple learning-oriented coding games.
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116460
Understanding the Strategies Underpinning the Marketing of E-Cigarettes: A Content Analysis of Video Advertisements
Abstract:
Introduction: The use of e-cigarettes, also known as vaping, has risen exponentially among North American youth and young adults (YYA) in recent years and has become a critical public health concern. The marketing strategies used by e-cigarette companies have been associated with the uptick in use among YYA, with video advertisements on TV and other electronic platforms being the most pervasive strategy. It is unknown if or how these advertisements capitalize on the recently documented multi-faceted influences that contribute to the initiation of vaping among this demographic (e.g., stress, anxiety, gender, peers, etc.), which is examined in this study. Methods: This content analysis is phase one of a two-phased research project that aims to inform meaningful approaches to anti-vaping messaging and campaigns. As part of this first phase, a scoping review has been conducted to identify various influences (environmental, cognitive, contextual, social, and emotional) on e-cigarette uptake among YYA. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a coding framework to analyze the multiple influences present in vaping advertisements, as seen on two popular television channels (Discovery and AMC). In addition, advertisement characteristics will be incorporated into the coding framework (e.g., the number of people present, demographic details, context, and setting, etc.), and analyzed. Findings: Findings will reveal the types of influences being leveraged in vaping advertisements, and identify the underlying messages that may be particularly attractive to YYA. This will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how e-cigarette companies market their products and to whom. The results will also inform the next phase of this research project, which will encompass an analysis of anti-vaping advertisements and how the underpinning strategies align with those of the pro-vaping advertisements. Conclusions: Findings of this will study bring forward important implications for developing effective anti-vaping messages, and assist public health professionals in providing more comprehensive prevention and cessation support as it relates to e-cigarette use. Understanding which marketing strategies e-cigarette companies use is vital to our understanding of how to combat them. Findings will inform recommendations for public health efforts aimed at curbing e-cigarette use among YYA, and ultimately contribute to the health and well-being of YYA.
61
81985
Issues in Translating Hadith Terminologies into English: A Critical Approach
Abstract:
This study aimed at investigating major issues in translating the Arabic Hadith terminologies into English, focusing on choosing the most appropriate translation for each, reviewing major Hadith works in English. This study is confined to twenty terminologies with regard to classification of Hadith based on authority, strength, number of transmitters and connections in Isnad. Almost all available translations are collected and analyzed to find the most proper translation based on linguistic and translational values. To the researcher, many translations lack precise understanding of either Hadith terminologies or English language and varieties of methodologies have influence on varieties of translations. This study provides a classification of translational and conceptual issues. Translational issues are related to translatability of these terminologies and their equivalence. Conceptual issues provide a list of misunderstandings due to wrong translations of terminologies. This study ends with a suggestion for unification in translating terminologies based on convention of Muslim scholars having good understanding of Hadith terminologies and English language.
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54412
Customer Churn Analysis in Telecommunication Industry Using Data Mining Approach
Abstract:
Data mining has been becoming more and more important and a wide range of applications in recent years. Data mining is the process of find hidden and unknown patterns in big data. One of the applied fields of data mining is Customer Relationship Management. Understanding the relationships between products and customers is crucial for every business. Customer Relationship Management is an approach to focus on customer relationship development, retention and increase on customer satisfaction. In this study, we made an application of a data mining methods in telecommunication customer relationship management side. This study aims to determine the customers profile who likely to leave the system, develop marketing strategies, and customized campaigns for customers. Data are clustered by applying classification techniques for used to determine the churners. As a result of this study, we will obtain knowledge from international telecommunication industry. We will contribute to the understanding and development of this subject in Customer Relationship Management.
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42896
Study of Information Technology Support to Knowledge Sharing in Social Enterprises
Abstract:
Information technology (IT) facilitates the management of knowledge in organisations through the effective leverage of collective experience and knowledge of employees. This supports information processing needs, as well as enables and facilitates sense-making activities of knowledge workers. The study of IT support for knowledge management (KM) has been carried out mainly in larger organisations where resources and competitive conditions can trigger the use of KM. However, there is still a lack of understanding on how IT can support the management of knowledge under different organisational settings influenced by: constant tensions between social and economic objectives, more focus on sustainability than competiveness, limited resources, and high levels of democratic participation and intrinsic motivations among employees. All these conditions are presented in Social Enterprises (SEs), which are normally micro and small businesses that trade to tackle social problems, improve communities, people’s life chances, and the environment. Thus, their importance to society and economies is increasing. However, there is still a need for more understanding of how these organisations operate, perform, innovate and scale-up. This knowledge is crucial to design and provide accurate strategies to enhance the sector and increase its impact and coverage. To obtain a conceptual and empirical understanding of how IT can facilitate KM in the particular organisational conditions of SEs, a quantitative study was conducted with 432 owners and senior members of SEs in UK, underpinned by 21 interviews. The findings demonstrated how IT was supporting more the recovery and storage of necessary information in SEs, and less the collaborative work and communication among enterprise members. However, it was established that SEs were using cloud solutions, web 2.0 tools, Skype and centralised shared servers to manage informally their knowledge. The possible impediments for SEs to support themselves more on IT solutions can be linked mainly to economic and human constraints. These findings elucidate new perspectives that can contribute not only to SEs and SE supporters, but also to other businesses.
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67041
Introducing Thermodynamic Variables through Scientific Inquiry for Engineering Students
Abstract:
This work shows how the learning of physics is enriched with scientific inquiry practices, achieving learning that results in the use of higher-level cognitive skills. The activities, which were carried out with students of the 3rd semester of the courses of the Faculty of Sciences of the Engineering of the Austral University of Chile, focused on the understanding of the nature of the thermodynamic variables and how they relate to each other. This, through the analysis of atmospheric data obtained in the meteorological station Miraflores, located on the campus. The proposed activities consisted of the elaboration of time series, linear analysis of variables, as well as the analysis of frequencies and periods. From their results, the students reached conclusions associated with the nature of the thermodynamic variables studied and the relationships between them, to finally make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards. It is observed that introducing topics that are close to them, interesting and which affect their daily lives allows a better understanding of the subjects, which is reflected in higher levels of approval and motivation for the subject.
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30742
The Effectiveness of Teaching Games for Understanding in Improving the Hockey Tactical Skills and State Self-Confidence among 16 Years Old Students
Abstract:
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Teaching Games For Understanding (TGFU) in improving the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. Two hundred fifty nine (259) school students were selected for the study based on the intact sampling method. One class was used as the control group (Boys=60, Girls=70), while another as the treatment group (Boys=60, Girls=69) underwent intervention with TGFU in physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks. The Games Performance Assessment Instrument was used to observe the hockey tactical skills and The State Self-Confidence Inventory was used to determine the state of self-confidence among the students. After four weeks, ANCOVA analysis indicated the treatment groups had significant improvement in hockey tactical skills with F (1, 118) =313.37, p < .05 for school boys, and F (1, 136) =92.62, p < .05 for school girls. The Mann Whitney U test also showed the treatment groups had significant improvement in state self-confidence with U=428.50, z= -7.22, p < .05, r=.06 for school boys. ANCOVA analysis also showed the treatment group had significant improvement in state self-confidence with F (1, 136) =74.40, p < .05 for school girls. This indicates that TGFU in a 40 minute physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks can significantly improve the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. The findings give new knowledge to PE teachers to implement the TGFU method as it enhances the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. Some recommendation was suggested for future research.
