Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66741

200
129043
Defect Correlation of Computed Tomography and Serial Sectioning in Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract:
This study presents initial results toward the correlative characterization of inherent defects of Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture (AM). X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) defect data are compared and correlated with microscopic photographs obtained via automated serial sectioning. The metal AM specimen was manufactured out of Ti-6Al-4V virgin powder to specified dimensions. A post-contour was applied during the fabrication process with a speed of 1050 mm/s, power of 260 W, and a width of 140 µm. The specimen was stress relief heat-treated at 16°F for 3 hours. Microfocus CT imaging was accomplished on the specimen within a predetermined region of the build. Microfocus CT imaging was conducted with parameters optimized for Ti-6Al-4V additive manufacture. After CT imaging, a modified RoboMet. 3D version 2 was employed for serial sectioning and optical microscopy characterization of the same predetermined region. Automated montage capture with sub-micron resolution, bright-field reflection, 12-bit monochrome optical images were performed in an automated fashion. These optical images were post-processed to produce 2D and 3D data sets. This processing included thresholding and segmentation to improve visualization of defect features. The defects observed from optical imaging were compared and correlated with the defects observed from CT imaging over the same predetermined region of the specimen. Quantitative results of area fraction and equivalent pore diameters obtained via each method are presented for this correlation. It is shown that Microfocus CT imaging does not capture all inherent defects within this Ti-6Al-4V AM sample. Best practices for this correlative effort are also presented as well as the future direction of research resultant from this current study.
199
124573
The Lexicographic Serial Rule
Abstract:
We study the probabilistic allocation of finitely many indivisible objects to finitely many agents. Well known allocation rules for this problem include random priority, the market mechanism proposed by Hylland and Zeckhauser [1979], and the probabilistic serial rule of Bogomolnaia and Moulin [2001]. We propose a new allocation rule, which we call the lexico-graphic (serial) rule, that is tailored for situations in which each agent's primary concern is to maximize the probability of receiving her favourite object. Three axioms, lex efficiency, lex envy freeness and fairness, are proposed and fully characterize the lexicographic serial rule. We also discuss how our axioms and the lexicographic rule are related to other allocation rules, particularly the probabilistic serial rule.
198
87170
Characterization of Porosity and Flow in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with 3D Focused Ion Beam Serial Slicing
Abstract:
DualBeam (FIB-SEM) has long been the technology of choice to sub-sample and characterize materials at site-specific locations which are difficult or impossible to extract by conventional embedding/polishing methods. Whereas Ga based FIB provides excellent resolution and enables precise material removal, the current is usually limited and only allows the extraction of small material biopsies typically ranging from 5-70um wide. Xe Plasma FIB, by contrast, has around 38x more current and can remove more material at the same time to extract significant sized chunks (100-1000um) of materials for further analysis. This increased volume has enabled time-prohibitive investigations like large grain 3D serial sectioning and EBSD and micro-machining for micro-mechanical testing. Investigation of the pore spaces with 3D modeling can determine the relative characteristics of the materials to help design or select properties for best function. Pore spaces can be described with a tortuosity number which is calculated by modules in the 3D analysis software. Xe Plasma FIB technology provides a workflow with sufficient volume to characterize porosity when both large-volume 3D materials characterization and nanometer resolution is required to understand the system.
197
95847
Development of a Firmware Downloader for AVR Microcontrollers for Educational Purposes
Abstract:
This paper introduces the development of a firmware downloader for students attending microcontroller-related courses taught by the authors In the courses, AVR microcontroller experiment kits are used for programming exercise and the AVR microcontroller is programmed through a serial communication interface using a bootloader preinstalled on it. To use the bootloader, a matching firmware downloader that runs on a host computer and communicates with the bootloader is also required. When firmware downloading is completed, the serial port used for it needs to be closed. If the downloaded firmware uses serial communication, the serial port needs to be reopened in a serial terminal. As a result, the programmer of the AVR board switches from the downloader program and the serial terminal and vice versa. It is a simple task but quite a hassle to do each time new firmware needs downloading. To provide a more convenient programming environment for the courses, the authors developed a downloader program that includes a serial terminal in it. The program operates in downloader or terminal mode and the mode switching is performed automatically; therefore manual mode switching is not necessary. The feature provides a more convenient development environment by eliminating the need for manual mode switching each time firmware downloading is required.
196
29117
New Restoration Reagent for Development of Erased Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface
Abstract:
A serial number is a unique code assigned for identification of a single unit. Serial number are present on many objects. In an attempt to hide the identity of the numbered item, the numbers are often obliterated or removed by mechanical methods. The present work was carried out with an objective to develop less toxic, less time consuming, more result oriented chemical etching reagent for restoration of serial number on the copper metal plate. Around nine different reagents were prepared using different combination of reagent along with standard reagent and it was applied over 50 erased samples of copper metal and compared it with the standard reagent for restoration of erased marks. After experiment, it was found that the prepared Etching reagent no. 3 (10 g FeCl3 + 20 ml glacial acetic acid + 100 ml distilled H2O) showed the best result for restoration of erased serial number on the copper metal plate .The reagent was also less toxic and less time consuming as compared to standard reagent (19 g FeCl3 + 6 ml cans. HCl + 100 ml distilled H2O).
195
41406
Massively-Parallel Bit-Serial Neural Networks for Fast Epilepsy Diagnosis: A Feasibility Study
Abstract:
There are about 1% of the world population suffering from the hidden disability known as epilepsy and major developing countries are not fully equipped to counter this problem. In order to reduce the inconvenience and danger of epilepsy, different methods have been researched by using a artificial neural network (ANN) classification to distinguish epileptic waveforms from normal brain waveforms. This paper outlines the aim of achieving massive ANN parallelization through a dedicated hardware using bit-serial processing. The design of this bit-serial Neural Processing Element (NPE) is presented which implements the functionality of a complete neuron using variable accuracy. The proposed design has been tested taking into consideration non-idealities of a hardware ANN. The NPE consists of a bit-serial multiplier which uses only 16 logic elements on an Altera Cyclone IV FPGA and a bit-serial ALU as well as a look-up table. Arrays of NPEs can be driven by a single controller which executes the neural processing algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed compact NPE design allows the construction of complex hardware ANNs that can be implemented in a portable equipment that suits the needs of a single epileptic patient in his or her daily activities to predict the occurrences of impending tonic conic seizures.
194
40829
A Common Automated Programming Platform for Knowledge Based Software Engineering
Abstract:
A common platform for automated programming (CPAP) is defined in details. Two versions of CPAP are described: Cloud-based (including the set of components for classic programming, and the set of components for combined programming) and KBASE based (including the set of components for automated programming, and the set of components for ontology programming). Four KBASE products (module for automated programming of robots, intelligent product manual, intelligent document display, and intelligent form generator) are analyzed and CPAP contributions to automated programming are presented.
193
66348
Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates
Abstract:
GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.
192
35064
Parallel PRBS Generation and Parallel BER Tester for 8-Gbps On-chip Interconnection Testing
Abstract:
In this paper, a multi-pattern parallel PRBS generator and a dedicated parallel BER tester is proposed for the 8-Gbps On-chip interconnection testing. A unique full-parallel PRBS checker is also proposed. The proposed design, together with the custom-designed high-speed parallel-to-serial and the serial-to-parallel circuit, will be used to test different on-chip interconnection transceivers. The design is implemented in TSMC 28nm CMOS technology with working voltage at 1.0 V. The serial to parallel ratio is 8:1 so the parallel PRBS generation and BER Tester can be run at lower speed.
191
133833
Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalizer Utilizing Fixed-Step Error Signal for Multi-Gbps Serial Links
Abstract:
This paper presents an adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) for multi-Gbps serial links utilizing a fix-step error signal extracted from cross-points of received data symbols. The extracted signal is generated based on violation of received data symbols with minimum detection requirements at the clock and data recovery (CDR) stage. The iterations of the adaptation process search for the optimum feedback tap coefficients to maximize the data eye-opening and minimize the adaptation convergence time. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is validated using the simulation results of a serial link designed in an IBM 130 nm 1.2V CMOS technology. The data link with variable channel lengths is analyzed using Spectre from Cadence Design Systems with BSIM4 device models.
190
40820
KBASE Technological Framework - Requirements
Abstract:
Automated software development issues are addressed in this paper. Layers and packages of a Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) are defined based on Service Oriented Architecture, Cloud computing, Knowledge based automated software engineering (KBASE) and Method of automated programming. Tools of seven leading companies (AWS of Amazon, Azure of Microsoft, App Engine of Google, vCloud of VMWare, Bluemix of IBM, Helion of HP, OCPaaS of Oracle) are analyzed in the context of CPAP. Based on the results of the analysis CPAP requirements are formulated
189
58339
Outcome Analysis of Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatment on Indicated Operative Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Serial Case in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Indonesia
Abstract:
Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common condition after head trauma. Although the size of the thickness of cSDH has an important role in the decision to perform surgery, but the size limit of the thickness is not absolute. In this serial case report, we evaluate three case report of cSDH that indicated to get the surgical procedure because of deficit neurologic and neuroimaging finding with subfalcine herniation more than 0.5 cm and hematoma thickness more than one cm. On the first case, the patient got evacuation hematoma procedure, but the second and third case, we did nonsurgical treatment because the patient and family refused to do the operation. We did the conservative treatment with bed rest and mannitol. Serial radiologic evaluation is done when we found worsening condition. We also reevaluated radiologic examination two weeks after the treatment. The results in this serial case report, the first and second case have a good outcome. On the third case, there was a worsening condition, which in this patient there was a comorbid with type two diabetic mellitus, pneumonie and chronic kidney disease. Some conservative treatment such as bed rest, corticosteroid, mannitol or the other hyperosmolar has a good outcome in patient without neurologic deficits, small hematoma, and or patient without comorbid disease. Evacuate hematome is the best choice in cSDH treatment with deficit neurologic finding. Afterall, there is some condition that we can not do the surgical procedure. Serial radiologic examination needed after two weeks to evaluate the treatment or if there is any worsening condition.
188
22622
Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving
Abstract:
In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.
187
68832
Low-Cost Reversible Logic Serial Multipliers with Error Detection Capability
Abstract:
Nowadays reversible logic has received many attentions as one of the new fields for reducing the power consumption. On the other hand, the processing systems have weaknesses against different external effects. In this paper, some error detecting reversible logic serial multipliers are proposed by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. This way, the new designs are presented for signed parity-preserving serial multipliers based on the Booth's algorithm by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates. The experimental results show that the proposed 4×4 multipliers in this paper reach up to 20%, 35%, and 41% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, quantum cost, and gate count, respectively, as the reversible logic criteria, compared to previous designs. Furthermore, all the proposed designs have been generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.
186
83167
Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering Platform Used for the Development of Bulgarian E-Customs
Abstract:
Described are challenges to the Bulgarian e-Customs (BeC) related to low level of interoperability and standardization, inefficient use of available infrastructure, lack of centralized identification and authorization, extremely low level of software process automation, and insufficient quality of data stored in official registers. The technical requirements for BeC are prepared with a focus on domain independent common platform, specialized customs and excise components, high scalability, flexibility, and reusability. The Knowledge Based Automated Software Engineering (KBASE) Common Platform for Automated Programming (CPAP) is selected as an instrument covering BeC requirements for standardization, programming automation, knowledge interpretation and cloud computing. BeC stage 3 results are presented and analyzed. BeC.S3 development trends are identified.
185
8139
3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy
Abstract:
We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.
184
82341
Automated Java Testing: JUnit versus AspectJ
Abstract:
Growing dependency of mankind on software technology increases the need for thorough testing of the software applications and automated testing techniques that support testing activities. We have outlined our testing strategy for performing various types of automated testing of Java applications using AspectJ which has become the de-facto standard for Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). Likewise JUnit, a unit testing framework is the most popular Java testing tool. In this paper, we have evaluated our proposed AOP approach for automated testing and JUnit on various parameters. First we have provided the similarity between the two approaches and then we have done a detailed comparison of the two testing techniques on factors like lines of testing code, learning curve, testing of private members etc. We established that our AOP testing approach using AspectJ has got several advantages and is thus particularly more effective than JUnit.
183
97254
Business and Psychological Principles Integrated into Automated Capital Investment Systems through Mathematical Algorithms
Abstract:
With few steps away from the 2020, investments in financial markets is a common activity nowadays. In the electronic trading environment, the automated investment software has become a major part in the business intelligence system of any modern financial company. The investment decisions are assisted and/or made automatically by computers using mathematical algorithms today. The complexity of these algorithms requires computer assistance in the investment process. This paper will present several investment strategies that can be automated with algorithmic trading for Deutscher Aktienindex DAX30. It was found that, based on several price action mathematical models used for high-frequency trading some investment strategies can be optimized and improved for automated investments with good results. This paper will present the way to automate these investment decisions. Automated signals will be built using all of these strategies. Three major types of investment strategies were found in this study. The types are separated by the target length and by the exit strategy used. The exit decisions will be also automated and the paper will present the specificity for each investment type. A comparative study will be also included in this paper in order to reveal the differences between strategies. Based on these results, the profit and the capital exposure will be compared and analyzed in order to qualify the investment methodologies presented and to compare them with any other investment system. As conclusion, some major investment strategies will be revealed and compared in order to be considered for inclusion in any automated investment system.
182
75994
Pallet Tracking and Cost Optimization of the Flow of Goods in Logistics Operations by Serial Shipping Container Code
Abstract:
The case study method in this paper shows the implementation of Information Technology (IT) and the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) in a Croatian company that deals with logistics operations and provides logistics services in the cold chain segment. This company is aware of the sensitivity of the goods entrusted to them by the user of the service, as well as of the importance of speed and accuracy in providing logistics services. To that end, it has implemented and used the latest IT to ensure the highest standard of high-quality logistics services to its customers. Looking for efficiency and optimization of supply chain management, while maintaining a high level of quality of the products that are sold, today's users of outsourced logistics services are open to the implementation of new IT products that ultimately deliver savings. By analysing the positive results and the difficulties that arise when using this technology, we aim to provide an insight into the potential of this approach of the logistics service provider.
181
107813
Monte Carlo Estimation of Heteroscedasticity and Periodicity Effects in a Panel Data Regression Model
Abstract:
This research attempts to investigate the effects of heteroscedasticity and periodicity in a Panel Data Regression Model (PDRM) by extending previous works on balanced panel data estimation within the context of fitting PDRM for Banks audit fee. The estimation of such model was achieved through the derivation of Joint Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test for homoscedasticity and zero-serial correlation, a conditional LM test for zero serial correlation given heteroscedasticity of varying degrees as well as conditional LM test for homoscedasticity given first order positive serial correlation via a two-way error component model. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out for 81 different variations, of which its design assumed a uniform distribution under a linear heteroscedasticity function. Each of the variation was iterated 1000 times and the assessment of the three estimators considered are based on Variance, Absolute bias (ABIAS), Mean square error (MSE) and the Root Mean Square (RMSE) of parameters estimates. Eighteen different models at different specified conditions were fitted, and the best-fitted model is that of within estimator when heteroscedasticity is severe at either zero or positive serial correlation value. LM test results showed that the tests have good size and power as all the three tests are significant at 5% for the specified linear form of heteroscedasticity function which established the facts that Banks operations are severely heteroscedastic in nature with little or no periodicity effects.
180
57009
Towards Automated Remanufacturing of Marine and Offshore Engineering Components
Abstract:
Automated remanufacturing process is of great interest in today’s marine and offshore industry. Most of the current remanufacturing processes are carried out manually and hence they are error prone, labour-intensive and costly. In this paper, a conceptual framework for automated remanufacturing is presented. This framework involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization, adaptive surface reconstruction, additive manufacturing and machining operation. Each operation is operated and interconnected automatically as one system. The feasibility of adaptive surface reconstruction on marine and offshore engineering components is also discussed. Several engineering components were evaluated and the results showed that this proposed system is feasible. Conclusions are drawn and further research work is discussed.
179
12182
Switched Ultracapacitors for Maximizing Energy Supply
Abstract:
Supercapacitors (S.C.) are presently attracting attention for driving general purpose (12VDC to 220VAC) inverters in renewable energy systems. Unfortunately, when the voltage of the S.C supplying the inverter reaches the minimal threshold of 7-8VDC the inverter shuts down leaving the remaining 40% of the valuable energy stored inside the ultracapacitor un-usable. In this work a power electronic circuit is proposed which switches 2 banks of supercapacitors from parallel connection when both are fully charged at 14VDC to serial connection when their voltages drop down to 7 volts, thus keeping the inverter working within its operating limits for a longer time and advantageously tapping almost 92% of the stored energy in the supercapacitors.
178
79173
Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.
177
23955
Mobile Application Testing Matrix and Challenges
Abstract:
The adoption of smartphones and the usages of mobile applications are increasing rapidly. Consequently, within limited time-range, mobile Internet usages have managed to take over the desktop usages particularly since the first smartphone-touched application released by iPhone in 2007. This paper is proposed to provide solution and answer the most demandable questions related to mobile application automated and manual testing limitations. Moreover, Mobile application testing requires agility and physically testing. Agile testing is to detect bugs through automated tools, whereas the compatibility testing is more to ensure that the apps operates on mobile OS (Operation Systems) as well as on the different real devices. Moreover, we have managed to answer automated or manual questions through two mobile application case studies MES (Mobile Exam System) and MLM (Mobile Lab Mate) by creating test scripts for both case studies and our experiment results have been discussed and evaluated on whether to adopt test on real devices or on emulators? In addition to this, we have introduced new mobile application testing matrix for the testers and some enterprises to obtain knowledge from.
176
43477
Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal
Abstract:
Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.
175
5964
A Controlled Natural Language Assisted Approach for the Design and Automated Processing of Service Level Agreements
Abstract:
The management of outsourcing relationships between IT service providers and their customers proofs to be a critical issue that has to be stipulated by means of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Since service requirements differ from customer to customer, SLA content and language structures vary largely, standardized SLA templates may not be used and an automated processing of SLA content is not possible. Hence, SLA management is usually a time-consuming and inefficient manual process. For overcoming these challenges, this paper presents an innovative and ITIL V3-conform approach for automated SLA design and management using controlled natural language in enterprise collaboration portals. The proposed novel concept is based on a self-developed controlled natural language that follows a subject-predicate-object approach to specify well-defined SLA content structures that act as templates for customized contracts and support automated SLA processing. The derived results eventually enable IT service providers to automate several SLA request, approval and negotiation processes by means of workflows and business rules within an enterprise collaboration portal. The illustrated prototypical realization gives evidence of the practical relevance in service-oriented scenarios as well as the high flexibility and adaptability of the presented model. Thus, the prototype enables the automated creation of well defined, customized SLA documents, providing a knowledge representation that is both human understandable and machine processable.
174
86622
Flowing Online Vehicle GPS Data Clustering Using a New Parallel K-Means Algorithm
Abstract:
This study presents a new parallel approach clustering of GPS data. Evaluation has been made by comparing execution time of various clustering algorithms on GPS data. This paper aims to propose a parallel based on neighborhood K-means algorithm to make it faster. The proposed parallelization approach assumes that each GPS data represents a vehicle and to communicate between vehicles close to each other after vehicles are clustered. This parallelization approach has been examined on different sized continuously changing GPS data and compared with serial K-means algorithm and other serial clustering algorithms. The results demonstrated that proposed parallel K-means algorithm has been shown to work much faster than other clustering algorithms.
173
129716
Risk Management Approach for a Secure and Performant Integration of Automated Drug Dispensing Systems in Hospitals
Abstract:
Medication dispensing system is a life-critical system whose failure may result in preventable adverse events leading to longer patient stays in hospitals or patient death. Automation has led to great improvements in life-critical systems as it increased safety, efficiency, and comfort. However, critical risks related to medical organization complexity and automated solutions integration can threaten drug dispensing security and performance. Knowledge about the system’s complexity aspects and human machine parameters to control for automated equipment’s security and performance will help operators to secure their automation process and to optimize their system’s reliability. In this context, this study aims to document the operator’s situation awareness about automation risks and parameters involved in automation security and performance. Our risk management approach has been deployed in the North Luxembourg hospital center’s pharmacy, which is equipped with automated drug dispensing systems since 2009. With more than 4 million euros of gains generated, North Luxembourg hospital center’s success story was enabled by the management commitment, pharmacy’s involvement in the implementation and improvement of the automation project, and the close collaboration between the pharmacy and Sinteco’s firm to implement the necessary innovation and organizational actions for automated solutions integration security and performance. An analysis of the actions implemented by the hospital and the parameters involved in automated equipment’s integration security and performance has been made. The parameters to control for automated equipment’s integration security and performance are human aspects (6.25%), technical aspects (50%), and human-machine interaction (43.75%). The implementation of an anthropocentric analysis system before automation would have prevented and optimized the control of risks related to automation.
172
22131
Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface
Abstract:
This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.
171
59624
Improved Pattern Matching Applied to Surface Mounting Devices Components Localization on Automated Optical Inspection
Abstract:
Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Systems are commonly used on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing. The use of this technology has been proven as highly efficient for process improvements and quality achievements. The correct extraction of the component for posterior analysis is a critical step of the AOI process. Nowadays, the Pattern Matching Algorithm is commonly used, although this algorithm requires extensive calculations and is time consuming. This paper will present an improved algorithm for the component localization process, with the capability of implementation in a parallel execution system.
170
3491
Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown
Abstract:
This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.
169
22130
Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA
Abstract:
This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.
168
16802
The Conceptual Design Model of an Automated Supermarket
Abstract:
The success of any retail business is predisposed by its swift response and its knack in understanding the constraints and the requirements of customers. In this paper a conceptual design model of an automated customer-friendly supermarket has been proposed. In this model a 10-sided, space benefited, regular polygon shaped gravity shelves have been designed for goods storage and effective customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick automatic delivery of the randomly listed goods. The algorithm is developed with two main objectives, viz., delivery time and priority. For meeting these objectives the randomly listed items are reorganized according to the critical-path of the robotic arm specific to the identified shop and its layout and the items are categorized according to the demand, shape, size, similarity and nature of the product for an efficient pick-up, packing and delivery process. We conjectured that the proposed automated supermarket model reduces business operating costs with much customer satisfaction warranting a win-win situation.
