Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62293

200
52569
A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function
Abstract:
Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present. Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations. In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing, and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall, the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents the best currently available description of the phenomenon under consideration.
199
40164
Survival and Hazard Maximum Likelihood Estimator with Covariate Based on Right Censored Data of Weibull Distribution
Abstract:
This paper focuses on Maximum Likelihood Estimator with Covariate. Covariates are incorporated into the Weibull model. Under this regression model with regards to maximum likelihood estimator, the parameters of the covariate, shape parameter, survival function and hazard rate of the Weibull regression distribution with right censored data are estimated. The mean square error (MSE) and absolute bias are used to compare the performance of Weibull regression distribution. For the simulation comparison, the study used various sample sizes and several specific values of the Weibull shape parameter.
198
16648
An Assessment of Wind Energy in Sanar Village in North of Iran Using Weibull Function
Abstract:
Sanar village in north of Iran is a remote region with difficult access to electricity, grid and water supply. Thus the aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of wind as a power source either for electricity generation or for water pumping. In this study the statistical analysis has been performed by Weibull distribution function. The results show that the Weibull distribution has fitted the wind data very well. Also it has been demonstrated that wind speed at 40 m height is ranged from 1.75 m/s in Dec to 3.28 m/s in Aug with average value of 2.69 m/s. In this research, different wind speed characteristics such as turbulence intensity, wind direction, monthly air temperature, humidity wind power density and other related parameters have been investigated. Finally it was concluded that the wind energy in the Sanar village may be explored by employing modern wind turbines that require very lower start-up speeds.
197
3470
Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution: A Generalization of the Weibull Probability Distribution
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.
196
19968
Wind Power Potential in Selected Algerian Sahara Regions
Abstract:
The wind energy is one of the most significant and rapidly developing renewable energy sources in the world and it provides a clean energy resource, which is a promising alternative in the short term in Algeria The main purpose of this paper is to compared and discuss the wind power potential in three sites located in sahara of Algeria (south west of Algeria) and to perform an investigation on the wind power potential of desert of Algeria. In this comparative, wind speed frequency distributions data obtained from the web site SODA.com are used to calculate the average wind speed and the available wind power. The Weibull density function has been used to estimate the monthly power wind density and to determine the characteristics of monthly parameters of Weibull for these three sites. The annual energy produced by the BWC XL.1 1KW wind machine is obtained and compared. The analysis shows that in the south west of Algeria, at 10 m height, the available wind power was found to vary between 136.59 W/m2 and 231.04 W/m2. The highest potential wind power was found at Adrar, with 21h per day and the mean wind speed is above 6 m/s. Besides, it is found that the annual wind energy generated by that machine lie between 512 KWh and 1643.2 kWh. However, the wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on the sahara and it could provide a viable substitute to diesel oil for irrigation pumps and rural electricity generation.
195
110210
Residual Lifetime Estimation for Weibull Distribution by Fusing Expert Judgements and Censored Data
Abstract:
The residual lifetime of a product is the operation time between the current time and the time point when the failure happens. The residual lifetime estimation is rather important in reliability analysis. To predict the residual lifetime, it is necessary to assume or verify a particular distribution that the lifetime of the product follows. And the two-parameter Weibull distribution is frequently adopted to describe the lifetime in reliability engineering. Due to the time constraint and cost reduction, a life testing experiment is usually terminated before all the units have failed. Then the censored data is usually collected. In addition, other information could also be obtained for reliability analysis. The expert judgements are considered as it is common that the experts could present some useful information concerning the reliability. Therefore, the residual lifetime is estimated for Weibull distribution by fusing the censored data and expert judgements in this paper. First, the closed-forms concerning the point estimate and confidence interval for the residual lifetime under the Weibull distribution are both presented. Next, the expert judgements are regarded as the prior information and how to determine the prior distribution of Weibull parameters is developed. For completeness, the cases that there is only one, and there are more than two expert judgements are both focused on. Further, the posterior distribution of Weibull parameters is derived. Considering that it is difficult to derive the posterior distribution of residual lifetime, a sample-based method is proposed to generate the posterior samples of Weibull parameters based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. And these samples are used to obtain the Bayes estimation and credible interval for the residual lifetime. Finally, an illustrative example is discussed to show the application. It demonstrates that the proposed method is rather simple, satisfactory, and robust.
194
108960
A Data Driven Approach for the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Accelerated Life Test
Abstract:
Lithium ion batteries are currently used for many applications including satellites, electric vehicles and mobile electronics. Their ability to store relatively large amount of energy in a limited space make them most appropriate for critical applications. Evaluation of the life of these batteries and their reliability becomes crucial to the systems they support. Reliability of Li-Ion batteries has been mainly considered based on its lifetime. However, another important factor that can be considered critical in many applications such as in electric vehicles is the cycle duration. The present work presents the results of an experimental investigation on the degradation behavior of a Laptop Li-ion battery (type TKV2V) and the effect of applied load on the battery cycle time. The reliability was evaluated using an accelerated life test. Least squares linear regression with median rank estimation was used to estimate the Weibull distribution parameters needed for the reliability functions estimation. The probability density function, failure rate and reliability function under each of the applied loads were evaluated and compared. An inverse power model is introduced that can predict cycle time at any stress level given.
193
10780
A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model
Abstract:
This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.
192
18728
Bayesian Reliability of Weibull Regression with Type-I Censored Data
Abstract:
In the Bayesian, we developed an approach by using non-informative prior with covariate and obtained by using Gauss quadrature method to estimate the parameters of the covariate and reliability function of the Weibull regression distribution with Type-I censored data. The maximum likelihood seen that the estimators obtained are not available in closed forms, although they can be solved it by using Newton-Raphson methods. The comparison criteria are the MSE and the performance of these estimates are assessed using simulation considering various sample size, several specific values of shape parameter. The results show that Bayesian with non-informative prior is better than Maximum Likelihood Estimator.
191
57326
Validation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation on Apple-Carrot Juice Treated with Manothermosonication by Kinetic Models
Abstract:
Several models such as Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear, and Log-logistic models have been proposed in order to describe non-linear inactivation kinetics and used to fit non-linear inactivation data of several microorganisms for inactivation by heat, high pressure processing or pulsed electric field. First-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) have often been used in order to identify microbial inactivation by non-thermal processing methods such as ultrasound. Most ultrasonic inactivation studies employed first-order kinetic parameters (D-values and z-values) in order to describe the reduction on microbial survival count. This study was conducted to analyze the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation data by using five microbial survival models (First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic). First-order, Weibull, Modified Gompertz, Biphasic linear and Log-logistic kinetic models were used for fitting inactivation curves of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The residual sum of squares and the total sum of squares criteria were used to evaluate the models. The statistical indices of the kinetic models were used to fit inactivation data for E. coli O157:H7 by MTS at three temperatures (40, 50, and 60 0C) and three pressures (100, 200, and 300 kPa). Based on the statistical indices and visual observations, the Weibull and Biphasic models were best fitting of the data for MTS treatment as shown by high R2 values. The non-linear kinetic models, including the Modified Gompertz, First-order, and Log-logistic models did not provide any better fit to data from MTS compared the Weibull and Biphasic models. It was observed that the data found in this study did not follow the first-order kinetics. It is possibly because of the cells which are sensitive to ultrasound treatment were inactivated first, resulting in a fast inactivation period, while those resistant to ultrasound were killed slowly. The Weibull and biphasic models were found as more flexible in order to determine the survival curves of E. coli O157:H7 treated by MTS on apple-carrot juice.
190
31291
Bayesian Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Lindley's Approximation Based on Type-I Censored Data
Abstract:
These papers describe the Bayesian Estimator using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Lindley’s approximation and the maximum likelihood estimation of the Weibull distribution with Type-I censored data. The maximum likelihood method can’t estimate the shape parameter in closed forms, although it can be solved by numerical methods. Moreover, the Bayesian estimates of the parameters, the survival and hazard functions cannot be solved analytically. Hence Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and Lindley’s approximation are used, where the full conditional distribution for the parameters of Weibull distribution are obtained via Gibbs sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm (HM) followed by estimate the survival and hazard functions. The methods are compared to Maximum Likelihood counterparts and the comparisons are made with respect to the Mean Square Error (MSE) and absolute bias to determine the better method in scale and shape parameters, the survival and hazard functions.
189
89345
A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function
Abstract:
A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.
188
86404
Feasibility Study of Wind Energy Potential in Turkey: Case Study of Catalca District in Istanbul
Abstract:
This paper investigates the technical evaluation of the wind potential for present and future investments in Turkey taking into account the feasibility of sites, installments, operation, and maintenance. This evaluation based on the hourly measured wind speed data for the three years 2008–2010 at 30 m height for Çatalca district. These data were obtained from national meteorology station in Istanbul–Republic of Turkey are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of wind power potential and to assure supreme assortment of wind turbines installing for the area of interest. Furthermore, the data are extrapolated and analyzed at 60 m and 80 m regarding the variability of roughness factor. Weibull bi-parameter probability function is used to approximate monthly and annually wind potential and power density based on three calculation methods namely, the approximated, the graphical and the energy pattern factor methods. The annual mean wind power densities were to be 400.31, 540.08 and 611.02 W/m² for 30, 60, and 80 m heights respectively. Simulation results prove that the analyzed area is an appropriate place for constructing large-scale wind farms.
187
90393
Mixtures of Length-Biased Weibull Distributions for Loss Severity Modelling
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, a class of length-biased Weibull mixtures is presented to model loss severity data. The proposed model generalizes the Erlang mixtures with the common scale parameter, and it shares many important modelling features, such as flexibility to fit various data distribution shapes and weak-denseness in the class of positive continuous distributions, with the Erlang mixtures. We show that the asymptotic tail estimate of the length-biased Weibull mixture is Weibull-type, which makes the model effective to fit loss severity data with heavy-tailed observations. A method of statistical estimation is discussed with applications on real catastrophic loss data sets.
186
83893
Weibull Cumulative Distribution Function Analysis with Life Expectancy Endurance Test Result of Power Window Switch
Abstract:
This paper presents the planning, rationale for test specification derivation, sampling requirements, test facilities, and result analysis used to conduct lifetime expectancy endurance tests on power window switches (PWS) considering thermally induced mechanical stress under diurnal cyclic temperatures during normal operation (power cycling). The detail process of analysis and test results on the selected PWS set were discussed in this paper. A statistical approach to ‘life time expectancy’ was given to the measurement standards dealing with PWS lifetime determination through endurance tests. The approach choice, within the framework of the task, was explained. The present task was dedicated to voltage drop measurement to derive lifetime expectancy while others mostly consider contact or surface resistance. The measurements to perform and the main instruments to measure were fully described accordingly. The failure data from tests were analyzed to conclude lifetime expectancy through statistical method using Weibull cumulative distribution function. The first goal of this task is to develop realistic worst case lifetime endurance test specification because existing large number of switch test standards cannot induce degradation mechanism which makes the switches less reliable. 2nd goal is to assess quantitative reliability status of PWS currently manufactured based on test specification newly developed thru this project. The last and most important goal is to satisfy customer’ requirement regarding product reliability.
185
8913
Analysis of Reliability of Mining Shovel Using Weibull Model
Abstract:
The reliability of the various parts of electric mining shovel has been assessed through the application of Weibull Model. The study was initiated to find reliability of components of electric mining shovel. The paper aims to optimize the reliability of components and increase the life cycle of component. A multilevel decomposition of the electric mining shovel was done and maintenance records were used to evaluate the failure data and appropriate system characterization was done to model the system in terms of reasonable number of components. The approach used develops a mathematical model to assess the reliability of the electric mining shovel components. The model can be used to predict reliability of components of the hydraulic mining shovel and system performance. Reliability is an inherent attribute to a system. When the life-cycle costs of a system are being analyzed, reliability plays an important role as a major driver of these costs and has considerable influence on system performance. It is an iterative process that begins with specification of reliability goals consistent with cost and performance objectives. The data were collected from an Indian open cast coal mine and the reliability of various components of the electric mining shovel has been assessed by following a Weibull Model.
184
119138
Coexistence of Superconductivity and Spin Density Wave in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂
Abstract:
This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and Spin Density Wave (SDW)in Ferropnictide Ba₁₋ₓKₓFe₂As₂. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and by using quantum field theory Green’s function formalism, we have obtained mathematical expressions for superconducting transition temperature TC), spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), superconductivity order parameter (Sc), and spin density wave order parameter (sdw). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature (TC) versus superconducting order parameter (Sc) and spin density wave transition temperature (Tsdw), versus spin density wave order parameter (sdw) have been plotted. By combining the two phase diagrams, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and spin density wave (SDW) in ferropnictide Ba1−xKxFe2As2.
183
12878
Statistical Analysis of Cables in Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges
Abstract:
With the rapid development of transportation, there are more than 100 cable-stayed bridges with main span larger than 300 m in China. In order to ascertain the statistical relationships among the design parameters of stay cables and their distribution characteristics, 1500 cables were selected from 25 practical long-span cable-stayed bridges. A new relationship between the first order frequency and the length of cable was found by conducting the curve fitting. Then, based on this relationship other interesting relationships were deduced. Several probability density functions (PDFs) were used to investigate the distributions of the parameters of first order frequency, stress level and the Irvine parameter. It was found that these parameters obey the Lognormal distribution, the Weibull distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution, respectively. Scatter diagrams of the three parameters were plotted and their 95% confidence intervals were also investigated.
182
31946
A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution
Abstract:
The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.