56
109145
Understanding the Impact of Ephemerality and Mobility on Social Media News: A Content Analysis of News on Snapchat
Abstract:
Over the past decade, news outlets have increasingly used social media as a means to create and distribute news content to audiences. Ephemerality, the transitory nature of media, and mobility, media viewing on mobile technologies, are two increasingly salient attributes of social media content; yet little is known about how these features influence news selection practices of news outlets when distributing news via social media. To account for this gap, this study examines the influences of ephemerality and mobility on social media news content on the social media application Snapchat, in order to understand how these qualities of digital media influence and shape news content. Findings from this study suggest that understandings of ephemerality and mobility play a key role in influencing social media news. This paper suggests that as these factors become increasingly salient in our dominant news viewing environments, being able to understand how they manifest themselves in online news reporting practices is critical for both scholars and practitioners of news as they aim to understand what 'newsworthiness' means in the current, digital age. Findings from this study also enhance our current understandings of how the technological affordances of online and digital media platforms play a key role in shaping the kinds being produced and what information is being prioritized and highlighted in our contemporary news media environment. This is especially important in our current era where new mediums and technologies for news dissemination are continuously arising, and reorienting our understandings of what is considered ‘news'. As a key site of mass communication, discourse, and stories highlighted in the news do critical work in defining culture and ideology. Thus, better understanding the contours of news in our contemporary moment is critical in understanding cultural norms and meaning-making.
55
99243
The Effect of Evil Eye in the Individuals' Journey for Personhood within a Christian Orthodox Society
Abstract:
The present paper negotiates the effect of 'the evil eye' on individuals' mental health while at the same time poses the problem of how the evil eye fits into the anthropological arena as a key question that forges a fundamental link between religion, anthropology and mental health professions. It is the argument of the paper that the evil eye is an essential and fundamental human phenomenon and therefore any scholarly field involved in its study must consider the insight it provides into the development of personhood. The study was an anthropological study in the geographical area of Corfu, a Greek Orthodox society uninfluenced by the Ottoman Islamic Culture. The paper aims to deepen our understanding of the evil eye as it analyses the interaction between the evil eye and gaze and how they affect the development of personhood; based on the empirical data collected from the fieldwork. Therefore, the paper adopts a psychoanalytic anthropology approach to facilitate a better understanding of the evil eye through the accounts of individuals’ journeys in the process of their development of personhood. Finally, the paper aims to offer a detailed analysis of the particular element of eye (‘I’) and, more specifically, of ‘the others’, as they relate to the phenomenon of the evil eye.
54
9707
Hotel Guests’ Service Fulfillment: Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract:
The value of service evaluation depends critically on guests’ understanding of the evaluation objectives and their roles. The present research presents a three-phase investigation of the impact of evaluating participants’ theories about their roles: (a) identifying the theories, (b) testing the process consequences of participants’ role theories, and (c) gaining insights into the impact of participants’ role theories by testing key moderator/s. The findings of this study will hopefully indicate that (a) when forewarned of an upcoming evaluation task, consumers tend to believe that the evaluation objective is to identify aspects that need improvement, (b) this expectation produces a conscious attempt to identify negative aspects, although the encoding of attribute information is not affected, and (c) cognitive load during the evaluation experience greatly decreases the negativity of expected evaluations. The present study can be applied to other market research techniques and thereby improve our understanding of consumer inputs derived from market research. Such insights can help diminish biases produced by participants’ correct or incorrect theories regarding their roles.
53
15696
Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective
Authors:
Abstract:
The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.
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62418
Developing a Shared Understanding of Wellbeing: An Exploratory Study in Irish Primary Schools Incorporating the Voices of Teachers
Abstract:
Wellbeing in not only a national priority in Ireland but in the international context. A review of the literature highlights the consistent efforts of researchers to define the concept of wellbeing. This study sought to explore the understating of Wellbeing in Irish primary schools. National Wellbeing Guidelines in the Irish context frame the concept of wellbeing through a mental health paradigm, which is but one aspect of wellbeing. This exploratory research sought the views of Irish primary-school teachers on their understanding of the concept of wellbeing and the practical application of strategies to promote wellbeing both in the classroom and across the school. Teacher participants from four counties in the West of Ireland were invited to participate in focus group discussion and workshops through the Education Centre Network. The purpose of this process was twofold; firstly to explore teachers’ understanding of wellbeing in the primary school context and, secondly, for teachers to be co-creators in the development of practical strategies for classroom and whole school implementation. The voice of the teacher participants was central to the research design. The findings of this study indicate that the definition of wellbeing in the Irish context is too abstract a definition for teachers and the focus on mental health dominates the discourse in relation to wellbeing. Few teachers felt that they were addressing wellbeing adequately in their classrooms and across the school. The findings from the focus groups highlighted that while teachers are incorporating a range of wellbeing strategies including mindfulness and positive psychology, there is a clear disconnect between the national definition and the implementation of national curricula which causes them concern. The teacher participants requested further practical strategies to promote wellbeing at whole school and classroom level within the framework of the Irish Primary School Curriculum and enable them to become professionally confident in developing a culture of wellbeing. In conclusion, considering wellbeing is a national priority in Ireland, this research promoted the timely discussion the wellbeing guidelines and the development of a conceptual framework to define wellbeing in concrete terms for practitioners. The centrality of teacher voices ensured the strategies proposed by this research is both practical and effective. The findings of this research have prompted the development of a national resource which will support the implementation of wellbeing in the primary school at both national and international level.
51
24915
A Critical Evaluation of Building Information Modelling in New Zealand: Deepening Our Understanding of the Benefits and Drawbacks
Abstract:
There is belief that Building Information Modelling (BIM) will improve performance of the New Zealand (NZ) Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, however, widespread use of BIM is yet to be seen. Previous research indicates there are many issues affecting the uptake of BIM in NZ; nevertheless the underlying benefits, drawbacks, and barriers preventing more widespread uptake are not fully understood. This investigation aimed to understand these factors more clearly and make suggestions on how to improve the uptake of BIM in NZ. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of industry professionals to gather a qualitative understanding. Findings indicated the ability to incorporate better information into a BIM model could drive many benefits. However scepticism and lack of positive incentives in NZ are affecting its widespread use. This concluded that there is a need for the government to produce a number of BIM case studies and develop a set of BIM standards to resolve payment issues surrounding BIM use. This study provides useful information for those interested in BIM and members of government interested in improving the performance of the construction industry. This study may also be of interest to small, developed countries such as NZ where the level of BIM maturity is relatively low.
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22164
Understanding Tacit Knowledge and DIKW
Authors:
Abstract:
Today it is difficult to reach accurate knowledge because of mass data. This huge data makes the environment more and more caotic. Data is a main piller of intelligence. There is a close tie between knowledge and intelligence. Information gathered from different sources can be modified, interpreted and classified by using knowledge development process. This process is applied in order to attain intelligence. Within this process the effect of knowledge is crucial. Knowledge is classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge can be seen as "only the tip of the iceberg”. This tacit knowledge accounts for much more than we guess in all intelligence cycle. If the concept of intelligence scrutinized, it can be seen that it contains risks, threats as well as success. The main purpose for all organization is to be succesful by eliminating risks and threats. Therefore, there is a need to connect or fuse existing information and the processes which can be used to develop it. By the help of process the decision-maker can be presented with a clear holistic understanding, as early as possible in the decision making process. Planning, execution and assessments are the key functions that connects to information to knowledge. Altering from the current traditional reactive approach to a proactive knowledge development approach would reduce extensive duplication of work in the organization. By new approach to this process, knowledge can be used more effectively.
49
81577
A Study of Shigeru Ban's Environmentally-Sensitive Design Approach
Abstract:
The Japanese architect Shigeru Ban has succeeded in bringing a different understanding to the modern architectural design approach with both the material selection and the techniques he used while combining the material with the design. Ban, who reflects his respect to people and nature with his designs, has encouraged that design should be done with economic materials, easily accessible and understandable for everyone. Because of this, Ban has attracted attention and appreciated in the architectural world with his environmentally-sensitive design ideology and humanitarian projects. In order to understand Ban’s environmentally-sensitive design approach, with this article, Ban’s projects which have used natural materials; the projects of Ban’s Japenese Pavilion in Germany, Papertainer Museum in South Korea, Centre Pompidou-Metz in France and Cardboard Cathedral in New Zealand were examined and analyzed. In the following parts, 'paper tube' technology that creates awareness in architectural area, which developed and applied by Ban; has been examined in terms of building material and structure of sustainable space design. As a result of this review, Ban’s approach is evaluated in terms of its contribution to the understanding of sustainable design.