167
79042
Image Encryption Using Eureqa to Generate an Automated Mathematical Key
Abstract:
Applying traditional symmetric cryptography algorithms while computing encryption and decryption provides immunity to secret keys against different attacks. One of the popular techniques generating automated secret keys is evolutionary computing by using Eureqa API tool, which got attention in 2013. In this paper, we are generating automated secret keys for image encryption and decryption using Eureqa API (tool which is used in evolutionary computing technique). Eureqa API models pseudo-random input data obtained from a suitable source to generate secret keys. The validation of generated secret keys is investigated by performing various statistical tests (histogram, chi-square, correlation of two adjacent pixels, correlation between original and encrypted images, entropy and key sensitivity). Experimental results obtained from methods including histogram analysis, correlation coefficient, entropy and key sensitivity, show that the proposed image encryption algorithms are secure and reliable, with the potential to be adapted for secure image communication applications.
166
65363
Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among Serially Frustrated Students in Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria
Abstract:
This study examined some factors (academic self-efficacy, locus of control, motivation and gender) that could predict academic dishonesty among serially frustrated students in Ogun State, South West, Nigeria. Serial academically frustrated students are students who are unable to attain and meet academic expectations set by themselves or significant others. A sample of 250 undergraduate students selected from two faculties from a University in Ogun State,South West Nigeria took part in the study. Multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the joint and relative contributions of the independent variables to the prediction of the dependent variable. T-test was used to test the hypothesis determining the gender difference between the independent variables (academic self-efficacy, locus of control and motivation) and academic dishonesty of serial academically frustrated male and female students. The results of the study showed all the independent variables jointly contributed to predicting academic dishonesty, while only academic self-efficacy and motivation had relative contributions to the dependent measure. There was no significant difference in the academic self-efficacy and motivation among males and females on academic dishonesty of the serial academically frustrated students but locus of control showed a significant difference between male and female students on academic dishonesty. Implications for counseling of the findings are discussed in the study.
165
16398
Modification of the Athena Vortex Lattice Code for the Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft
Abstract:
This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.
164
3033
Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis For Meteorological Sub-Division 4 Of India Using L-Moments.
Abstract:
Extreme rainfall frequency analysis for Meteorological Sub-Division 4 of India was analysed using L-moments approach. Serial Correlation and Mann Kendall tests were conducted for checking serially independent and stationarity of the observations. The discordancy measure for the sites was conducted to detect the discordant sites. The regional homogeneity was tested by comparing with 500 generated homogeneous regions using a 4 parameter Kappa distribution. The best fit distribution was selected based on ZDIST statistics and L-moments ratio diagram from the five extreme value distributions GPD, GLO, GEV, P3 and LP3. The LN3 distribution was selected and regional rainfall frequency relationship was established using index-rainfall procedure. A regional mean rainfall relationship was developed using multiple linear regression with latitude and longitude of the sites as variables.
163
123189
Automated Vehicle Traffic Control Tower: A Solution to Support the Next Level Automation
Abstract:
Automated vehicles (AVs) have the potential to enhance road capacity, improving road safety and traffic efficiency. Research and development on AVs have been going on for many years. However, when the complicated traffic rules and real situations interacted, AVs fail to make decisions on contradicting situations, and are not able to have control in all conditions due to highly dynamic driving scenarios. This limits AVs’ usage and restricts the full potential benefits that they can bring. Furthermore, regulations, infrastructure development, and public acceptance cannot keep up at the same pace as technology breakthroughs. Facing these challenges, this paper proposes automated vehicle traffic control tower (AVTCT) acting as a safe, efficient and integrated solution for AV control. It introduces a concept of AVTCT for control, management, decision-making, communication and interaction with various aspects in transportation. With the prototype demonstrations and simulations, AVTCT has the potential to overcome the control challenges with AVs and can facilitate AV reaching their full potential. Possible functionalities, benefits as well as challenges of AVTCT are discussed, which set the foundation for the conceptual model, simulation and real application of AVTCT.
162
59115
Parallel Vector Processing Using Multi Level Orbital DATA
Authors:
Abstract:
Many applications use vector operations by applying single instruction to multiple data that map to different locations in conventional memory. Transferring data from memory is limited by access latency and bandwidth affecting the performance gain of vector processing. We present a memory system that makes all of its content available to processors in time so that processors need not to access the memory, we force each location to be available to all processors at a specific time. The data move in different orbits to become available to other processors in higher orbits at different time. We use this memory to apply parallel vector operations to data streams at first orbit level. Data processed in the first level move to upper orbit one data element at a time, allowing a processor in that orbit to apply another vector operation to deal with serial code limitations inherited in all parallel applications and interleaved it with lower level vector operations.
161
99497
Automated, Short Cycle Production of Polymer Composite Applications with Special Regards to the Complexity and Recyclability of Composite Elements
Abstract:
The purpose of the project is to develop a complex composite component with visible class ‘A’ surface. It is going to integrate more functions, including continuous fiber reinforcement, foam core, injection molded ribs, and metal inserts. Therefore we are going to produce recyclable structural composite part from thermoplastic polymer in serial production with short cycle time for automotive applications. Our design of the process line is determined by the principles of Industry 4.0. Accordingly, our goal is to map in details the properties of the final product including the mechanical properties in order to replace metal elements used in automotive industry, with special regard to the effect of each manufacturing process step on the afore mentioned properties. Period of the project is 3 years, which lasts from the 1st of December 2016 to the 30th November 2019. There are four consortium members in the R&D project evopro systems engineering Ltd., Department of Polymer Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Research Centre for Natural Sciences of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and eCon Engineering Ltd. One of the most important result that we can obtain short cycle time (up to 2-3 min) with in-situ polymerization method, which is an innovation in the field of thermoplastic composite production. Because of the mentioned method, our fully automated production line is able to manufacture complex thermoplastic composite parts and satisfies the short cycle time required by the automotive industry. In addition to the innovative technology, we are able to design, analyze complex composite parts with finite element method, and validate our results. We are continuously collecting all the information, knowledge and experience to improve our technology and obtain even more accurate results with respect to the quality and complexity of the composite parts, the cycle time of the production, and the design and analyzing method of the composite parts.
160
60188
Spatially Distributed Rainfall Prediction Based on Automated Kriging for Landslide Early Warning Systems
Abstract:
The precise prediction of rainfall in space and time is a key element to most landslide early warning systems. Unfortunately, the spatial variability of rainfall in many early warning applications is often disregarded. A common simplification is to use uniformly distributed rainfall to characterize aerial rainfall intensity. With spatially differentiated rainfall information, real-time comparison with rainfall thresholds or the implementation in process-based approaches might form the basis for improved landslide warnings. This study suggests an automated workflow from the hourly, web-based collection of rain gauge data to the generation of spatially differentiated rainfall predictions based on kriging. Because the application of kriging is usually a labor intensive task, a simplified and consequently automated variogram modeling procedure was applied to up-to-date rainfall data. The entire workflow was carried out purely with open source technology. Validation results, albeit promising, pointed out the challenges that are involved in pure distance based, automated geostatistical interpolation techniques for ever-changing environmental phenomena over short temporal and spatial extent.
159
2158
Enhanced Automated Teller Machine Using Short Message Service Authentication Verification
Abstract:
The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) has become an important tool among commercial banks, customers of banks have come to depend on and trust the ATM conveniently meet their banking needs. Although the overwhelming advantages of ATM cannot be over-emphasized, its alarming fraud rate has become a bottleneck in it’s full adoption in Nigeria. This study examined the menace of ATM in the society another cost of running ATM services by banks in the country. The researcher developed a prototype of an enhanced Automated Teller Machine Authentication using Short Message Service (SMS) Verification. The developed prototype was tested by Ten (10) respondents who are users of ATM cards in the country and the data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Based on the results of the analysis, it is being envisaged that the developed prototype will go a long way in reducing the alarming rate of ATM fraud in Nigeria.
158
55425
Driver Take-Over Time When Resuming Control from Highly Automated Driving in Truck Platooning Scenarios
Abstract:
With the rapid development of intelligent transportation systems, automated platooning of trucks is drawing increasing interest for its beneficial effects on safety, energy consumption and traffic flow efficiency. Nevertheless, one major challenge lies in the safe transition of control from the automated system back to the human drivers, especially when they have been inattentive after a long period of highly automated driving. In this study, we investigated driver take-over time after a system initiated request to leave the platooning system Virtual Tow Bar in a non-critical scenario. 22 professional truck drivers participated in the truck driving simulator experiment, and each was instructed to drive under three experimental conditions before the presentation of the take-over request (TOR): driver ready (drivers were instructed to monitor the road constantly), driver not-ready (drivers were provided with a tablet) and eye-shut. The results showed significantly longer take-over time in both driver not-ready and eye-shut conditions compared with the driver ready condition. Further analysis revealed hand movement time as the main factor causing long response time in the driver not-ready condition, while in the eye-shut condition, gaze reaction time also influenced the total take-over time largely. In addition to comparing the means, large individual differences can be found especially in two driver, not attentive conditions. The importance of a personalized driver readiness predictor for a safe transition is concluded.
157
60469
Challenges and Opportunities: One Stop Processing for the Automation of Indonesian Large-Scale Topographic Base Map Using Airborne LiDAR Data
Abstract:
The LiDAR data acquisition has been recognizable as one of the fastest solution to provide the basis data for topographic base mapping in Indonesia. The challenges to accelerate the provision of large-scale topographic base maps as a development plan basis gives the opportunity to implement the automated scheme in the map production process. The one stop processing will also contribute to accelerate the map provision especially to conform with the Indonesian fundamental spatial data catalog derived from ISO 19110 and geospatial database integration. Thus, the automated LiDAR classification, DTM generation and feature extraction will be conducted in one GIS-software environment to form all layers of topographic base maps. The quality of automated topographic base map will be assessed and analyzed based on its completeness, correctness, contiguity, consistency and possible customization.
156
65013
Applying Big Data to Understand Urban Design Quality: The Correlation between Social Activities and Automated Pedestrian Counts in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia
Authors:
Abstract:
Presence of people and intensity of activities have been widely accepted as an indicator for successful public spaces in urban design literature. This study attempts to predict the qualitative indicators, presence of people and intensity of activities, with the quantitative measurements of pedestrian counting. We conducted participant observation in Dilworth Park, Philadelphia to collect the total number of people and activities in the park. Then, the participant observation data is compared with detailed pedestrian counts at 10 exit locations to estimate the number of park users. The study found that there is a clear correlation between the intensity of social activities and automated pedestrian counts.
155
135520
Designing of Tooling Solution for Material Handling in Highly Automated Manufacturing System
Abstract:
A flexible manufacturing system is an integral part of a smart factory of industry 4.0 in which every machine is interconnected and works autonomously. Robots are in the process of replacing humans in every industrial sector. As the cyber-physical-system (CPS) and artificial intelligence (AI) are advancing, the manufacturing industry is getting more dependent on computers than human brains. This modernization has boosted the production with high quality and accuracy and shifted from classic production to smart manufacturing systems. However, material handling for such automated productions is a challenge and needs to be addressed with the best possible solution. Conventional clamping systems are designed for manual work and not suitable for highly automated production systems. Researchers and engineers are trying to find the most economical solution for loading/unloading and transportation workpieces from a warehouse to a machine shop for machining operations and back to the warehouse without human involvement. This work aims to propose an advanced multi-shape tooling solution for highly automated manufacturing systems. The currently obtained result shows that it could function well with automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and modern conveyor belts. The proposed solution is following requirements to be automation-friendly, universal for different part geometry and production operations. We used a bottom-up approach in this work, starting with studying different case scenarios and their limitations and finishing with the general solution.
154
41706
Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes
Abstract:
This paper introduces a signal monitoring program developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU, the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since it was compiled as a standalone executable.
153
97440
Price Prediction Line, Investment Signals and Limit Conditions Applied for the German Financial Market
Abstract:
In the first decades of the 21st century, in the electronic trading environment, algorithmic capital investments became the primary tool to make a profit by speculations in financial markets. A significant number of traders, private or institutional investors are participating in the capital markets every day using automated algorithms. The autonomous trading software is today a considerable part in the business intelligence system of any modern financial activity. The trading decisions and orders are made automatically by computers using different mathematical models. This paper will present one of these models called Price Prediction Line. A mathematical algorithm will be revealed to build a reliable trend line, which is the base for limit conditions and automated investment signals, the core for a computerized investment system. The paper will guide how to apply these tools to generate entry and exit investment signals, limit conditions to build a mathematical filter for the investment opportunities, and the methodology to integrate all of these in automated investment software. The paper will also present trading results obtained for the leading German financial market index with the presented methods to analyze and to compare different automated investment algorithms. It was found that a specific mathematical algorithm can be optimized and integrated into an automated trading system with good and sustained results for the leading German Market. Investment results will be compared in order to qualify the presented model. In conclusion, a 1:6.12 risk was obtained to reward ratio applying the trigonometric method to the DAX Deutscher Aktienindex on 24 months investment. These results are superior to those obtained with other similar models as this paper reveal. The general idea sustained by this paper is that the Price Prediction Line model presented is a reliable capital investment methodology that can be successfully applied to build an automated investment system with excellent results.
152
71567
Conceptualizing the Cyber Insecurity Risk in the Ethics of Automated Warfare
Abstract:
This paper provides an alternative, cyber security based a conceptual framework for the ethics of automated warfare. The large body of work produced on fully or partially autonomous warfare systems tends to overlook malicious security factors as in the possibility of technical attacks on these systems when it comes to the moral and legal decision-making. The argument provides a risk-oriented justification to why technical malicious risks cannot be dismissed in legal, ethical and policy considerations when warfare models are being implemented and deployed. The assumptions of the paper are supported by providing a broader model that contains the perspective of technological vulnerabilities through the lenses of the Game Theory, Just War Theory as well as standard and non-standard defense ethics. The paper argues that a conventional risk-benefit analysis without considering ethical factors is insufficient for making legal and policy decisions on automated warfare. This approach will provide the substructure for security and defense experts as well as legal scholars, ethicists and decision theorists to work towards common justificatory grounds that will accommodate the technical security concerns that have been overlooked in the current legal and policy models.
151
28487
A Method for Measurement and Evaluation of Drape of Textiles
Abstract:
Drape is one of the important visual characteristics of the fabric. This paper is introducing an innovative method of measurement and evaluation of the drape shape of the fabric. The measuring principle is based on the possibility of multiple vertical strain of the fabric. This method more accurately simulates the real behavior of the fabric in the process of draping. The method is fully automated, so the sample can be measured by using any number of cycles in any time horizon. Using the present method of measurement, we are able to describe the viscoelastic behavior of the fabric.
150
26296
NeuroBactrus, a Novel, Highly Effective, and Environmentally Friendly Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide
Authors:
Abstract:
A novel recombinant baculovirus, NeuroBactrus, was constructed to develop an improved baculovirus insecticide with additional beneficial properties, such as a higher insecticidal activity and improved recovery, compared to wild-type baculovirus. For the construction of NeuroBactrus, the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene (here termed cry1-5) was introduced into the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome by fusion of the polyhedrin–cry1-5–polyhedrin genes under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. In the opposite direction, an insect-specific neurotoxin gene, AaIT, from Androctonus australis was introduced under the control of an early promoter from Cotesia plutellae bracovirus by fusion of a partial fragment of orf603. The polyhedrin–Cry1-5–polyhedrin fusion protein expressed by the NeuroBactrus was not only occluded into the polyhedra, but it was also activated by treatment with trypsin, resulting in an_65-kDa active toxin. In addition, quantitative PCR revealed that the neurotoxin was expressed from the early phase of infection. NeuroBactrus showed a high level of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae and a significant reduction in the median lethal time against Spodoptera exigua larvae compared to those of wild-type AcMNPV. Rerecombinant mutants derived from NeuroBactrus in which AaIT and/or cry1-5 were deleted were generated by serial passages in vitro. Expression of the foreign proteins (B. thuringiensis toxin and AaIT) was continuously reduced during the serial passage of the NeuroBactrus. Moreover, polyhedra collected from S. exigua larvae infected with the serially passaged NeuroBactrus showed insecticidal activity similar to that of wild-type AcMNPV. These results suggested that NeuroBactrus could be recovered to wild-type AcMNPV through serial passaging.
149
4421
A Research Using Remote Monitoring Technology for Pump Output Monitoring in Distributed Fuel Stations in Nigeria
Abstract:
This research paper discusses a web based monitoring system that enables effective monitoring of fuel pump output and sales volume from distributed fuel stations under the domain of a single company/organization. The traditional method of operation by these organizations in Nigeria is non-automated and accounting for dispensed product is usually approximated and manual as there is little or no technology implemented to presently provide information relating to the state of affairs in the station both to on-ground staff and to supervisory staff that are not physically present in the station. This results in unaccountable losses in product and revenue as well as slow decision making. Remote monitoring technology as a vast research field with numerous application areas incorporating various data collation techniques and sensor networks can be applied to provide information relating to fuel pump status in distributed fuel stations reliably. Thus, the proposed system relies upon a microcontroller, keypad and pump to demonstrate the traditional fuel dispenser. A web-enabled PC with an accompanying graphic user interface (GUI) was designed using virtual basic which is connected to the microcontroller via the serial port which is to provide the web implementation.
148
83695
An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.
147
80136
Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement
Abstract:
An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4" carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.
146
21162
Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy
Abstract:
This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.
145
92721
A Fully-Automated Disturbance Analysis Vision for the Smart Grid Based on Smart Switch Data
Abstract:
The deployment of smart grid devices such as smart meters and smart switches (SS) supported by a reliable and fast communications system makes automated distribution possible, and thus, provides great benefits to electric power consumers and providers alike. However, more research is needed before the full utility of smart switch data is realized. This paper presents new automated switching techniques using SS within the electric power grid. A concise background of the SS is provided, and operational examples are shown. Organization and presentation of data obtained from SS are shown in the context of the future goal of total automation of the distribution network. The description of application techniques, the examples of success with SS, and the vision outlined in this paper serve to motivate future research pertinent to disturbance analysis automation.
144
46268
Momentum Profits and Investor Behavior
Authors:
Abstract:
Profits earned from relative strength strategy of zero-cost portfolio i.e. taking long position in winner stocks and short position in loser stocks from recent past are termed as momentum profits. In recent times, there has been lot of controversy and concern about sources of momentum profits, since the existence of these profits acts as an evidence of earning non-normal returns from publicly available information directly contradicting Efficient Market Hypothesis. Literature review reveals conflicting theories and differing evidences on sources of momentum profits. This paper aims at re-examining the sources of momentum profits in Indian capital markets. The study focuses on assessing the effect of fundamental as well as behavioral sources in order to understand the role of investor behavior in stock returns and suggest (if any) improvements to existing behavioral asset pricing models. This Paper adopts calendar time methodology to calculate momentum profits for 6 different strategies with and without skipping a month between ranking and holding period. For each J/K strategy, under this methodology, at the beginning of each month t stocks are ranked on past j month’s average returns and sorted in descending order. Stocks in upper decile are termed winners and bottom decile as losers. After ranking long and short positions are taken in winner and loser stocks respectively and both portfolios are held for next k months, in such manner that at any given point of time we have K overlapping long and short portfolios each, ranked from t-1 month to t-K month. At the end of period, returns of both long and short portfolios are calculated by taking equally weighted average across all months. Long minus short returns (LMS) are momentum profits for each strategy. Post testing for momentum profits, to study the role market risk plays in momentum profits, CAPM and Fama French three factor model adjusted LMS returns are calculated. In the final phase of studying sources, decomposing methodology has been used for breaking up the profits into unconditional means, serial correlations, and cross-serial correlations. This methodology is unbiased, can be used with the decile-based methodology and helps to test the effect of behavioral and fundamental sources altogether. From all the analysis, it was found that momentum profits do exist in Indian capital markets with market risk playing little role in defining them. Also, it was observed that though momentum profits have multiple sources (risk, serial correlations, and cross-serial correlations), cross-serial correlations plays a major role in defining these profits. The study revealed that momentum profits do have multiple sources however, cross-serial correlations i.e. the effect of returns of other stocks play a major role. This means that in addition to studying the investors` reactions to the information of the same firm it is also important to study how they react to the information of other firms. The analysis confirms that investor behavior does play an important role in stock returns and incorporating both the aspects of investors’ reactions in behavioral asset pricing models help make then better.
143
12067
Automated Marker Filling System
Abstract:
Marker pens are widely used all over the world, mainly in educational institutions due to their neat, accurate and easily erasable nature. But refilling the ink in these pens is a tedious and time consuming job. Besides, it requires careful handling of the pens and ink bottle. A fully automated marker filling system is a solution developed to overcome this problem. The system comprises of pneumatics and electronics modules as well as PLC control. The system design is done in such a way that the empty markers are dumped in a marker container which then sent through different modules of the system in order to refill it automatically. The filled markers are then collected in a marker container. Refilling of ink takes place in different stages inside the system. An ink detecting system detects the colour of the marker which is to be filled and then refilling is done. The processes like capping and uncapping of the cap as well as screwing and unscrewing of the tip are done with the help of robotic arm and gripper. We make use of pneumatics in this system in order to get the precision while performing the capping, screwing, and refilling operations. Thus with the help of this system we can achieve cleanliness, accuracy, effective and time saving in the process of filling a marker.
142
69875
An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach
Abstract:
During past few years, automation of tumor detection in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a challenging research area in the field of medical imaging. Automated tumor detection is required because there might be a shortage of skilled radiologists at a time of great need. In this study, an automated brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect and localize brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging are proposed. The aim of the study is to detect and to identify the tumor formation in the brain with using image processing techniques and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) method. In the experimental part of the study, 100 neuroimages are used to optimize our system, and 50 out-of-sample neuroimages are also used to test the approach. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Moreover, the preliminary results also motivate us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.