181
72730
A Compressor Map Optimizing Tool for Prediction of Compressor Off-Design Performance
Abstract:
A high precision aeroengine model is needed when developing the engine control system. Compared with other main components, the axial compressor is the most challenging component to simulate. In this paper, a compressor map optimizing tool based on the introduction of a modifiable β function is developed for FWorks (FADEC Works). Three parameters (d density, f fitting coefficient, k₀ slope of the line β=0) are introduced to the β function to make it modifiable. The comparison of the traditional β function and the modifiable β function is carried out for a certain type of compressor. The interpolation errors show that both methods meet the modeling requirements, while the modifiable β function can predict compressor performance more accurately for some areas of the compressor map where the users are interested in.
180
15974
Modified Weibull Approach for Bridge Deterioration Modelling
Abstract:
State-based Markov deterioration models (SMDM) sometimes fail to find accurate transition probability matrix (TPM) values, and hence lead to invalid future condition prediction or incorrect average deterioration rates mainly due to drawbacks of existing nonlinear optimization-based algorithms and/or subjective function types used for regression analysis. Furthermore, a set of separate functions for each condition state with age cannot be directly derived by using Markov model for a given bridge element group, which however is of interest to industrial partners. This paper presents a new approach for generating Homogeneous SMDM model output, namely, the Modified Weibull approach, which consists of a set of appropriate functions to describe the percentage condition prediction of bridge elements in each state. These functions are combined with Bayesian approach and Metropolis Hasting Algorithm (MHA) based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation technique for quantifying the uncertainty in model parameter estimates. In this study, factors contributing to rail bridge deterioration were identified. The inspection data for 1,000 Australian railway bridges over 15 years were reviewed and filtered accordingly based on the real operational experience. Network level deterioration model for a typical bridge element group was developed using the proposed Modified Weibull approach. The condition state predictions obtained from this method were validated using statistical hypothesis tests with a test data set. Results show that the proposed model is able to not only predict the conditions in network-level accurately but also capture the model uncertainties with given confidence interval.
179
5267
Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Using AMPS-1D
Authors:
Abstract:
The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell is modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance parameters with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the work function, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach to an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.
178
72664
Polynomially Adjusted Bivariate Density Estimates Based on the Saddlepoint Approximation
Abstract:
An alternative bivariate density estimation methodology is introduced in this presentation. The proposed approach involves estimating the density function associated with the marginal distribution of each of the two variables by means of the saddlepoint approximation technique and applying a bivariate polynomial adjustment to the product of these density estimates. Since the saddlepoint approximation is utilized in the context of density estimation, such estimates are determined from empirical cumulant-generating functions. In the univariate case, the saddlepoint density estimate is itself adjusted by a polynomial. Given a set of observations, the coefficients of the polynomial adjustments are obtained from the sample moments. Several illustrative applications of the proposed methodology shall be presented. Since this approach relies essentially on a determinate number of sample moments, it is particularly well suited for modeling massive data sets.
177
21359
Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution
Abstract:
Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.
176
107130
A Theorem Related to Sample Moments and Two Types of Moment-Based Density Estimates
Abstract:
Numerous statistical inference and modeling methodologies are based on sample moments rather than the actual observations. A result justifying the validity of this approach is introduced. More specifically, it will be established that given the first n moments of a sample of size n, one can recover the original n sample points. This implies that a sample of size n and its first associated n moments contain precisely the same amount of information. However, it is efficient to make use of a limited number of initial moments as most of the relevant distributional information is included in them. Two types of density estimation techniques that rely on such moments will be discussed. The first one expresses a density estimate as the product of a suitable base density and a polynomial adjustment whose coefficients are determined by equating the moments of the density estimate to the sample moments. The second one assumes that the derivative of the logarithm of a density function can be represented as a rational function. This gives rise to a system of linear equations involving sample moments, the density estimate is then obtained by solving a differential equation. Unlike kernel density estimation, these methodologies are ideally suited to model ‘big data’ as they only require a limited number of moments, irrespective of the sample size. What is more, they produce simple closed form expressions that are amenable to algebraic manipulations. They also turn out to be more accurate as will be shown in several illustrative examples.
175
77315
The Physicochemical Properties of Two Rivers in Eastern Cape South Africa as Relates to Vibrio Spp Density
Abstract:
In the past view decades; human has experienced outbreaks of infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp which are commonly found in aquatic milieu. Asides the well-known Vibrio cholerae, discovery of other pathogens in this genus has been on the increase. While the dynamics of occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp have been linked to some physicochemical parameters in salt water, data in relation to fresh water is limited. Hence, two rivers of importance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa were selected for this study. In all, eleven sampling sites were systematically identified and relevant physicochemical parameters, as well as Vibrio spp density, were determined for the period of six months using standard instruments and methods. Results were statistically analysed to determined key physicochemical parameters that determine the density of Vibrio spp in the selected rivers. Results: The density of Vibrio spp in all the sampling points ranges between < 1 CFU/mL to 174 x 10-2 CFU/mL. The physicochemical parameters of some of the sampling points were above the recommended standards. The regression analysis showed that Vibrio density in the selected rivers depends on a complex relationship between various physicochemical parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that Vibrio spp density in fresh water does not depend on only temperature and salinity as suggested by earlier studies on salt water but rather on a complex relationship between several physicochemical parameters.
174
34622
Wind Resource Classification and Feasibility of Distributed Generation for Rural Community Utilization in North Central Nigeria
Abstract:
This study analyzed the electricity generation potential from wind at seven sites spread across seven states of the North-Central region of Nigeria. Twenty-one years (1987 to 2007) wind speed data at a height of 10m were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological Department, Oshodi. The data were subjected to different statistical tests and also compared with the two-parameter Weibull probability density function. The outcome shows that the monthly average wind speeds ranged between 2.2 m/s in November for Bida and 10.1 m/s in December for Jos. The yearly average ranged between 2.1m/s in 1987 for Bida and 11.8 m/s in 2002 for Jos. Also, the power density for each site was determined to range between 29.66 W/m2 for Bida and 864.96 W/m2 for Jos, Two parameters (k and c) of the Weibull distribution were found to range between 2.3 in Lokoja and 6.5 in Jos for k, while c ranged between 2.9 in Bida and 9.9m/s in Jos. These outcomes points to the fact that wind speeds at Jos, Minna, Ilorin, Makurdi and Abuja are compatible with the cut-in speeds of modern wind turbines and hence, may be economically feasible for wind-to-electricity at and above the height of 10 m. The study further assessed the potential and economic viability of standalone wind generation systems for off-grid rural communities located in each of the studied sites. A specific electric load profile was developed to suite hypothetic communities, each consisting of 200 homes, a school and a community health center. Assessment of the design that will optimally meet the daily load demand with a loss of load probability (LOLP) of 0.01 was performed, considering 2 stand-alone applications of wind and diesel. The diesel standalone system (DSS) was taken as the basis of comparison since the experimental locations have no connection to a distribution network. The HOMER® software optimizing tool was utilized to determine the optimal combination of system components that will yield the lowest life cycle cost. Sequel to the analysis for rural community utilization, a Distributed Generation (DG) analysis that considered the possibility of generating wind power in the MW range in order to take advantage of Nigeria’s tariff regime for embedded generation was carried out for each site. The DG design incorporated each community of 200 homes, freely catered for and offset from the excess electrical energy generated above the minimum requirement for sales to a nearby distribution grid. Wind DG systems were found suitable and viable in producing environmentally friendly energy in terms of life cycle cost and levelised value of producing energy at Jos ($0.14/kWh), Minna ($0.12/kWh), Ilorin ($0.09/kWh), Makurdi ($0.09/kWh), and Abuja ($0.04/kWh) at a particluar turbine hub height. These outputs reveal the value retrievable from the project after breakeven point as a function of energy consumed Based on the results, the study demonstrated that including renewable energy in the rural development plan will enhance fast upgrade of the rural communities.
173
74758
Comparison of the Logistic and the Gompertz Growth Functions Considering a Periodic Perturbation in the Model Parameters
Abstract:
Both the logistic growth model and the gompertz growth model are used to describe growth processes. Both models driven by perturbations in different cases are investigated using information theory as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability. Specifically, we study the effect of different oscillatory modulations in the system's parameters on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Function (PDF). We show the maintenance of the initial conditions for a long time. We offer Fisher information analysis in positive and/or negative feedback and explain its implications for the sustainability of population dynamics. We also display a finite amplitude solution due to the purely fluctuating growth rate whereas the periodic fluctuations in negative feedback can lead to break down the system's self-regulation with an exponentially growing solution. In the cases tested, the gompertz and logistic systems show similar behaviour in terms of information and sustainability although they develop differently in time.
172
39900
Estimating the Effect of Fluid in Pressing Process
Abstract:
To analyze the effect of various parameters of fluid on the material properties such as surface and depth defects and/or cracks, it is possible to determine the affection of pressure field on these specifications. Stress tensor analysis is also able to determine the points in which the probability of defection creation is more. Besides, from pressure field, it is possible to analyze the affection of various fluid specifications such as viscosity and density on defect created in the material. In this research, the concerned boundary conditions are analyzed first. Then the solution network and stencil used are mentioned. With the determination of relevant equation on the fluid flow between notch and matrix and their discretion according to the governed boundary conditions, these equations can be solved. Finally, with the variation creations on fluid parameters such as density and viscosity, the affection of these variations can be determined on pressure field. In this direction, the flowchart and solution algorithm with their results as vortex and current function contours for two conditions with most applications in pressing process are introduced and discussed.
171
53802
The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential
Abstract:
Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.
170
1949
Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces
Abstract:
Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.
169
19933
Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.
168
52887
Kinetic Study of Physical Quality Changes on Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Slices during Application High-Pressure Impregnation
Abstract:
This study presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) slice. Diffusion coefficients for both components water and solids were improved by the process pressure, being influenced by pressure level. The working conditions were different pressures such as 100, 250, 400 MPa and pressure atmospheric (0.1 MPa) for time intervals from 30 to 300 seconds and a 15% NaCl concentration. The mathematical expressions used for mass transfer simulations both water and salt were those corresponding to Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page and Weibull models, where the Weibull and Henderson-Pabis models presented the best fitted to the water and salt experimental data, respectively. The values for water diffusivity coefficients varied from 1.62 to 8.10x10⁻⁹ m²/s whereas that for salt varied among 14.18 to 36.07x10⁻⁹ m²/s for selected conditions. Finally, as to quality parameters studied under the range of experimental conditions studied, the treatment at 250 MPa yielded on the samples a minimum hardness, whereas springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness at 100, 250 and 400 MPa treatments presented statistical differences regarding to unpressurized samples. The colour parameters L* (lightness) increased, however, but b* (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased when increasing pressure level. This way, samples presented a brighter aspect and a mildly cooked appearance. The results presented in this study can support the enormous potential of hydrostatic pressure application as a technique important for compounds impregnation under high pressure.
167
53311
A Comparative Case Study on the Relationship between Solar Energy Potential and Block Typology and Density in Shanghai Context
Authors:
Abstract:
This study explores the relationship between solar potential and block typology and density by analyzing sixteen existing typical street blocks with different topologies and densities in Shanghai, a representative high-density urban in China. Several indicators are proposed to quantify, and a methodology is conducted to evaluate and compare the solar potential both on façade and roof across various selected urban forms. 1) The importance of appropriate solar energy indicators and geometric parameters to be used in comparative studies, and 2) the relationship between urban typology, density, and solar performance are discussed. In this way, the results reveal the key design attributes contributing to increasing solar potential.
166
1761
Effect of Progressive Type-I Right Censoring on Bayesian Statistical Inference of Simple Step–Stress Acceleration Life Testing Plan under Weibull Life Distribution
Abstract:
This paper discusses the effects of using progressive Type-I right censoring on the design of the Simple Step Accelerated Life testing using Bayesian approach for Weibull life products under the assumption of cumulative exposure model. The optimization criterion used in this paper is to minimize the expected pre-posterior variance of the PTH percentile time of failures. The model variables are the stress changing time and the stress value for the first step. A comparison between the conventional and the progressive Type-I right censoring is provided. The results have shown that the progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of testing on the expense of the test precision when the sample size is small. Moreover, the results have shown that using strong priors or large sample size reduces the sensitivity of the test precision to the censoring proportion. Hence, the progressive Type-I right censoring is recommended in these cases as progressive Type-I right censoring reduces the cost of the test and doesn't affect the precision of the test a lot. Moreover, the results have shown that using direct or indirect priors affects the precision of the test.
165
48599
Chaotic Search Optimal Design and Modeling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents an electromagnetic finite element model of permanent magnet synchronous linear motor and distortion rate of the air gap flux density waveform is analyzed in detail. By designing the sample space of the parameters, nonlinear regression modeling of the orthogonal experimental design is introduced. We put forward for possible air gap flux density waveform sine electromagnetic scheme. Parameters optimization of the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor is also introduced which is based on chaotic search and adaptation function. Simulation results prove that the pole shifting does not affect the motor back electromotive symmetry based on the structural parameters, it provides a novel way for the optimum design of permanent magnet synchronous linear motor and other engineering.
164
78817
Application of Generalized Autoregressive Score Model to Stock Returns
Abstract:
The current study investigates the behaviour of time-varying parameters that are based on the score function of the predictive model density at time t. The mechanism to update the parameters over time is the scaled score of the likelihood function. The results revealed that there is high persistence of time-varying, as the location parameter is higher and the skewness parameter implied the departure of scale parameter from the normality with the unconditional parameter as 1.5. The results also revealed that there is a perseverance of the leptokurtic behaviour in stock returns which implies the returns are heavily tailed. Prior to model estimation, the White Neural Network test exposed that the stock price can be modelled by a GAS model. Finally, we proposed further researches specifically to model the existence of time-varying parameters with a more detailed model that encounters the heavy tail distribution of the series and computes the risk measure associated with the returns.