48
46842
Pawn or Potentates: Corporate Governance Structure in Indian Central Public Sector Enterprises
Abstract:
The Department of Public Enterprises had made submissions of Self Evaluation Reports, for the purpose of corporate governance, mandatory for all central government owned enterprises. Despite this, an alarming 40% of the enterprises did not do so. This study examines the impact of external policy tools and internal firm-specific factors on corporate governance of central public sector enterprises (CPSEs). We use a dataset of all manufacturing and non-financial services owned by the central government of India for the year 2010-11. Using probit, ordered logit and Heckman’s sample selection models, the study finds that the probability and quality of corporate governance is positively influenced by the CPSE getting into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the central government of India, and hence, enjoying more autonomy in terms of day to day operations. Besides these, internal factors, including bigger size and lower debt size contribute significantly to better corporate governance.
47
33712
Understanding the Effect of Material and Deformation Conditions on the “Wear Mode Diagram”: A Numerical Study
Abstract:
The increasing application of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) in the automotive industry to fulfill crash requirements has introduced higher levels of wear in stamping dies and parts. Therefore, understanding wear behaviour in sheet metal forming is of great importance as it can help to reduce the high costs currently associated with tool wear. At the contact between the die and the sheet, the tips of hard tool asperities interact with the softer sheet material. Understanding the deformation that occurs during this interaction is important for our overall understanding of the wear mechanisms. For these reasons, the scratching of a perfectly plastic material by a rigid indenter has been widely examined in the literature; with finite element modelling (FEM) used in recent years to further understand the behaviour. The ‘wear mode diagram’ has been commonly used to classify the deformation regime of the soft work-piece during scratching, into three modes: ploughing, wedge formation, and cutting. This diagram, which is based on 2D slip line theory and upper bound method for perfectly plastic work-piece and rigid indenter, relates different wear modes to attack angle and interfacial strength. This diagram has been the basis for many wear studies and wear models to date. Additionally, it has been concluded that galling is most likely to occur during the wedge formation mode. However, there has been little analysis in the literature of how the material behaviour and deformation conditions associated with metal forming processes influence the wear behaviour. Therefore, the first aim of this work is first to use a commercial FEM package (Abaqus/Explicit) to build a 3D model to capture wear modes during scratching with indenters with different attack angles and different interfacial strengths. The second goal is to utilise the developed model to understand how wear modes might change in the presence of bulk deformation of the work-piece material as a result of the metal forming operation. Finally, the effect of the work-piece material properties, including strain hardening, will be examined to understand how these influence the wear modes and wear behaviour. The results show that both strain hardening and substrate deformation can change the critical attack angle at which the wedge formation regime is activated.
46
66961
The Study of the Concept of Aesthetics in Architecture Derived from the Ideas of Jörg Kurt Greuther
Abstract:
As there are several styles and attitudes among the practitioners of the present time, it is difficult to achieve a definition of beauty for contemporary architecture and aesthetic concepts has different frameworks in various disciplines. Beauty can be regarded as one of the most important elements of architecture; therefore, having a clear understanding of beauty can help architects and audiences to create or analyze an architectural work. This paper investigates the assumption that we can have a clearer understanding of the concept of aesthetics in architecture by analyzing the ideas of the contemporary analyst of architectural aesthetics, Jörg Greuther. Thus, the question is how the concept of aesthetics in architecture will be analyzed in their thoughts. In general, the paper aims to examine aesthetic concepts in the contemporary era that are expressed relying on Greuther's views. The paper adopts a descriptive-analytic approach in terms of methodology. Finally, through the study of the viewpoints of various scholars and specifically considering Greuther's definition that focuses on the effect of psychological-social factors on human perception and formation of the schema, it could be said that aesthetics means to have a good knowledge of truth and understand it.
45
22078
Remedying Students' Misconceptions in Learning of Chemical Bonding and Spontaneity through Intervention Discussion Learning Model (IDLM)
Abstract:
In the past few decades, the field of chemistry education has grown tremendously and researches indicated that after traditional chemistry instruction students often lacked deep conceptual understanding and failed to integrate their ideas into coherent conceptual framework. For several concepts in chemistry, students at all levels have demonstrated difficulty in changing their initial perceptions. Their perceptions are most often wrong and do not agree with correct scientific concepts. This study explored the effectiveness of intervention discussion sections for a college general chemistry course designed to apply research on students preconceptions, knowledge integration and student explanation. Three interventions discussions lasting three hours on bond energy and spontaneity were done tested and intervention (treatment) students’ performances were compared with that of control group which did not use the experimental pedagogy. Results indicated that this instruction which was capable of identifying students' misconceptions, initial conceptions and integrating those ideas into class discussion led to enhanced conceptual understanding and better achievement for the experimental group.
44
10464
Exploiting Domino Games "Cassava H154M" in Order to Improve Students' Understanding about the Value of Trigonometry in Various Quadrants
Abstract:
Utilization game on a lesson needs to be done in order to provide proper motoric learning model to improve students' skills. Approach to the game, as one of the models of a motoric learning, is intended to improve student learning outcomes math trigonometry materials generally that prioritize a Memory or rote. The purpose of this study is producting innovation to improve a cognitive abilities of students in the field, to improve student performance, and ultimately to improve student understanding in determining a value of trigonometry in various quadrants, and it apply a approach to the game Domino "Cassava H154M" who is adopted from cassava game and it has made total revised in cassava content. The game is divided into 3 sessions: sine cassava, cosine cassava and cassava tangent. Researchers using action of research method, which consists of several stages such as: planning, implementation, observation, reporting and evaluation. Researchers found that a game approaches can improve student learning outcomes, enhance students' creativity in terms of their motoric learning, and creating a supportive learning environment.
43
3666
Modeling User Context Using CEAR Diagram
Abstract:
Even though the number of context aware applications is increasing day by day along with the users, till today there is no generic programming paradigm for context aware applications. This situation could be remedied by design and developing the appropriate context modeling and programming paradigm for context aware applications. In this paper, we are proposing the static context model and metrics for validating the expressiveness and understandability of the model. The proposed context modeling is a way of describing a situation of user using context entities , attributes and relationships .The model which is an extended and hybrid version of ER model, ontology model and Graphical model is specifically meant for expressing and understanding the user situation in context aware environment. The model is useful for understanding context aware problems, preparing documentation and designing programs and databases. The model makes use of context entity attributes relationship (CEAR) diagram for representation of association between the context entities and attributes. We have identified a new set of graphical notations for improving the expressiveness and understandability of context from the end user perspective .
42
76587
Understanding Human Trafficking in Benin City: Implications for Social Work Intervention
Abstract:
Human trafficking also known as modern-day slavery can be seen as an effort by some privileged and criminally minded persons to take advantage of vulnerable individuals for their economic gains. Some factors; poverty, unemployment, poor educational opportunities, ignorance and traditional attitudes are attributed as causes and psychological, sexual, moral and health problems as impacts of human trafficking. This study examines the phenomenon of human trafficking in Benin City, one of the cities in Nigeria, situated as a source of trafficked persons for exploitation in Europe and African countries. Even though the Nigerian government and Non-governmental organizations have made considerable efforts in the past to reduce the incidence of human trafficking, the result has been an adjustment in the personality of the trafficked persons rather than professional measures to combat the issue. Hence, the study adopts the focused group discussions as a method for data collection; to sort the opinions of community members towards the understanding of the phenomenon. In addition, this paper provides social work implications to address the issue of human trafficking in the Benin City, Nigeria.