141
69874
An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach
Abstract:
During past few years, automation of tumor detection in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a challenging research area in the field of medical imaging. Automated tumor detection is required because there might be a shortage of skilled radiologists at a time of great need. In this study, an automated brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect and localize brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging are proposed. The aim of the study is to detect and to identify the tumor formation in the brain with using image processing techniques and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) method. In the experimental part of the study, 100 neuroimages are used to optimize our system, and 50 out-of-sample neuroimages are also used to test the approach. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Moreover, the preliminary results also motivate us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.
140
69877
An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach
Abstract:
During past few years, automation of tumor detection in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a challenging research area in the field of medical imaging. Automated tumor detection is required because there might be a shortage of skilled radiologists at a time of great need. In this study, an automated brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect and localize brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging are proposed. The aim of the study is to detect and to identify the tumor formation in the brain with using image processing techniques and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) method. In the experimental part of the study, 100 neuroimages are used to optimize our system, and 50 out-of-sample neuroimages are also used to test the approach. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Moreover, the preliminary results also motivate us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.
139
69873
An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach
Abstract:
During past few years, automation of tumor detection in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a challenging research area in the field of medical imaging. Automated tumor detection is required because there might be a shortage of skilled radiologists at a time of great need. In this study, an automated brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect and localize brain tumors in magnetic resonance imaging are proposed. The aim of the study is to detect and to identify the tumor formation in the brain with using image processing techniques and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) method. In the experimental part of the study, 100 neuroimages are used to optimize our system, and 50 out-of-sample neuroimages are also used to test the approach. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Moreover, the preliminary results also motivate us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.
138
79710
Design and Development of an Optimal Fault Tolerant 3 Degree of Freedom Robotic Manipulator
Abstract:
Kinematic redundancy within the manipulators presents extended dexterity and manipulability to the manipulators. Redundant serial robotic manipulators are very popular in industries due to its competencies to keep away from singularities during normal operation and fault tolerance because of failure of one or more joints. Such fault tolerant manipulators are extraordinarily beneficial in applications where human interference for repair and overhaul is both impossible or tough; like in case of robotic arms for space programs, nuclear applications and so on. The design of this sort of fault tolerant serial 3 DoF manipulator is presented in this paper. This work was the extension of the author’s previous work of designing the simple 3R serial manipulator. This work is the realization of the previous design with optimizing the link lengths for incorporating the feature of fault tolerance. Various measures have been followed by the researchers to quantify the fault tolerance of such redundant manipulators. The fault tolerance in this work has been described in terms of the worst-case measure of relative manipulability that is, in fact, a local measure of optimization that works properly for certain configuration of the manipulators. An optimum fault tolerant Jacobian matrix has been determined first based on prescribed null space properties after which the link parameters have been described to meet the given Jacobian matrix. A solid model of the manipulator was then developed to realize the mathematically rigorous design. Further work was executed on determining the dynamic properties of the fault tolerant design and simulations of the movement for various trajectories have been carried out to evaluate the joint torques. The mathematical model of the system was derived via the Euler-Lagrange approach after which the same has been tested using the RoboAnalyzer© software. The results have been quite in agreement. From the CAD model and dynamic simulation data, the manipulator was fabricated in the workshop and Advanced Machining lab of NED University of Engineering and Technology.
137
61095
Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Islamic Stock Market: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia
Abstract:
The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) states that, in an efficient capital market, price fully reflects the information available in the market. This theory has influenced many investors behavior in trading in the stock market. Advanced researches have been conducted to test the efficiency of the stock market in particular countries. Indonesia, as one of the emerging countries, has performed substantial growth in the past years. Hence, this paper aims to examine the efficiency of Islamic stock market in Indonesia in its weak form. The daily stock price data from Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI) for the period October 2015 to October 2016 were used to do the statistical tests: Run Test and Serial Correlation Test. The results show that there is no serial correlation between the current price with the past prices and the market follows the random walk. This research concludes that Indonesia Islamic stock market is weak form efficient.
136
18959
Performance Evaluation of Sand Casting Manufacturing Plant with WITNESS
Abstract:
This paper discusses a simulation study of automated sand casting production system. Therefore, the first aims of this study is development of automated sand casting process model and analyze this model with a simulation software Witness. Production methodology aims to improve overall productivity through elimination of wastes and that leads to improve quality. Integration of automation with Simulation is beneficial to identify the obstacles in implementation and to take appropriate options to implement successfully. For this integration, there are different Simulation Software’s. To study this integration, with the help of “WITNESS” Simulation Software the model is created. This model is based on literature review. The input parameters are Setup Time, Number of machines, cycle time and output parameter is number of castings, avg, and time and percentage usage of machines. Obtained results are used for Statistical Analysis. This analysis concludes the optimal solution to get maximum output.
135
77719
Development of Pothole Management Method Using Automated Equipment with Multi-Beam Sensor
Abstract:
The climate change and increase in heavy traffic have been accelerating damages that cause the problems such as pothole on asphalt pavement. Pothole causes traffic accidents, vehicle damages, road casualties and traffic congestion. A quick and efficient maintenance method is needed because pothole is caused by stripping and accelerates pavement distress. In this study, we propose a rapid and systematic pothole management by developing a pothole automated repairing equipment including a volume measurement system of pothole. Three kinds of cold mix asphalt mixture were investigated to select repair materials. The materials were evaluated for satisfaction with quality standard and applicability to automated equipment. The volume measurement system of potholes was composed of multi-sensor that are combined with laser sensor and ultrasonic sensor and installed in front and side of the automated repair equipment. An algorithm was proposed to calculate the amount of repair material according to the measured pothole volume, and the system for releasing the correct amount of material was developed. Field test results showed that the loss of repair material amount could be reduced from approximately 20% to 6% per one point of pothole. Pothole rapid automated repair equipment will contribute to improvement on quality and efficient and economical maintenance by not only reducing materials and resources but also calculating appropriate materials. Through field application, it is possible to improve the accuracy of pothole volume measurement, to correct the calculation of material amount, and to manage the pothole data of roads, thereby enabling more efficient pavement maintenance management. Acknowledgment: The author would like to thank the MOLIT(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport). This work was carried out through the project funded by the MOLIT. The project name is 'development of 20mm grade for road surface detecting roadway condition and rapid detection automation system for removal of pothole'.
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29810
Development of Ready Reckoner Charts for Easy, Convenient, and Widespread Use of Horrock’s Apparatus by Field Level Health Functionaries in India
Abstract:
Aim and Objective of Study : The use of Horrock’s Apparatus by health care worker requires onsite mathematical calculations for estimation of ‘volume of water’ and ‘amount of bleaching powder’ necessary as per the serial number of first cup showing blue coloration after adding freshly prepared starch-iodide indicator solution. In view of the difficulties of two simultaneous calculations required to be done, the use of Horrock’s Apparatus is not routinely done by health care workers because it is impractical and inconvenient Material and Methods: Arbitrary use of bleaching powder in wells results in hyper-chlorination or hypo-chlorination of well defying the purpose of adequate chlorination or non-usage of well water due to hyper-chlorination. Keeping this in mind two nomograms have been developed, one to assess the volume of well using depth and diameter of well and the other to know the quantity of bleaching powder to b added using the number of the cup of Horrock’s apparatus which shows the colour indication. Result & Conclusion: Out of thus developed two self-speaking interlinked easy charts, first chart will facilitate bypassing requirement of formulae ‘πr2h’ for water volume (ready reckoner table with depth of water shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘diameter of well’ on ‘Y’ axis) and second chart will facilitate bypassing requirement formulae ‘2ab/455’ (where ‘a’ is for ‘serial number of cup’ and ‘b’ is for ‘water volume’, while ready reckoner table showing ‘water volume’ shown on ‘X’ axis and ‘serial number of cup’ on ‘Y’ axis). The use of these two charts will help health care worker to immediately known, by referring the two charts, about the exact requirement of bleaching powder. Thus, developed ready reckoner charts will be easy and convenient to use for ensuring prevention of water-borne diseases occurring due to hypo-chlorination, especially in rural India and other developing countries.
133
90260
Serial Position Curves under Compressively Expanding and Contracting Schedules of Presentation
Abstract:
Psychological time, unlike physical time, is believed to be ‘compressive’ in the sense that the mental representations of a series of events may be internally arranged with ever decreasing inter-event spacing (looking back from the most recently encoded event). If this is true, the record within immediate memory of recent events is severely temporally distorted. Although this notion of temporal distortion of the memory record is captured within some theoretical accounts of human forgetting, notably temporal distinctiveness accounts, the way in which the fundamental nature of the distortion underpins memory and forgetting broadly is barely recognised or at least directly investigated. Our intention here was to manipulate the spacing of items for recall in order to ‘reverse’ this supposed natural compression within the encoding of the items. In Experiment 1 three schedules of presentation (expanding, contracting and fixed irregular temporal spacing) were created using logarithmic spacing of the words for both free and serial recall conditions. The results of recall of lists of 7 words showed statistically significant benefits of temporal isolation, and more excitingly the contracting word series (which we may think of as reversing the natural compression within the mental representation of the word list) showed best performance. Experiment 2 tested for effects of active verbal rehearsal in the recall task; this reduced but did not remove the benefits of our temporal scheduling manipulation. Finally, a third experiment used the same design but with Chinese characters as memoranda, in a further attempt to subvert possible verbal maintenance of items. One change to the design here was to introduce a probe item following the sequence of items and record response times to this probe. Together the outcomes of the experiments broadly support the notion of temporal compression within immediate memory.
132
10434
Automated CNC Part Programming and Process Planning for Turned Components
Abstract:
Pressure to increase the competitiveness in the manufacturing sector and for the survival in the market has led to the development of machining centres, which enhance productivity, improve quality, shorten the lead time, and reduce the manufacturing cost. With the innovation of machining centres in the manufacturing sector the production lines have been replaced by these machining centers, having the ability to machine various processes and multiple tooling with automatic tool changer (ATC) for the same part. Also the process plans can be easily generated for complex components. Some means are required to utilize the machining center at its best. The present work is concentrated on the automated part program generation, and in turn automated process plan generation for the turned components on Denford “MIRAC” 8 stations ATC lathe machining centre. A package in C++ on DOS platform is developed which generates the complete CNC part program, process plan and process sequence for the turned components. The input to this system is in the form of a blueprint in graphical format with machining parameters and variables, and the output is the CNC part program which is stored in a .mir file, ready for execution on the machining centre.
131
64027
A Mechanism of Reusable, Portable, and Reliable Script Generator on Android
Abstract:
A good automated testing tool could reduce as much as possible the manual work done by testers. Traditional record-replay testing tool provides an automated testing solution by recording mouse coordinates as test scripts, but it will be easily broken if any change of resolutions. Therefore, more and more testers design multiple test scripts to automate the testing process for different devices. In order to improve the traditional record-replay approach and reduce the effort that the testers spending on writing test scripts, we propose an approach for generating the Android application test scripts based on accessibility service without connecting to a computer. This approach simulates user input actions and replays them correctly even at the different conditions such as the internet connection is unstable when the device under test, the different resolutions on Android devices. In this paper, we describe how to generate test scripts automatically and make a comparison with existing tools for Android such as Robotium, Appium, UIAutomator, and MonkeyTalk.
130
124843
Development of Fire Douse Vehicle
Abstract:
Emerging fire incidents are the protuberant contributor out turning into life loss, property damage and importantly firefighters. It insinuates that a firefighting and rescue operation of the existing equipment or apparatus and their proficiency is limited, particularly in annihilating firefighting environments. The proposed methodology will help in developing a technology which can be useful in minimizing the risks and losses due to fire. In this paper, design and development of combat mini vehicle comprising of multi-purpose nozzle system is proposed which can target diverse fires simultaneously at distinct time and location. Basically, the system is semi-automated type protection system which can be manoeuvred by controller. Designing of robust vehicle based on semi-automated protection type system is consummated using SolidWorks platform. Concept of developing a robust vehicle will help to fight fires in multiple directions reducing the time required to douse multiple fires.
129
16898
Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant
Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.
128
96832
A Prediction Model Using the Price Cyclicality Function Optimized for Algorithmic Trading in Financial Market
Abstract:
After the widespread release of electronic trading, automated trading systems have become a significant part of the business intelligence system of any modern financial investment company. An important part of the trades is made completely automatically today by computers using mathematical algorithms. The trading decisions are taken almost instantly by logical models and the orders are sent by low-latency automatic systems. This paper will present a real-time price prediction methodology designed especially for algorithmic trading. Based on the price cyclicality function, the methodology revealed will generate price cyclicality bands to predict the optimal levels for the entries and exits. In order to automate the trading decisions, the cyclicality bands will generate automated trading signals. We have found that the model can be used with good results to predict the changes in market behavior. Using these predictions, the model can automatically adapt the trading signals in real-time to maximize the trading results. The paper will reveal the methodology to optimize and implement this model in automated trading systems. After tests, it is proved that this methodology can be applied with good efficiency in different timeframes. Real trading results will be also displayed and analyzed in order to qualify the methodology and to compare it with other models. As a conclusion, it was found that the price prediction model using the price cyclicality function is a reliable trading methodology for algorithmic trading in the financial market.
127
5232
Automated Natural Hazard Zonation System with Internet-SMS Warning: Distributed GIS for Sustainable Societies Creating Schema and Interface for Mapping and Communication
Abstract:
The research describes the implementation of a novel and stand-alone system for dynamic hazard warning. The system uses all existing infrastructure already in place like mobile networks, a laptop/PC and the small installation software. The geospatial dataset are the maps of a region which are again frugal. Hence there is no need to invest and it reaches everyone with a mobile. A novel architecture of hazard assessment and warning introduced where major technologies in ICT interfaced to give a unique WebGIS based dynamic real time geohazard warning communication system. A never before architecture introduced for integrating WebGIS with telecommunication technology. Existing technologies interfaced in a novel architectural design to address a neglected domain in a way never done before–through dynamically updatable WebGIS based warning communication. The work publishes new architecture and novelty in addressing hazard warning techniques in sustainable way and user friendly manner. Coupling of hazard zonation and hazard warning procedures into a single system has been shown. Generalized architecture for deciphering a range of geo-hazards has been developed. Hence the developmental work presented here can be summarized as the development of internet-SMS based automated geo-hazard warning communication system; integrating a warning communication system with a hazard evaluation system; interfacing different open-source technologies towards design and development of a warning system; modularization of different technologies towards development of a warning communication system; automated data creation, transformation and dissemination over different interfaces. The architecture of the developed warning system has been functionally automated as well as generalized enough that can be used for any hazard and setup requirement has been kept to a minimum.
126
3890
The Effect of Socialization Tactics on Job Satisfaction of Employees, Regarding to Personality Types in Tehran University of Medical Science’s Employees
Abstract:
According to importance of socialization in effectiveness of organizations and on the other hand assessing the impact of individual differences on socialization tactics by measuring employees satisfaction, can be assessed for each of the personality types which socialization tactics is the more effective. The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect job satisfaction of employees according to personality types. A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein’s theory on organizational socialization tactics and Myers Briggs’ measurement tools of personality types. The respondents were employees with more than 3 years backward in Tehran University of Medical Science. Data collection was performed using both library and field, the data collection instrument was questionnaires and data were analysed using the Spss and Lisrel programs. It was found that investiture and serial tactics has a significant effect on employees satisfaction, any increase in investiture and serial tactics led to increase in job satisfaction and any increase in divestiture and disjunctive tactics led to reduction of job satisfaction. Investiture tactic has the most effect on employees satisfaction. Also based on the results, personality types affect the relationship between socialization tactics and job satisfaction. In the ESFJ personality type the effect of investiture tactic on employee satisfaction is the most.
125
20146
The Effects of Three Levels of Contextual Inference among adult Athletes
Abstract:
Considering the critical role permanence has on predictions related to the contextual interference effect on laboratory and field research, this study sought to determine whether the paradigm of the effect depends on the complexity of the skill during the acquisition and transfer phases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of contextual interference CI by extending previous laboratory and field research with adult athletes through the acquisition and transfer phases. Male (n=60) athletes age 18-22 years-old, were chosen randomly from Eastern Province Clubs. They were assigned to complete blocked, random, or serial practices. Analysis of variance with repeated measures MANOVA indicated that, the results did not support the notion of CI. There were no significant differences in acquisition phase between blocked, serial and random practice groups. During the transfer phase, there were no major differences between the practice groups. Apparently, due to the task complexity, participants were probably confused and not able to use the advantages of contextual interference. This is another contradictory result to contextual interference effects in acquisition and transfer phases in sport settings. One major factor that can influence the effect of contextual interference is task characteristics as the nature of level of difficulty in sport-related skill.
124
114464
From Preoccupied Attachment Pattern to Depression: Serial Mediation Model on the Female Sample
Abstract:
Depression is considered to be a leading cause of death and disability in the female population, and that is the reason why understanding the dynamics of the onset of depressive symptomatology is important. A review of the literature indicates the relationship between depressive symptoms and insecure attachment patterns, but very few studies have examined the mechanism underlying this relation. The aim of the study was to examine the pathway from the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptomatology, as well as to test the mediation effect of mentalization, social anxiety and rumination in this relationship using a serial mediation model. The research was carried out on a geographical cluster sample from the general population of Serbia included within the project ‘Indicators and models of family and work roles harmonization’ funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. This research was carried out on a subsample of 791 working-age female adults from 37 urban and rural locations distributed through 20 administrative districts of Serbia. The respondents filled in a battery of instruments, including Relationship Questionnaire - Clinical Version (RQ - CV), The Mentalization Scale (MentS), Scale of Social Anxiety (SA), Patient Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ), Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The results confirm our assumption that the total indirect effect of the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms is significant across all mediators separately. More importantly, this effect is still present in a model with a sequential mediator relationship, where social anxiety, rumination, and mentalization were perceived as serial mediators of a relationship between preoccupied attachment and depressive symptoms (estimated indirect effect=0.004, boot-strapped 95% CI=0.002 to 0.007). Our findings suggest that there is a significant specific indirect effect of the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms, occurring through mentalization, social anxiety and rumination, indicating that preoccupied attachment cause decrease of a self related mentalization, which in turn causes increasing of social anxiety and rumination, concluding in depressive symptoms as a final consequence. The finding that the path from the preoccupied attachment pattern to depressive symptoms is typical in women is understandable from the perspective of both evolutionary and culturally conditioned gender differences. The practical implications of the study are reflected in the recommendations for the prevention and forehand psychotherapy response among preoccupied women with depressive symptomatology. Treatment of this specific group of depressed patients should be focused on strengthening mentalization, learning to accept and to understand herself better, reducing anxiety in situations where mistakes are visible to others, and replacing the rumination strategy with more constructive coping strategies.
123
80770
Airport Pavement Crack Measurement Systems and Crack Density for Pavement Evaluation
Abstract:
This paper reviews the status of existing practice and research related to measuring pavement cracking and using crack density as a pavement surface evaluation protocol. Crack density for pavement evaluation is currently not widely used within the airport community and its use by the highway community is limited. However, surface cracking is a distress that is closely monitored by airport staff and significantly influences the development of maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction plans for airport pavements. Therefore crack density has the potential to become an important indicator of pavement condition if the type, severity and extent of surface cracking can be accurately measured. A pavement distress survey is an essential component of any pavement assessment. Manual crack surveying has been widely used for decades to measure pavement performance. However, the accuracy and precision of manual surveys can vary depending upon the surveyor and performing surveys may disrupt normal operations. Given the variability of manual surveys, this method has shown inconsistencies in distress classification and measurement. This can potentially impact the planning for pavement maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction and the associated funding strategies. A substantial effort has been devoted for the past 20 years to reduce the human intervention and the error associated with it by moving toward automated distress collection methods. The automated methods refer to the systems that identify, classify and quantify pavement distresses through processes that require no or very minimal human intervention. This principally involves the use of a digital recognition software to analyze and characterize pavement distresses. The lack of established protocols for measurement and classification of pavement cracks captured using digital images is a challenge to developing a reliable automated system for distress assessment. Variations in types and severity of distresses, different pavement surface textures and colors and presence of pavement joints and edges all complicate automated image processing and crack measurement and classification. This paper summarizes the commercially available systems and technologies for automated pavement distress evaluation. A comprehensive automated pavement distress survey involves collection, interpretation, and processing of the surface images to identify the type, quantity and severity of the surface distresses. The outputs can be used to quantitatively calculate the crack density. The systems for automated distress survey using digital images reviewed in this paper can assist the airport industry in the development of a pavement evaluation protocol based on crack density. Analysis of automated distress survey data can lead to a crack density index. This index can be used as a means of assessing pavement condition and to predict pavement performance. This can be used by airport owners to determine the type of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation in a more consistent way.
122
26701
A Simplified Model of the Control System with PFM
Abstract:
This work considers the automated control system (ACS) of milk quality during its magnetic field processing. For achieving high level of quality control methods were applied transformation of complex nonlinear systems in a linearized system with a less complex structure. Presented ACS is adjustable by seven parameters: mass fraction of fat, mass fraction of dry skim milk residues (DSMR), density, mass fraction of added water, temperature, mass fraction of protein, acidity.
121
40860
Manual to Automated Testing: An Effort-Based Approach for Determining the Priority of Software Test Automation
Abstract:
Test automation allows performing difficult and time consuming manual software testing tasks efficiently, quickly and repeatedly. However, development and maintenance of automated tests is expensive, so it needs a proper prioritization what to automate first. This paper describes a simple yet efficient approach for such prioritization of test cases based on the effort needed for both manual execution and software test automation. The suggested approach is very flexible because it allows working with a variety of assessment methods, and adding or removing new candidates at any time. The theoretical ideas presented in this article have been successfully applied in real world situations in several software companies by the authors and their colleagues including testing of real estate websites, cryptographic and authentication solutions, OSGi-based middleware framework that has been applied in various systems for smart homes, connected cars, production plants, sensors, home appliances, car head units and engine control units (ECU), vending machines, medical devices, industry equipment and other devices that either contain or are connected to an embedded service gateway.