163
104322
Wind Resource Estimation and Economic Analysis for Rakiraki, Fiji
Abstract:
Immense amount of imported fuels are used in Fiji for electricity generation, transportation and for carrying out miscellaneous household work. To alleviate its dependency on fossil fuel, paramount importance has been given to instigate the utilization of renewable energy sources for power generation and to reduce the environmental dilapidation. Amongst the many renewable energy sources, wind has been considered as one of the best identified renewable sources that are comprehensively available in Fiji. In this study the wind resource assessment for three locations in Rakiraki, Fiji has been carried out. The wind resource estimation at Rokavukavu, Navolau and at Tuvavatu has been analyzed. The average wind speed at 55 m above ground level (a.g.l) at Rokavukavu, Navolau, and Tuvavatu sites are 5.91 m/s, 8.94 m/s and 8.13 m/s with the turbulence intensity of 14.9%, 17.1%, and 11.7% respectively. The moment fitting method has been used to estimate the Weibull parameter and the power density at each sites. A high resolution wind resource map for the three locations has been developed by using Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The results obtained from WAsP exhibited good wind potential at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites. A wind farm has been proposed at Navolau and Tuvavatu site that comprises six Vergnet 275 kW wind turbines at each site. The annual energy production (AEP) for each wind farm is estimated and an economic analysis is performed. The economic analysis for the proposed wind farms at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites showed a payback period of 5 and 6 years respectively.
162
25377
Estimation of Fuel Cost Function Characteristics Using Cuckoo Search
Abstract:
The fuel cost function describes the electric power generation-cost relationship in thermal plants, hence, it sheds light on economical aspects of power industry. Different models have been proposed to describe this relationship with the quadratic function model being the most popular one. Parameters of second order fuel cost function are estimated in this paper using cuckoo search algorithm. It is a new population based meta-heuristic optimization technique that has been used in this study primarily as an accurate estimation tool. Its main features are flexibility, simplicity, and effectiveness when compared to other estimation techniques. The parameter estimation problem is formulated as an optimization one with the goal being minimizing the error associated with the estimated parameters. A case study is considered in this paper to illustrate cuckoo search promising potential as a valuable estimation and optimization technique.
161
58301
Design and Analysis of Adaptive Type-I Progressive Hybrid Censoring Plan under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Using Competing Risk
Abstract:
Statistical distributions have long been employed in the assessment of semiconductor devices and product reliability. The power function-distribution is one of the most important distributions in the modern reliability practice and can be frequently preferred over mathematically more complex distributions, such as the Weibull and the lognormal, because of its simplicity. Moreover, it may exhibit a better fit for failure data and provide more appropriate information about reliability and hazard rates in some circumstances. This study deals with estimating information about failure times of items under step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk based on adoptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring criteria. The life data of the units under test is assumed to follow Mukherjee-Islam distribution. The point and interval maximum-likelihood estimations are obtained for distribution parameters and tampering coefficient. The performances of the resulting estimators of the developed model parameters are evaluated and investigated by using a simulation algorithm.
160
5976
Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice
Authors:
Abstract:
An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.
159
87308
Fecundity and Egg Laying in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Model Development and Field Validation
Abstract:
Models can be useful to help understand population dynamics of insects under diverse environmental conditions and in developing strategies to manage pest species better. Adult longevity and fecundity of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were evaluated against a wide range of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 37.5ᵒC). The modified Sharpe and DeMichele model described adult aging rate and was used to estimate adult physiological age. Maximum fecundity of H. armigera was 973 egg/female at 25ᵒC decreasing to 72 eggs/female at 37.5ᵒC. The relationship between adult fecundity and temperature was well described by an extreme value function. Age-specific cumulative oviposition rate and age-specific survival rate were well described by a two-parameter Weibull function and sigmoid function, respectively. An oviposition model was developed using three temperature-dependent components: total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate, and age-specific survival rate. The oviposition model was validated against independent field data and described the field occurrence pattern of egg population of H. armigera very well. Our model should be a useful component for population modeling of H. armigera and can be independently used for the timing of sprays in management programs of this key pest species.
158
76512
Characteristics of Cumulative Distribution Function of Grown Crack Size at Specified Fatigue Crack Propagation Life under Different Maximum Fatigue Loads in AZ31
Abstract:
Magnesium alloy has been widely used in structure such as an automobile. It is necessary to consider probabilistic characteristics of a structural material because a fatigue behavior of a structure has a randomness and uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to find the characteristics of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the grown crack size at a specified fatigue crack propagation life and to investigate a statistical crack propagation in magnesium alloys. The statistical fatigue data of the grown crack size are obtained through the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests under different maximum fatigue load conditions conducted on the replicated specimens of magnesium alloys. The 3-parameter Weibull distribution is used to find the CDF of grown crack size. The CDF of grown crack size in case of larger maximum fatigue load has longer tail in below 10 percent and above 90 percent. The fatigue failure occurs easily as the tail of CDF of grown crack size becomes long. The fatigue behavior under the larger maximum fatigue load condition shows more rapid propagation and failure mode.
157
10709
Exact Solutions for Steady Response of Nonlinear Systems under Non-White Excitation
Authors:
Abstract:
In the present study, the exact solutions for the steady response of quasi-linear systems under non-white wide-band random excitation are considered by means of the stochastic averaging method. The non linearity of the systems contains the power-law damping and the cross-product term of the power-law damping and displacement. The drift and diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation after averaging are obtained by a succinct approach. After solving the averaged FPK equation, the joint probability density function and the marginal probability density function in steady state are attained. In the process of resolving, the eigenvalue problem of ordinary differential equation is handled by integral equation method. Some new results are acquired and the novel method to deal with the problems in nonlinear random vibration is proposed.
156
8139
3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy
Abstract:
We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.
155
20736
Development of Probability Distribution Models for Degree of Bending (DoB) in Chord Member of Tubular X-Joints under Bending Loads
Abstract:
Fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore structures is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress, but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The DoB exhibits considerable scatter calling for greater emphasis in accurate determination of its governing probability distribution which is a key input for the fatigue reliability analysis of a tubular joint. Although the tubular X-joints are commonly found in offshore jacket structures, as far as the authors are aware, no comprehensive research has been carried out on the probability distribution of the DoB in tubular X-joints. What has been used so far as the probability distribution of the DoB in reliability analyses is mainly based on assumptions and limited observations, especially in terms of distribution parameters. In the present paper, results of parametric equations available for the calculation of the DoB have been used to develop probability distribution models for the DoB in the chord member of tubular X-joints subjected to four types of bending loads. Based on a parametric study, a set of samples was prepared and density histograms were generated for these samples using Freedman-Diaconis method. Twelve different probability density functions (PDFs) were fitted to these histograms. The maximum likelihood method was utilized to determine the parameters of fitted distributions. In each case, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Finally, after substituting the values of estimated parameters for each distribution, a set of fully defined PDFs have been proposed for the DoB in tubular X-joints subjected to bending loads.
154
32692
Structural, Elastic, Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Perovskites AHfO3 (a=Ba,Sr,Eu)
Authors:
Abstract:
The structural, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of AHfO3 compounds with the cubic perovskites structure have been investigated, by employing a first principles method, using the plane wave pseudo potential calculations (PP-PW), based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), bulk modulus (B), compressibility (b), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (Y ), Poisson’s ratio (n), Lame´’s coefficients (m, l), as well as band structure, density of states and electron density distributions are obtained and analyzed in comparison with the available theoretical and experimental data. For the first time the numerical estimates of elastic parameters of the polycrystalline AHfO3 ceramics (in framework of the VoigteReusseHill approximation) are performed. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, by means of total energy versus volume calculations obtained with the FP-LAPW method, is applied to study the thermal and vibrational effects. Predicted temperature and pressure effects on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities, and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions.
153
43635
Examining the Relationship between Chi-Square Test Statistics and Skewness of Weibull Distribution: Simulation Study
Abstract:
Most of the literature on goodness-of-fit test try to provide a theoretical basis for studying empirical distribution functions. Such goodness-of-fit tests are Kolmogorove-Simirnov and Crumer-Von Mises Type tests. However, it is likely that most of literature has not focused in details on the relationship of the values of the test statistics and skewness or kurtosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of the values of the χ2 test statistic with the variation of the skewness of right skewed distribution. A simulation study is conducted to generate random numbers from Weibull distribution. For a fixed sample sizes, different levels of skewness are considered, and the corresponding values of the χ2 test statistic are calculated. Using different sample sizes, the results show an inverse relationship between the value of χ2 test and the level of skewness for Wiebull distribution, i.e the value of χ2 test statistic decreases as the value of skewness increases. The research results also show that with large values of skewness we are more confident that the data follows the assumed distribution. Nonparametric Kendall τ test is used to confirm these results.
152
42322
Theoretical and Experimental Electrostatic Parameters Determination of 4-Methyl-N-[(5- Nitrothiophen-2-Ylmethylidene)] Aniline Compound
Abstract:
We present the electron density analysis of organic compound 4-methyl-N-[(5- nitrothiophen-2-ylmethylidene)] aniline with chemical formula C12H10N2O2S. Indeed, determining the electrostatic properties of nonlinear optical organic compounds requires knowledge of the distribution of the electron density with high precision. On the other hand, a structural analysis is performed. Two methods are used to obtain the structure, X-ray diffraction and theoretical calculation with density functional theory (DFT). The electron density study is performed using the Mopro program1503 based on the multipolar model of Hansen and Coppens. Electron density analysis allows determination of the value and orientation of the dipole moment. The net atomic charges, electrostatic potential and the molecular dipole moment have been determined in order to understand the nature of inter- and intramolecular charge transfer. The study reveals the nature of intermolecular interactions including charge transfer and hydrogen bonds in the title compound. Crystallographic data: monoclinic system - space group P21 / n. Celle parameters: a = 4.7606 (4) Å, b = 22.415 (2) Å, c = 10.7008 (15) Å, β = 92.566 (13) 0, V = 1140.7 (2) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0034 for 2693 observed reflections.
151
34813
A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine
Abstract:
In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even though decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also found that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power) above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.
150
90831
Constructing the Joint Mean-Variance Regions for Univariate and Bivariate Normal Distributions: Approach Based on the Measure of Cumulative Distribution Functions
Abstract:
The usage of the confidence intervals in economics and econometrics is widespread. To be able to investigate a random variable more thoroughly, joint tests are applied. One of such examples is joint mean-variance test. A new approach for testing such hypotheses and constructing confidence sets is introduced. Exploring both the value of the random variable and its deviation with the help of this technique allows checking simultaneously the shift and the probability of that shift (i.e., portfolio risks). Another application is based on the normal distribution, which is fully defined by mean and variance, therefore could be tested using the introduced approach. This method is based on the difference of probability density functions. The starting point is two sets of normal distribution parameters that should be compared (whether they may be considered as identical with given significance level). Then the absolute difference in probabilities at each 'point' of the domain of these distributions is calculated. This measure is transformed to a function of cumulative distribution functions and compared to the critical values. Critical values table was designed from the simulations. The approach was compared with the other techniques for the univariate case. It differs qualitatively and quantitatively in easiness of implementation, computation speed, accuracy of the critical region (theoretical vs. real significance level). Stable results when working with outliers and non-normal distributions, as well as scaling possibilities, are also strong sides of the method. The main advantage of this approach is the possibility to extend it to infinite-dimension case, which was not possible in the most of the previous works. At the moment expansion to 2-dimensional state is done and it allows to test jointly up to 5 parameters. Therefore the derived technique is equivalent to classic tests in standard situations but gives more efficient alternatives in nonstandard problems and on big amounts of data.
149
4810
The Contribution of Density Fluctuations in Ultrasound Scattering in Cancellous Bone
Abstract:
An understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and cancellous bone is needed in order to realize the full clinical potential of ultrasonic bone measurements. Scattering is likely to be of central importance but has received little attention to date. Few theoretical approaches have been described to explain scattering of ultrasound from bone. In this study, a scattering model based on velocity and density fluctuations in a binary mixture (marrow fat and cortical matrix) was used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in cancellous bone as a function of volume fraction. Predicted attenuation and backscatter coefficient were obtained for a range of porosities and scatterer size. At 600 kHZ and for different scatterer size the effect of velocity and density fluctuations in the predicted attenuation was approximately 60% higher than velocity fluctuations.
148
16503
Application of Genetic Algorithm with Multiobjective Function to Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Thermal System
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithms with multi-objective function. There are some parameters that affect the efficiency of PVT system like depth and length of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid through the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid i.e. all above parameters are considered for optimization. An attempt has been made to the model and optimizes the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module when two objective functions have been considered separately. The two objective function for optimization of PVT module is overall electrical and thermal efficiency. All equations for PVT module have been derived. Using genetic algorithms (GAs), above two objective functions of the system has been optimized separately and analysis has been carried out for two cases. Two cases are: Case-I; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall electrical efficiency is optimized, Case-II; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non-changeable parameters, like solar radiation, ambient temperature cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that electrical efficiency (14.08%) and thermal efficiency (19.48%) are obtained when overall thermal efficiency was an objective function for optimization. It is observed that GA is a very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module.
147
49910
Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment
Abstract:
This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.