41
38248
Unraveling the Threads of Madness: Henry Russell’s 'The Maniac' as an Advocate for Deinstitutionalization in the Nineteenth Century
Abstract:
Henry Russell was best known as a composer of more than 300 songs. Many of his compositions were popular for both their sentimental texts, as in ‘The Old Armchair,’ and those of a more political nature, such as ‘Woodsman, Spare That Tree!’ Indeed, Russell had written such songs of advocacy as those associated with abolitionism (‘The Slave Ship’) and environmentalism (‘Woodsman, Spare that Tree!’). ‘The Maniac’ is his only composition addressing the issue of institutionalization. The text is borrowed and adapted from the monodrama The Captive by M.G. ‘Monk’ Lewis. Through an analysis of form, harmony, melody, text, and thematic development and interactions between text and music we can approach a clearer understanding of ‘The Maniac’ and how the text and music interact. Select periodicals, such as The London Times, provide contemporary critical review for ‘The Maniac.’ Additional nineteenth century songs whose texts focus on madness and/or institutionalization will assist in building a stylistic and cultural context for ‘The Maniac.’ Through comparative analyses of ‘The Maniac’ with a body of songs that focus on similar topics, we can approach a clear understanding of the song as a vehicle for deinstitutionalization.
40
91495
The Use of Mnemonic and Mathematical Mnemonic Method in Improving Historical Understanding
Abstract:
This paper discusses the use of mnemonic and mathematical methods in enhancing the understanding of history. Mnemonics can help students from all levels including high school and in various disciplines including language, math and history. At the secondary level, students are exposed to various courses that require them to remember many facts that can be mastered through the application of mnemonic techniques. Researchers use narrative literature studies to illustrate the current state of art and science in the field of research focused. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific base of knowledge. Researchers gather all the key points in the discussion, and put it here by referring to the specific field where the paper is essentially based. The findings suggest that the use of mnemonic techniques can improve the individual&#39;s memory by adding little effort. In implementing mnemonic techniques, it is important to integrate mathematics and history in the course as both are interconnected as mathematics has shaped our history and vice versa. This study shows that memory skills can actually be improved; the human mind can remember something more than expected.
39
100454
Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
Abstract:
During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examined the understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.
38
100074
Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
Abstract:
During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examined the understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.
37
100075
Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
Abstract:
During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examined the understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.
36
100077
Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
Abstract:
During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examined the understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.
35
65834
Festive Fictions: An Iconographic Study of Ritual and Intersectionality in Cartagena, Colombia
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper draws upon the studies of visual culture and intersectionality to illuminate how visuality can naturalize social hierarchies. Through the use of iconography, it decodes the denotative, connotative and ideological meanings of symbols of ritualistic events in the context of the Colombian Atlantic Coast. An examination of such exceptional moments, i.e. of the spectacle, brings into focus how such performances are imbued with meaning by both the on-looker and the performer. Through an analysis of preexisting visuals (e.g., advertisements, social media) and visual materials produced by the researcher for the purpose of photo-elicitation interviews, this paper provides a contextual analysis of the ways in which three representations, popular during Colombian Atlantic coastal festivals (Negrita Puloy, Las Palenqueras, and El Son de Negro), have been historically, culturally and politically constituted. This work reveals that the visualizations are born out of and reproduce typifications systems heavily based upon race, gender, class, and ethnicity. Understanding the ways these categories are mutually constituted through the cultural practice of visual representation is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of the role such representation plays in the reproduction of social difference.
34
124659
Generation Y Leaders in Radiology Nursing - Changing the Culture by Understanding the Challenges of a Multi-Generational Workforce
Abstract:
In 2020, there are currently four generations in the nursing workforce: The Veterans, Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y (Gen Y). Understanding each generation and their growing needs will equip the workforce for when the Boomers prepare for retirement, with majority of nursing leadership positions to be potentially replaced with Gen Y nurses. In SA Medical Imaging(SAMI), at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC), it has been proven that despite challenges in succession planning, Gen Y nurse leaders are able to overcome these obstacles and provide the leadership necessary to meet the changing needs in healthcare and across organisations. Changing the culture in radiology nursing has been seen as an obstacle due to the historical nursing practices and resistance to adapt to current/future practice. As radiology advances so does the role of the nurse in imaging, this has required resilience and strong support through leadership as we change and develop the culture to keep up with the evolution of technology and standard of patient care. As a result of supporting Gen Y nurses in leadership roles, SAMI, FMC has seen a positive change in culture by creating a healthy work environment which has allowed Gen Y nurses to make long lasting contributions to the nursing profession.
33
98311
Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students
Authors:
Abstract:
In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.
32
2269
Psychology of Terrorism: Psychology of War
Authors:
Abstract:
Terrorism is a universal phenomenon. It is an enemy to the world and humanity, representing the most essential challenges facing developing and developed societies of the world. Terrorism is traumatically a major cause for death and disability. Developing societies are catastrophically suffering more in comparing to developed ones. Importantly, the terrorism may have been emigrated from developing societies; therefore, it cannot be appropriately explained/understood elsewhere. Developing societies have attempts for solutions. These attempts may have contributed somehow to either overcoming temporally terrorism or at least waterless its fountains. It appears these attempts are fallen on personal experiences/local endeavours related to the nature of those societies and cultures. The missing issue is the involvement of the applications of psychological theories for understanding terrorism as a phenomenon. However, terrorism is behaviour, like other behaviours, it can be explained, analysed and predicted while psychology is involved as the science of behaviour and mental process. Later than, solutions whatever they are (intervention/prevention) have to be born from the womb of psychological theories explaining/understanding terrorism. This paper is an endeavour to shed light on psychological theories which may present an explanation for terrorism, as a behavioural phenomenon, looking for the effective evidence-based interventions/prevention. An emphasis will be on the experiences of developing countries which may have made/incubated terrorism.
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7634
Corporate Social Responsibility and Students’ Job Performance: A Case Study of Silpakorn University’s Internship Program
Abstract:
This research attempts to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility and students’ job performance of the Silpakorn University’s internship program within various organizations. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility that fundamentally relate to students’ job performance within the organizations. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from selected employers’ qualitative assessment and evaluation forms from various companies. The results represent the perceptions of students towards the corporate social responsibility aspects and their job performance evaluation from the employers in various organizations. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility has significant effects on students’ job performance. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and workplace environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility practices toward students’ job performance within an organizational setting. Therefore, there is good reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR and students’ job performance as an essential aspect of long-term success sustainability.
30
42256
Engaging Mature Learners through Video Case Studies
Abstract:
This article provides a case study centred on the development of 13 video episodes which have been created to enhance student engagement with a post graduate online course in Project Management. The student group was unique as their online course needed to provide for asynchronistic learning and an adult learning pedagogy. In addition, students had come from a wide range professional backgrounds, with some having no Project Management experience, while others had 20 years or more. Students had to gain an understanding of an advanced body of knowledge and the course needed to achieve the academic requirements to qualify individuals to apply their learning in a range of contexts for professional practice and scholarship. To achieve this, a 13 episode case study was developed along with supportive learning materials based on the relocation of a zoo. This unique project provided a learning environment where the project could evolve over each video episode demonstrating the application of Project Management methodology which was then tied into the learning outcomes for the course and the assessment tasks. Discussion forums provided a way for students to converse and demonstrate their own understanding of content and how Project Management methodology can be applied.
29
39771
Analysis of Subjective Indicators of Quality of Life in Makurdi
Abstract:
The preliminary stages in the development of human communities are the formation of a correct understanding of people’s needs. However, perception of human needs is highly subjective and difficult to aggregate. Quality of life measurements are an appropriate means for achieving an understanding of Human needs. Hence this study endeavors to measure quality of life in Makurdi using subjective indices to measure three aspects of subjective wellbeing. A sample of 400 respondents achieved by applying the Taro Yamane formula to Makurdi’s projected population. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to residents of nine wards in Makurdi. Findings from a pilot study( N=100) demonstrated that among the 2 aspects of overall quality of life investigated,22% had a mean low overall assessment of quality of life now being3on the scale and an even poorer assessment for projected quality in the next five years by 17%(3)although an equal percentage are hopeful for a better life(10)in the next five years.60% of the respondents record very rare positive feelings while only 10% have positive feelings always on the eudaimonic scale69%strongly agree that they have a purposeful and meaningful life. Findings indicate good social ties as a strong indicator for perceived good feelings and even though quality of life is perceived as low there is optimism for the future.