120
130250
Human-Automation Interaction in Law: Mapping Legal Decisions and Judgments, Cognitive Processes, and Automation Levels
Abstract:
Legal technologies not only create new ways for accessing and providing legal services but also transform the role of legal practitioners. Both lawyers and users of legal services expect automated solutions to outperform people with objectivity and impartiality. Although fairness of the automated decisions is crucial, research on assessing various characteristics of automated processes related to the perceived fairness has only begun. One of the major obstacles to this research is the lack of comprehensive understanding of what legal actions are automated and could be meaningfully automated, and to what extent. Neither public nor legal practitioners oftentimes cannot envision technological input due to the lack of general without illustrative examples. The aim of this study is to map decision making stages and automation levels which are and/or could be achieved in legal actions related to pre-trial and trial processes. Major legal decisions and judgments are identified during the consultations with legal practitioners. The dual-process model of information processing is used to describe cognitive processes taking place while making legal decisions and judgments during pre-trial and trial action. Some of the existing legal technologies are incorporated into the analysis as well. Several published automation level taxonomies are considered because none of them fit well into the legal context, as they were all created for avionics, teleoperation, unmanned aerial vehicles, etc. From the information processing perspective, analysis of the legal decisions and judgments expose situations that are most sensitive to cognitive bias, among others, also help to identify areas that would benefit from the automation the most. Automation level analysis, in turn, provides a systematic approach to interaction and cooperation between humans and algorithms. Moreover, an integrated map of legal decisions and judgments, information processing characteristics, and automation levels all together provide some groundwork for the research of legal technology perceived fairness and acceptance. Acknowledgment: This project has received funding from European Social Fund (project No 09.3.3-LMT-K-712-19-0116) under grant agreement with the Research Council of Lithuania (LMTLT).
119
66294
Automation of Student Attendance Management System Using BPM
Abstract:
Education has become very important nowadays and with the rapidly increasing number of student, taking the attendance manually is getting very difficult and time wasting. In order to solve this problem, an automated solution is required. An effective automated system can be implemented to manage student attendance in different ways. This research will discuss a unique class attendance system which integrates both Face Recognition and RFID technique. This system focuses on reducing the time spent on submitting of the lecture and the wastage of time on submitting and getting approval for the absence excuse and sick leaves. As a result, the suggested solution will enhance not only the time, also it will also be helpful in eliminating fake attendance.
118
44053
Analysis of Operation System Reorganization for Load Balancing of Parcel Sorting
Authors:
Abstract:
As the internet and smartphone use increases, the E-Commerce is constantly growing. Therefore, the parcel is increasing continuously every year. If the larger amount than the processing capacity of the current facilities is received, they do not process, and the delivery quality becomes low. In this paper, therefore, we analyze comparatively at the cost perspective between the case of building a new facility for the increasing parcel volumes and the case of reorganizing the current operating system. We propose the optimal discount policy per parcel by calculating the construction cost of new automated facility and manual facilities until the construction of the new automated facility, and discount price.
117
8364
Automated Testing of Workshop Robot Behavior
Abstract:
Autonomous mobile robots can be found in a wide field of applications. Their types range from household robots over workshop robots to autonomous cars and many more. All of them undergo a number of testing steps during development, production and maintenance. This paper describes an approach to improve testing of robot behavior. It was inspired by the RoboCup @work competition that itself reflects a robotics benchmark for industrial robotics. There, scaled down versions of mobile industrial robots have to navigate through a workshop-like environment or operation area and have to perform tasks of manipulating and transporting work pieces. This paper will introduce an approach of automated vision-based testing of the behavior of the so called youBot robot, which is the most widely used robot platform in the RoboCup @work competition. The proposed system allows automated testing of multiple tries of the robot to perform a specific missions and it allows for the flexibility of the robot, e.g. selecting different paths between two tasks within a mission. The approach is based on a multi-camera setup using, off the shelf cameras and optical markers. It has been applied for test-driven development (TDD) and maintenance-like verification of the robot behavior and performance.
116
122058
Supervisor Controller-Based Colored Petri Nets for Deadlock Control and Machine Failures in Automated Manufacturing Systems
Abstract:
This paper develops a robust deadlock control technique for shared and unreliable resources in automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) based on structural analysis and colored Petri nets, which consists of three steps. The first step involves using strict minimal siphon control to create a live (deadlock-free) system that does not consider resource failure. The second step uses an approach based on colored Petri net, in which all monitors designed in the first step are merged into a single monitor. The third step addresses the deadlock control problems caused by resource failures. For all resource failures in the Petri net model a common recovery subnet based on colored petri net is proposed. The common recovery subnet is added to the obtained system at the second step to make the system reliable. The proposed approach is evaluated using an AMS from the literature. The results show that the proposed approach can be applied to an unreliable complex Petri net model, has a simpler structure and less computational complexity, and can obtain one common recovery subnet to model all resource failures.
115
70031
Automation of Student Attendance Management System Using BPM
Abstract:
Education has become very important nowadays and with the rapidly increasing number of student, taking the attendance manually is getting very difficult and time wasting. In order to solve this problem, an automated solution is required. An effective automated system can be implemented to manage student attendance in different ways. This research will discuss a unique class attendance system which integrates both Face Recognition and RFID technique. This system focuses on reducing the time spent on submitting of the lecture and the wastage of time on submitting and getting approval for the absence excuse and sick leaves. As a result, the suggested solution will enhance not only the time, also it will also be helpful in eliminating fake attendance.
114
70032
Automation of Student Attendance Management System Using BPM
Abstract:
Education has become very important nowadays and with the rapidly increasing number of student, taking the attendance manually is getting very difficult and time wasting. In order to solve this problem, an automated solution is required. An effective automated system can be implemented to manage student attendance in different ways. This research will discuss a unique class attendance system which integrates both Face Recognition and RFID technique. This system focuses on reducing the time spent on submitting of the lecture and the wastage of time on submitting and getting approval for the absence excuse and sick leaves. As a result, the suggested solution will enhance not only the time, also it will also be helpful in eliminating fake attendance.
113
41441
Practical Approach to Development Automated System of Record Research Results Architectural Cultural Heritage Objects Island-Town Sviyazhsk
Abstract:
In this article, we consider problems of automatic research result analysis and current monitoring of cultural legacy objects in island-city Sviyazhsk. We make basic concept of creating Automatic system, including developing the knowledge library with all conditions of three historical objects. In addition, we made described process of developing Automatic system of research result analysis of cultural legacy objects in island-city Sviyazhsk.
112
24317
Smart Automated Furrow Irrigation: A Preliminary Evaluation
Abstract:
Surface irrigation is the most popular irrigation method all over the world. However, two issues: low efficiency and huge labour involvement concern irrigators due to scarcity in recent years. To address these issues, a smart automated furrow is conceptualised that can be operated using digital devices like smartphone, iPad or computer and a preliminary evaluation was conducted in this study. The smart automated system is the integration of commercially available software and hardware. It includes real-time surface irrigation optimisation software (SISCO) and Rubicon Water’s surface irrigation automation hardware and software. The automated system consists of automatic water delivery system with 300 mm flexible pipes attached to both sides of a remotely controlled valve to operate the irrigation. A water level sensor to obtain the real-time inflow rate from the measured head in the channel, advance sensors to measure the advance time to particular points of an irrigated field, a solar-powered telemetry system including a base station to communicate all the field sensors with the main server. On the basis of field data, the software (SISCO) is optimised the ongoing irrigation and determine the optimum cut-off for particular irrigation and send this information to the control valve to stop the irrigation in a particular (cut-off) time. The preliminary evaluation shows that the automated surface irrigation worked reasonably well without manual intervention. The evaluation of farmers managed irrigation events show the potentials to save a significant amount of water and labour. A substantial amount of economic and social benefits are expected in rural industries by adopting this system. The future outcome of this work would be a fully tested commercial adaptive real-time furrow irrigation system able to compete with the pressurised alternative of centre pivot or lateral move machines on capital cost, water and labour savings but without the massive energy costs.
111
67697
An Automated Business Process Management for Smart Medical Records
Abstract:
Nowadays, healthcare services are facing many challenges since they are becoming more complex and more needed. Every detail of a patient’s interactions with health care providers is maintained in Electronic Health Records (ECR) and Healthcare information systems (HIS). However, most of the existing systems are often focused on documenting what happens in manual health care process, rather than providing the highest quality patient care. Healthcare business processes and stakeholders can no longer rely on manual processes, to provide better patient care and efficient utilization of resources, Healthcare processes must be automated wherever it is possible. In this research, a detail survey and analysis is performed on the existing health care systems in Saudi Arabia, and an automated smart medical healthcare business process model is proposed. The business process management methods and rules are followed in discovering, collecting information, analysis, redesign, implementation and performance improvement analysis in terms of time and cost. From the simulation results, it is evident that our proposed smart medical records system can improve the quality of the service by reducing the time and cost and increasing efficiency
110
95675
Multi-Stage Multi-Period Production Planning in Wire and Cable Industry
Abstract:
This paper presents a methodology for serial production planning problem in wire and cable manufacturing process that addresses the problem of input-output imbalance in different consecutive stations, hoping to minimize the halt of machines in each stage. To this end, a linear Goal Programming (GP) model is developed, in which four main categories of constraints as per the number of runs per machine, machines’ sequences, acceptable inventories of machines at the end of each period, and the necessity of fulfillment of the customers’ orders are considered. The model is formulated based upon on the real data obtained from IKO TAK Company, an important supplier of wire and cable for oil and gas and automotive industries in Iran. By solving the model in GAMS software the optimal number of runs, end-of-period inventories, and the possible minimum idle time for each machine are calculated. The application of the numerical results in the target company has shown the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution in decreasing the lead time of the end product delivery to the customers by 20%. Accordingly, the developed model could be easily applied in wire and cable companies for the aim of optimal production planning to reduce the halt of machines in manufacturing stages.
109
121326
Computing Machinery and Legal Intelligence: Towards a Reflexive Model for Computer Automated Decision Support in Public Administration
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a model for human-AI interaction in public administration that involves legal decision-making. Inspired by Alan Turing’s test for machine intelligence, we propose a way of institutionalizing a continuous working relationship between man and machine that aims at ensuring both good legal quality and higher efficiency in decision-making processes in public administration. We also suggest that our model enhances the legitimacy of using AI in public legal decision-making. We suggest that case loads in public administration could be divided between a manual and an automated decision track. The automated decision track will be an algorithmic recommender system trained on former cases. To avoid unwanted feedback loops and biases, part of the case load will be dealt with by both a human case worker and the automated recommender system. In those cases an experienced human case worker will have the role of an evaluator, choosing between the two decisions. This model will ensure that the algorithmic recommender system is not compromising the quality of the legal decision making in the institution. It also enhances the legitimacy of using algorithmic decision support because it provides justification for its use by being seen as superior to human decisions when the algorithmic recommendations are preferred by experienced case workers. The paper outlines in some detail the process through which such a model could be implemented. It also addresses the important issue that legal decision making is subject to legislative and judicial changes and that legal interpretation is context sensitive. Both of these issues requires continuous supervision and adjustments to algorithmic recommender systems when used for legal decision making purposes.
108
58275
Impact Analysis Based on Change Requirement Traceability in Object Oriented Software Systems
Abstract:
Change requirement traceability in object oriented software systems is one of the challenging areas in research. We know that the traces between links of different artifacts are to be automated or semi-automated in the software development life cycle (SDLC). The aim of this paper is discussing and implementing aspects of dynamically linking the artifacts such as requirements, high level design, code and test cases through the Extensible Markup Language (XML) or by dynamically generating Object Oriented (OO) metrics. Also, non-functional requirements (NFR) aspects such as stability, completeness, clarity, validity, feasibility and precision are discussed. We discuss this as a Fifth Taxonomy, which is a system vulnerability concern.
107
68354
Histopathological Features of Infections Caused by Fusarium equiseti (Mart.) Sacc. in Onion Plants from Kebbi State, Northern Nigeria
Abstract:
Onion production is affected by several diseases including fusariosis. Study was conducted to investigate the histopathological features of different onion tissues infected with Fusarium equiseti by inoculation with soil drench, root dip and mycelia paste methods. This was carried out by fixation, dehydration, clearing, wax embedding, sectioning, staining and mounting of leaf and root sections for microscopical examination at 400x. Once infection occurred in the roots, the pathogen moved through the vascular system to colonize the whole plant. At first, it grew in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex but soon invaded the cells, followed by colonization of the cells by its hyphae and microconidia. At later stages of infection, the cortex tissue became completely disorganized and decomposed as the pathogen advance to the shoot system via the vessel elements; this may be responsible for the early wilting symptom of infected plants arising from the severe water stress due to blockage of the xylem tissues.
106
123623
A Conceptual Model of the 'Driver – Highly Automated Vehicle' System
Abstract:
The current trend in the automotive industry towards automatic vehicles is creating new challenges related to human factors. This occurs due to the fact that the driver is increasingly relieved of the need to be constantly involved in driving the vehicle, which can negatively impact his/her situation awareness when manual control is required, and decrease driving skills and abilities. These new problems need to be studied in order to provide road safety during the transition towards self-driving vehicles. For this purpose, it is important to develop an appropriate conceptual model of the interaction between the driver and the automated vehicle, which could serve as a theoretical basis for the development of mathematical and simulation models to explore different aspects of driver behaviour in different road situations. Well-known driver behaviour models describe the impact of different stages of the driver's cognitive process on driving performance but do not describe how the driver controls and adjusts his actions. A more complete description of the driver's cognitive process, including the evaluation of the results of his/her actions, will make it possible to more accurately model various aspects of the human factor in different road situations. This paper presents a conceptual model of the 'driver – highly automated vehicle' system based on the P.K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems, which is a theoretical framework for describing internal processes in purposeful living systems based on such notions as goal, desired and actual results of the purposeful activity. A central feature of the proposed model is a dynamic coupling mechanism between the decision-making of a driver to perform a particular action and changes of road conditions due to driver’s actions. This mechanism is based on the stage by stage evaluation of the deviations of the actual values of the driver’s action results parameters from the expected values. The overall functional structure of the highly automated vehicle in the proposed model includes a driver/vehicle/environment state analyzer to coordinate the interaction between driver and vehicle. The proposed conceptual model can be used as a framework to investigate different aspects of human factors in transitions between automated and manual driving for future improvements in driving safety, and for understanding how driver-vehicle interface must be designed for comfort and safety. A major finding of this study is the demonstration that the theory of functional systems is promising and has the potential to describe the interaction of the driver with the vehicle and the environment.
105
83067
Comparison of Automated Zone Design Census Output Areas with Existing Output Areas in South Africa
Abstract:
South Africa is one of the few countries that have stopped using the same Enumeration Areas (EAs) for census enumeration and dissemination. The advantage of this change is that confidentiality issue could be addressed for census dissemination as the design of geographic unit for collection is mainly to ensure that this unit is covered by one enumerator. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of automated zone design output areas against non-zone design developed geographies using the 2001 census data, and 2011 census to some extent, as the main input. The comparison of the Automated Zone-design Tool (AZTool) census output areas with the Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces based on confidentiality limit, population distribution, and degree of homogeneity, as well as shape compactness, was undertaken. Further, SPSS was employed for validation of the AZTool output results. The results showed that AZTool developed output areas out-perform the existing official SAL and SubPlaces with regard to minimum population threshold, population distribution and to some extent to homogeneity. Therefore, it was concluded that AZTool program provides a new alternative to the creation of optimised census output areas for dissemination of population census data in South Africa.
104
124737
Analysis of Splicing Methods for High Speed Automated Fibre Placement Applications
Abstract:
The focus in the automotive industry is to reduce human operator and machine interaction, so manufacturing becomes more automated and safer. The aim is to lower part cost and construction time as well as defects in the parts, sometimes occurring due to the physical limitations of human operators. A move to automate the layup of reinforcement material in composites manufacturing has resulted in the use of tapes that are placed in position by a robotic deposition head, also described as Automated Fibre Placement (AFP). The process of AFP is limited with respect to the finite amount of material that can be loaded into the machine at any one time. Joining two batches of tape material together involves a splice to secure the ends of the finishing tape to the starting edge of the new tape. The splicing method of choice for the majority of prepreg applications is a hand stich method, and as the name suggests requires human input to achieve. This investigation explores three methods for automated splicing, namely, adhesive, binding and stitching. The adhesive technique uses an additional adhesive placed on the tape ends to be joined. Binding uses the binding agent that is already impregnated onto the tape through the application of heat. The stitching method is used as a baseline to compare the new splicing methods to the traditional technique currently in use. As the methods will be used within a High Speed Automated Fibre Placement (HSAFP) process, this meant the parameters of the splices have to meet certain specifications: (a) the splice must be able to endure a load of 50 N in tension applied at a rate of 1 mm/s; (b) the splice must be created in less than 6 seconds, dictated by the capacity of the tape accumulator within the system. The samples for experimentation were manufactured with controlled overlaps, alignment and splicing parameters, these were then tested in tension using a tensile testing machine. Initial analysis explored the use of the impregnated binding agent present on the tape, as in the binding splicing technique. It analysed the effect of temperature and overlap on the strength of the splice. It was found that the optimum splicing temperature was at the higher end of the activation range of the binding agent, 100 °C. The optimum overlap was found to be 25 mm; it was found that there was no improvement in bond strength from 25 mm to 30 mm overlap. The final analysis compared the different splicing methods to the baseline of a stitched bond. It was found that the addition of an adhesive was the best splicing method, achieving a maximum load of over 500 N compared to the 26 N load achieved by a stitching splice and 94 N by the binding method.
103
21284
Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract:
This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.
102
90984
An Automated Stock Investment System Using Machine Learning Techniques: An Application in Australia
Abstract:
A key issue in stock investment is how to select representative features for stock selection. The objective of this paper is to firstly determine whether an automated stock investment system, using machine learning techniques, may be used to identify a portfolio of growth stocks that are highly likely to provide returns better than the stock market index. The second objective is to identify the technical features that best characterize whether a stock’s price is likely to go up and to identify the most important factors and their contribution to predicting the likelihood of the stock price going up. Unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as cluster analysis, were applied to the stock data to identify a cluster of stocks that was likely to go up in price – portfolio 1. Next, the principal component analysis technique was used to select stocks that were rated high on component one and component two – portfolio 2. Thirdly, a supervised machine learning technique, the logistic regression method, was used to select stocks with a high probability of their price going up – portfolio 3. The predictive models were validated with metrics such as, sensitivity (recall), specificity and overall accuracy for all models. All accuracy measures were above 70%. All portfolios outperformed the market by more than eight times. The top three stocks were selected for each of the three stock portfolios and traded in the market for one month. After one month the return for each stock portfolio was computed and compared with the stock market index returns. The returns for all three stock portfolios was 23.87% for the principal component analysis stock portfolio, 11.65% for the logistic regression portfolio and 8.88% for the K-means cluster portfolio while the stock market performance was 0.38%. This study confirms that an automated stock investment system using machine learning techniques can identify top performing stock portfolios that outperform the stock market.
101
72298
RoboWeedSupport: Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images
Abstract:
Recent advances in the UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO drone. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing the latter requirements in the form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster weed images in sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.
100
27641
Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving
Abstract:
This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.
99
131080
An Encapsulation of a Navigable Tree Position: Theory, Specification, and Verification
Abstract:
This paper presents a generic data abstraction that captures a navigable tree position. The mathematical modeling of the abstraction encapsulates the current tree position, which can be used to navigate and modify the tree. The encapsulation of the tree position in the data abstraction specification avoids the use of explicit references and aliasing, thereby simplifying verification of (imperative) client code that uses the data abstraction. To ease the tasks of such specification and verification, a general tree theory, rich with mathematical notations and results, has been developed. The paper contains an example to illustrate automated verification ramifications. With sufficient tree theory development, automated proving seems plausible even in the absence of a special-purpose tree solver.
98
75426
Seismic Protection of Automated Stocker System by Customized Viscous Fluid Dampers
Abstract:
The hi-tech industries in the Science Park at southern Taiwan were heavily damaged by a strong earthquake early 2016. The financial loss in this event was attributed primarily to the automated stocker system handling fully processed products, and recovery of the automated stocker system from the aftermath proved to contribute major lead time. Therefore, development of effective means for protection of stockers against earthquakes has become the highest priority for risk minimization and business continuity. This study proposes to mitigate the seismic response of the stockers by introducing viscous fluid dampers in between the ceiling and the top of the stockers. The stocker is expected to vibrate less violently with a passive control force on top. Linear damper is considered in this application with an optimal damping coefficient determined from a preliminary parametric study. The damper is small in size in comparison with those adopted for building or bridge applications. Component test of the dampers has been carried out to make sure they meet the design requirement. Shake table tests have been further conducted to verify the proposed scheme under realistic earthquake conditions. Encouraging results have been achieved by effectively reducing the seismic responses of up to 60% and preventing the FOUPs from falling off the shelves that would otherwise be the case if left unprotected. Effectiveness of adopting a viscous fluid damper for seismic control of the stocker on top against the ceiling has been confirmed. This technique has been adopted by Macronix International Co., LTD for seismic retrofit of existing stockers. Demonstrative projects on the application of the proposed technique are planned underway for other companies in the display industry as well.
97
67643
RoboWeedSupport-Semi-Automated Unmanned Aerial System for Cost Efficient High Resolution in Sub-Millimeter Scale Acquisition of Weed Images
Abstract:
Recent advances in the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) safety and perception systems enable safe low altitude autonomous terrain following flights recently demonstrated by the consumer DJI Mavic PRO and Phamtom 4 Pro drones. This paper presents the first prototype system utilizing this functionality in form of semi-automated UAS based collection of crop/weed images where the embedded perception system ensures a significantly safer and faster gathering of weed images with sub-millimeter resolution. The system is to be used when the weeds are at cotyledon stage and prior to the harvest recognizing the grass weed species, which cannot be discriminated at the cotyledon stage.
96
43195
Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections
Abstract:
In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.