146
17382
Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Heads with Different Sizes under the Destruction Tests
Abstract:
The global solved problem is the calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalized ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). A special destruction device for heads destruction was designed and the solved local problem is the modification of this destructive device based on the analysis of tensile stress in the head for two different values of the depth of the conical hole in the head. The goal of device modification is a shift of the location with extreme value of 1 max from the region of head’s hole bottom to its opening. This modification will increase the credibility of the obtained material properties of bio ceramics, which will be determined from a set of head destructions using the Weibull weakest link theory.
145
19499
Effect of Varying Stocking Densities and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Growth Performance of Japanese Quails
Abstract:
This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different stocking densities and vitamin C supplementation on the performance of Japanese quails. Five hundred and twenty (520) unsexed quail birds of two (2) weeks of age were allotted randomly into nine (9) groups with 3 replicates each in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (3 stocking density levels and 3 graded vitamin C levels) with densities of 150, 120, 90 cm2/bird(11, 16, 21 birds). During the five weeks growing trial (2- 6 weeks), results showed that stocking density had significant effects on final weight (131.59g compared to 111.10g for the lowest), total and daily weight gain. No significance difference was observed for feed conversion ratio, age at first lay and first egg weight. Observations on haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC), lymphocyte, heterophil) on stocking density showed no significant differences. Vitamin C supplementation at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg did not have any significant effect on the growth performance parameters of growing quails. Stocking density at 150cm2/bird had a better performance with or without vitamin C supplementation hence it is recommended that stocking rates of quails between the ages of 2 – 6 weeks should not be below 150cm2/bird.
144
38684
Nonlinear Triad Interactions in Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma Turbulence
Abstract:
Nonlinear triad interactions in incompressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D-MHD) turbulence are studied by analyzing data from high-resolution direct numerical simulations of decaying isotropic (5123 grid points) and forced anisotropic (10242 x256 grid points) turbulence. An accurate numerical approach toward analyzing nonlinear turbulent energy transfer function and triad interactions is presented. It involves the direct numerical examination of every wavenumber triad that is associated with the nonlinear terms in the differential equations of MHD in the inertial range of turbulence. The technique allows us to compute the spectral energy transfer and energy fluxes, as well as the spectral locality property of energy transfer function. To this end, the geometrical shape of each underlying wavenumber triad that contributes to the statistical transfer density function is examined to infer the locality of the energy transfer. Results show that the total energy transfer is local via nonlocal triad interactions in decaying macroscopically isotropic MHD turbulence. In anisotropic MHD, turbulence subject to a strong mean magnetic field the nonlinear transfer is generally weaker and exhibits a moderate increase of nonlocality in both perpendicular and parallel directions compared to the isotropic case. These results support the recent mathematical findings, which also claim the locality of nonlinear energy transfer in MHD turbulence.
143
18049
A Computational Study of N–H…O Hydrogen Bonding to Investigate Cooperative Effects
Abstract:
In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy parameters of 14N (Nitrogen in imidazole ring) in N–H…O hydrogen bonding for Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate were calculated via density functional theory. We considered a five-molecule model system of Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Also, we examined the trends of environmental effect on hydrogen bonds as well as cooperativity. The functional used in this research is M06-2X which is a good functional and the obtained results have shown good agreement with experimental data. This functional was applied to calculate the NMR and NQR parameters. Some correlations among NBO parameters, NMR, and NQR parameters have been studied which have shown the existence of strong correlations among them. Furthermore, the geometry optimization has been performed using M062X/6-31++G(d,p) method. In addition, in order to study cooperativity and changes in structural parameters, along with increase in cluster size, natural bond orbitals have been employed.
142
119535
The Realization of a System’s State Space Based on Markov Parameters by Using Flexible Neural Networks
Abstract:
— Markov parameters are unique parameters of the system and remain unchanged under similarity transformations. Markov parameters from a power series that is convergent only if the system matrix’s eigenvalues are inside the unity circle. Therefore, Markov parameters of a stable discrete-time system are convergent. In this study, we aim to realize the system based on Markov parameters by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and this end, we use Flexible Neural Networks. Realization means determining the elements of matrices A, B, C, and D.
141
56287
Analysis of the Statistical Characterization of Significant Wave Data Exceedances for Designing Offshore Structures
Abstract:
The statistical theory of extreme events is progressively a topic of growing interest in all the fields of science and engineering. The changes currently experienced by the world, economic and environmental, emphasized the importance of dealing with extreme occurrences with improved accuracy. When it comes to the design of offshore structures, particularly offshore wind turbines, the importance of efficiently characterizing extreme events is of major relevance. Extreme events are commonly characterized by extreme values theory. As an alternative, the accurate modeling of the tails of statistical distributions and the characterization of the low occurrence events can be achieved with the application of the Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) methodology. The POT methodology allows for a more refined fit of the statistical distribution by truncating the data with a minimum value of a predefined threshold u. For mathematically approximating the tail of the empirical statistical distribution the Generalised Pareto is widely used. Although, in the case of the exceedances of significant wave data (H_s) the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution, which is a specific case of the Generalised Pareto distribution, are frequently used as an alternative. The Generalized Pareto, despite the existence of practical cases where it is applied, is not completely recognized as the adequate solution to model exceedances over a certain threshold u. References that set the Generalised Pareto distribution as a secondary solution in the case of significant wave data can be identified in the literature. In this framework, the current study intends to tackle the discussion of the application of statistical models to characterize exceedances of wave data. Comparison of the application of the Generalised Pareto, the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution are presented for different values of the threshold u. Real wave data obtained in four buoys along the Irish coast was used in the comparative analysis. Results show that the application of the statistical distributions to characterize significant wave data needs to be addressed carefully and in each particular case one of the statistical models mentioned fits better the data than the others. Depending on the value of the threshold u different results are obtained. Other variables of the fit, as the number of points and the estimation of the model parameters, are analyzed and the respective conclusions were drawn. Some guidelines on the application of the POT method are presented. Modeling the tail of the distributions shows to be, for the present case, a highly non-linear task and, due to its growing importance, should be addressed carefully for an efficient estimation of very low occurrence events.
140
77086
Optimal Parameters of Two-Color Ionizing Laser Pulses for Terahertz Generation
Abstract:
Generation of broadband intense terahertz (THz) radiation attracts reasonable interest due to various applications, such as the THz time-domain spectroscopy, the probing and control of various ultrafast processes, the THz imaging with subwavelength resolution, and many others. One of the most promising methods for generating powerful and broadband terahertz pulses is based on focusing two-color femtosecond ionizing laser pulses in gases, including ambient air. For this method, the amplitudes of terahertz pulses are determined by the free-electron current density remaining in a formed plasma after the passage of the laser pulse. The excitation of this residual current density can be treated as multi-wave mixing: Аn effective generation of terahertz radiation is possible only when the frequency ratio of one-color components in the two-color pulse is close to irreducible rational fraction a/b with small odd sum a + b. This work focuses on the optimal parameters (polarizations and intensities) of laser components for the strongest THz generation. The optimal values of parameters are found numerically and analytically with the use of semiclassical approach for calculating the residual current density. For frequency ratios close to a/(a ± 1) with natural a, the strongest THz generation is shown to take place when the both laser components have circular polarizations and equal intensities. For this optimal case, an analytical formula for the residual current density was derived. For the frequency ratios such as 2/5, the two-color ionizing pulses with circularly polarized components practically do not excite the residual current density. However, the optimal parameters correspond generally to specific elliptical (not linear) polarizations of the components and intensity ratios close to unity.
139
67687
Numerical Prediction of Wall Eroded Area by Cavitation
Abstract:
This study presents a new method to predict cavitation area that may be eroded. It is based on the post-treatment of URANS simulations in cavitant flows. The most RANS calculations with incompressible consideration are based on cavitation model using mixture fluid with density (ρm) calculated as a function of liquid density (ρliq), vapour or gas density (ρvap) and vapour or gas volume fraction α (ρm = αρvap + (1-α) ρliq). The calculations are performed on hydrofoil geometries and compared with experimental works concerning flows characteristics (size of pocket, pressure, velocity). We present here the used cavitation model and the approach followed to evaluate the value of α fixing the shape of pocket around wall before collapsing.
138
10495
Theoretical Investigations on Optical Properties of GaFeMnN Quaternary Compound
Abstract:
Using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory and local spin density approximation, we investigate optical properties of GaFeMnN quaternary compound. Results show that optical properties confirm that GaFeMnN can be a good candidate in the design of thin film solar cells in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum, and a good sensor in the infrared
137
109689
Prediction of Ionic Liquid Densities Using a Corresponding State Correlation
Abstract:
Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit particular properties exemplified by extremely low vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The properties of ILs can be tailored by proper selection of cations and anions. As such, ILs are appealing as potential solvents to substitute traditional solvents with high vapor pressure. One of the IL properties required in chemical and process design is density. In developing corresponding state liquid density correlations, scaling hypothesis is often used. The hypothesis expresses the temperature dependence of saturated liquid densities near the vapor-liquid critical point as a function of reduced temperature. Extending the temperature dependence, several successful correlations were developed to accurately correlate the densities of normal liquids from the triple point to a critical point. Applying mixing rules, the liquid density correlations are extended to liquid mixtures as well. ILs are not molecular liquids, and they are not classified among normal liquids either. Also, ILs are often used where the condition is far from equilibrium. Nevertheless, in calculating the properties of ILs, the use of corresponding state correlations would be useful if no experimental data were available. With well-known generalized saturated liquid density correlations, the accuracy in predicting the density of ILs is not that good. An average error of 4-5% should be expected. In this work, a data bank was compiled. A simplified and concise corresponding state saturated liquid density correlation is proposed by phenomena-logically modifying reduced temperature using the temperature-dependence for an interacting parameter of the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This modification improves the temperature dependence of the developed correlation. Parametrization was next performed to optimize the three global parameters of the correlation. The correlation was then applied to the ILs in our data bank with satisfactory predictions. The correlation of IL density applied at 0.1 MPa and was tested with an average uncertainty of around 2%. No adjustable parameter was used. The critical temperature, critical volume, and acentric factor were all required. Methods to extend the predictions to higher pressures (200 MPa) were also devised. Compared to other methods, this correlation was found more accurate. This work also presents the chronological order of developing such correlations dealing with ILs. The pros and cons are also expressed.
136
42759
Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments
Abstract:
Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.
135
93357
Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass
Abstract:
The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.
134
53756
A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data
Abstract:
Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.
133
31764
First Principle Calculations of the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic Perovskite CsSrF3
Abstract:
We have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a compound perovskite CsSrF3 using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for exchange-correlation potential calculation. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and the results are compared whit experimental and theoretical data. Electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structure, density of states and electron charge density, where the fundamental energy gap is direct under ambient conditions. The contribution of the different bands was analyzed from the total and partial density of states curves. The optical properties (namely: the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function ε(ω), the refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω)) were calculated for radiation up to 35.0 eV. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the optical properties for the investigated compound and still awaits experimental confirmations.
132
3977
Electronic Spectral Function of Double Quantum Dots–Superconductors Nanoscopic Junction
Abstract:
We study the Electronic spectral density of a double coupled quantum dots sandwich between superconducting leads, where one of the superconducting leads (QD1) are connected with left superconductor lead and (QD1) also connected right superconductor lead. (QD1) and (QD2) are coupling to each other. The electronic spectral density through a quantum dots between superconducting leads having s-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Such junction is called superconducting –quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction. For this purpose, we have considered a renormalized Anderson model that includes the double coupled of the superconducting leads with the quantum dots level and an attractive BCS-type effective interaction in superconducting leads. We employed the Green’s function technique to obtain superconducting order parameter with the BCS framework and Ambegaoker-Baratoff formalism to analyze the electronic spectral density through such (S-QD-S) junction. It has been pointed out that electronic spectral density through such a junction is dominated by the attractive the paring interaction in the leads, energy of the level on the dot with respect to Fermi energy and also on the coupling parameter of the two in an essential way. On the basis of numerical analysis we have compared the theoretical results of electronic spectral density with the recent transport existing theoretical analysis. QDs is the charging energy that may give rise to effects based on the interplay of Coulomb repulsion and superconducting correlations. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask how the discrete level spectrum and the charging energy affect the DC and AC Josephson transport between two superconductors coupled via a QD. In the absence of a bias voltage, a finite DC current can be sustained in such an S-QD-S by the DC Josephson effect.
131
33813
Analysis of Operating Speed on Four-Lane Divided Highways under Mixed Traffic Conditions
Abstract:
The present study demonstrates the procedure to analyse speed data collected on various four-lane divided sections in India. Field data for the study was collected at different straight and curved sections on rural highways with the help of radar speed gun and video camera. The data collected at the sections were analysed and parameters pertain to speed distributions were estimated. The different statistical distribution was analysed on vehicle type speed data and for mixed traffic speed data. It was found that vehicle type speed data was either follows the normal distribution or Log-normal distribution, whereas the mixed traffic speed data follows more than one type of statistical distribution. The most common fit observed on mixed traffic speed data were Beta distribution and Weibull distribution. The separate operating speed model based on traffic and roadway geometric parameters were proposed in the present study. The operating speed model with traffic parameters and curve geometry parameters were established. Two different operating speed models were proposed with variables 1/R and Ln(R) and were found to be realistic with a different range of curve radius. The models developed in the present study are simple and realistic and can be used for forecasting operating speed on four-lane highways.