28
127113
Corporate Social Responsibility vs Corporate Social Reactivity: An Exploration of Corporate Social Responsibility Planning in a Multinational Oil and Gas in Indonesia
Abstract:
This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) planning in a downstream business of multinational oil and gas company in Indonesia from managerial perspectives. The institutional logic is employed in this research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the way the MNC manages the socio-cultural aspects in the host countries, especially in the process of translation and adaptation of the company’s CSR global guidelines. The interviews are conducted with fifteen managers in that company, both at the top managerial level and operational level. In the beginning, this research explains the Indonesian society’s conception of CSR from the managerial standpoints. The society’s understanding of the CSR concept becomes the fundamental foundations of the company in developing CSR programs. This study found the company’s approach to its CSR in two ways. First, proactive CSR which reflects the global CSR guidelines. Second, reactive CSR which do not show any explicit relations to the global guidelines, but conform with society’s demands. The findings stimulate discussions regarding the power of an MNC vis-à-vis the socio-cultural implication in society’s demand for CSR.
27
36268
Hydrologic Balance and Surface Water Resources of the Cheliff-Zahrez Basin
Abstract:
The Cheliff basin offers a good hydrological example for the possibility of studying the problem which elucidated in the future, because of the unclearity in several aspects and hydraulic installation. Thus, our study of the Cheliff basin is divided into two principal parts: The spatial evaluation of the precipitation: also, the understanding of the modes of the reconstitution of the resource in water supposes a good knowledge of the structuring of the precipitation fields in the studied space. In the goal of a good knowledge of revitalizes them in water and their management integrated one judged necessary to establish a precipitation card of the Cheliff basin for a good understanding of the evolution of the resource in water in the basin and that goes will serve as basis for all study of hydraulic planning in the Cheliff basin. Then, the establishment of the precipitation card of the Cheliff basin answered a direct need of setting to the disposition of the researchers for the region and a document of reference that will be completed therefore and actualized. The hydrological study, based on the statistical hydrometric data processing will lead us to specify the hydrological terms of the assessment hydrological and to clarify the fundamental aspects of the annual flow, seasonal, extreme and thus of their variability and resources surface water.
26
75946
Understanding Context and Its Effects in the Implementation of Modern Foreign Language Curriculum in Vietnam
Authors:
Abstract:
The key issue for teachers of a modern foreign language is the creation of a pedagogic environment, and this means that an understanding of context is vital. A pedagogic environment addresses the following: time, feedback, relations with other people, curriculum integration, forms of knowledge, resources and control in the pedagogic relationship. In this light, the multiple case study of the implementation of a modern foreign language curriculum focuses on exploring Vietnamese contexts and participants’ perceptions of factors that may affect their implementation process in order to examine thoroughly how the communicative language teaching (CLT) curriculum is being implemented in second language classrooms. A mixed methods approach is utilized to investigate contextual and personal factors that may affect teachers’ implementation of curriculum and pedagogical reform in Vietnam. This project therefore has the capability to inform stakeholders of useful information and identify further changes and measures to solve potential problems to ensure the achievement of the curriculum goals. The expected outcomes may also lead to intercultural language teaching guidelines to support english as a foreign language (EFL) teachers with curriculum design, planning and how to create pedagogic environment to best implement it.
25
21739
Assessment of Frying Material by Deep-Fat Frying Method
Abstract:
Deep-fat frying is popular standard method that has been studied basically to clarify the complicated mechanisms of fat decomposition at high temperatures and to assess their effects on human health. The aim of this paper is to point out the application of method engineering that has been recently improved our understanding of the fundamental principles and mechanisms concerned at different scales and different times throughout the process: pretreatment, frying, and cooling. It covers the several aspects of deep-fat drying. New results regarding the understanding of the frying method that are obtained as a results of major breakthroughs in on-line instrumentation (heat, steam flux, and native pressure sensors), within the methodology of microstructural and imaging analysis (NMR, MRI, SEM) and in software system tools for the simulation of coupled transfer and transport phenomena. Such advances have opened the approach for the creation of significant information of the behavior of varied materials and to the event of latest tools to manage frying operations via final product quality in real conditions. Lastly, this paper promotes an integrated approach to the frying method as well as numerous competencies like those of chemists, engineers, toxicologists, nutritionists, and materials scientists also as of the occupation and industrial sectors.
24
104160
The Diffusion of Telehealth: System-Level Conditions for Successful Adoption
Authors:
Abstract:
Telehealth is a promising advancement in health care, though there are certain conditions under which telehealth has a greater chance of success. This research sought to further the understanding of what conditions compel the success of telehealth adoption at the systems level applying Diffusion of Innovations (DoI) theory (Rogers, 1962). System-level indicators were selected to represent four components of DoI theory (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) and regressed on 5 types of telehealth (teleradiology, teledermatology, telepathology, telepsychology, and remote monitoring) using multiple logistic regression. The analyses supported relative advantage and compatibility as the strongest influencers of telehealth adoption, remote monitoring in particular. These findings help to quantitatively clarify the factors influencing the adoption of innovation and advance the ability to make recommendations on the viability of state telehealth adoption. In addition, results indicate when DoI theory is most applicable to the understanding of telehealth diffusion. Ultimately, this research may contribute to more focused allocation of scarce health care resources through consideration of existing state conditions available foster innovation.
23
24814
Sustainability Education among the Malaysian Media
Abstract:
This paper provides a discussion of the importance of sustainability education among the Malaysian media. Without doubt, media play a crucial role in promoting the sustainable or so called “eco-system” society for a better future. Since 2002, the role of media as one of the vital stakeholders particularly in educating the society in three main areas of sustainable education including on environment, economy and society has been clearly highlights on the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) that was held in Johannesburg. In this paper, six media practitioners from two local Malaysia newspapers organization were interviewed by the researcher in order to identify their understanding about sustainability education; their perception about the pivotal role in sustainability education and the challenges faced by them in the process of educating society about sustainability issues. The findings of this study showed that most of Malaysian media practitioners have displayed clear understanding about sustainability education and they also realize their huge responsibility for not only informing but also educating society in having a sustainable lifestyle. The ultimate challenge in sustainability education faced by the media is to make the public really understand the importance of sustainable lifestyle. Overall, from this study, it is hoped to provide more possible direction in sustainability education not only among the Malaysian media but also all media in the entire world, particularly the developing and Southeast Asian countries.
22
91354
Understanding the Programming Techniques Using a Complex Case Study to Teach Advanced Object-Oriented Programming
Abstract:
Teaching Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) as part of a Computing-related university degree is a very difficult task; the road to ensuring that students are actually learning object oriented concepts is unclear, as students often find it difficult to understand the concept of objects and their behavior. This problem is especially obvious in advanced programming modules where Design Pattern and advanced programming features such as Multi-threading and animated GUI are introduced. Looking at the students&rsquo; performance at their final year on a university course, it was obvious that the level of students&rsquo; understanding of OOP varies to a high degree from one student to another. Students who aim at the production of Games do very well in the advanced programming module. However, the students&rsquo; assessment results of the last few years were relatively low; for example, in 2016-2017, the first quartile of marks were as low as 24.5 and the third quartile was 63.5. It is obvious that many students were not confident or competent enough in their programming skills. In this paper, the reasons behind poor performance in Advanced OOP modules are investigated, and a suggested practice for teaching OOP based on a complex case study is described and evaluated.