95
128250
Wikipedia World: A Computerized Process for Cultural Heritage Data Dissemination
Abstract:
TCVPYR is a European FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) project which aims to promote tourism in the French Pyrenees region by leveraging its cultural heritage. It involves scientists from various domains (geographers, historians, anthropologists, computer scientists...). This paper presents a fully automated process to publish any dataset as Wikipedia articles as well as the corresponding linked information on Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons. We validate this process on a sample of geo-referenced cultural heritage data collected by TCVPYR researchers in different regions of the Pyrenees. The main result concerns the technological prerequisites, which are now in place. Moreover, we demonstrated that we can automatically publish cultural heritage data on Wikimedia.
94
87418
Mathematical Description of Functional Motion and Application as a Feeding Mode for General Purpose Assistive Robots
Abstract:
Eating a meal is among the Activities of Daily Living, but it takes a lot of time and effort for people with physical or functional limitations. Dedicated technologies are cumbersome and not portable, while general-purpose assistive robots such as wheelchair-based manipulators are too hard to control for elaborate continuous motion like eating. Eating with such devices has not previously been automated, since there existed no description of a feeding motion for uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we introduce a feeding mode for assistive manipulators, including a mathematical description of trajectories for motions that are difficult to perform manually such as gathering and scooping food at a defined/desired pace. We implement these trajectories in a sequence of movements for a semi-automated feeding mode which can be controlled with a very simple 3-button interface, allowing the user to have control over the feeding pace. Finally, we demonstrate the feeding mode with a JACO robotic arm and compare the eating speed, measured in bites per minute of three eating methods: a healthy person eating unaided, a person with upper limb limitations or disability using JACO with manual control, and a person with limitations using JACO with the feeding mode. We found that the feeding mode allows eating about 5 bites per minute, which should be sufficient to eat a meal under 30min.
93
29151
Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics
Abstract:
In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.
92
28679
Comparative Study of Skeletonization and Radial Distance Methods for Automated Finger Enumeration
Abstract:
Automated enumeration of the number of hand fingers is widely used in several motion gaming and distance control applications, and is discussed in several published papers as a starting block for hand recognition systems. The automated finger enumeration technique should not only be accurate, but also must have a fast response for a moving-picture input. The high performance of video in motion games or distance control will inhibit the program’s overall speed, for image processing software such as Matlab need to produce results at high computation speeds. Since an automated finger enumeration with minimum error and processing time is desired, a comparative study between two finger enumeration techniques is presented and analyzed in this paper. In the pre-processing stage, various image processing functions were applied on a real-time video input to obtain the final cleaned auto-cropped image of the hand to be used for the two techniques. The first technique uses the known morphological tool of skeletonization to count the number of skeleton’s endpoints for fingers. The second technique uses a radial distance method to enumerate the number of fingers in order to obtain a one dimensional hand representation. For both discussed methods, the different steps of the algorithms are explained. Then, a comparative study analyzes the accuracy and speed of both techniques. Through experimental testing in different background conditions, it was observed that the radial distance method was more accurate and responsive to a real-time video input compared to the skeletonization method. All test results were generated in Matlab and were based on displaying a human hand for three different orientations on top of a plain color background. Finally, the limitations surrounding the enumeration techniques are presented.
91
73138
Optimal Location of the I/O Point in the Parking System
Abstract:
In this paper, we deal with the optimal I/O point location in an automated parking system. In this system, the S/R machine (storage and retrieve machine) travels independently in vertical and horizontal directions. Based on the characteristics of the parking system and the basic principle of AS/RS system (Automated Storage and Retrieval System), we obtain the continuous model in units of time. For the single command cycle using the randomized storage policy, we calculate the probability density function for the system travel time and thus we develop the travel time model. And we confirm that the travel time model shows a good performance by comparing with discrete case. Finally in this part, we establish the optimal model by minimizing the expected travel time model and it is shown that the optimal location of the I/O point is located at the middle of the left-hand above corner.
90
26320
Natural Language Processing; the Future of Clinical Record Management
Abstract:
This paper investigates the future of medicine and the use of Natural language processing. The importance of having correct clinical information available online is remarkable; improving patient care at affordable costs could be achieved using automated applications to use the online clinical information. The major challenge towards the retrieval of such vital information is to have it appropriately coded. Majority of the online patient reports are not found to be coded and not accessible as its recorded in natural language text. The use of Natural Language processing provides a feasible solution by retrieving and organizing clinical information, available in text and transforming clinical data that is available for use. Systems used in NLP are rather complex to construct, as they entail considerable knowledge, however significant development has been made. Newly formed NLP systems have been tested and have established performance that is promising and considered as practical clinical applications.
89
134154
Capacity Estimation of Hybrid Automated Repeat Request Protocol for Low Earth Orbit Mega-Constellations
Abstract:
Wireless communication chain requires effective ways to keep throughput efficiency high while it suffers location-dependent, time-varying burst errors. Several techniques are developed in order to assure that the receiver recovers the transmitted information without errors. The most fundamental approaches are error checking and correction besides re-transmission of the non-acknowledged packets. In this paper, stop & wait (SAW) and chase combined (CC) hybrid automated repeat request (HARQ) protocols are compared and analyzed in terms of throughput and average delay for the usage of low earth orbit (LEO) mega-constellations case. Several assumptions and technological implementations are considered as well as usage of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes together with several constellation orbit configurations.
88
17249
Fault Tolerant (n,k)-star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.
87
23400
Fault Tolerant (n, k)-Star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.
86
49056
A Framework for an Automated Decision Support System for Selecting Safety-Conscious Contractors
Abstract:
Selection of competent contractors for construction projects is usually accomplished through competitive bidding or negotiated contracting in which the contract bid price is the basic criterion for selection. The evaluation of contractor’s safety performance is still not a typical criterion in the selection process, despite the existence of various safety prequalification procedures. There is a critical need for practical and automated systems that enable owners and decision makers to evaluate contractor safety performance, among other important contractor selection criteria. These systems should ultimately favor safety-conscious contractors to be selected by the virtue of their past good safety records and current safety programs. This paper presents an exploratory sequential mixed-methods approach to develop a framework for an automated decision support system that evaluates contractor safety performance based on a multitude of indicators and metrics that have been identified through a comprehensive review of construction safety research, and a survey distributed to domain experts. The framework is developed in three phases: (1) determining the indicators that depict contractor current and past safety performance; (2) soliciting input from construction safety experts regarding the identified indicators, their metrics, and relative significance; and (3) designing a decision support system using relational database models to integrate the identified indicators and metrics into a system that assesses and rates the safety performance of contractors. The proposed automated system is expected to hold several advantages including: (1) reducing the likelihood of selecting contractors with poor safety records; (2) enhancing the odds of completing the project safely; and (3) encouraging contractors to exert more efforts to improve their safety performance and practices in order to increase their bid winning opportunities which can lead to significant safety improvements in the construction industry. This should prove useful to decision makers and researchers, alike, and should help improve the safety record of the construction industry.
85
63293
Automated User Story Driven Approach for Web-Based Functional Testing
Abstract:
Manual writing of test cases from functional requirements is a time-consuming task. Such test cases are not only difficult to write but are also challenging to maintain. Test cases can be drawn from the functional requirements that are expressed in natural language. However, manual test case generation is inefficient and subject to errors.  In this paper, we have presented a systematic procedure that could automatically derive test cases from user stories. The user stories are specified in a restricted natural language using a well-defined template.  We have also presented a detailed methodology for writing our test ready user stories. Our tool "Test-o-Matic" automatically generates the test cases by processing the restricted user stories. The generated test cases are executed by using open source Selenium IDE.  We evaluate our approach on a case study, which is an open source web based application. Effectiveness of our approach is evaluated by seeding faults in the open source case study using known mutation operators.  Results show that the test case generation from restricted user stories is a viable approach for automated testing of web applications.
84
100365
Determination of the Thermally Comfortable Air Temperature with Consideration of Individual Clothing and Activity as Preparation for a New Smart Home Heating System
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to determine a thermally comfortable air temperature in an automated living room. This calculated temperature should serve as input for a user-specific and dynamic heating control in such a living space. In addition to the usual physical factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity, and radiation temperature), individual clothing and activity should be taken into account. The calculation of such a temperature is based on different methods and indices which are usually used for the evaluation of the thermal comfort. The thermal insulation of the worn clothing is determined with a Radio Frequency Identification system. The activity performed is only taken into account indirectly through the generated heart rate. All these methods are ultimately very well suited for use in temperature regulation in an automated home, but still require further research and extensive evaluation.
83
108134
Positive Bias and Length Bias in Deep Neural Networks for Premises Selection
Abstract:
Premises selection, the task of selecting a set of axioms for proving a given conjecture, is a major bottleneck in automated theorem proving. An array of deep-learning-based methods has been established for premises selection, but a perfect performance remains challenging. Our study examines the inaccuracy of deep neural networks in premises selection. Through training network models using encoded conjecture and axiom pairs from the Mizar Mathematical Library, two potential biases are found: the network models classify more premises as necessary than unnecessary, referred to as the ‘positive bias’, and the network models perform better in proving conjectures that paired with more axioms, referred to as ‘length bias’. The ‘positive bias’ and ‘length bias’ discovered could inform the limitation of existing deep neural networks.
82
108017
Positive Bias and Length Bias in Deep Neural Networks for Premises Selection
Abstract:
Premises selection, the task of selecting a set of axioms for proving a given conjecture, is a major bottleneck in automated theorem proving. An array of deep-learning-based methods has been established for premises selection, but a perfect performance remains challenging. Our study examines the inaccuracy of deep neural networks in premises selection. Through training network models using encoded conjecture and axiom pairs from the Mizar Mathematical Library, two potential biases are found: the network models classify more premises as necessary than unnecessary, referred to as the ‘positive bias’, and the network models perform better in proving conjectures that paired with more axioms, referred to as ‘length bias’. The ‘positive bias’ and ‘length bias’ discovered could inform the limitation of existing deep neural networks.
81
67850
Towards a Complete Automation Feature Recognition System for Sheet Metal Manufacturing
Abstract:
Sheet metal processing is automated, but the step from product models to the production machine control still requires human intervention. This may cause time consuming bottlenecks in the production process and increase the risk of human errors. In this paper we present a system, which automatically recognizes features from the CAD-model of the sheet metal product. By using these features, the system produces a complete model of the particular sheet metal product. Then the model is used as an input for the sheet metal processing machine. Currently the system is implemented, capable to recognize more than 11 of the most common sheet metal structural features, and the procedure is fully automated. This provides remarkable savings in the production time, and protects against the human errors. This paper presents the developed system architecture, applied algorithms and system software implementation and testing.
80
21288
Greenhouse Controlled with Graphical Plotting in Matlab
Abstract:
This project aims to building a controlled greenhouse, or for better understanding, a structure where one can maintain a given range of temperature values (°C) coming from radiation emitted by an incandescent light, as previously defined, characterizing as a kind of on-off control and a differential, which is the plotting of temperature versus time graphs assisted by MATLAB software via serial communication. That way it is possible to connect the stove with a computer and monitor parameters. In the control, it was performed using a PIC 16F877A microprocessor which enabled convert analog signals to digital, perform serial communication with the IC MAX232 and enable signal transistors. The language used in the PIC's management is Basic. There are also a cooling system realized by two coolers 12V distributed in lateral structure, being used for venting and the other for exhaust air. To find out existing temperature inside is used LM35DZ sensor. Other mechanism used in the greenhouse construction was comprised of a reed switch and a magnet; their function is in recognition of the door position where a signal is sent to a buzzer when the door is open. Beyond it exist LEDs that help to identify the operation which the stove is located. To facilitate human-machine communication is employed an LCD display that tells real-time temperature and other information. The average range of design operating without any major problems, taking into account the limitations of the construction material and structure of electrical current conduction, is approximately 65 to 70 ° C. The project is efficient in these conditions, that is, when you wish to get information from a given material to be tested at temperatures not as high. With the implementation of the greenhouse automation, facilitating the temperature control and the development of a structure that encourages correct environment for the most diverse applications.
79
104469
A Stepwise Approach to Automate the Search for Optimal Parameters in Seasonal ARIMA Models
Abstract:
Reliable forecasts of univariate time series data are often necessary for several contexts. ARIMA models are quite popular among practitioners in this regard. Hence, choosing correct parameter values for ARIMA is a challenging yet imperative task. Thus, a stepwise algorithm is introduced to provide automatic and robust estimates for parameters (p; d; q)(P; D; Q) used in seasonal ARIMA models. This process is focused on improvising the overall quality of the estimates, and it alleviates the problems induced due to the unidimensional nature of the methods that are currently used such as auto.arima. The fast and automated search of parameter space also ensures reliable estimates of the parameters that possess several desirable qualities, consequently, resulting in higher test accuracy especially in the cases of noisy data. After vigorous testing on real as well as simulated data, the algorithm doesn’t only perform better than current state-of-the-art methods, it also completely obviates the need for human intervention due to its automated nature.
78
127593
Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language
Abstract:
"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.
77
19319
Automated Parking System
Abstract:
Traffic congestion with increased numbers of vehicles is already a serious issue for many countries. The absence of sufficient parking spaces adds to the issue. Motorists are forced to wait in long queues to park their vehicles. This adds to the inconvenience faced by a motorist, kept waiting for a slot allocation, manually done along with the parking payment calculation. In Sri Lanka, nowadays, parking systems use barcode technology to identify the vehicles at both the entrance and the exit points. Customer management is handled by the use of man power. A parking space is, generally permanently sub divided according to the vehicle type. Here, again, is an issue. Parking spaces are not utilized to the maximum. The current arrangement leaves room for unutilized parking spaces. Accordingly, there is a need to manage the parking space dynamically. As a vehicle enters the parking area, available space has to be assigned for the vehicle according to the vehicle type. The system, Automated Parking System (APS), provides an automated solution using RFID Technology to identify the vehicles. Simultaneously, an algorithm manages the space allocation dynamically. With this system, there is no permanent parking slot allocation for a vehicle type. A desktop application manages the customer. A Web application is used to manage the external users with their reservations. The system also has an android application to view the nearest parking area from the current location. APS is built using java and php. It uses LED panels to guide the user inside the parking area to find the allocated parking slot accurately. The system ensures efficient performance, saving precious time for a customer. Compared with the current parking systems, APS interacts with users and increases customer satisfaction as well.
76
22439
Design Off-Campus Interactive Cloud-Based Learning Model
Abstract:
Using cloud computing in educational sectors grow rapidly in UAE. Initially, within Cloud-Learning Environment Students whenever and wherever can remotely join the online-classroom, on the other hand, Cloud-Based Learning is greatly decreasing the infrastructure and the maintenance cost. Nowadays in many schools (K-12), institutes, colleges as well as universities in UAE Cloud-Based Teaching and Learning environments gain a higher demand and concern. Many students don’t use the available online-educational resources effectively. The challenging question is to which extend these educational resources which are installed in the cloud environment are valuable and constructive? In this paper the researcher is seeking to design an expert agent prototype where the huge information being accommodated inside the cloud environment will go through expert filtration before going to be utilized by other clients (students). To achieve this goal, the focus of the present research would be on two different directions the educational human expertise and the automated-educational expert systems.
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75488
Automated Buffer Box Assembly Cell Concept for the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant
Abstract:
The Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a mid-size hemispherical headed copper coated steel container measuring 2.5 meters in length and 0.5 meters in diameter containing 48 used fuel bundles. The contained used fuel produces significant gamma radiation requiring automated assembly processes to complete the assembly. The design throughput of 2,500 UFCs per year places constraints on equipment and hot cell design for repeatability, speed of processing, robustness and recovery from upset conditions. After UFC assembly, the UFC is inserted into a Buffer Box (BB). The BB is made from adequately pre-shaped blocks (lower and upper block) and Highly Compacted Bentonite (HCB) material. The blocks are practically ‘sandwiching’ the UFC between them after assembly. This paper identifies one possible approach for the BB automatic assembly cell and processes. Automation of the BB assembly will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.
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42832
A High Content Screening Platform for the Accurate Prediction of Nephrotoxicity
Abstract:
The kidney is a major target for toxic effects of drugs, industrial and environmental chemicals and other compounds. Typically, nephrotoxicity is detected late during drug development, and regulatory animal models could not solve this problem. Validated or accepted in silico or in vitro methods for the prediction of nephrotoxicity are not available. We have established the first and currently only pre-validated in vitro models for the accurate prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans and the first predictive platforms based on renal cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. In order to further improve the efficiency of our predictive models, we recently developed a high content screening (HCS) platform. This platform employed automated imaging in combination with automated quantitative phenotypic profiling and machine learning methods. 129 image-based phenotypic features were analyzed with respect to their predictive performance in combination with 44 compounds with different chemical structures that included drugs, environmental and industrial chemicals and herbal and fungal compounds. The nephrotoxicity of these compounds in humans is well characterized. A combination of chromatin and cytoskeletal features resulted in high predictivity with respect to nephrotoxicity in humans. Test balanced accuracies of 82% or 89% were obtained with human primary or immortalized renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results revealed that a DNA damage response is commonly induced by different PTC-toxicants with diverse chemical structures and injury mechanisms. Together, the results show that the automated HCS platform allows efficient and accurate nephrotoxicity prediction for compounds with diverse chemical structures.
73
52591
Automatic Method for Exudates and Hemorrhages Detection from Fundus Retinal Images
Abstract:
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that leads to blindness. The earliest signs of DR are the appearance of red and yellow lesions on the retina called hemorrhages and exudates. Early diagnosis of DR prevents from blindness; hence, many automated algorithms have been proposed to extract hemorrhages and exudates. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented to extract hemorrhages and exudates separately from retinal fundus images using different image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Since Optic Disc is the same color as the exudates, it is first localized and detected. The presented method has been tested on fundus images from Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) and Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) databases by using MATLAB codes. The results show that this method is perfectly capable of detecting hard exudates and the highly probable soft exudates. It is also capable of detecting the hemorrhages and distinguishing them from blood vessels.
72
22732
Design of Semi-Automatic Vent and Flash Remover
Abstract:
The main consideration of any tire manufacturing process is wear resistance. One of the factors that cause tire wear is improper removal of vent and flash from the tire surface. The contact point between tyre surface and vent is highly supposed to wear. When the vehicle running at higher speed with heavy load, the tire vent and flash is wearing initially and it makes few of the tire surface material to wear along with it. Hence, provision must be given to efficient removal vent and flash thereby tire wear. Human efforts in trimming of tire vent results in time consuming and inaccurate output. Hence, this lead to the reduction in production rate and profit. Thus, the development of automated system can helps to attain minimum time consumption and provide a possible way to get the profitable production. Semi-automated system that employs Pneumatic actuators and sequencing circuits are focused in this study. By implementing this, one can achieve the accurate results with reduction in time and profitable output.
71
109499
A Leader-Follower Kinematic-Based Control System for a Cable-Driven Hyper-Redundant Manipulator
Abstract:
Thanks to the high maneuverability of the cable-driven hyper-redundant manipulators (HRMs), this class of robots has shown a superior capability in highly confined and unstructured space applications. Although the large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) of HRMs enhances the motion flexibility and the robot’s reachability range, it highly increases the complexity of the kinematic configuration which makes the kinematic control problem very challenging or even impossible to solve. This paper presents our current progress achieved on the development of a kinematic-based leader-follower control system which is designed to control not only the robot’s body posture but also to control the trajectory of the robot’s movement in a semi-autonomous manner (the human operator is retained in the robot’s control loop). To obtain the forward kinematic model, the coordinate frames are established by the classical Denavit–Hartenburg (D-H) convention for a hyper-redundant serial manipulator which has a controlled cables-driven mechanism. To solve the inverse kinematics of the robot, unlike the conventional methods, a leader-follower mechanism, based on the sequential inverse kinematic, is followed. Using this mechanism, the inverse kinematic problem is solved for all sequential joints starting from the head joint to the base joint of the robot. To verify the kinematic design and simulate the robot motion, the MATLAB robotic toolbox is used. The simulation result demonstrated the promising capability of the proposed leader-follower control system in controlling the robot motion and trajectory in our confined space application.
70
37872
Design and Implementation of Automated Car Anti-Collision System Device Using Distance Sensor
Abstract:
Automated car anti-collision system is a trending technology of science. A car anti-collision system is an automobile safety system. The aim of this paper was to describe designing a car anti-collision system device to reduce the severity of an accident. The purpose of this device is to prevent collision among cars and objects to reduce the accidental death of human. This project gives an overview of secure & smooth journey of car as well as the certainty of human life. This system is controlled by microcontroller PIC. Sharp distance sensor is used to detect any object within the danger range. A crystal oscillator is used to produce the oscillation and generates the clock pulse of the microcontroller. An LCD is used to give information about the safe distance and a buzzer is used as alarm. An actuator is used as automatic break and inside the actuator; there is a motor driver that runs the actuator. For coding ‘microC PRO for PIC’ was used and ’Proteus Design Suite version 8 Software’ was used for simulation.
69
99761
Development of an Autonomous Automated Guided Vehicle with Robot Manipulator under Robot Operation System Architecture
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of an autonomous automated guided vehicle (AGV) with a robot arm attached on top of it within the framework of robot operation system (ROS). ROS can provide libraries and tools, including hardware abstraction, device drivers, libraries, visualizers, message-passing, package management, etc. For this reason, this AGV can provide automatic navigation and parts transportation and pick-and-place task using robot arm for typical industrial production line use. More specifically, this AGV will be controlled by an on-board host computer running ROS software. Command signals for vehicle and robot arm control and measurement signals from various sensors are transferred to respective microcontrollers. Users can operate the AGV remotely through the TCP / IP protocol and perform SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping). An RGBD camera and LIDAR sensors are installed on the AGV, using these data to perceive the environment. For SLAM, Gmapping is used to construct the environment map by Rao-Blackwellized particle filter; and AMCL method (Adaptive Monte Carlo localization) is employed for mobile robot localization. In addition, current AGV position and orientation can be visualized by ROS toolkit. As for robot navigation and obstacle avoidance, A* for global path planning and dynamic window approach for local planning are implemented. The developed ROS AGV with a robot arm on it has been experimented in the university factory. A 2-D and 3-D map of the factory were successfully constructed by the SLAM method. Base on this map, robot navigation through the factory with and without dynamic obstacles are shown to perform well. Finally, pick-and-place of parts using robot arm and ensuing delivery in the factory by the mobile robot are also accomplished.