130
7042
Design of Process Parameters in Electromagnetic Forming Apparatus by FEM
Abstract:
Electromagnetic forming (EMF) process is one of a high-speed forming process, which uses an electromagnetic body (Lorentz) force to deform work-piece. Advantages of EMF are summarized as improvement of formability, reduction in wrinkling, non-contact forming. In this study, the spiral coil is considered to evaluate formability in terms of pressure distribution of the forming process. It also is represented forming results of numerical analysis using ANSYS code. In the numerical simulation, RLC circuit coupled with spiral coil was made to consider the design parameters such as system input current and electromagnetic force. The simulation results show that even though input peak currents level are same level in each case, forming condition is certainly different because of frequency of input current and magnitude of current density and magnetic flux density. Finally, the simulation results appear that electromagnetic forming force apparently affected by input current frequency which determines magnitude of current density and magnetic flux density.
129
22261
Solution of Nonlinear Fractional Programming Problem with Bounded Parameters
Abstract:
In this paper a methodology is developed to solve a nonlinear fractional programming problem in which the coefficients of the objective function and constraints are interval parameters. This model is transformed into a general optimization problem and relation between the original problem and the transformed problem is established. Finally the proposed methodology is illustrated through a numerical example.
128
39637
An Application of Sinc Function to Approximate Quadrature Integrals in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
Abstract:
This paper discusses a novel approach to approximate quadrature integrals that arise in the estimation of likelihood parameters for the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) as well as Bayesian methodology also requires computation of multidimensional integrals with respect to the posterior distributions in which computation are not only tedious and cumbersome rather in some situations impossible to find solutions because of singularities, irregular domains, etc. An attempt has been made in this work to apply Sinc function based quadrature rules to approximate intractable integrals, as there are several advantages of using Sinc based methods, for example: order of convergence is exponential, works very well in the neighborhood of singularities, in general quite stable and provide high accurate and double precisions estimates. The Sinc function based approach seems to be utilized first time in statistical domain to our knowledge, and it's viability and future scopes have been discussed to apply in the estimation of parameters for GLMM models as well as some other statistical areas.
127
67842
Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)
Abstract:
This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.
126
69396
Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)
Abstract:
This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.
125
69533
Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)
Abstract:
This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.
124
43520
Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates
Abstract:
The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.
123
5829
An Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory Study of Fluorous 1,3-Dion Compounds
Abstract:
Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, and vibrational wavenumbers of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds are carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with LANL2DZ basis sets. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecules. The thermodynamic functions of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ basis sets. The theoretical spectrograms for F NMR spectra of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have also been constructed. The F NMR nuclear shieldings of fluoride ligands in fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been studied quantum chemical.
122
34773
Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Abstract:
Present study concerns the optimization of a new vertical axis wind turbine system associated to a dynamoelectric motor. The system is composed by three Savonius wind turbines, arranged in an equilateral triangle. The idea is to propose a new concept of wind turbines through a technical approach allowing find a specific power never obtained before and therefore, a significant reduction of installation costs. In this work different wind flows across the system have been simulated, as well as precise definition of parameters and relations established between them. It will allow define the optimal rotor specific power for a given volume. Calculations have been developed with classical Savonius dimensions.
121
89499
Plot Scale Estimation of Crop Biophysical Parameters from High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Abstract:
The present study focuses on the estimation of crop biophysical parameters like crop chlorophyll, nitrogen and water stress at plot scale in the crop fields. To achieve these, we have used high-resolution satellite LISS IV imagery. A new methodology has proposed in this research work, the spectral shape function of paddy crop is employed to get the significant wavelengths sensitive to paddy crop parameters. From the shape functions, regression index models were established for the critical wavelength with minimum and maximum wavelengths of multi-spectrum high-resolution LISS IV data. Moreover, the functional relationships were utilized to develop the index models. From these index models crop, biophysical parameters were estimated and mapped from LISS IV imagery at plot scale in crop field level. The result showed that the nitrogen content of the paddy crop varied from 2-8%, chlorophyll from 1.5-9% and water content variation observed from 40-90% respectively. It was observed that the variability in rice agriculture system in India was purely a function of field topography.
120
91781
Tsunami Wave Height and Flow Velocity Calculations Based on Density Measurements of Boulders: Case Studies from Anegada and Pakarang Cape
Abstract:
Inundation events, such as storms and tsunamis can leave onshore sedimentary evidence like sand deposits or large boulders. These deposits store indirect information on the related inundation parameters (e.g., flow velocity, flow depth, wave height). One tool to reveal these parameters are inverse models that use the physical characteristics of the deposits to refer to the magnitude of inundation. This study used boulders of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami from Thailand (Pakarang Cape) and form a historical tsunami event that inundated the outer British Virgin Islands (Anegada). For the largest boulder found in Pakarang Cape with a volume of 26.48 m³ the required tsunami wave height is 0.44 m and storm wave height are 1.75 m (for a bulk density of 1.74 g/cm³. In Pakarang Cape the highest tsunami wave height is 0.45 m and storm wave height are 1.8 m for transporting a 20.07 m³ boulder. On Anegada, the largest boulder with a diameter of 2.7 m is the asingle coral head (species Diploria sp.) with a bulk density of 1.61 g/cm³, and requires a minimum tsunami wave height of 0.31 m and storm wave height of 1.25 m. The highest required tsunami wave height on Anegada is 2.12 m for a boulder with a bulk density of 2.46 g/cm³ (volume 0.0819 m³) and the highest storm wave height is 5.48 m (volume 0.216 m³) from the same bulk density and the coral type is limestone. Generally, the higher the bulk density, volume, and weight of the boulders, the higher the minimum tsunami and storm wave heights required to initiate transport. It requires 4.05 m/s flow velocity by Nott’s equation (2003) and 3.57 m/s by Nandasena et al. (2011) to transport the largest boulder in Pakarang Cape, whereas on Anegada, it requires 3.41 m/s to transport a boulder with diameter 2.7 m for both equations. Thus, boulder equations need to be handled with caution because they make many assumptions and simplifications. Second, the physical boulder parameters, such as density and volume need to be determined carefully to minimize any errors.
119
71355
Effect of Irrigation Regime and Plant Density on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Yield in a Semi-Arid Environment
Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive winter seasons at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan, to study effects of different levels of irrigation regime and plant density on yield of introduced small seeded (desi type) chickpea cultivar (ILC 482). The experiment was laid out in a 3X3 factorial split-plot design with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes (designated as follows: I1 = optimum irrigation, I2 = moderate stress and I3 = severe stress; this corresponded with irrigation after drainage of 50%, 75% and 100% of available water based on 70%, 60% and 50% of field capacity, respectively) assigned as main plots and three plant densities (D₁=20, D₂= 40 and D₃= 60 plants/m²) assigned as subplots. The results indicated that the yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight), seed yield per plant, harvest index and yield per unit area of chickpea were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime. Decreasing irrigation regime significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all measured parameters. Alternatively, increasing plant density significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of pods and seed yield per plant and increased seed yield per unit area. While number of seeds per pod and harvest index were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by plant density. Interaction between irrigation regime and plant density was also significantly (p < 0.05) affected all measured parameters of yield, except for harvest index. It could be concluded that the best irrigation regime was full irrigation (after drainage of 50% available water at 70% field capacity) and the optimal plant density was 20 plants/m² under conditions of semi-arid regions.
118
10105
Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation
Authors:
Abstract:
We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.
117
77484
High Accuracy Analytic Approximations for Modified Bessel Functions I₀(x)
Abstract:
A method to obtain analytic approximations for special function of interest in engineering and physics is described here. Each approximate function will be valid for every positive value of the variable and accuracy will be high and increasing with the number of parameters to determine. The general technique will be shown through an application to the modified Bessel function of order zero, I₀(x). The form and the calculation of the parameters are performed with the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. As in Padé method rational functions are used, but now they are combined with other elementary functions as; fractional powers, hyperbolic, trigonometric and exponential functions, and others. The elementary function is determined, considering that the approximate function should be a bridge between the power series and the asymptotic expansion. In the case of the I₀(x) function two analytic approximations have been already determined. The simplest one is (1+x²/4)⁻¹/⁴(1+0.24273x²) cosh(x)/(1+0.43023x²). The parameters of I₀(x) were determined using the leading term of the asymptotic expansion and two coefficients of the power series, and the maximum relative error is 0.05. In a second case, two terms of the asymptotic expansion were used and 4 of the power series and the maximum relative error is 0.001 at x≈9.5. Approximations with much higher accuracy will be also shown. In conclusion a new technique is described to obtain analytic approximations to some functions of interest in sciences, such that they have a high accuracy, they are valid for every positive value of the variable, they can be integrated and differentiated as the usual, functions, and furthermore they can be calculated easily even with a regular pocket calculator.
116
66298
Bone Mineral Density and Quality, Body Composition of Women in the Postmenopausal Period
Abstract:
In the diagnostics of osteoporosis, the gold standard is considered to be bone mineral density; however, X-ray densitometry is not an accurate indicator of osteoporotic fracture risk under all circumstances. In this regard, the search for new methods that could determine the indicators not only of the mineral density, but of the bone tissue quality, is a logical step for diagnostic optimization. One of these methods is the evaluation of trabecular bone quality. The aim of this study was to examine the quality and mineral density of spine bone tissue, femoral neck, and body composition of women depending on the duration of the postmenopausal period, to determine the correlation of body fat with indicators of bone mineral density and quality. The study examined 179 women in premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The patients were divided into the following groups: Women in the premenopausal period and women in the postmenopausal period at various stages (early, middle, late postmenopause). A general examination and study of the above parameters were conducted with General Electric X-ray densitometer. The results show that bone quality and mineral density probably deteriorate with advancing of postmenopausal period. Total fat and lean mass ratio is not likely to change with age. In the middle and late postmenopausal periods, the bone tissue mineral density of the spine and femoral neck increases along with total fat mass.
115
39255
Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle
Abstract:
A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.
114
14668
Ab Initio Calculations of Structure and Elastic Properties of BexZn1−xO Alloys
Abstract:
There is a growing interest in Zn1-xBexO (ZBO)/ZnO hetero structures and quantum wells since the band gap energy of Zn1-xBexO solid solutions can be turned over a very large range (3.37–10.6 eV) as a function of the Be composition. ZBO/ZnO has been utilized in ultraviolet light emission diodes and lasers, and may find applications as active elements of various other electronic and optoelectronic devices. Band gap engineering by Be substitution enables the facile preparation of barrier layers and quantum wells in device structures. In addition, ZnO and its ternary alloys, as piezoelectric semiconductors, have been used for high-frequency surface acoustic wave devices in wireless communication systems due to their high acoustic velocities and large electromechanical coupling. However, many important parameters such as elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young’s modulus and band-gap bowing. First-principles calculations of the structural, electrical and elastic properties of Zn1-xBexO as a function of the Be concentration x have been performed within density functional theory using norm-conserving pseudopotentials and local density approximation (LDA) for the exchange and correlation energy. The alloys’ lattice constants may deviate from the Vegard law. As Be concentration increases, the elastic constants, the bulk modulus and Young’s modulus of the alloys increase, the band gap increases with increasing Be concentration and Zn1-xBexO alloys have direct band. Our calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data and other theoretical calculations.
113
58300
Application of Gamma Frailty Model in Survival of Liver Cirrhosis Patients
Abstract:
Goals and Objectives: A typical analysis of survival data involves the modeling of time-to-event data, such as the time till death. A frailty model is a random effect model for time-to-event data, where the random effect has a multiplicative influence on the baseline hazard function. This article aims to investigate the use of gamma frailty model with concomitant variable in order to individualize the prognostic factors that influence the liver cirrhosis patients&rsquo; survival times. Methods: During the one-year study period (May 2008-May 2009), data have been used from the recorded information of patients with liver cirrhosis who were scheduled for liver transplantation and were followed up for at least seven years in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Iran. In order to determine the effective factors for cirrhotic patients&rsquo; survival in the presence of latent variables, the gamma frailty distribution has been applied. In this article, it was considering the parametric model, such as Exponential and Weibull distributions for survival time. Data analysis is performed using R software, and the error level of 0.05 was considered for all tests. Results: 305 patients with liver cirrhosis including 180 (59%) men and 125 (41%) women were studied. The age average of patients was 39.8 years. At the end of the study, 82 (26%) patients died, among them 48 (58%) were men and 34 (42%) women. The main cause of liver cirrhosis was found hepatitis &#39;B&#39; with 23%, followed by cryptogenic with 22.6% were identified as the second factor. Generally, 7-year&rsquo;s survival was 28.44 months, for dead patients and for censoring was 19.33 and 31.79 months, respectively. Using multi-parametric survival models of progressive and regressive, Exponential and Weibull models with regard to the gamma frailty distribution were fitted to the cirrhosis data. In both models, factors including, age, bilirubin serum, albumin serum, and encephalopathy had a significant effect on survival time of cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: To investigate the effective factors for the time of patients&rsquo; death with liver cirrhosis in the presence of latent variables, gamma frailty model with parametric distributions seems desirable.
112
87426
Analyses and Optimization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Direct Recycled Aluminium Alloy (AA6061) Wastes by ANOVA Approach
Abstract:
The present study is aimed at investigating microhardness and density of aluminium alloy chips when subjected to various settings of preheating temperature and preheating time. Three values of preheating temperature were taken as 450 &deg;C, 500 &deg;C, and 550 &deg;C. On the other hand, three values of preheating time were chosen (1, 2, 3) hours. The influences of the process parameters (preheating temperature and time) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach whereby full factorial design with center point analysis was adopted. The total runs were 11 and they comprise of two factors of full factorial design with 3 center points. The responses were microhardness and density. The results showed that the density and microhardness increased with decreasing the preheating temperature. The results also found that the preheating temperature is more important to be controlled rather than the preheating time in microhardness analysis while both the preheating temperature and preheating time are important in density analysis. It can be concluded that setting temperature at 450 &deg;C for 1 hour resulted in the optimum responses.