21
38581
EFL Teacher Cognition and Learner Autonomy: An Exploratory Study into Algerian Teachers’ Understanding of Learner Autonomy
Authors:
Abstract:
The main aim of the present case study was to explore EFL teachers’ understanding of learner autonomy. Thus, it sought to uncover how teachers at the de Department of English, University of Béjaia, Algeria view the process of language learning, their learners’ roles, their own roles and their practices to promote learner autonomy. For data collection, firstly, a questionnaire was designed and administered to all the teachers in the department. Secondly, interviews were conducted with some volunteers for the sake of clarifying emerging issues and digging deeper into some of the teachers’ answers to the questionnaire. The analysis revealed interesting data pertaining to the teachers’ cognition and its effects on their teaching practices. With regard to their views of language learning, it seems that the participants hold discrete views which are in opposition with the principles of learner autonomy. The teachers seemed to have a limited knowledge of the characteristics of autonomous learners and autonomy- based methodology. When it comes to teachers’ practices to promote autonomy in their classes, the majority reported that the most effective way is to ask students to search for information on their own. However, in defining their roles in the EFL learning process, most of the respondents claimed that teachers should play the role of facilitators.
20
86936
Explanation and Temporality in International Relations
Abstract:
What makes for a good explanation? Twenty years after Wendt’s important treatment of constitution and causation, non-causal explanations (sometimes referred to as ‘understanding’, or ‘descriptive inference’) have become, if not mainstream, at least accepted within International Relations. This article proceeds in two parts: firstly, it examines closely Wendt’s constitutional claims, and while it agrees there is a difference between causal and constitutional, rejects the view that constitutional explanations lack temporality. In fact, this author concludes that a constitutional argument is only possible if it relies upon a more foundational, causal argument. Secondly, through theoretical analysis of the constitutional argument, this research seeks to delineate temporal and non-temporal ways of explaining within International Relations. This article concludes that while the constitutional explanation, like other logical arguments, including comparative, and counter-factual, are not truly non-causal explanations, they are not bound as tightly to the ‘real world’ as temporal arguments such as cause-effect, process tracing, or even interpretivist accounts. However, like mathematical models, non-temporal arguments should aim for empirical testability as well as internal consistency. This work aims to give clear theoretical grounding to those authors using non-temporal arguments, but also to encourage them, and their positivist critics, to engage in thoroughgoing empirical tests.
19
120371
Social Processes and Organizational Structures for the Management of Exploration and Exploration within and across Organization Boundaries
Abstract:
The role of internal and external efforts in the management of exploration and exploitation has been highlighted in literature. External ties support ambidexterity at different levels with, for instance: business unit ambidexterity, individual ambidexterity, organizational ambidexterity, and alliance ambidexterity. Recently studies have highlighted the combination of organization, alliance, and acquisition strategies for ambidexterity by conceptualizing ambidexterity across modes of operation. Literature still lacks detailed understanding of how these different processes are combined in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. This study plans to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the social processes involved in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. Main arguments are integrated from social structures, organizational design, and ambidexterity literature. The framework illustrates that how social capital is promoted by hierarchical relations within the organization and business relations across the boundaries of the organization. Whereby such social relations within and outside the organization are supported by the dual structures of the organization in the coordination of multiple efforts. This paper has potential to contribute to the understanding about how ambidexterity is attained.
18
94867
Understanding Risky Borrowing Behavior among Young Consumers: An Empirical Study
Authors:
Abstract:
Many consumers are uncertain of what financial borrowing behavior may serve their interests in the best way. This is important since consumers’ risky financial decisions may not only negatively affect their short-term liquidity but may haunt them for years after they are made. Obviously, this is especially critical for young adults who often carry large amounts of student loans or credit card debt, which in turn may hinder their future ability to obtain financial healthiness. Even though factors such as financial knowledge, attitudes towards risk, gender, and motivations of borrowing, among others, are known to influence consumer borrowing behavior, no existing model comprehensibly describes the mechanisms behind young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. This is unfortunate since a better understanding of the relationships between such factors and young adults’ risky borrowing behavior may be of value to financial service providers and financial authorities aiming to improve young adults’ borrowing behavior. This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework for the purpose of understanding young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. The study is based on two survey samples comprising 488 young adults aged 18-25 who have not obtained a risky loan (sample 1) and 214 young adults aged 18-25 who already have obtained a risky loan (sample 2), respectively. The results suggest several psychological, sociological, and behavioral factors that may influence young adults’ intentional risky borrowing behavior, which in turn is shown to affect actualized risky borrowing behavior. We also found that the relationship between intentional risky borrowing behavior and actualized risky borrowing behavior is negatively moderated by perceived risk – but not by perceived complexity. In particular, the results of this study indicate that public policy makers, banks and financial educators should seek to eliminate less desirable social norms on how to behave financially. In addition, they should seek to enhance young adults’ risky borrowing perceived risk, thereby preventing that intentional risky borrowing behavior translates into actualized risky behavior.
17
53292
Students as Global Citizens: Lessons from the International Study Tour
Authors:
Abstract:
Study and work operations are being transformed with the uses of technologies and are consequently becoming global. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the international study tour that Australian Bachelor of Information Systems students undertook. This research identifies that for the study tour to be successful, students need to gain skills that global citizens require. For example, students will need to gain an understanding of local cultures, local customs and habits. Furthermore, students would also need to gain an understanding of how a field of their future career expertise operates in the host country, how study and business are conducted internationally, which tools and technologies are currently being utilized on a global scale, what trends drive future developments world-wide and how business negotiations and collaborations are being undertaken across borders. Furthermore, this research provides a guide to educators who are planning, guiding and running study tours as it outlines the requirements of having a pre-tour preparatory session, carefully planned and executed tour itineraries and post-tour sessions during which students can reflect on their experiences and lessons learned so that they can apply them to future international business visits and ventures.
16
81995
Consideration of Whether Participation in the International '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence' Campaign Is an Effective Teaching Tool for Raising Awareness and Understanding of Gender Based Violence
Abstract:
The international campaign, '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence', seeks to raise awareness and understanding of gender based violence in a variety of settings. The campaign requires its participants to join in for advancing the right to education and challenging violence, discrimination, and inequality and take into account intersections such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and other social identifiers. The authors of this paper are both clinic supervisors at Northumbria University in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. As part of their research project, the authors are going to ask final year students on the MLaw degree at Northumbria University to become involved in the campaign by participating in a variety of awareness-raising activities during the course of the 16 days, which runs from 27 November 2017 until 10 December 2017. As part of the campaign, the authors will be running the following activities for students to participate in 1. Documentary showing of Banaz, a love story followed by discussion group. 2. 16 blogs for 16 days. Students will contribute to our family law blog over the 16 days, with articles about gender based violence. 3. Guest lecture on domestic violence (potentially run by a domestic violence organisation) 4. Workshop by Professor Ruth Lewis who will be presenting her innovative research in gender based violence and online abuse. 5. Poster competition - the students are asked to submit a poster about the different forms of gender based violence or proposals for ending violence against women and girls. The research aims are to identify whether participation in the project: 1. increases the students' engagement with issues of gender justice 2. is an effective educational tool for raising the students' awareness and understanding of gender based violence in its many forms. 3. increases the students' understanding of the domestic and international framework for protecting victims (in particular women and children) of gender based violence. After the activities, an impartial, experienced researcher will be holding a focus group with volunteering students to discuss their experiences of participating in the activities and whether they felt that participation in the project achieved the aims set out above. This paper will discuss the activities undertaken by the students and will address the data gathered during the focus group. Finally, the authors will discuss their thoughts on whether awareness of gender-based violence and other international family law issues can be appropriately raised in an educational setting.