68
19813
Water Quality Calculation and Management System
Abstract:
The water is found almost everywhere on Earth. Water resources contain a lot of pollution. Some diseases can be spread through the water to the living beings. So to be clean water it should undergo a number of treatments necessary to make it drinkable. So it is must to have purification technology for the wastewater. So the waste water treatment plants act a major role in these issues. When considering the procedures taken after the water treatment process was always based on manual calculations and recordings. Water purification plants may interact with lots of manual processes. It means the process taking much time consuming. So the final evaluation and chemical, biological treatment process get delayed. So to prevent those types of drawbacks there are some computerized programmable calculation and analytical techniques going to be introduced to the laboratory staff. To solve this problem automated system will be a solution in which guarantees the rational selection. A decision support system is a way to model data and make quality decisions based upon it. It is widely used in the world for the various kind of process automation. Decision support systems that just collect data and organize it effectively are usually called passive models where they do not suggest a specific decision but only reveal information. This web base system is based on global positioning data adding facility with map location. Most worth feature is SMS and E-mail alert service to inform the appropriate person on a critical issue. The technological influence to the system is HTML, MySQL, PHP, and some other web developing technologies. Current issues in the computerized water chemistry analysis are not much deep in progress. For an example the swimming pool water quality calculator. The validity of the system has been verified by test running and comparison with an existing plant data. Automated system will make the life easier in productively and qualitatively.
67
71678
Business-to-Business Deals Based on a Co-Utile Collaboration Mechanism: Designing Trust Company of the Future
Abstract:
This paper presents an applied research of a new module for the financial administration and management industry, Personalizable and Automated Checklists Integrator, Overseeing Legal Investigations (PACIOLI). It aims at designing the business model of the trust company of the future. By identifying the key stakeholders, we draw a general business process design of the industry. The business model focuses on disintermediating the traditional form of business through the new technological solutions of a software company based in Switzerland and hence creating a new interactive platform. The key stakeholders of this interactive platform are identified as IT experts, legal experts, and the New Edge Trust Company (NATC). The mechanism we design and propose has a great importance in improving the efficiency of the financial business administration and management industry, and it also helps to foster the provision of high value added services in the sector.
66
123996
Automated Method Time Measurement System for Redesigning Dynamic Facility Layout
Abstract:
The dynamic facility layout problem is a really critical issue in the competitive industrial market; thus, solving this problem requires robust design and effective simulation systems. The sustainable simulation requires inputting reliable and accurate data into the system. So this paper describes an automated system integrated into the real environment to measure the duration of the material handling operations, collect the data in real-time, and determine the variances between the actual and estimated time schedule of the operations in order to update the simulation software and redesign the facility layout periodically. The automated method- time measurement system collects the real data through using Radio Frequency-Identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Hence, attaching RFID- antenna reader and RFID tags enables the system to identify the location of the objects and gathering the time data. The real duration gathered will be manipulated by calculating the moving average duration of the material handling operations, choosing the shortest material handling path, and then updating the simulation software to redesign the facility layout accommodating with the shortest/real operation schedule. The periodic simulation in real-time is more sustainable and reliable than the simulation system relying on an analysis of historical data. The case study of this methodology is in cooperation with a workshop team for producing mechanical parts. Although there are some technical limitations, this methodology is promising, and it can be significantly useful in the redesigning of the manufacturing layout.
65
12020
The Integration and Automation of EDA Tools in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment
Abstract:
This paper will discuss how EDA tools are integrated and automated in an Integrated Circuit Design Environment. Some of the problems face in our current environment is that users need to configure manually on the library paths, start-up files and project directories. Certain manual processes that happen between the users and applications can be automated but they must be transparent to the users. For example, the users can run the applications directly after login without knowing the library paths and start-up files locations. The solution to these problems is to automate the processes using standard configuration files which will benefit the users and EDA support. This paper will discuss how the implementation is done to automate the process using scripting languages such as Perl, Tcl, Scheme and Shell Script. These scripting tools are great assets for design engineers to build a robust and powerful design flow and this technique is widely used to integrate all the tools together.
64
95541
Building Information Modeling Applied for the Measurement of Water Footprint of Construction Supplies
Authors:
Abstract:
Water is used, directly and indirectly, in all activities of the construction productive chain, making it a subject of worldwide relevance for sustainable development. The ongoing expansion of urban areas leads to a high demand for natural resources, which in turn cause significant environmental impacts. The present work proposes the application of BIM tools to assist the measurement of the water footprint (WF) of civil construction supplies. Data was inserted into the model as element properties, allowing them to be analyzed by element or in the whole model. The WF calculation was automated using parameterization in Autodesk Revit software. Parameterization was associated to the materials of each element in the model so that any changes in these elements directly alter the results of WF calculations. As a case study, we applied into a building project model to test the parameterized calculus of WF. Results show that the proposed parameterization successfully automated WF calculations according to design changes. We envision this tool to assist the measurement and rationalization of the environmental impact in terms of WF of construction projects.
63
20157
Semi-Automated Tracking of Vibrissal Movements in Free-Moving Rodents Captured by High-Speed Videos
Abstract:
Quantitative analysis of mouse whisker movement can be used to study functional recovery and regeneration of facial nerve after an injury. However, it is challenging to accurately track mouse whisker movements, and most whisker tracking methods require manual intervention, e.g. fixing the head of the mouse during a study. Here we describe a semi-automated image processing method that is applied to high-speed video recordings of free-moving mice to track whisker movements. We first track the head movement of a mouse by delineating the lower head contour frame-by-frame to locate and determine the orientation of its head. Then, a region of interest is identified for each frame, with subsequent application of the Hough transform to track individual whisker movements on each side of the head. Our approach is used to examine the functional recovery of damaged facial nerves in mice over a course of 21 days.
62
59846
Modeling of Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts from off-Road Vehicles in Arid Regions
Abstract:
The Barry M. Goldwater Range, West in southwestern Arizona encompasses 2,808 square kilometers of Sonoran Desert. The hyper-arid range has an annual rainfall of less than 10 cm with an average high temperature of 41 degrees Celsius in July to an average low of 4 degrees Celsius in January. The range shares approximately 60 kilometers of the international border with Mexico. A majority of the range is open for recreational use, primarily off-highway vehicles. Because of its proximity to Mexico, the range is also heavily patrolled by U.S. Customs and Border Protection seeking to intercept and apprehend inadmissible people and illicit goods. Decades of off-roading and Border Patrol activities have negatively impacted this sensitive desert ecosystem. To assist the range program managers, this study is developing a model to identify erosion prone areas and calibrate the model’s parameters using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment modeling tool.
61
82574
CompleX-Machine: An Automated Testing Tool Using X-Machine Theory
Abstract:
This paper is aimed at creating an Automatic Java X-Machine testing tool for software development. The nature of software development is changing; thus, the type of software testing tools required is also changing. Software is growing increasingly complex and, in part due to commercial impetus for faster software releases with new features and value, increasingly in danger of containing faults. These faults can incur huge cost for software development organisations and users; Cambridge Judge Business School’s research estimated the cost of software bugs to the global economy is $312 billion. Beyond the cost, faster software development methodologies and increasing expectations on developers to become testers is driving demand for faster, automated, and effective tools to prevent potential faults as early as possible in the software development lifecycle. Using X-Machine theory, this paper will explore a new tool to address software complexity, changing expectations on developers, faster development pressures and methodologies, with a view to reducing the huge cost of fixing software bugs.
60
59655
A Greedy Alignment Algorithm Supporting Medication Reconciliation
Abstract:
Reconciling patient medication lists from multiple sources is a critical task supporting the safe delivery of patient care. Manual reconciliation is a time-consuming and error-prone process, and recently attempts have been made to develop efficiency- and safety-oriented automated support for professionals performing the task. An important capability of any such support system is automated alignment – finding which medications from a list correspond to which medications from a different source, regardless of misspellings, naming differences (e.g. brand name vs. generic), or changes in treatment (e.g. switching a patient from one antidepressant class to another). This work describes a new algorithmic solution to this alignment task, using a greedy matching approach based on string similarity, edit distances, concept extraction and normalization, and synonym search derived from the RxNorm nomenclature. The accuracy of this algorithm was evaluated against a gold-standard corpus of 681 medication records; this evaluation found that the algorithm predicted alignments with 99% precision and 91% recall. This performance is sufficient to support decision support applications for medication reconciliation.
59
82971
An Analysis of Packaging Materials for an Energy-Efficient Wrapping System
Abstract:
Shrink wrapping is widely used as a method for secondary packaging to assemble individual items, such as cans or other consumer products, into single packages. This method involves conveying the packages into heated tunnels and so has the disadvantages that it is energy-intensive, and, in the case of aerosol products, potentially hazardous. We are developing an automated packaging system that uses stretch wrapping to address both these problems, by using a mechanical rather than a thermal process. In this study, we present a comparative study of shrink wrapping and stretch wrapping materials to assess the relative capability of candidate stretch wrap polymer film in terms of mechanical response. The stretch wrap materials are of oriented polymer and therefore elastically anisotropic. We are developing material constitutive models that include both anisotropy and nonlinearity. These material models are to be incorporated into computer simulations of the automated stretch wrapping system. We present results showing the validity of these models and the feasibility of applying them in the simulations.
58
51859
Design and Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Radio Frequency Identification for Boosting up Tag Data Processing
Abstract:
Radio Frequency Identification systems are used for automated identification in various applications such as automobiles, health care and security. It is also called as the automated data collection technology. RFID readers are placed in any area to scan large number of tags to cover a wide distance. The placement of the RFID elements may result in several types of collisions. A major challenge in RFID system is collision avoidance. In the previous works the collision was avoided by using algorithms such as ALOHA and tree algorithm. This work proposes collision reduction and increased throughput through reading enhancement method with tree algorithm. The reading enhancement is done by improving interrogation procedure and increasing the data handling capacity of RFID reader with parallel processing. The work is simulated using Xilinx ISE 14.5 verilog language. By implementing this in the RFID system, we can able to achieve high throughput and avoid collision in the reader at a same instant of time. The overall system efficiency will be increased by implementing this.
57
80503
A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB
Abstract:
The aim of this work is the parallel implementation of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time. Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two different variants for the definition of initial values are presented. In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers of features and classes are illustrated.
56
95434
Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features
Abstract:
Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.
55
134202
In Situ Volume Imaging of Cleared Mice Seminiferous Tubules Opens New Window to Study Spermatogenic Process in 3D
Authors:
Abstract:
Studying the tissue structure and histogenesis in the natural, 3D context is challenging but highly beneficial process. Contrary to classical approach of the physical tissue sectioning and subsequent imaging, it enables to study the relationships of individual cellular and histological structures in their native context. Recent developments in the tissue clearing approaches and microscopic volume imaging/data processing enable the application of these methods also in the areas of developmental and reproductive biology. Here, using the CLARITY tissue procedure and 3D confocal volume imaging we optimized the protocol for clearing, staining and imaging of the mice seminiferous tubules isolated from the testes without cardiac perfusion procedure. Our approach enables the high magnification and fine resolution axial imaging of the whole diameter of the seminiferous tubules with possible unlimited lateral length imaging. Hence, the large continuous pieces of the seminiferous tubule can be scanned and digitally reconstructed for the study of the single tubule seminiferous stages using nuclear dyes. Furthermore, the application of the antibodies and various molecular dyes can be used for molecular labeling of individual cellular and subcellular structures and resulting 3D images can highly increase our understanding of the spatiotemporal aspects of the seminiferous tubules development and sperm ultrastructure formation. Finally, our newly developed algorithms for 3D data processing enable the massive parallel processing of the large amount of individual cell and tissue fluorescent signatures and building the robust spermatogenic models under physiological and pathological conditions.
54
118731
Advanced Particle Characterisation of Suspended Sediment in the Danube River Using Automated Imaging and Laser Diffraction
Abstract:
A harmonized monitoring of the suspended sediment transport along such a large river as the world’s most international river, the Danube River, is a rather challenging task. The traditional monitoring method in Hungary is obsolete but using indirect measurement devices and techniques like optical backscatter sensors (OBS), laser diffraction or acoustic backscatter sensors (ABS) could provide a fast and efficient alternative option of direct methods. However, these methods are strongly sensitive to the particle characteristics (i.e. particle shape, particle size and mineral composition). The current method does not provide sufficient information about particle size distribution, mineral analysis is rarely done, and the shape of the suspended sediment particles have not been examined yet. The aims of the study are (1) to determine the particle characterisation of suspended sediment in the Danube River using advanced particle characterisation methods as laser diffraction and automated imaging, and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the indirect methods in order to determine the impact of suspended particle characteristics. The particle size distribution is determined by laser diffraction. The particle shape and mineral composition analysis is done by the Morphologi G3ID image analyser. The investigated indirect measurement devices are the LISST-Portable|XR, the LISST-ABS (Sequoia Inc.) and the Rio Grande 1200 kHz ADCP (Teledyne Marine). The major findings of this study are (1) the statistical shape of the suspended sediment particle - this is the first research in this context, (2) the actualised particle size distribution – that can be compared to historical information, so that the morphological changes can be tracked, (3) the actual mineral composition of the suspended sediment in the Danube River, and (4) the reliability of the tested indirect methods has been increased – based on the results of the sensitivity analysis and the previous findings.
53
95339
A Case Study of Deep Learning for Disease Detection in Crops
Abstract:
In the precision agriculture area, one of the main tasks is the automated detection of diseases in crops. Machine Learning algorithms have been studied in recent decades for such tasks in view of their potential for improving economic outcomes that automated disease detection may attain over crop fields. The latest generation of deep learning convolution neural networks has presented significant results in the area of image classification. In this way, this work has tested the implementation of an architecture of deep learning convolution neural network for the detection of diseases in different types of crops. A data augmentation strategy was used to meet the requirements of the algorithm implemented with a deep learning framework. Two test scenarios were deployed. The first scenario implemented a neural network under images extracted from a controlled environment while the second one took images both from the field and the controlled environment. The results evaluated the generalisation capacity of the neural networks in relation to the two types of images presented. Results yielded a general classification accuracy of 59% in scenario 1 and 96% in scenario 2.
52
48527
Design and Implementation of Wireless Syncronized AI System for Security
Authors:
Abstract:
Developing virtual human is very important to meet the challenges occurred in many applications where human find difficult or risky to perform the task. A robot is a machine that can perform a task automatically or with guidance. Robotics is generally a combination of artificial intelligence and physical machines (motors). Computational intelligence involves the programmed instructions. This project proposes a robotic vehicle that has a camera, PIR sensor and text command based movement. It is specially designed to perform surveillance and other few tasks in the most efficient way. Serial communication has been occurred between a remote Base Station, GUI Application, and PC.
51
58043
Degree Tracking System (DTS) to Improve the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Open Distance Learning System: A Case Study of Islamabad Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)
Authors:
Abstract:
Student support services play an important role in providing technical and motivational support to distance learner. ICT based systems have improved the efficiency and effectiveness of support services. In distance education, students being at distant require quick responses from their institution. In the manual system, it is practically hard to give prompt response to each and every student, so as a result student has to suffer a lot. The best way to minimize inefficiencies is to use automated systems. This project involves the development of centralized automated software that would not only replace the manual degree issuance system of 1.3 million students studying at AIOU but also provide online tracking to all the students applying for Degrees. DTS is also the first step towards the paperless culture which is adopted by the major organizations of the world. DTS would not only save university cost but also save students cost and time too by conveying all the information/objection through email and SMS. Moreover, DTS also monitors the performance of each and every individual working in the exam department AIOU and generates daily, monthly and yearly reports of every individual which helps a lot in continuous performance monitoring of the employees.
50
103131
Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Lines with Shield Wire Segmentation against Atmospheric Discharges Using ATPDraw
Abstract:
This paper aims to make a performance analysis of shield wire transmission lines against atmospheric discharges when it is made the option of sectioning the shield wire and verify if the tolerability of the change. As a goal of this work, it was established to make complete modeling of a transmission line in the ATPDraw program with shield wire grounded in all the towers and in some towers. The methodology used to make the proposed evaluation was to choose an actual transmission line that served as a case study. From the choice of transmission line and verification of all its topology and materials, complete modeling of the line using the ATPDraw software was performed. Then several atmospheric discharges were simulated by striking the grounded shield wires in each tower. These simulations served to identify the behavior of the existing line against atmospheric discharges. After this first analysis, the same line was reconsidered with shield wire segmentation. The shielding wire segmentation technique aims to reduce induced losses in shield wires and is adopted in some transmission lines in Brazil. With the same conditions of atmospheric discharge the transmission line, this time with shield wire segmentation was again evaluated. The results obtained showed that it is possible to obtain similar performances against atmospheric discharges between a shield wired line in multiple towers and the same line with shield wire segmentation if some precautions are adopted as verification of the ground resistance of the wire segmented shield, adequacy of the maximum length of the segmented gap, evaluation of the separation length of the electrodes of the insulator spark, among others. As a conclusion, it is verified that since the correct assessment and adopted the correct criteria of adjustment a transmission line with shielded wire segmentation can perform very similar to the traditional use with multiple earths. This solution contributes in a very important way to the reduction of energy losses in transmission lines.
49
112465
Inertial Motion Capture System for Biomechanical Analysis in Rehabilitation and Sports
Abstract:
The inertial motion capture systems (mocap) are among the most suitable tools for quantitative clinical analysis in rehabilitation and sports medicine. The inertial measuring units (IMUs), composed by accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, are able to measure spatial orientations and calculate displacements with sufficient precision for applications in biomechanical analysis of movement. Furthermore, this type of system is relatively affordable and has the advantages of portability and independence from external references. In this work, we present the last version of our inertial motion capture system, based on the foregoing technology, with a unity interface designed for rehabilitation and sports. In our hardware architecture, only one serial port is required. First, the board client must be connected to the computer by a USB cable. Next, an available serial port is configured and opened to establish the communication between the client and the application, and then the client starts scanning for the active MOCAP_S servers around. The servers play the role of the inertial measuring units that capture the movements of the body and send the data to the client, which in turn create a package composed by the ID of the server, the current timestamp, and the motion capture data defined in the client pre-configuration of the capture session. In the current version, we can measure the game rotation vector (grv) and linear acceleration (lacc), and we also have a step detector that can be abled or disabled. The grv data are processed and directly linked to the bones of the 3D model, and, along with the data of lacc and step detector, they are also used to perform the calculations of displacements and other variables shown on the graphical user interface. Our user interface was designed to calculate and present variables that are important for rehabilitation and sports, such as cadence, speed, total gait cycle, gait cycle length, obliquity and rotation, and center of gravity displacement. Our goal is to present a low-cost portable and wearable system with a friendly interface for application in biomechanics and sports, which also performs as a product of high precision and low consumption of energy.
48
6016
Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography (Autocart)
Authors:
Abstract:
The post-globalization epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behavior has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit - and even conceptualizing on tacit - knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualized. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper, we present an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.
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40866
Automated Human Balance Assessment Using Contactless Sensors
Authors:
Abstract:
Balance tests are frequently used to diagnose concussions on the sidelines of sporting events. Manual scoring, however, is labor intensive and subjective, and many concussions go undetected. This study institutes a novel approach to conducting the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) more quantitatively using Microsoft’s gaming system Kinect, which uses a contactless sensor and several cameras to receive data and estimate body limb positions. Using a machine learning approach, Visual Gesture Builder, and a deterministic approach, MATLAB, we tested whether the Kinect can differentiate between “correct” and erroneous stances of the BESS. We created the two separate solutions by recording test videos to teach the Kinect correct stances and by developing a code using Java. Twenty-two subjects were asked to perform a series of BESS tests while the Kinect was collecting data. The Kinect recorded the subjects and mapped key joints onto their bodies to obtain angles and measurements that are interpreted by the software. Through VGB and MATLAB, the videos are analyzed to enumerate the number of errors committed during testing. The resulting statistics demonstrate a high correlation between manual scoring and the Kinect approaches, indicating the viability of the use of remote tracking devices in conducting concussion tests.
46
129315
The Role of Twitter Bots in Political Discussion on 2019 European Elections
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the European election campaigns (May 23-26, 2019) on Twitter achieving with artificial intelligence tools such as troll factories and automated inauthentic accounts. Our research focuses on the last European Parliamentary elections that took place between 23 and 26 May 2019 specifically in Italy, Greece, Germany and France. It is difficult to estimate how many Twitter users are actually bots (Echeverría, 2017). Detection for fake accounts is becoming even more complicated as AI bots are made more advanced. A political bot can be programmed to post comments on a Twitter account for a political candidate, target journalists with manipulated content or engage with politicians and artificially increase their impact and popularity. We analyze variables related to 1) the scope of activity of automated bots accounts and 2) degree of coherence and 3) degree of interaction taking into account different factors, such as the type of content of Twitter messages and their intentions, as well as the spreading to the general public. For this purpose, we collected large volumes of Twitter accounts of party leaders and MEP candidates between 10th of May and 26th of July based on content analysis of tweets based on hashtags while using an innovative network analysis tool known as MediaWatch.io (https://mediawatch.io/). According to our findings, one of the highest percentage (64.6%) of automated “bot” accounts during 2019 European election campaigns was in Greece. In general terms, political bots aim to proliferation of misinformation on social media. Targeting voters is a way that it can be achieved contribute to social media manipulation. We found that political parties and individual politicians create and promote purposeful content on Twitter using algorithmic tools. Based on this analysis, online political advertising play an important role to the process of spreading misinformation during elections campaigns. Overall, inauthentic accounts and social media algorithms are being used to manipulate political behavior and public opinion.