111
95413
Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case
Abstract:
Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin&#39;s 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green&#39;s function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green&#39;s function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.
110
107145
Causal Estimation for the Left-Truncation Adjusted Time-Varying Covariates under the Semiparametric Transformation Models of a Survival Time
Abstract:
In biomedical researches and randomized clinical trials, the most commonly interested outcomes are time-to-event so-called survival data. The importance of robust models in this context is to compare the effect of randomly controlled experimental groups that have a sense of causality. Causal estimation is the scientific concept of comparing the pragmatic effect of treatments conditional to the given covariates rather than assessing the simple association of response and predictors. Hence, the causal effect based semiparametric transformation model was proposed to estimate the effect of treatment with the presence of possibly time-varying covariates. Due to its high flexibility and robustness, the semiparametric transformation model which shall be applied in this paper has been given much more attention for estimation of a causal effect in modeling left-truncated and right censored survival data. Despite its wide applications and popularity in estimating unknown parameters, the maximum likelihood estimation technique is quite complex and burdensome in estimating unknown parameters and unspecified transformation function in the presence of possibly time-varying covariates. Thus, to ease the complexity we proposed the modified estimating equations. After intuitive estimation procedures, the consistency and asymptotic properties of the estimators were derived and the characteristics of the estimators in the finite sample performance of the proposed model were illustrated via simulation studies and Stanford heart transplant real data example. To sum up the study, the bias of covariates was adjusted via estimating the density function for truncation variable which was also incorporated in the model as a covariate in order to relax the independence assumption of failure time and truncation time. Moreover, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was described for the estimation of iterative unknown parameters and unspecified transformation function. In addition, the causal effect was derived by the ratio of the cumulative hazard function of active and passive experiments after adjusting for bias raised in the model due to the truncation variable.
109
28043
Optimal Maintenance and Improvement Policies in Water Distribution System: Markov Decision Process Approach
Abstract:
The Markov Decision Process (MDP) based methodology is implemented in order to establish the optimal schedule which minimizes the cost. Formulation of MDP problem is presented using the information about the current state of pipe, improvement cost, failure cost and pipe deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming (DP) are modified due to the difficulty of implementing the conventional DP approaches. The optimal schedule derived from suggested model is compared to several policies via Monte Carlo simulation. Validity of the solution and improvement in computational time are proved.
108
95931
Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Abstract:
Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).
107
72951
Optimal Design of Submersible Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based Design of Experiment and Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
Submersible permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (SPMLSMs) are electromagnetic devices, which can directly drive plunger pump to obtain the crude oil. Those motors have been gradually applied in oil fields due to high thrust force density and high efficiency. Since the force performance closely depends on the concrete structural parameters, the seven different structural parameters are investigated in detail. This paper presents an optimum design of an SPMLSM to minimize the detent force and maximize the thrust by using design of experiment (DOE) and genetic algorithm (GA). The three significant structural parameters (air-gap length, slot width, pole-arc coefficient) are separately screened using 27 1/16 fractional factorial design (FFD) to investigate the significant effect of seven parameters used in this research on the force performance. Response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to make analytical model of thrust and detent force with constraints of corresponding significant parameters and enable objective function to be easily created, respectively. GA is performed as a searching tool to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions. By finite element analysis, the proposed PMLSM shows merits in improving thrust and reducing the detent force dramatically.
106
1837
The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function
Authors:
Abstract:
A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.
105
16380
Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour
Authors:
Abstract:
The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.
104
115362
Suitability Number of Coarse-Grained Soils and Relationships among Fineness Modulus, Density and Strength Parameters
Abstract:
Suitability number (SN) is perhaps one of the most important parameters of coarse-grained soil in assessing its appropriateness to use as a backfill in retaining structures, sand compaction pile, Vibro compaction, and other similar foundation and ground improvement works. Though determined in an empirical manner, it is imperative to study SN to understand its relation with other aggregate properties like fineness modulus (FM), and strength and density properties of sandy soil. The present paper reports the findings of the study on the examination of the properties of sandy soil, as mentioned. Random numbers were generated to obtain the percent fineness on various sieve sizes, and fineness modulus and suitability numbers were predicted. Sand samples were collected from the field, and test samples were prepared to determine maximum density, minimum density and shear strength parameter φ against particular fineness modulus and corresponding suitability number Five samples of SN value of excellent (0-10) and three samples of SN value fair (20-30) were taken and relevant tests were done. The data obtained from the laboratory tests were statistically analyzed. Results show that with the increase of SN, the value of FM decreases. Within the SN value rated as excellent (0-10), there is a decreasing trend of φ for a higher value of SN. It is found that SN is dependent on various combinations of grain size properties like D10, D30, and D20, D50. Strong linear relationships were obtained between SN and FM (R²=.0.93) and between SN value and φ (R²=.94). Correlation equations are proposed to define relationships among SN, φ, and FM.
103
112004
An Algorithm to Find Fractional Edge Domination Number and Upper Fractional Edge Domination Number of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph
Abstract:
In this paper, we formulate the algorithm to find out the dominating function parameters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs(IFG). The methodology we adopted here is converting any physical problem into an IFG, and that has been transformed into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrix. Using Linear Program Solver software (LiPS), we found the defined parameters for the given IFG. We obtained these parameters for a path and cycle IFG. This study can be extended to other varieties of IFG. In particular, we obtain the definition of edge dominating function, minimal edge dominating function, fractional edge domination number (γ_if^') and upper fractional edge domination number (Γ_if^') of an intuitionistic fuzzy graph. Also, we formulated an algorithm which is appropriate to work on LiPS to find fractional edge domination number and upper fractional edge domination number of an IFG.
102
7879
The Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alumix 431D Compacts
Abstract:
Aluminium alloys are an important class of engineering materials for structural applications. This is due to the fact that these alloys have many interesting properties, namely, low density, high ratio of strength to density, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance as well as extensive capabilities for shaping processes. In case of classical PM technology a particular attention should be paid to the selection of appropriate parameters of compacting and sintering processes and to keeping them. The latter need arises from the high sensitivity of aluminium based alloy powders on any fluctuation of technological parameters, in particular those related to the temperature-time profile and gas flow. Only then the desired sintered compacts with residual porosity may be produced. Except high mechanical properties, the other profitable properties of almost fully dense sintered components could be expected. Among them is corrosion resistance, rarely investigated on PM aluminium alloys. Thus, in the current study the Alumix 431/D commercial, press-ready grade powder was used for this purpose. Sintered compacts made of it in different conditions (isothermal sintering temperature, gas flow rate) were subjected to corrosion experiments in 0,1 M and 0,5 M NaCl solutions. The potentiodynamic curves were used to establish parameters characterising the corrosion resistance of sintered Alumix 431/D powder, namely, the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance, the breakdown potential. The highest value of polarization resistance, the lowest value of corrosion current density and the most positive corrosion potential was obtained for Alumix431/D powder sintered at 600°C and for highest protective gas flow rate.
101
55514
Factors Impacting Geostatistical Modeling Accuracy and Modeling Strategy of Fluvial Facies Models
Abstract:
Geostatistical modeling is the key technic for reservoir characterization, the quality of geological models will influence the prediction of reservoir performance greatly, but few studies have been done to quantify the factors impacting geostatistical reservoir modeling accuracy. In this study, 16 fluvial prototype models have been established to represent different geological complexity, 6 cases range from 16 to 361 wells were defined to reproduce all those 16 prototype models by different methodologies including SIS, object-based and MPFS algorithms accompany with different constraint parameters. Modeling accuracy ratio was defined to quantify the influence of each factor, and ten realizations were averaged to represent each accuracy ratio under the same modeling condition and parameters association. Totally 5760 simulations were done to quantify the relative contribution of each factor to the simulation accuracy, and the results can be used as strategy guide for facies modeling in the similar condition. It is founded that data density, geological trend and geological complexity have great impact on modeling accuracy. Modeling accuracy may up to 90% when channel sand width reaches up to 1.5 times of well space under whatever condition by SIS and MPFS methods. When well density is low, the contribution of geological trend may increase the modeling accuracy from 40% to 70%, while the use of proper variogram may have very limited contribution for SIS method. It can be implied that when well data are dense enough to cover simple geobodies, few efforts were needed to construct an acceptable model, when geobodies are complex with insufficient data group, it is better to construct a set of robust geological trend than rely on a reliable variogram function. For object-based method, the modeling accuracy does not increase obviously as SIS method by the increase of data density, but kept rational appearance when data density is low. MPFS methods have the similar trend with SIS method, but the use of proper geological trend accompany with rational variogram may have better modeling accuracy than MPFS method. It implies that the geological modeling strategy for a real reservoir case needs to be optimized by evaluation of dataset, geological complexity, geological constraint information and the modeling objective.
100
73071
Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets
Abstract:
Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.
99
3561
Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function
Abstract:
Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.
98
62414
Calibration of Hybrid Model and Arbitrage-Free Implied Volatility Surface
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper investigates whether the combination of local and stochastic volatility models can be calibrated exactly to any arbitrage-free implied volatility surface of European option. The risk neutral Brownian Bridge density is applied for calibration of the leverage function of our Hybrid model. Furthermore, the tails of marginal risk neutral density are generated by Generalized Extreme Value distribution in order to capture the properties of asset returns. The local volatility is generated from the arbitrage-free implied volatility surface using stochastic volatility inspired parameterization.
97
91498
Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil- Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.
96
2456
Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)
Abstract:
The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.
95
10196
Forecasting Models for Steel Demand Uncertainty Using Bayesian Methods
Abstract:
A forecasting model for steel demand uncertainty in Thailand is proposed. It consists of trend, autocorrelation, and outliers in a hierarchical Bayesian frame work. The proposed model uses a cumulative Weibull distribution function, latent first-order autocorrelation, and binary selection, to account for trend, time-varying autocorrelation, and outliers, respectively. The Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used for parameter estimation. The proposed model is applied to steel demand index data in Thailand. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean absolute error (MAE) criteria are used for model comparison. The study reveals that the proposed model is more appropriate than the exponential smoothing method.
94
91497
Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil- Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.
93
76615
Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil-Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.
92
22360
Modeling of Compaction Curves for CCA-Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate model for predicting the compaction behavior of lateritic soils and corn cob ash (CCA) stabilized lateritic soils. This was done by first adopting an equation earlier developed for fine-grained soils and subsequent adaptation by others and extending it to modified lateritic soil through the introduction of alpha and beta parameters which are polynomial functions of the CCA binder input. The polynomial equations were determined with MATLAB R2011 curve fitting tool, while the alpha and beta parameters were determined by standard linear programming techniques using the Solver function of Microsoft Excel 2010. The model so developed was a good fit with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.86. The paper concludes that it is possible to determine the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density of CCA stabilized soils from the compaction test of the unmodified soil, and recommends that this procedure is extended to other binder stabilized lateritic soils to facilitate quick decision making in roadworks.
91
87237
Efficient Wind Fragility Analysis of Concrete Chimney under Stochastic Extreme Wind Incorporating Temperature Effects
Abstract:
Wind fragility analysis of chimney is often carried out disregarding temperature effect. However, the combined effect of wind and temperature is the most critical limit state for chimney design. Hence, in the present paper, an efficient fragility analysis for concrete chimney is explored under combined wind and temperature effect. Wind time histories are generated by Davenports Power Spectral Density Function and using Weighed Amplitude Wave Superposition Technique. Fragility analysis is often carried out in full Monte Carlo Simulation framework, which requires extensive computational time. Thus, in the present paper, an efficient adaptive metamodelling technique is adopted to judiciously approximate limit state function, which will be subsequently used in the simulation framework. This will save substantial computational time and make the approach computationally efficient. Uncertainty in wind speed, wind load related parameters, and resistance-related parameters is considered. The results by the full simulation approach, conventional metamodelling approach and proposed adaptive metamodelling approach will be compared. Effect of disregarding temperature in wind fragility analysis will be highlighted.
90
92867
High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros
Abstract:
The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.
89
8925
Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors
Abstract:
In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.
88
86637
Gravitrap for Surveillance of Mosquito Density in Kaohsiung
Abstract:
The objective of this paper was to use gravitrap to survey the mosquito density in Kaohsiung. Gravitrap is one of the tools for surveillance the mosquito density. Gravitrap not only monitor the mosquito density but also decrease the mosquito density. Kaohsiung Environment Protection Bureau (KEPB) used gravitrap to monitor the mosquito density in 2016. KEPB put gravitrap in five districts which had the more confirmed dengue cases in 2015. The results indicated that (1) the highest positive rate (PR) of gravitrap was in Gushan district, the PR of gravitrap in Gushan district was 19.25%. (2) the lowest PR of gravitrap was in Sanmin district, the PR of gravitrap in Sanmin district was 8.55%. (3) compared these two districts, the most important factor to influence of PR of gravitrap was the knowledge of dengue prevention. Therefore, the PR of gravitrap was one of the references for making dengue prevention policy.