15
119324
Targeting and Developing the Remaining Pay in an Ageing Field: The Ovhor Field Experience
Abstract:
Understanding the complexity in the distribution of hydrocarbon in a simple structure with flow baffles and connectivity issues is critical in targeting and developing the remaining pay in a mature asset. Subtle facies changes (heterogeneity) can have a drastic impact on reservoir fluids movement, and this can be crucial to identifying sweet spots in mature fields. This study aims to evaluate selected reservoirs in Ovhor Field, Niger Delta, Nigeria, with the objective of optimising production from the field by targeting undeveloped oil reserves, bypassed pay, and gaining an improved understanding of the selected reservoirs to increase the company’s reservoir limits. The task at the Ovhor field is complicated by poor stratigraphic seismic resolution over the field. 3-D geological (sedimentology and stratigraphy) interpretation, use of results from quantitative interpretation, and proper understanding of production data have been used in recognizing flow baffles and undeveloped compartments in the field. The full field 3-D model has been constructed in such a way as to capture heterogeneities and the various compartments in the field to aid the proper simulation of fluid flow in the field for future production prediction, proper history matching and design of good trajectories to adequately target undeveloped oil in the field. Reservoir property models (porosity, permeability, and net-to-gross) have been constructed by biasing log interpreted properties to a defined environment of deposition model whose interpretation captures the heterogeneities expected in the studied reservoirs. At least, two scenarios have been modelled for most of the studied reservoirs to capture the range of uncertainties we are dealing with. The total original oil in-place volume for the four reservoirs studied is 157 MMstb. The cumulative oil and gas production from the selected reservoirs are 67.64 MMstb and 9.76 Bscf respectively, with current production rate of about 7035 bopd and 4.38 MMscf/d (as at 31/08/2019). Dynamic simulation and production forecast on the 4 reservoirs gave an undeveloped reserve of about 3.82 MMstb from two (2) identified oil restoration activities. These activities include side-tracking and re-perforation of existing wells. This integrated approach led to the identification of bypassed oil in some areas of the selected reservoirs and an improved understanding of the studied reservoirs. New wells have/are being drilled now to test the results of our studies, and the results are very confirmatory and satisfying.
14
39530
Training Program for Kindergarden Teachers on Learning through Project Approach
Abstract:
In facing the 21st century, children need to be prepared in reaching their optimum development level which encompasses all aspect of growth and to achieve the learning goals which include not only knowledge and skill, but also disposition and feeling. Teachers as the forefront of education need to be equipped with the understanding and skill of a learning method which can prepare the children to face this 21st century challenge. Project approach is an approach which utilizes active learning which is beneficial for the children. Subject to this research are kindergarten teachers at Dwi Matra Kindergarten and Kirana Preschool. This research is a quantitative research using before and after study design. The result suggest that through preliminary training program on learning with project approach, the kindergarten teachers ability to explain project approach including understanding, benefit and stages of project approach have increased significantly, the teachers ability to design learning with project approach have also improved significantly. The result of learning design that the teachers had made shows a remarkable result for the first stage of the project approach; however the second and third design result was not as optimal. Challenges faced in the research will be elaborated further in the research discussion.
13
46113
Measuring the Full Impact of Culture: Social Indicators and Canadian Cultural Policy
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper argues that there is an opportunity for PCH to further expand its relevance within the Canadian policy context by taking advantage of the growing international trend of using social indicators for public policy evaluation. Within the mandate and vision of PCH, there is an incomplete understanding of the value that the arts and culture provide for Canadians, specifically with regard to four social indicators: community development, civic engagement, life satisfaction, and work-life balance. As will be shown, culture and the arts have a unique role to play in such quality of life indicators, and there is an opportunity for PCH to aid in the development of a comprehensive national framework that includes these indicators. This paper lays out approach to understanding how social indicators may be included in the Canadian context by first illustrating recent trends in policy evaluation on a national and international scale. From there, a theoretical analysis of the connection between cultural policy and social indicators is provided. The second half of the paper is dedicated to explaining the shortcomings of Canadian cultural policy evaluation in terms of its tendency to justify expenditures related to arts and cultural activities in purely economic terms, and surveying how other governments worldwide are leading the charge in this regard.
12
100878
The Exploration of Preschool Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Socio-Emotional Development in School Readiness
Abstract:
Socio-emotional development is considered to be an essential prerequisite for school readiness. To our best knowledge, research on socio-emotional development specifically from the views of teachers in the South African context is limited. This study explored preschool teachers’ understanding of the role that socio-emotional development plays in preparing the child for school. Using the social learning theory, a qualitative approach with an exploratory design was used for the study. A total of 12 preschool teachers from both community-based and school-based preschools were purposively recruited. Upon receiving ethics clearance from the University of the Western Cape and the Western Cape Education Department, semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed by utilizing Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. Participants’ rights, anonymity, and confidentiality were upheld throughout the research process. Findings reveal that preschool teachers emphasise the importance of holistic development for school readiness. Teachers deemed socio-emotional development as absolutely crucial for preparing children for school as it eases the transition to formal schooling and adaptation to the classroom environment.
11
15141
Efficient Energy Management: A Novel Technique for Prolonged and Persistent Automotive Engine
Abstract:
The need to prevent and control rampant and indiscriminate usage of energy in present-day realm on earth has motivated active research efforts aimed at understanding of controlling mechanisms leading to sustained energy. Although much has been done but complexity of the problem has prevented a complete understanding due to nonlinear interaction between flow, heat and mass transfer in terrestrial environment. Therefore, there is need for a systematic study to clearly understand mechanisms controlling energy-spreading phenomena to increase a system’s efficiency. The present work addresses the issue of sustaining energy and proposes a devoted technique of optimizing energy in the automotive domain. The proposed method focus on utilization of the mechanical and thermal energy of an automobile IC engine by converting and storing energy due to motion of a piston in form of electrical energy. The suggested technique utilizes piston motion of the engine to generate high potential difference capable of working as a secondary power source. This is achieved by the use of a gear mechanism and a flywheel.
10
26451
The Acceptance of E-Assessment Considering Security Perspective: Work in Progress
Abstract:
The implementation of e-assessment as tool to support the process of teaching and learning in university has become a popular technological means in universities. E-Assessment provides many advantages to the users especially the flexibility in teaching and learning. The e-assessment system has the capability to improve its quality of delivering education. However, there still exists a drawback in terms of security which limits the user acceptance of the online learning system. Even though there are studies providing solutions for identified security threats in e-learning usage, there is no particular model which addresses the factors that influences the acceptance of e-assessment system by lecturers from security perspective. The aim of this study is to explore security aspects of e-assessment in regard to the acceptance of the technology. As a result a conceptual model of secure acceptance of e-assessment is proposed. Both human and security factors are considered in formulation of this conceptual model. In order to increase understanding of critical issues related to the subject of this study, interpretive approach involving convergent mixed method research method is proposed to be used to execute the research. This study will be useful in providing more insightful understanding regarding the factors that influence the user acceptance of e-assessment system from security perspective.
9
91000
Method of Complex Estimation of Text Perusal and Indicators of Reading Quality in Different Types of Commercials
Abstract:
Modern commercials presented on billboards, TV and on the Internet contain a lot of information about the product or service in text form. However, this information cannot always be perceived and understood by consumers. Typical sociological focus group studies often cannot reveal important features of the interpretation and understanding information that has been read in text messages. In addition, there is no reliable method to determine the degree of understanding of the information contained in a text. Only the fact of viewing a text does not mean that consumer has perceived and understood the meaning of this text. At the same time, the tools based on marketing analysis allow only to indirectly estimate the process of reading and understanding a text. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a valid method of recording objective indicators in real time for assessing the fact of reading and the degree of text comprehension. Psychophysiological parameters recorded during text reading can form the basis for this objective method. We studied the relationship between multimodal psychophysiological parameters and the process of text comprehension during reading using the method of correlation analysis. We used eye-tracking technology to record eye movements parameters to estimate visual attention, electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive load and polygraphic indicators (skin-galvanic reaction, SGR) that reflect the emotional state of the respondent during text reading. We revealed reliable interrelations between perceiving the information and the dynamics of psychophysiological parameters during reading the text in commercials. Eye movement parameters reflected the difficulties arising in respondents during perceiving ambiguous parts of text. EEG dynamics in rate of alpha band were related with cumulative effect of cognitive load. SGR dynamics were related with emotional state of the respondent and with the meaning of text and type of commercial. EEG and polygraph parameters together also reflected the mental difficulties of respondents in understanding text and showed significant differences in cases of low and high text comprehension. We also revealed differences in psychophysiological parameters for different type of commercials (static vs. video, financial vs. cinema vs. pharmaceutics vs. mobile communication, etc.). Conclusions: Our methodology allows to perform multimodal evaluation of text perusal and the quality of text reading in commercials. In general, our results indicate the possibility of designing an integral model to estimate the comprehension of reading the commercial text in percent scale based on all noticed markers.