45
98630
Viability of Irrigation Water Conservation Practices in the Low Desert of California
Authors:
Abstract:
California and the Colorado River Basin are facing increasing uncertainty concerning water supplies. The Colorado River is the main source of irrigation water in the low desert of California. Currently, due to an increasing water-use competition and long-term drought at the Colorado River Basin, efficient use of irrigation water is one of the highest conservation priorities in the region. This study aims to present some of current irrigation technologies and management approaches in the low desert and assess the viability and potential of these water management practices. The results of several field experiments are used to assess five water conservation practices of sub-surface drip irrigation, automated surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, tail-water recovery system, and deficit irrigation strategy. The preliminary results of several ongoing studies at commercial fields are presented, particularly researches in alfalfa, sugar beets, kliengrass, sunflower, and spinach fields. The findings indicate that all these practices have significant potential to conserve water (an average of 1 ac-ft/ac) and enhance the efficiency of water use (15-25%). Further work is needed to better understand the feasibility of each of these applications and to help maintain profitable and sustainable agricultural production system in the low desert as water and labor costs, and environmental issues increase.
44
23348
A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems
Abstract:
We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.
43
78956
Field Production Data Collection, Analysis and Reporting Using Automated System
Abstract:
Various data points are constantly being measured in the production system, and due to the nature of the wells, these data points, such as pressure, temperature, water cut, etc.., fluctuations are constant, which requires high frequency monitoring and collection. It is a very difficult task to analyze these parameters manually using spreadsheets and email. An automated system greatly enhances efficiency, reduce errors, the need for constant emails which take up disk space, and frees up time for the operator to perform other critical tasks. Various production data is being recorded in an oil field, and this huge volume of data can be seen as irrelevant to some, especially when viewed on its own with no context. In order to fully utilize all this information, it needs to be properly collected, verified and stored in one common place and analyzed for surveillance and monitoring purposes. This paper describes how data is recorded by different parties and departments in the field, and verified numerous times as it is being loaded into a repository. Once it is loaded, a final check is done before being entered into a production monitoring system. Once all this is collected, various calculations are performed to report allocated production. Calculated production data is used to report field production automatically. It is also used to monitor well and surface facility performance. Engineers can use this for their studies and analyses to ensure field is performing as it should be, predict and forecast production, and monitor any changes in wells that could affect field performance.
42
27145
Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography: Autocart
Abstract:
The post-globalisation epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behaviour has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit- and even conceptualising on tacit- Knowledge Management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the Intellectual Capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualised. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper we present likewise an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.
41
60389
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
40
72755
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
39
72446
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
38
72754
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
37
72753
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
36
72447
Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles
Abstract:
As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.
35
87239
An Automated Optimal Robotic Assembly Sequence Planning Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Abstract:
Robots play an important role in the operations like pick and place, assembly, spot welding and much more in manufacturing industries. Out of those, assembly is a very important process in manufacturing, where 20% of manufacturing cost is wholly occupied by the assembly process. To do the assembly task effectively, Assembly Sequences Planning (ASP) is required. ASP is one of the multi-objective non-deterministic optimization problems, achieving the optimal assembly sequence involves huge search space and highly complex in nature. Many researchers have followed different algorithms to solve ASP problem, which they have several limitations like the local optimal solution, huge search space, and execution time is more, complexity in applying the algorithm, etc. By keeping the above limitations in mind, in this paper, a new automated optimal robotic assembly sequence planning using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, automatic extraction of assembly predicates is done using Computer Aided Design (CAD) interface instead of extracting the assembly predicates manually. Due to this, the time of extraction of assembly predicates to obtain the feasible assembly sequence is reduced. The fitness evaluation of the obtained feasible sequence is carried out using ABC algorithm to generate the optimal assembly sequence. The proposed methodology is applied to different industrial products and compared the results with past literature.
34
41681
The Meaning System of Tense: A Systemic Functional Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
Through literature review about studies related to tense, it is found that there exist disagreements on the definition and existence of Chinese tense. Influenced by some researches on English language which regard tense as a grammatical category based on the verbal inflections of English, some Chinese researchers claim that there is no tense in Chinese language as there are no verbal inflections involved. Meanwhile, other Chinese researchers hold that Chinese still has tense although its verbs are non-inflectional based on the fact that Chinese lexical expressions can imply temporal meaning. We assume that the reasons for the above disagreements in terms of Chinese tense lie in the fact that all the previous studies prefer to view language “from the below” which means expressions of tense are the core part of these studies. However, there are about 6,000 languages with distinct expressions all over the world. Hence, if the language studies only concentrate on expressions, it must become more difficult to understand the nature of language. By contrast, functions of languages are similar; otherwise, the human beings could not communicate with each other. Therefore, we believe that it is necessary for us to have a theoretical study on Chinese tense within the framework of SFL which holds that language is a system where meaning is the core part while form is just the realization of meaning. In addition, SFL is a general linguistic providing a universal framework for languages all over the world. Therefore, based on Systemic Functional Linguistics, the paper firstly redefines tense as a deictic semantic category for describing the speaker’s temporal location of processes and relevant temporal relations. With reference to this definition, this study explores the meaning system of tense. It is proposed that tense expresses four kinds of meaning, namely interpersonal, experiential, logical and textual meanings. From the interpersonal angle, tense helps to exchange temporal information between the speaker and the listener, and the temporal information refers to the anchoring of a concerned process in the past, present or future by the speaker. From the experiential angle, tense plays a role in the temporal locating of material, mental, relational, existential, behavioral and verbal processes by the speaker. From the logical angle, tense denotes the temporal relations at the two levels of clause and clause complex, and such relations fall into simultaneity, anteriority and posteriority. From the textual angle, tense refers to the temporal relations at the level of text, and the temporal relations in question concern linear serial relations and synchronous serial relations.
33
8857
Experience Modularization for New Value of Evanescent Cultural Communities: Developing Creative Tourism Services in Bangkok
Abstract:
Creative tourism is an ongoing development in many countries as an attempt to moving away from serial reproduction of culture and reviving the culture. Despite, in the destinations with diverse and potential cultural resources, creating new tourism services can be vague. This paper presents how tourism experiences are modularized and consolidated in order to form new creative tourism service offerings in evanescent cultural communities of Bangkok, Thailand. The benefits from data mining in accommodating value co-creation are discussed, and implication of experience modularization to national creative tourism policy is addressed.
32
115851
Information Communication Technologies and Renewable Technologies' Impact on Irish People's Lifestyle: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study
Abstract:
This paper discusses findings relating to people's engagement with mobile communication technologies and remote automated systems. This interdisciplinary study employs a constructivist grounded theory methodology, with qualitative data that was generated following in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 people living in Ireland being corroborated with participants' observations and quantitative data. Additional data was collected following participants' remote interaction with six custom-built automated enclosures, located at six different sites around Dublin, Republic of Ireland. This paper argues that ownership and education play a vital role in people engaging with and adoption of new technologies. Analysis of participants' behavior and attitude towards Information Communication Technologies (ICT) suggests that innovations do not always improve peoples' social inclusion. Technological innovations are sometimes perceived as destroying communities and create a dysfunctional society. Moreover, the findings indicate that a lack of public information and support from Irish governmental institutions, as well as limited off-the-shelves availability, has led to low trust and adoption of renewable technologies. A limited variation in participants' behavior and interaction patterns with technologies was observed during the study. This suggests that people will eventually adopt new technologies according to their needs and experience, even though they initially rejected the idea of changing their lifestyle.
31
38394
The Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS)
Abstract:
The advancements in technology allow the development of a new system that can continuously measure surface soil erosion. Continuous soil erosion measurements are required in order to comprehend the erosional processes and propose effective and efficient conservation measures to mitigate surface erosion. Mitigating soil erosion, especially in Mediterranean countries such as Greece, is essential in order to maintain environmental and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, we present the Automated Soil Erosion Monitoring System (ASEMS) that measures surface soil erosion along with other factors that impact erosional process. Specifically, this system measures ground level changes (surface soil erosion), rainfall, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture. Another important innovation is that the data will be collected by remote communication. In addition, stakeholder’s awareness is a key factor to help reduce any environmental problem. The different dissemination activities that were utilized are described. The overall outcomes were the development of an innovative system that can measure erosion very accurately. These data from the system help study the process of erosion and find the best possible methods to reduce erosion. The dissemination activities enhance the stakeholder's and public's awareness on surface soil erosion problems and will lead to the adoption of more effective soil erosion conservation practices in Greece.
30
79339
Glycan Analyzer: Software to Annotate Glycan Structures from Exoglycosidase Experiments
Abstract:
Glycoproteins and their covalently bonded glycans play critical roles in the immune system, cell communication, disease and disease prognosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry is conventionally used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise glycan structures in a given sample. Exoglycosidases are enzymes that catalyze sequential removal of monosaccharides from the non-reducing end of glycans. They naturally have specificity for a particular type of sugar, its stereochemistry (α or β anomer) and its position of attachment to an adjacent sugar on the glycan. Thus, monitoring the peak movements (both in the UPLC and MS1) after application of exoglycosidases provides a unique and effective way to annotate sugars with high detail - i.e. differentiating positional and linkage isomers. Manual annotation of an exoglycosidase experiment is difficult and time consuming. As such, with increasing sample complexity and the number of exoglycosidases, the analysis could result in manually interpreting hundreds of peak movements. Recently, we have implemented pattern recognition software for automated interpretation of UPLC-MS1 exoglycosidase digestions. In this work, we explain the software, indicate how much time it will save and provide example usage showing the annotation of positional and linkage isomers in Immunoglobulin G, apolipoprotein J, and simple glycan standards.
29
72669
Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium
Abstract:
In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.
28
16915
Automated Feature Detection and Matching Algorithms for Breast IR Sequence Images
Abstract:
In recent years, infrared (IR) imaging has been considered as a potential tool to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy and early detection of breast cancer. Regions of tumor growth with high metabolic rate and angiogenesis phenomenon lead to the high temperatures. Observation of differences between the heat maps in long term is useful to help assess the growth of breast cancer cells and detect breast cancer earlier, wherein the multi-time infrared image alignment technology is a necessary step. Representative feature points detection and matching are essential steps toward the good performance of image registration and quantitative analysis. However, there is no clear boundary on the infrared images and the subject's posture are different for each shot. It cannot adhesive markers on a body surface for a very long period, and it is hard to find anatomic fiducial markers on a body surface. In other words, it’s difficult to detect and match features in an IR sequence images. In this study, automated feature detection and matching algorithms with two type of automatic feature points (i.e., vascular branch points and modified Harris corner) are developed respectively. The preliminary results show that the proposed method could identify the representative feature points on the IR breast images successfully of 98% accuracy and the matching results of 93% accuracy.
27
41139
Morphological Process of Villi Detachment Assessed by Computer-Assisted 3D Reconstruction of Intestinal Crypt from Serial Ultrathin Sections of Rat Duodenum Mucosa
Abstract:
This work presents an alternative mode of intestine mucosa renewal that may allow to better understand the total loss of villi after irradiation. It was tested a morphological method of 3d reconstruction using micrographs of serial sections of rat duodenum. We used hundreds of sections of each specimen of duodenum placed on glass slides and examined under a light microscope. Those containing the detachment, approximately a dozen, were chosen for observation under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Each of these sections was glued on a block of epon resin and recut into a hundred of 60 nm-thick sections. Ribbons of these ultrathin sections were distributed on a series of copper grids in the same order of appearance than during the process of microstomia. They were then stained by solutions of uranyl and lead salts and observed under a TEM. The sections were pictured and the electron micrographs showing signs of cells detachment were transferred into two softwares, ImageJ to align the cellular structures and Reconstruct to realize the 3d reconstruction. It has been detected epithelial cells that exhibited all signs of programmed cell death and localized at the villus-crypt junction. Their nucleus was irregular in shape with a condensed chromatin in clumps. Their cytoplasm was darker than that of neighboring cells, containing many swollen mitochondria. In some places of the sections, we could see intercellular spaces enlarged by the presence of shrunk cells which displayed a plasma membrane with an irregular shape in thermowell as if the cell interdigitations would distant from each other. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the crypts has allowed observe gradual loss of intercellular contacts of crypt cells in the longitudinal plan of the duodenal mucosa. In the transverse direction, there was a gradual increase of the intercellular space as if these cells moved away from one another. This observation allows assume that the gradual remoteness of the cells at the villus-crypt junction is the beginning of the mucosa detachment. Thus, the shrinking of cells due to apoptosis is the way that they detach from the mucosa and progressively the villi also. These results are in agreement with our initial hypothesis and thus have demonstrated that the villi become detached from the mucosa at the villus-crypt junction by the programmed cell death process. This type of loss of entire villus helps explain the rapid denudation of the intestinal mucosa in case of irradiation.
26
6052
Experimental Analysis of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) with Embossments Subject to Random Excitation
Abstract:
Tuned liquid damper is one the passive structural control ways which has been used since mid-1980 decade for seismic control in civil engineering. This system is made of one or many tanks filled with fluid, mostly water that installed on top of the high raised structure and used to prevent structure vibration. In this article we will show how to make seismic table contain TLD system and analysis the result of using this system in our structure. Results imply that when frequency ratio approaches 1 this system can perform its best in both dissipate energy and increasing structural damping. And also results of these serial experiments are proved compatible with Hunzer linear theory behaviour.
25
16345
FTIR Spectroscopy for in vitro Screening in Microbial Biotechnology
Abstract:
Globally there is a dramatic increase in the demand for food, energy, materials and clean water since natural resources are limited. As a result, industries are looking for ways to reduce rest materials and to improve resource efficiency. Microorganisms have a high potential to be used as bio factories for the production of primary and secondary metabolites that represent high-value bio-products (enzymes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, bio-plastics, glucans, etc.). In order to find good microbial producers, to design suitable substrates from food rest materials and to optimize fermentation conditions, rapid analytical techniques for quantifying target bio products in microbial cells are needed. In the EU project FUST (R4SME, Fp7), we have developed a fully automated high-throughput FUST system based on micro-cultivation and FTIR spectroscopy that facilitates the screening of microorganisms, substrates and fermentation conditions for the optimization of the production of different high-value metabolites (single cell oils, bio plastics). The automated system allows the preparation of 100 samples per hour. Currently, The FUST system is in use for screening of filamentous fungi in order to find oleaginous strains with the ability to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the optimization of cheap substrates, derived from food rest materials, and the optimization of fermentation conditions for the high yield of single cell oil.
24
80316
Fake News Detection for Korean News Using Machine Learning Techniques
Abstract:
Fake news is defined as the news articles that are intentionally and verifiably false, and could mislead readers. Spread of fake news may provoke anxiety, chaos, fear, or irrational decisions of the public. Thus, detecting fake news and preventing its spread has become very important issue in our society. However, due to the huge amount of fake news produced every day, it is almost impossible to identify it by a human. Under this context, researchers have tried to develop automated fake news detection using machine learning techniques over the past years. But, there have been no prior studies proposed an automated fake news detection method for Korean news to our best knowledge. In this study, we aim to detect Korean fake news using text mining and machine learning techniques. Our proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the news contents to be analyzed is convert to quantified values using various text mining techniques (topic modeling, TF-IDF, and so on). After that, in step 2, classifiers are trained using the values produced in step 1. As the classifiers, machine learning techniques such as logistic regression, backpropagation network, support vector machine, and deep neural network can be applied. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collected about 200 short Korean news from Seoul National University’s FactCheck. which provides with detailed analysis reports from 20 media outlets and links to source documents for each case. Using this dataset, we will identify which text features are important as well as which classifiers are effective in detecting Korean fake news.
23
6043
Experimental Analysis of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) for High Raised Structures
Abstract:
Tuned liquid damper is one the passive structural control ways which has been used since mid-1980 decade for seismic control in civil engineering. This system is made of one or many tanks filled with fluid, mostly water that installed on top of the high raised structure and used to prevent structure vibration. In this article, we will show how to make seismic table contain TLD system and analysis the result of using this system in our structure. Results imply that when frequency ratio approaches 1 this system can perform its best in both dissipate energy and increasing structural damping. And also results of these serial experiments are proved compatible with Hunzer linear theory behaviour.
22
133011
Pregnancy Outcome in Pregnancy with Low Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A in First Trimester
Abstract:
Aim: The aim of the study is to find out if low PAPP-A (Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A) levels in the first trimester are associated with adverse obstetric outcome. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 114 singleton pregnancies having undergone combined test screening. Results: There is statistically significant increased incidence of low birth weight infants in the low PAPP-A group. However, significant association was not found in the incidence of pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, and placental abruption. Conclusion: Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with fetal growth restriction. Recommendation: Women with low PAPP-A levels in first trimester pregnancy screening require consultant-led care and serial growth scans.
21
34015
Iterative Method for Lung Tumor Localization in 4D CT
Abstract:
In the last decade, there were immense advancements in the medical imaging modalities. These advancements can scan a whole volume of the lung organ in high resolution images within a short time. According to this performance, the physicians can clearly identify the complicated anatomical and pathological structures of lung. Therefore, these advancements give large opportunities for more advance of all types of lung cancer treatment available and will increase the survival rate. However, lung cancer is still one of the major causes of death with around 19% of all the cancer patients. Several factors may affect survival rate. One of the serious effects is the breathing process, which can affect the accuracy of diagnosis and lung tumor treatment plan. We have therefore developed a semi automated algorithm to localize the 3D lung tumor positions across all respiratory data during respiratory motion. The algorithm can be divided into two stages. First, a lung tumor segmentation for the first phase of the 4D computed tomography (CT). Lung tumor segmentation is performed using an active contours method. Then, localize the tumor 3D position across all next phases using a 12 degrees of freedom of an affine transformation. Two data set where used in this study, a compute simulate for 4D CT using extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and 4D CT clinical data sets. The result and error calculation is presented as root mean square error (RMSE). The average error in data sets is 0.94 mm ± 0.36. Finally, evaluation and quantitative comparison of the results with a state-of-the-art registration algorithm was introduced. The results obtained from the proposed localization algorithm show a promising result to localize alung tumor in 4D CT data.
20
72151
Automated Video Surveillance System for Detection of Suspicious Activities during Academic Offline Examination
Abstract:
This research work aims to develop a system that will analyze and identify students who indulge in malpractices/suspicious activities during the course of an academic offline examination. Automated Video Surveillance provides an optimal solution which helps in monitoring the students and identifying the malpractice event immediately. This work is organized into three modules. The first module deals with performing an impersonation check using a PCA-based face recognition method which is done by cross checking his profile with the database. The presence or absence of the student is even determined in this module by implementing an image registration technique wherein a grid is formed by considering all the images registered using the frontal camera at the determined positions. Second, detecting such facial malpractices in which a student gets involved in conversation with another, trying to obtain unauthorized information etc., based on the threshold range evaluated by considering his/her mouth state whether open or closed. The third module deals with identification of unauthorized material or gadgets used in the examination hall by training the positive samples of the object through various stages. Here, a top view camera feed is analyzed to detect the suspicious activities. The system automatically alerts the administration when any suspicious activities are identified, thereby reducing the error rate caused due to manual monitoring. This work is an improvement over our previous work published in identifying suspicious activities done by examinees in an offline examination.
19
16550
Analysis of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair
Abstract:
Our study aims to evaluate the rates of healing and the efficacy of the arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff tears. 40 patients who had rotator cuff tears were taken up for the study and arthroscopic repair was done with double row technique.They were evaluated and followed up for a minimum of 2 years minimum.The functional status,range of motion and healing rates were compared post operatively. All the patients were followed up with serial questionnaires and MRI at the end of 2 years. There was significant improvement in the functional status of the patient. The MRI showed better rates of healing in these patients.Thus our study effectively proves the efficacy of our operating technique.
18
50792
Informational Efficiency and Integration: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Shariah Equity Market
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper focuses on the prevalence of informational efficiency and integration of GCC Shariah Equity market for the period of 01st January 2010 to 31st June 2015 with daily equity returns of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The study employs traditional as well as the modern approach of tracing out the efficiency and integration in the return series. From the results of efficiency it was observed that the market lacked efficiency in terms of its past information. The results of integration test clearly indicates that there was a long memory in the returns of GCC Shariah during the study period. Hence it was concluded and proved that the returns of all GCC Equity Shariah were not informationally efficient but fractionally integrated during the study period.
17
76174
A Semi-Automated GIS-Based Implementation of Slope Angle Design Reconciliation Process at Debswana Jwaneng Mine, Botswana
Abstract:
The mining of pit slopes is often associated with some level of deviation from design recommendations, and this may translate to associated changes in the stability of the excavated pit slopes. Therefore slope angle design reconciliations are essential for assessing and monitoring compliance of excavated pit slopes to accepted slope designs. These associated changes in slope stability may be reflected by changes in the calculated factors of safety and/or probabilities of failure. Reconciliations of as-mined and slope design profiles are conducted periodically to assess the implications of these deviations on pit slope stability. Currently, the slope design reconciliation process being implemented in Jwaneng Mine involves the measurement of as-mined and design slope angles along vertical sections cut along the established geotechnical design section lines on the GEOVIA GEMS™ software. Bench retentions are calculated as a percentage of the available catchment area, less over-mined and under-mined areas, to that of the designed catchment area. This process has proven to be both tedious and requires a lot of manual effort and time to execute. Consequently, a new semi-automated mine-to-design reconciliation approach that utilizes laser scanning and GIS-based tools is being proposed at Jwaneng Mine. This method involves high-resolution scanning of targeted bench walls, subsequent creation of 3D surfaces from point cloud data and the derivation of slope toe lines and crest lines on the Maptek I-Site Studio software. The toe lines and crest lines are then exported to the ArcGIS software where distance offsets between the design and actual bench toe lines and crest lines are calculated. Retained bench catchment capacity is measured as distances between the toe lines and crest lines on the same bench elevations. The assessment of the performance of the inter-ramp and overall slopes entails the measurement of excavated and design slope angles along vertical sections on the ArcGIS software. Excavated and design toe-to-toe or crest-to-crest slope angles are measured for inter-ramp stack slope reconciliations. Crest-to-toe slope angles are also measured for overall slope angle design reconciliations. The proposed approach allows for a more automated, accurate, quick and easier workflow for carrying out slope angle design reconciliations. This process has proved highly effective and timeous in the assessment of slope performance in Jwaneng Mine. This paper presents a newly proposed process for assessing compliance to slope angle designs for Jwaneng Mine.