87
78238
Gravitrap for Surveillance of Mosquito Density in Kaohsiung
Abstract:
The objective of this paper was to use gravitrap to survey the mosquito density in Kaohsiung. Gravitrap is one of the tools for surveillance the mosquito density. Gravitrap not only monitor the mosquito density but also decrease the mosquito density. Kaohsiung Environment Protection Bureau (KEPB) used gravitrap to monitor the mosquito density in 2016. KEPB put gravitrap in five districts which had the more confirmed dengue cases in 2015. The results indicated that (1)the highest positive rate (PR) of gravitrap was in Gushan district, the PR of gravitrap in Gushan district was 19.25%. (2) the lowest PR of gravitrap was in Sanmin district, the PR of gravitrap in Sanmin district was 8.55%. (3) compared these two districts, the most important factor to influence of PR of gravitrap was the knowledge of dengue prevention. Therefore, the PR of gravitrap was one of the references for making dengue prevention policy.
86
105205
Modelling Hydrological Time Series Using Wakeby Distribution
Abstract:
The statistical modelling of precipitation data for a given portion of territory is fundamental for the monitoring of climatic conditions and for Hydrogeological Management Plans (HMP). This modelling is rendered particularly complex by the changes taking place in the frequency and intensity of precipitation, presumably to be attributed to the global climate change. This paper applies the Wakeby distribution (with 5 parameters) as a theoretical reference model. The number and the quality of the parameters indicate that this distribution may be the appropriate choice for the interpolations of the hydrological variables and, moreover, the Wakeby is particularly suitable for describing phenomena producing heavy tails. The proposed estimation methods for determining the value of the Wakeby parameters are the same as those used for density functions with heavy tails. The commonly used procedure is the classic method of moments weighed with probabilities (probability weighted moments, PWM) although this has often shown difficulty of convergence, or rather, convergence to a configuration of inappropriate parameters. In this paper, we analyze the problem of the likelihood estimation of a random variable expressed through its quantile function. The method of maximum likelihood, in this case, is more demanding than in the situations of more usual estimation. The reasons for this lie, in the sampling and asymptotic properties of the estimators of maximum likelihood which improve the estimates obtained with indications of their variability and, therefore, their accuracy and reliability. These features are highly appreciated in contexts where poor decisions, attributable to an inefficient or incomplete information base, can cause serious damages.
85
96350
Classification of Barley Varieties by Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:
In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed in order to classify barley varieties. For this purpose, physical properties of barley varieties were determined and ANN techniques were used. The physical properties of 8 barley varieties grown in Turkey, namely thousand kernel weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, kernel volume, surface area, bulk density, true density, porosity and colour parameters of grain, were determined and it was found that these properties were statistically significant with respect to varieties. As ANN model, three models, N-l, N-2 and N-3 were constructed. The performances of these models were compared. It was determined that the best-fit model was N-1. In the N-1 model, the structure of the model was designed to be 11 input layers, 2 hidden layers and 1 output layer. Thousand kernel weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, kernel volume, surface area, bulk density, true density, porosity and colour parameters of grain were used as input parameter; and varieties as output parameter. R2, Root Mean Square Error and Mean Error for the N-l model were found as 99.99%, 0.00074 and 0.009%, respectively. All results obtained by the N-l model were observed to have been quite consistent with real data. By this model, it would be possible to construct automation systems for classification and cleaning in flourmills.
84
47981
Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties
Abstract:
This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.
83
65390
Topology Optimization of Heat and Mass Transfer for Two Fluids under Steady State Laminar Regime: Application on Heat Exchangers
Abstract:
Topology optimization technique presents a potential tool for the design and optimization of structures involved in mass and heat transfer. The method starts with an initial intermediate domain and should be able to progressively distribute the solid and the two fluids exchanging heat. The multi-objective function of the problem takes into account minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of heat transfer between solid and fluid subdomains. Existing methods account for the presence of only one fluid, while the actual work extends optimization distribution of solid and two different fluids. This requires to separate the channels of both fluids and to ensure a minimum solid thickness between them. This is done by adding a third objective function to the multi-objective optimization problem. This article uses density approach where each cell holds two local design parameters ranging from 0 to 1, where the combination of their extremums defines the presence of solid, cold fluid or hot fluid in this cell. Finite volume method is used for direct solver coupled with a discrete adjoint approach for sensitivity analysis and method of moving asymptotes for numerical optimization. Several examples are presented to show the ability of the method to find a trade-off between minimization of power dissipation and maximization of heat transfer while ensuring the separation and continuity of the channel of each fluid without crossing or mixing the fluids. The main conclusion is the possibility to find an optimal bi-fluid domain using topology optimization, defining a fluid to fluid heat exchanger device.
82
5042
Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?
Abstract:
The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one-step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55 g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.
81
17127
Correlation and Prediction of Biodiesel Density
Abstract:
The knowledge of biodiesel density over large ranges of temperature and pressure is important for predicting the behavior of fuel injection and combustion systems in diesel engines, and for the optimization of such systems. In this study, cottonseed oil was transesterified into biodiesel and its density was measured at temperatures between 288 K and 358 K and pressures between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa, with expanded uncertainty estimated as ±1.6 kg.m^-3. Experimental pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) cottonseed data was used along with literature data relative to other 18 biodiesels, in order to build a database used to test the correlation of density with temperarure and pressure using the Goharshadi–Morsali–Abbaspour equation of state (GMA EoS). To our knowledge, this is the first that density measurements are presented for cottonseed biodiesel under such high pressures, and the GMA EoS used to model biodiesel density. The new tested EoS allowed correlations within 0.2 kg•m-3 corresponding to average relative deviations within 0.02%. The built database was used to develop and test a new full predictive model derived from the observed linear relation between density and degree of unsaturation (DU), which depended from biodiesel FAMEs profile. The average density deviation of this method was only about 3 kg.m-3 within the temperature and pressure limits of application. These results represent appreciable improvements in the context of density prediction at high pressure when compared with other equations of state.
80
111345
Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain
Abstract:
Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed &ndash; free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.
79
16154
Theoretical Density Study of Winding Yarns on Spool
Abstract:
The aim of work is to define the distribution density of winding yarn on cylindrical and conical bobbins. It is known that parallel winding gives greater density and more regular distribution, but the unwinding of yarn is much more difficult for following process. The conical spool has an enormous advantage during unwinding and may contain a large amount of yarns, but the density distribution is not regular because of difference in diameters. The variation of specific density over the reel height is explained generally by the sudden change of winding speed due to direction movement variation of yarn. We determined the conditions of uniform winding and developed a calculate model to the change of the specific density of winding wire over entire spool height.
78
108853
Effects of Paroxetine on Biochemical Parameters and Reproductive Function in Male Rats
Abstract:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are a class of molecules used in treating depression, anxiety, and mood disorders. Paroxetine (PRT) is one of the mostly prescribed antidepressant which has attracted great attention regarding its side effects in recent years. This study was planned to assess the adverse effects of PRT on the biochemical parameters and reproductive system. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups (7 rats or each): control and treated with PRT at dose of 5mg/kg.bw for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected from retro orbital plexus for measuring the biochemical parameters, whereas the reproductive organs were removed for measuring semen quality and the histological investigations. Results showed that PRT induced significant changes in some biochemical parameters and alteration of semen quality including sperm count, spermatids number and sperm viability, motility, and abnormalities. The histopathological examinations of testis and epididymis revealed an alteration of spermatogenesis, cellular disorganization and vacuolization, enlargement of interstitial space, shrinkage and degenerative changes in the epithelium of seminiferous and epididymal tubules with few to nil numbers of spermatozoa in their lumen. In conclusion, PRT treatment caused changes in some biochemical parameters and sperm profile as well as histopathologic effects of reproductive organs.
77
87235
Systematic Study of Structure Property Relationship in Highly Crosslinked Elastomers
Abstract:
Elastomers are polymeric materials with varied backbone architectures ranging from linear to dendrimeric structures and wide varieties of monomeric repeat units. These elastomers show strongly viscous and weakly elastic when it is not cross-linked. But when crosslinked, based on the extent the properties of these elastomers can range from highly flexible to highly stiff nature. Lightly cross-linked systems are well studied and reported. Understanding the nature of highly cross-linked rubber based upon chemical structure and architecture is critical for varieties of applications. One of the critical parameters is cross-link density. In the current work, we have studied the highly cross-linked state of linear, lightly branched to star-shaped branched elastomers and determined the cross-linked density by using different models. Change in hardness, shift in Tg, change in modulus and swelling behavior were measured experimentally as a function of the extent of curing. These properties were analyzed using varied models to determine cross-link density. We used hardness measurements to examine cure time. Hardness to the extent of curing relationship is determined. It is well known that micromechanical transitions like Tg and storage modulus are related to the extent of crosslinking. The Tg of the elastomer in different crosslinked state was determined by DMA, and based on plateau modulus the crosslink density is estimated by using Nielsen’s model. Usually for lightly crosslinked systems, based on equilibrium swelling ratio in solvent the cross link density is estimated by using Flory–Rhener model. When it comes to highly crosslinked system, Flory-Rhener model is not valid because of smaller chain length. So models based on the assumption of polymer as a Non-Gaussian chain like 1) Helmis–Heinrich–Straube (HHS) model, 2) Gloria M.gusler and Yoram Cohen Model, 3) Barbara D. Barr-Howell and Nikolaos A. Peppas model is used for estimating crosslink density. In this work, correction factors are determined to the existing models and based upon it structure-property relationship of highly crosslinked elastomers was studied.
76
15129
Orthogonal Basis Extreme Learning Algorithm and Function Approximation
Authors:
Abstract:
A new algorithm for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFN), Orthogonal Basis Extreme Learning (OBEL) algorithm, is proposed and the algorithm derivation is given in the paper. The algorithm can decide both the NNs parameters and the neuron number of hidden layer(s) during training while providing extreme fast learning speed. It will provide a practical way to develop NNs. The simulation results of function approximation showed that the algorithm is effective and feasible with good accuracy and adaptability.
75
45882
Residual Life Estimation Based on Multi-Phase Nonlinear Wiener Process
Abstract:
Residual life (RL) estimation based on multi-phase nonlinear Wiener process was studied in this paper, which is significant for complicated products with small samples. Firstly, nonlinear Wiener model with random parameter was introduced and multi-phase nonlinear Wiener model was proposed to model degradation process of products that were nonlinear and separated into different phases. Then the multi-phase RL probability density function based on the presented model was derived approximately in a closed form and parameters estimation was achieved with the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). Finally, the method was applied to estimate the RL of high voltage plus capacitor. Compared with the other three different models by log-likelihood function (Log-LF) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), the results show that the proposed degradation model can capture degradation process of high voltage plus capacitors in a better way and provide a more reliable result.
74
98917
A Computational Framework for Load Mediated Patellar Ligaments Damage at the Tropocollagen Level
Abstract:
In various sport and recreational activities, the patellofemoral joint undergoes large forces and moments while accommodating the significant knee joint movement. In doing so, this joint is commonly the source of anterior knee pain related to instability in normal patellar tracking and excessive pressure syndrome. One well-observed explanation of the instability of the normal patellar tracking is the patellofemoral ligaments and patellar tendon damage. Improved knowledge of the damage mechanism mediating ligaments and tendon injuries can be a great help not only in rehabilitation and prevention procedures but also in the design of better reconstruction systems in the management of knee joint disorders. This damage mechanism, specifically due to excessive mechanical loading, has been linked to the micro level of the fibred structure precisely to the tropocollagen molecules and their connection density. We argue defining a clear frame starting from the bottom (micro level) to up (macro level) in the hierarchies of the soft tissue may elucidate the essential underpinning on the state of the ligaments damage. To do so, in this study a multiscale fibril reinforced hyper elastoplastic Finite Element model that accounts for the synergy between molecular and continuum syntheses was developed to determine the short-term stresses/strains patellofemoral ligaments and tendon response. The plasticity of the proposed model is associated only with the uniaxial deformation of the collagen fibril. The yield strength of the fibril is a function of the cross-link density between tropocollagen molecules, defined here by a density function. This function obtained through a Coarse-graining procedure linking nanoscale collagen features and the tissue level materials properties using molecular dynamics simulations. The hierarchies of the soft tissues were implemented using the rule of mixtures. Thereafter, the model was calibrated using a statistical calibration procedure. The model then implemented into a real structure of patellofemoral ligaments and patellar tendon (OpenKnee) and simulated under realistic loading conditions. With the calibrated material parameters the calculated axial stress lies well with the experimental measurement with a coefficient of determination (R2) equal to 0.91 and 0.92 for the patellofemoral ligaments and the patellar tendon respectively. The ‘best’ prediction of the yielding strength and strain as compared with the reported experimental data yielded when the cross-link density between the tropocollagen molecule of the fibril equal to 5.5 ± 0.5 (patellofemoral ligaments) and 12 (patellar tendon). Damage initiation of the patellofemoral ligaments was located at the femoral insertions while the damage of the patellar tendon happened in the middle of the structure. These predicted finding showed a meaningful correlation between the cross-link density of the tropocollagen molecules and the stiffness of the connective tissues of the extensor mechanism. Also, damage initiation and propagation were documented with this model, which were in satisfactory agreement with earlier observation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model ligaments from the bottom up, predicted depending to the tropocollagen cross-link density. This approach appears more meaningful towards a realistic simulation of a damaging process or repair attempt compared with certain published studies.
73
37300
Influence of Densification Process and Material Properties on Final Briquettes Quality from FastGrowing Willows
Abstract:
Biomass treatment through densification is very suitable and important technology before its effective energy recovery. Densification process of biomass is significantly influenced by various technological and also material parameters which are ultimately reflected on the final solid Biofuels quality. The paper deals with the experimental research of the relationship between technological and material parameters during densification of fast-growing trees, roundly fast-rowing willow. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the relationship between pressing pressure raw material fraction size from a final briquettes density point of view. Experimental research was realized by single-axis densification. The impact of fraction size with interaction of pressing pressure and stabilization time on the quality properties of briquettes was determined. These parameters interaction affects the final solid biofuels (briquettes) quality. From briquettes production point of view and also from densification machines constructions point of view is very important to know about mutual interaction of these parameters on final briquettes quality. The experimental findings presented here are showing the importance of mentioned parameters during the densification process.