8
26600
Ecological and Economical Indicators of Successful Community Based Forest Management: A Case of Lowland Community Forestry in Nepal
Abstract:
The Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) approach is often glorified as the best forest management alternatives in the developing countries. However, how the approach has been understood by the local user households, who implement it is remained unanswered for many planners, policy makers, and sometimes researcher as well. The study attempts to assess the understanding of ecology and economics of CBFM in Nepal, where community forest program has been implemented since the 1970s. In order to understand the impacts of the program, eight criteria and sixteen indicators for ecological conservation and similarly same number of criteria and indicators for socio-economic impacts of the program were designed and compared between before and after the program implementation. The community forestry program has positive effects in forest ecology conservation and at the same time rural livelihood improvement of local people. The study revealed that collective understanding of forest ecology and economics leads the CBFM approach towards the sustainability of the program in a win-win situation. The recommendations of the study are expected to be useful to natural resource managers, planners, and policy makers.
7
29571
Do Career Expectancy Beliefs Foster Stability as Well as Mobility in One's Career? A Conceptual Model
Abstract:
Considerable dichotomy exists in research regarding the role of optimism and self-efficacy in work and career outcomes. Optimism and self-efficacy are related to performance, commitment and engagement, but also are implicated in seeing opportunities outside the firm and switching jobs. There is absence of research capturing these opposing strands of findings in the same model and providing a holistic understanding of how the expectancy beliefs operate in case of the working professional. We attempt to bridge this gap by proposing that career-decision self-efficacy and career outcome expectations affect intention to quit through the competitive mediation pathways of internal and external marketability. This model provides a holistic picture of the role of career expectancy beliefs on career outcomes, by considering perceived career opportunities both inside and outside one’s present organization. The understanding extends the application of career expectancy beliefs in the context of career decision-making by the employed individual. Further, it is valuable for reconsidering the effectiveness of hiring and retention techniques used by a firm, as selection, rewards and training programs need to be supplemented by interventions that specifically strengthen the stability pathway.
6
115140
An Exploratory Survey Questionnaire to Understand What Emotions Are Important and Difficult to Communicate for People with Dysarthria and Their Methodology of Doing That
Abstract:
People with speech disorders may rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies to help them communicate. However, the limitations of the current AAC technologies act as barriers to the optimal use of these technologies in daily communication settings. The ability to communicate effectively relies on a number of factors that are not limited to the intelligibility of the spoken words. In fact, non-verbal cues play a critical role in the correct comprehension of messages, and having to rely on verbal communication only, as is the case with current AAC technology, may contribute to problems in communication. This is especially true for people’s ability to express their feelings and emotions, which are communicated to a large part through non-verbal cues. This paper focuses on understanding more about the non- verbal communication ability of people with dysarthria, with the overarching aim of this research being to improve AAC technology by allowing people with dysarthria to better communicate emotions. Preliminary survey results are presented that give an understanding of how people with dysarthria convey emotions, what emotions that are important for them to get across, what emotions that are difficult for them to convey, and whether there is a difference in communicating emotions when speaking to familiar versus unfamiliar people.
5
12546
Managing IT Departments in Higher Education Institutes: Coping with the Exponentially Growing Needs and Expectations
Abstract:
Information technology is changing rapidly and the users’ expectations are also growing. Dealing with these changes in information technology, while satisfying the users’ needs and expectations is a big challenge. IT managers need to explore new mechanisms/strategies to enable them to cope with such challenges. The objectives of this research are to identify the significant challenges that might face IT managers in higher education institutes in the face of the high and ever growing customer expectations and to propose possible solutions to cope with such high-speed changes in information technology. To achieve these objectives, interviews with the IT professionals from different higher education institutes in Oman were conducted. In addition, documentation (printed and online) related to these institutions were studied and an intensive literature review of published work was examined. The findings of this research are expected to give a better understanding of the challenges that might face the IT managers at higher education institutes. This acquired understanding is expected to highlight the importance of being adaptable and fast in keeping up with the ever-growing technological changes. Moreover, adopting different tools and technologies could assist IT managers in developing their organisations’ IT policies and strategies.
4
7633
The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Knowledge Management Factors on University's Students' Learning Process
Abstract:
This research attempts to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on students’ learning process of the Silpakorn University. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility and the knowledge management factors that fundamentally relate to students’ learning process within the university context. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from a set of quantitative data that were obtained using Silpakorn university’s database of 200 students. The results represent the perceptions of students regarding the impact of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on their learning process within the university. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility and knowledge management have significant effects on students’ learning process. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and learning environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility and knowledge management practices toward students’ learning process within the university bodies. Therefore, there is a sufficient reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR, KM and students’ learning process as an essential aspect of university’s stakeholder.
3
89264
Model-Based Field Extraction from Different Class of Administrative Documents
Abstract:
The amount of incoming administrative documents is massive and manually processing these documents is a costly task especially on the timescale. In fact, this problem has led an important amount of research and development in the context of automatically extracting fields from administrative documents, in order to reduce the charges and to increase the citizen satisfaction in administrations. In this matter, we introduce an administrative document understanding system. Given a document in which a user has to select fields that have to be retrieved from a document class, a document model is automatically built. A document model is represented by an attributed relational graph (ARG) where nodes represent fields to extract, and edges represent the relation between them. Both of vertices and edges are attached with some feature vectors. When another document arrives to the system, the layout objects are extracted and an ARG is generated. The fields extraction is translated into a problem of matching two ARGs which relies mainly on the comparison of the spatial relationships between layout objects. Experimental results yield accuracy rates from 75% to 100% tested on eight document classes. Our proposed method has a good performance knowing that the document model is constructed using only one single document.
2
88199
Fashion Accessory and Its Future: Design for Sustainability Applied to the Design Process as a Potential Approach
Abstract:
The fashion industry has become one of the most polluting industries in the world. In this context, designers can contribute solutions to the problem by applying Design for Sustainability (DfS) criteria, which will enable to promote designing products and services toward Sustainability. Therefore, 'Slow Fashion' movement has been receiving the attention of researchers, designers, and customers who are sensitive to sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of DfS in fashion. In particular, how can apply sustainable design principles to the fashion accessory in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment and society? The research method of this study is qualitative, utilising a multi-method case study approach. Grounded theory analysis was applied to analyse the data of the case studies collected and the results obtained. Also, research findings indicate that DfS applied to Fashion Accessory design processes might have great potential and win-win approaches toward a sustainable future. An important implication is that understanding the concepts and applying DfS to fashion accessory design processes can support designers to face challenges and seize opportunities. Furthermore, identify the key concept of sustainability and social responsibility could raise awareness on sustainable fashion for both producers and customers more effectively.
1
107584
Understanding the Scope of Architects in Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of Bhuj
Authors:
Abstract:
Predominantly, the conventional role of an architect is to design and construct. However, in a post-disaster scenario, the prevalent role expands and includes many other responsibilities. Agencies collaborating in post-disaster reconstruction face the challenge of building back quickly while requiring them to listen, reflect, develop and deliver as per the needs and requirements of the people. The question of the role of an architect has been extensively discussed in the reconstruction field. Discourses about the role of an architect in post-disaster scenario revolve around the ignorance by the profession, their professional abilities and inabilities. Within this domain, this paper aims at analyzing and recognizing the roles, responsibilities, scope, limitations, skillsets applied and required by an architect while working in a post-disaster situation. Four projects rebuilt after the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India were examined for this research. Based on the analysis of the case study, areas of intervention of an architect in the various stages of rebuilding were identified. It was reinforced that within the areas of intervention identified, there is a vast gap between the prescribed, the prevalent notion and the performed responsibilities of an architect. This paper brings forth the specific gaps in the rebuilding process while exploring and understanding the relationship between various stakeholders that influence the role of an architect.