16
125842
Challenges in the Characterization of Black Mass in the Recovery of Graphite from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries
Abstract:
Recycling of lithium-ion batteries has attracted a lot of attention in recent years and focuses primarily on valuable metals such as cobalt, nickel, and lithium. Despite the growth in graphite consumption and the fact that it is classified as a critical raw material in the European Union, USA, and Australia, there is little work focusing on graphite recycling. Thus, graphite is usually considered waste in recycling treatments, where graphite particles are concentrated in the “black mass”, a fine fraction below 1mm, which also contains the foils and the active cathode particles such as LiCoO2 or LiNiMnCoO2. To characterize the material, various analytical methods are applied, including X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and SEM-based automated mineralogy. The latter consists of the combination of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is a powerful and well-known method for primary material characterization; however, it has not yet been applied to secondary material such as black mass, which is a challenging material to analyze due to fine alloy particles and to the lack of an existing dedicated database. The aim of this research is to characterize the black mass depending on the metals recycling process in order to understand the liberation mechanisms of the active particles from the foils and their effect on the graphite particle surfaces and to understand their impact on the subsequent graphite flotation. Three industrial processes were taken into account: purely mechanical, pyrolysis-mechanical, and mechanical-hydrometallurgy. In summary, this article explores various and common challenges for graphite and secondary material characterization.
15
82490
An Image Processing Scheme for Skin Fungal Disease Identification
Abstract:
Nowadays, skin fungal diseases are mostly found in people of tropical countries like Sri Lanka. A skin fungal disease is a particular kind of illness caused by fungus. These diseases have various dangerous effects on the skin and keep on spreading over time. It becomes important to identify these diseases at their initial stage to control it from spreading. This paper presents an automated skin fungal disease identification system implemented to speed up the diagnosis process by identifying skin fungal infections in digital images. An image of the diseased skin lesion is acquired and a comprehensive computer vision and image processing scheme is used to process the image for the disease identification. This includes colour analysis using RGB and HSV colour models, texture classification using Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Shape Identification and many more. This paper presents the approach and its outcome for identification of four most common skin fungal infections, namely, Tinea Corporis, Sporotrichosis, Malassezia and Onychomycosis. The main intention of this research is to provide an automated skin fungal disease identification system that increase the diagnostic quality, shorten the time-to-diagnosis and improve the efficiency of detection and successful treatment for skin fungal diseases.
14
93278
An Efficient Automated Radiation Measuring System for Plasma Monopole Antenna
Abstract:
This experimental study is aimed to examine the radiation characteristics of different plasma structures of a surface wave-driven plasma antenna by an automated measuring system. In this study, a 30 cm long plasma column of argon gas with a diameter of 3 cm is excited by surface wave discharge mechanism operating at 13.56 MHz with RF power level up to 100 Watts and gas pressure between 0.01 to 0.05 mb. The study reveals that a single structured plasma monopole can be modified into an array of plasma antenna elements by forming multiple striations or plasma blobs inside the discharge tube by altering the values of plasma properties such as working pressure, operating frequency, input RF power, discharge tube dimensions, i.e., length, radius, and thickness. It is also reported that plasma length, electron density, and conductivity are functions of operating plasma parameters and controlled by changing working pressure and input power. To investigate the antenna radiation efficiency for the far-field region, an automation-based radiation measuring system has been fabricated and presented in detail. This developed automated system involves a combined setup of controller, dc servo motors, vector network analyzer, and computing device to evaluate the radiation intensity, directivity, gain and efficiency of plasma antenna. In this system, the controller is connected to multiple motors for moving aluminum shafts in both elevation and azimuthal plane whereas radiation from plasma monopole antenna is measured by a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) which is further wired up with the computing device to display radiations in polar plot forms. Here, the radiation characteristics of both continuous and array plasma monopole antenna have been studied for various working plasma parameters. The experimental results clearly indicate that the plasma antenna is as efficient as a metallic antenna. The radiation from plasma monopole antenna is significantly influenced by plasma properties which provides a wider range in radiation pattern where desired radiation parameters like beam-width, the direction of radiation, radiation intensity, antenna efficiency, etc. can be achieved in a single monopole. Due to its wide range of selectivity in radiation pattern; this can meet the demands of wider bandwidth to get high data speed in communication systems. Moreover, this developed system provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for measuring the radiation pattern in far-field zone for any kind of antenna system.
13
25408
Cloud Based Supply Chain Traceability
Abstract:
Concept introduction: This paper talks about how an innovative cloud based analytics enabled solution that could address a major industry challenge that is approaching all of us globally faster than what one would think. The world of supply chain for drugs and devices is changing today at a rapid speed. In the US, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) is a new law for Tracing, Verification and Serialization phasing in starting Jan 1, 2015 for manufacturers, repackagers, wholesalers and pharmacies / clinics. Similarly we are seeing pressures building up in Europe, China and many countries that would require an absolute traceability of every drug and device end to end. Companies (both manufacturers and distributors) can use this opportunity not only to be compliant but to differentiate themselves over competition. And moreover a country such as UAE can be the leader in coming up with a global solution that brings innovation in this industry. Problem definition and timing: The problem of counterfeit drug market, recognized by FDA, causes billions of dollars loss every year. Even in UAE, the concerns over prevalence of counterfeit drugs, which enter through ports such as Dubai remains a big concern, as per UAE pharma and healthcare report, Q1 2015. Distribution of drugs and devices involves multiple processes and systems that do not talk to each other. Consumer confidence is at risk due to this lack of traceability and any leading provider is at risk of losing its reputation. Globally there is an increasing pressure by government and regulatory bodies to trace serial numbers and lot numbers of every drug and medical devices throughout a supply chain. Though many of large corporations use some form of ERP (enterprise resource planning) software, it is far from having a capability to trace a lot and serial number beyond the enterprise and making this information easily available real time. Solution: The solution here talks about a service provider that allows all subscribers to take advantage of this service. The solution allows a service provider regardless of its physical location, to host this cloud based traceability and analytics solution of millions of distribution transactions that capture lots of each drug and device. The solution platform will capture a movement of every medical device and drug end to end from its manufacturer to a hospital or a doctor through a series of distributor or retail network. The platform also provides advanced analytics solution to do some intelligent reporting online. Why Dubai? Opportunity exists with huge investment done in Dubai healthcare city also with using technology and infrastructure to attract more FDI to provide such a service. UAE and countries similar will be facing this pressure from regulators globally in near future. But more interestingly, Dubai can attract such innovators/companies to run and host such a cloud based solution and become a hub of such traceability globally.
12
56569
Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case
Abstract:
Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.
11
3403
Productivity and Structural Design of Manufacturing Systems
Abstract:
Productivity of the manufacturing systems depends on technological processes, a technical data of machines and a structure of systems. Technology is presented by the machining mode and data, a technical data presents reliability parameters and auxiliary time for discrete production processes. The term structure of manufacturing systems includes the number of serial and parallel production machines and links between them. Structures of manufacturing systems depend on the complexity of technological processes. Mathematical models of productivity rate for manufacturing systems are important attributes that enable to define best structure by criterion of a productivity rate. These models are important tool in evaluation of the economical efficiency for production systems.
10
77795
Solid Particles Transport and Deposition Prediction in a Turbulent Impinging Jet Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method and a Probabilistic Model on GPU
Abstract:
Solid particle distribution on an impingement surface has been simulated utilizing a graphical processing unit (GPU). In-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to investigate a 3D turbulent impinging jet using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in conjunction with large eddy simulation (LES) and the multiple relaxation time (MRT) models. This paper proposed an improvement in the LBM-cellular automata (LBM-CA) probabilistic method. In the current model, the fluid flow utilizes the D3Q19 lattice, while the particle model employs the D3Q27 lattice. The particle numbers are defined at the same regular LBM nodes, and transport of particles from one node to its neighboring nodes are determined in accordance with the particle bulk density and velocity by considering all the external forces. The previous models distribute particles at each time step without considering the local velocity and the number of particles at each node. The present model overcomes the deficiencies of the previous LBM-CA models and, therefore, can better capture the dynamic interaction between particles and the surrounding turbulent flow field. Despite the increasing popularity of LBM-MRT-CA model in simulating complex multiphase fluid flows, this approach is still expensive in term of memory size and computational time required to perform 3D simulations. To improve the throughput of each simulation, a single GeForce GTX TITAN X GPU is used in the present work. The CUDA parallel programming platform and the CuRAND library are utilized to form an efficient LBM-CA algorithm. The methodology was first validated against a benchmark test case involving particle deposition on a square cylinder confined in a duct. The flow was unsteady and laminar at Re=200 (Re is the Reynolds number), and simulations were conducted for different Stokes numbers. The present LBM solutions agree well with other results available in the open literature. The GPU code was then used to simulate the particle transport and deposition in a turbulent impinging jet at Re=10,000. The simulations were conducted for L/D=2,4 and 6, where L is the nozzle-to-surface distance and D is the jet diameter. The effect of changing the Stokes number on the particle deposition profile was studied at different L/D ratios. For comparative studies, another in-house serial CPU code was also developed, coupling LBM with the classical Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Agreement between results obtained with LBM-CA and LBM-Lagrangian models and the experimental data is generally good. The present GPU approach achieves a speedup ratio of about 350 against the serial code running on a single CPU.
9
38340
Design and Evaluation of a Fully-Automated Fluidized Bed Dryer for Complete Drying of Paddy
Abstract:
Drying of high moisture paddy remains a major problem in the Philippines, especially during inclement weather condition. To alleviate the problem, mechanical dryers were used like a flat bed and recirculating batch-type dryers. However, drying to 14% (wet basis) final moisture content is long which takes 10-12 hours and tedious which is not the ideal for handling high moisture paddy. Fully-automated pilot-scale fluidized bed drying system with 500 kilograms per hour capacity was evaluated using a high moisture paddy. The developed fluidized bed dryer was evaluated using four drying temperatures and two variations in fluidization time at a constant airflow, static pressure and tempering period. Complete drying of paddy with ≥28% (w.b.) initial MC was attained after 2 passes of fluidized-bed drying at 2 minutes exposure to 70 °C drying temperature and 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, followed by 60 min ambient air tempering period (30 min without ventilation and 30 min with air ventilation) for a total drying time of 2.07 h. Around 82% from normal mechanical drying time was saved at 70 °C drying temperature. The drying cost was calculated to be P0.63 per kilogram of wet paddy. Specific heat energy consumption was only 2.84 MJ/kg of water removed. The Head Rice Yield recovery of the dried paddy passed the Philippine Agricultural Engineering Standards. Sensory evaluation showed that the color and taste of the samples dried in the fluidized bed dryer were comparable to air dried paddy. The optimum drying parameters of using fluidized bed dryer is 70 oC drying temperature at 2 min fluidization time, 4.9 m/s superficial air velocity, 10.16 cm grain depth and 60 min ambient air tempering period.
8
91125
An Efficient Automated Radiation Measuring System for Plasma Monopole Antenna
Abstract:
This experimental study is aimed to examine the radiation characteristics of different plasma structures of a surface wave driven plasma antenna by an automated measuring system. In this study, a 30 cm long plasma column of argon gas with diameter of 3 cm is excited by surface wave discharge mechanism operating at 13.56 MHz with RF power level up to 100 Watts and gas pressure between 0.01 to 0.05 mb. The study reveals that a single structured plasma monopole can be modified into an array of plasma antenna elements by forming multiple striations or plasma blobs inside the discharge tube by altering the values of plasma properties such as working pressure, operating frequency, input RF power, discharge tube dimensions i.e. length, radius and thickness. It is also reported that plasma length, electron density and conductivity are functions of operating plasma parameters and controlled by changing working pressure and input power. To investigate the antenna radiation efficiency for far field region, an automation-based radiation measuring system has been fabricated and presented in detail. This developed automated system involves a combined setup of controller, dc servo motors, vector network analyser and computing device to evaluate the radiation intensity, directivity, gain and efficiency of plasma antenna. In this system, controller is connected to multiple motors for moving aluminium shafts in both elevation and azimuthal plane whereas radiation from plasma monopole antenna is measured by a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) which is further wired up with computing device to display radiations in polar plot forms. Here, the radiation characteristics for both continuous and array plasma monopole antenna have been studied for various working plasma parameters. The experimental results clearly indicate that the plasma antenna is as efficient as metallic antenna. The radiation from plasma monopole antenna is significantly influenced by plasma properties which provides a wider range in radiation pattern where desired radiation parameters like beam-width, direction of radiation, radiation intensity, antenna efficiency etc. can be achieved in a single monopole. Due to its wide range of selectivity in radiation pattern; this can meet the demands of wider bandwidth to get high data speed in communication systems. Moreover, this developed system provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for measuring the radiation pattern in far field zone for any kind of antenna system.
7
94049
Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diseased Giant Freshwater Prawn in Shrimp Culture Ponds
Abstract:
Pathogenic bacterial flora was isolated from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Infected shrimp samples were collected from BuaBan Aquafarm in Kalasin Province, Thailand, between June and September 2018. Bacterial species were isolated by serial dilution and plated on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. A total 89 colonies were isolated and identified using the API 20E biochemical tests. Results showed the presence of genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chromobacterium, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Vibrio. Maximum number of species was recorded in Pseudomonas (50.57%) with minimum observed in Chromobacterium and Providencia (1.12%).
6
96845
A Multi-Dimensional Neural Network Using the Fisher Transform to Predict the Price Evolution for Algorithmic Trading in Financial Markets
Abstract:
Trading the financial markets is a widespread activity today. A large number of investors, companies, public of private funds are buying and selling every day in order to make profit. Algorithmic trading is the prevalent method to make the trade decisions after the electronic trading release. The orders are sent almost instantly by computers using mathematical models. This paper will present a price prediction methodology based on a multi-dimensional neural network. Using the Fisher transform, the neural network will be instructed for a low-latency auto-adaptive process in order to predict the price evolution for the next period of time. The model is designed especially for algorithmic trading and uses the real-time price series. It was found that the characteristics of the Fisher function applied at the nodes scale level can generate reliable trading signals using the neural network methodology. After real time tests it was found that this method can be applied in any timeframe to trade the financial markets. The paper will also include the steps to implement the presented methodology into an automated trading system. Real trading results will be displayed and analyzed in order to qualify the model. As conclusion, the compared results will reveal that the neural network methodology applied together with the Fisher transform at the nodes level can generate a good price prediction and can build reliable trading signals for algorithmic trading.
5
50453
Development of a Telemedical Network Supporting an Automated Flow Cytometric Analysis for the Clinical Follow-up of Leukaemia
Abstract:
In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treatment response is increasingly evaluated with minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses. Flow Cytometry (FCM) is a fast and sensitive method to detect MRD. However, the interpretation of these multi-parametric data requires intensive operator training and experience. This paper presents a pipeline-software, as a ready-to-use FCM-based MRD-assessment tool for the daily clinical practice for patients with ALL. The new tool increases accuracy in assessment of FCM-MRD in samples which are difficult to analyse by conventional operator-based gating since computer-aided analysis potentially has a superior resolution due to utilization of the whole multi-parametric FCM-data space at once instead of step-wise, two-dimensional plot-based visualization. The system developed as a telemedical network reduces the work-load and lab-costs, staff-time needed for training, continuous quality control, operator-based data interpretation. It allows dissemination of automated FCM-MRD analysis to medical centres which have no established expertise for the benefit of an even larger community of diseased children worldwide. We established a telemedical network system for analysis and clinical follow-up and treatment monitoring of Leukaemia. The system is scalable and adapted to link several centres and laboratories worldwide.
4
61117
Comparing the Gap Formation around Composite Restorations in Three Regions of Tooth Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric imaging technique that has been recently used in cariology. In spite of progress made in adhesive dentistry, the composite restoration has been failing due to secondary caries which occur due to environmental factors in oral cavities. Therefore, a precise assessment to effective marginal sealing of restoration is highly required. The aim of this study was evaluating gap formation at composite/cavity walls interface with or without phosphoric acid etching using SS-OCT. Materials and Methods: Round tapered cavities (2×2 mm) were prepared in three locations, mid-coronal, cervical, and root of bovine incisors teeth in two groups (SE and PA Groups). While self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied for the both groups, Group PA had been already pretreated with phosphoric acid etching (K-Etchant gel). Subsequently, both groups were restored by Estelite Flow Quick Flowable Composite Resin. Following 5000 thermal cycles, three cross-sectionals were obtained from each cavity using OCT at 1310-nm wavelength at 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. Scanning was repeated after two months to monitor the gap progress. Then the average percentage of gap length was calculated using image analysis software, and the difference of mean between both groups was statistically analyzed by t-test. Subsequently, the results were confirmed by sectioning and observing representative specimens under Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Results: The results showed that pretreatment with phosphoric acid etching, Group PA, led to significantly bigger gaps in mid-coronal and cervical compared to SE group, while in the root cavity no significant difference was observed between both groups. On the other hand, the gaps formed in root’s cavities were significantly bigger than those in mid-coronal and cervical within the same group. This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid on gap length progress on the composite restorations. In conclusions, phosphoric acid etching treatment did not reduce the gap formation even in different regions of the tooth. Significance: The cervical region of tooth was more exposing to gap formation than mid-coronal region, especially when we added pre-etching treatment.
3
86041
Safety Assessment of Traditional Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Vended at Retail Outlets in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria
Abstract:
Food safety is a significant and growing public health problem in the world and Nigeria as a developing country, since food-borne diseases are important contributors to the huge burden of sickness and death of humans. In Nigeria, traditional ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MPs) like balangu, tsire, guru and dried meat products like kilishi, dambun nama, banda, were reported to be highly appreciated because of their eating qualities. The consumption of these products was considered as safe due to the treatments that are usually involved during their production process. However, during processing and handling, the products could be contaminated by pathogens that could cause food poisoning. Therefore, a hazard identification for pathogenic bacteria on some traditional RTE-MPs was conducted in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria. A total of 116 RTE-MPs (balangu-38, kilishi-39 and tsire-39) samples were obtained from retail outlets and analyzed using standard cultural microbiological procedures in general and selective enrichment media to isolate the target pathogens. A six-fold serial dilution was prepared and using the pour plating method, colonies were counted. Serial dilutions were selected based on the prepared pre-labeled Petri dishes for each sample. A volume of 10-12 ml of molten Nutrient agar cooled to 42-45°C was poured into each Petri dish and 1 ml each from dilutions of 102, 104 and 106 for every sample was respectively poured on a pre-labeled Petri plate after which colonies were counted. The isolated pathogens were identified and confirmed after series of biochemical tests. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the presence of pathogens. The General Linear Model was used to analyze data on pathogen presence according to RTE-MPs and means were separated using the Tukey test at 0.05 confidence level. Of the 116 RTE-MPs samples collected, 35 (30.17%) samples were found to be contaminated with some tested pathogens. Prevalence results showed that Escherichia coli, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were present in the samples. Mean total bacterial count was 23.82×106 cfu/g. The frequency of individual pathogens isolated was; Staphylococcus aureus 18 (15.51%), Escherichia coli 12 (10.34%) and Salmonella 5 (4.31%). Also, among the RTE-MPs tested, the total bacterial counts were found to differ significantly (P < 0.05), with 1.81, 2.41 and 2.9×104 cfu/g for tsire, kilishi, and balangu, respectively. The study concluded that the presence of pathogenic bacteria in balangu could pose grave health risks to consumers, and hence, recommended good manufacturing practices in the production of balangu to improve the products’ safety.
2
55306
2D Convolutional Networks for Automatic Segmentation of Knee Cartilage in 3D MRI
Abstract:
Accurate segmentation of knee cartilage in 3-D magnetic resonance (MR) images for quantitative assessment of volume is crucial for studying and diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, one of the major causes of disability in elderly people. Radiologists generally perform this task in slice-by-slice manner taking 15-20 minutes per 3D image, and lead to high inter and intra observer variability. Hence automatic methods for knee cartilage segmentation are desirable and are an active field of research. This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of 2D convolutional neural networks based fully automated methods for knee cartilage segmentation in 3D MRI. The architectures are validated based on 40 test images and 60 training images from SKI10 dataset. The proposed methods segment 2D slices one by one, which are then combined to give segmentation for whole 3D images. Proposed methods are modified versions of U-net and dilated convolutions, consisting of a single step that segments the given image to 5 labels: background, femoral cartilage, tibia cartilage, femoral bone and tibia bone; cartilages being the primary components of interest. U-net consists of a contracting path and an expanding path, to capture context and localization respectively. Dilated convolutions lead to an exponential expansion of receptive field with only a linear increase in a number of parameters. A combination of modified U-net and dilated convolutions has also been explored. These architectures segment one 3D image in 8 – 10 seconds giving average volumetric Dice Score Coefficients (DSC) of 0.950 - 0.962 for femoral cartilage and 0.951 - 0.966 for tibia cartilage, reference being the manual segmentation.
1
41104
Robust Segmentation of Salient Features in Automatic Breast Ultrasound (ABUS) Images
Abstract:
Automated 3D breast ultrasound (ABUS) screening is a novel modality in medical imaging because of its common characteristics shared with other ultrasound modalities in addition to the three orthogonal planes (i.e., axial, sagittal, and coronal) that are useful in analysis of tumors. In the literature, few automatic approaches exist for typical tasks such as segmentation or registration. In this work, we deal with two problems concerning ABUS images: nipple and rib detection. Nipple and ribs are the most visible and salient features in ABUS images. Determining the nipple position plays a key role in some applications for example evaluation of registration results or lesion follow-up. We present a nipple detection algorithm based on color and shape of the nipple, besides an automatic approach to detect the ribs. In point of fact, rib detection is considered as one of the main stages in chest wall segmentation. This approach consists of four steps. First, images are normalized in order to minimize the intensity variability for a given set of regions within the same image or a set of images. Second, the normalized images are smoothed by using anisotropic diffusion filter. Next, the ribs are detected in each slice by analyzing the eigenvalues of the 3D Hessian matrix. Finally, a breast mask and a probability map of regions detected as ribs are used to remove false positives (FP). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation obtained from a total of 22 cases is performed. For all cases, the average and standard deviation of the root mean square error (RMSE) between manually annotated points placed on the rib surface and detected points on rib borders are 15.1188 mm and 14.7184 mm respectively.