72
29426
Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air
Abstract:
In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.
71
30804
Screening Post-Menopausal Women for Osteoporosis by Complex Impedance Measurements of the Dominant Arm
Abstract:
Cole-Cole parameters of 40 post-menopausal women are compared with their DEXA bone mineral density measurements. Impedance characteristics of four extremities are compared; left and right extremities are statistically same, but lower extremities are statistically different than upper ones due to their different fat content. The correlation of Cole-Cole impedance parameters to bone mineral density (BMD) is observed to be higher for a dominant arm. With the post menopausal population, ANOVA tests of the dominant arm characteristic frequency, as a predictor for DEXA classified osteopenic and osteoporotic population around the lumbar spine, is statistically very significant. When used for total lumbar spine osteoporosis diagnosis, the area under the Receiver Operating Curve of the characteristic frequency is 0.875, suggesting that the Cole-Cole plot characteristic frequency could be a useful diagnostic parameter when integrated into standard screening methods for osteoporosis. Moreover, the characteristic frequency can be directly measured by monitoring frequency driven the angular behavior of the dominant arm without performing any complex calculation.
70
56687
Using Complete Soil Particle Size Distributions for More Precise Predictions of Soil Physical and Hydraulic Properties
Abstract:
The soil particle-size distribution (PSD) is known to affect a broad range of soil physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties. Complete descriptions of a PSD curve should provide more information about these properties as opposed to having only information about soil textural class or the soil sand, silt and clay (SSC) fractions. We compared the accuracy of 19 different models of the cumulative PSD in terms of fitting observed data from a large number of Iranian soils. Parameters of the six most promising models were correlated with measured values of the field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs), the mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (MWD), bulk density (ρb), and porosity (∅). These same soil properties were correlated also with conventional PSD parameters (SSC fractions), selected geometric PSD parameters (notably the mean diameter dg and its standard deviation σg), and several other PSD parameters (D50 and D60). The objective was to find the best predictions of several soil physical quality indices and the soil hydraulic properties. Neither SSC nor dg, σg, D50 and D60 were found to have a significant correlation with both Kfs or logKfs, However, the parameters of several cumulative PSD models showed statistically significant correlation with Kfs and/or logKfs (|r| = 0.42 to 0.65; p ≤ 0.05). The correlation between MWD and the model parameters was generally also higher than either with SSC fraction and dg, or with D50 and D60. Porosity (∅) and the bulk density (ρb) also showed significant correlation with several PSD model parameters, with ρb additionally correlating significantly with various geometric (dg), mechanical (D50 and D60), and agronomic (clay and sand) representations of the PSD. The fitted parameters of selected PSD models furthermore showed statistically significant correlations with Kfs,, MWD and soil porosity, which may be viewed as soil quality indices. Results of this study are promising for developing more accurate pedotransfer functions.
69
32383
Analysis of Exponential Nonuniform Transmission Line Parameters
Abstract:
In this paper the Analysis of voltage waves that propagate along a lossless exponential nonuniform line is presented. For this analysis the parameters of this line are assumed to be varying function of the distance x along the line from the source end. The approach is based on the tow-port networks cascading presentation to derive the ABDC parameters of transmission using Picard-Carson Method which is a powerful method in getting a power series solution for distributed network because it is easy to calculate poles and zeros and solves differential equations such as telegrapher equations by an iterative sequence. So the impedance, admittance voltage and current along the line are expanded as a Taylor series in x/l where l is the total length of the line to obtain at the end, the main transmission line parameters such as voltage response and transmission and reflexion coefficients represented by scattering parameters in frequency domain.
68
23821
Various Sources of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Modulate Mitochondria Membrane Composition and Function
Abstract:
Long term taking high fat diet can lead to over production of energy, result in accumulation of body fat, dyslipidemia and increased lipid metabolism in the body. Over metabolism of lipid results in excessive reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, may also cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Krill oil, fish oil and linseed oil are good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated the effect of high fat diet and various oil rich of n-3 fatty acids on mitochondrial function and cell membrane composition. Six-weeks old male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups including: control group, high fat diet group, low dosage and high dosage krill oil group, low dosage and high dosage fish oil group, and low dosage and high dosage linseed oil group. After 12 weeks of experimental period, the low dosage krill oil, fish oil group and linseed oil group with different dosage prevented mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high fat diet. The supplementation of different oils increased plasma, erythrocyte and mitochondrial n-3/n-6 ratio and further increased the proportion of PUFA in erythrocyte and mitochondrial membrane. It also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. However, there was no significant change in serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), biomarker of liver function, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma malonadialdehyde (MDA) concentration when compared with high fat diet group. The supplementation of different sources of n-3 PUFA can maintain mitochondrial function and modulate cell membrane fatty acid composition in high fat diet conditions, and there is a positive relationship between mitochondrial function and mitochondrial membrane composition.
67
10962
Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study
Abstract:
For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.
66
36803
Thermal Radiation Effect on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate with Varying Density and Volumetric Expansion Coefficient
Abstract:
In this article, the effect of thermal radiation on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid along a highly heated vertical flat plate is considered with varying density and volumetric expansion coefficient. The density of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially with temperature, however; volumetric expansion coefficient depends linearly on temperature. Boundary layer equations are transformed into convenient form by introducing primitive variable formulations. Solutions of transformed system of equations are obtained numerically through implicit finite difference method along with Gaussian elimination technique. Results are discussed in view of various parameters, like thermal radiation parameter, volumetric expansion parameter and density variation parameter on the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate. It is concluded from the present investigation that increase in volumetric expansion parameter decreases wall shear stress and enhances heat transfer rate.
65
115226
Multi-Objectives Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Machining Process Parameters
Abstract:
Energy consumption of machine-tools is becoming critical for machine-tool builders and end-users because of economic, ecological and legislation-related reasons. Many machine-tool builders are seeking for solutions that allow the reduction of energy consumption of machine-tools while preserving the same productivity rate and the same quality of machined parts. In this paper, we present the first results of a project conducted jointly by academic and industrial partners to reduce the energy consumption of a Swiss-Type lathe. We employ genetic algorithms to find optimal machining parameters – the set of parameters that lead to the best trade-off between energy consumption, part quality and tool lifetime. Three main machining process parameters are considered in our optimization technique, namely depth of cut, spindle rotation speed and material feed rate. These machining process parameters have been identified as the most influential ones in the configuration of the Swiss-type machining process. A state-of-the-art multi-objective genetic algorithm has been used. The algorithm combines three fitness functions, which are objective functions that permit to evaluate a set of parameters against the three objectives: energy consumption, quality of the machined parts, and tool lifetime. In this paper, we focus on the investigation of the fitness function related to energy consumption. Four different energy consumption related fitness functions have been investigated and compared. The first fitness function refers to the Kienzle cutting force model. The second fitness function uses the Material Removal Rate (RMM) as an indicator of energy consumption. The two other fitness functions are non-deterministic, learning-based functions. One fitness function uses a simple Neural Network to learn the relation between the process parameters and the energy consumption from experimental data. Another fitness function uses Lasso regression to determine the same relation. The goal is, then, to find out which fitness functions predict best the energy consumption of a Swiss-Type machining process for the given set of machining process parameters. Once determined, these functions may be used for optimization purposes – determine the optimal machining process parameters leading to minimum energy consumption. The performance of the four fitness functions has been evaluated. The Tornos DT13 Swiss-Type Lathe has been used to carry out the experiments. A mechanical part including various Swiss-Type machining operations has been selected for the experiments. The evaluation process starts with generating a set of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) programs for machining the part at hand. Each CNC program considers a different set of machining process parameters. During the machining process, the power consumption of the spindle is measured. All collected data are assigned to the appropriate CNC program and thus to the set of machining process parameters. The evaluation approach consists in calculating the correlation between the normalized measured power consumption and the normalized power consumption prediction for each of the four fitness functions. The evaluation shows that the Lasso and Neural Network fitness functions have the highest correlation coefficient with 97%. The fitness function “Material Removal Rate” (MRR) has a correlation coefficient of 90%, whereas the Kienzle-based fitness function has a correlation coefficient of 80%.
64
119234
Comparative Evaluation of EBT3 Film Dosimetry Using Flat Bad Scanner, Densitometer and Spectrophotometer Methods and Its Applications in Radiotherapy
Abstract:
Over the past few decades, film dosimetry has become a tool which is used in various radiotherapy modalities, either for clinical quality assurance (QA) or dose verification. The response of the film to irradiation is usually expressed in optical density (OD) or net optical density (netOD). While the film's response to radiation is not linear, then the use of film as a dosimeter must go through a calibration process. This study aimed to compare the function of the calibration curve of various measurement methods with various densitometer, using a flat bad scanner, point densitometer and spectrophotometer. For every response function, a radichromic film calibration curve is generated from each method by performing accuracy, precision and sensitivity analysis. netOD is obtained by measuring changes in the optical density (OD) of the film before irradiation and after irradiation when using a film scanner if it uses ImageJ to extract the pixel value of the film on the red channel of three channels (RGB), calculate the change in OD before and after irradiation when using a point densitometer, and calculate changes in absorbance before and after irradiation when using a spectrophotometer. the results showed that the three calibration methods gave readings with a netOD precision of doses below 3% for the uncertainty value of 1σ (one sigma). while the sensitivity of all three methods has the same trend in responding to film readings against radiation, it has a different magnitude of sensitivity. while the accuracy of the three methods provides readings below 3% for doses above 100 cGy and 200 cGy, but for doses below 100 cGy found above 3% when using point densitometers and spectrophotometers. when all three methods are used for clinical implementation, the results of the study show accuracy and precision below 2% for the use of scanners and spectrophotometers and above 3% for precision and accuracy when using point densitometers.
63
98809
Multiscale Syntheses of Knee Collateral Ligament Stresses: Aggregate Mechanics as a Function of Molecular Properties
Abstract:
Knee collateral ligaments play a significant role in restraining excessive frontal motion (varus/valgus rotations). In this investigation, a multiscale frame was developed based on structural hierarchies of the collateral ligaments starting from the bottom (tropocollagen molecule) to up where the fibred reinforced structure established. Experimental data of failure tensile test were considered as the principal driver of the developed model. This model was calibrated statistically using Bayesian calibration due to the high number of unknown parameters. Then the model is scaled up to fit the real structure of the collateral ligaments and simulated under realistic boundary conditions. Predications have been successful in describing the observed transient response of the collateral ligaments during tensile test under pre- and post-damage loading conditions. Collateral ligaments maximum stresses and strengths were observed near to the femoral insertions, a results that is in good agreement with experimental investigations. Also for the first time, damage initiation and propagation were documented with this model as a function of the cross-link density between tropocollagen molecules.
62
9294
Ultrasonic Investigation as Tool for Study of Molecular Interaction of 2-Hydroxy Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative at Different Concentrations
Abstract:
Recent decades have witnessed an exponential growth in the field of acoustical parameters and ultrasound on solid, liquid and gases. Ultrasonic propagation parameters yield valuable information regarding the behavior of liquid systems because intra and intermolecular association, dipolar interaction, complex formation and related structural changes affecting the compressibility of the system which in turn produces variations in the ultrasonic velocity. The acoustic and thermo dynamical parameters obtained in ultrasonic study show that ion-solvation is accompanied by the destruction or enhancement of the solvent structure. In the present paper the ultrasonic velocity (v), density (ρ), viscosity(η) have been measured for the pharmacological important compound 2-hydroxy substituted phenyl pyrimidine derivative (2-hydroxy-4-(4’-methoxy phenyl)-6-(2’-hydroxy-4’-methyl-5’-chlorophenyl)pyrimidine) in ethanol as a solvent by using different concentration at constant room temperature. These experimental data have been used to estimate physical parameter like adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, free volume, specific acoustic impedance, relative association, Wada’s constant, Rao’s constant etc. The above parameters provide information in understanding the structural and molecular interaction between solute-solvent in the drug solution with respect to change in concentration.
61
38252
Rule-Based Mamdani Type Fuzzy Modeling of Performances of Anode Side of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Spin-Coated with Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia
Abstract:
In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was experimentally investigated and modelled with Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF) modelling technique. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Input parameters voltage density (V/cm2), and current density (A/cm2), temperature (°C), time (s); output parameter power density (W/cm2) were described by RBMTF if-then rules. Numerical parameters of input and output variables were fuzzificated as linguistic variables: Very Very Low (L1), Very Low (L2), Low (L3), Negative Medium (L4), Medium (L5), Positive Medium (L6), High (L7), Very High (L8) and Very Very High (L9) linguistic classes. The comparison between experimental data and RBMTF is done by using statistical methods like absolute fraction of variance (R2). The actual values and RBMTF results indicated that RBMTF can be successfully used for the analysis of performance of PEM fuel cell.
60
68817
Effect of Processing Parameters on the Physical Properties of Pineapple Pomace Based Aquafeed
Abstract:
The solid waste disposal and its management from pineapple juice processing constitute environmental contamination affecting public health. The use of this by-product called pomace has potentials to reduce cost of aquafeed. Pineapple pomace collected after juice extraction was dried and milled. The interactive effects of feeding rate (1.28, 1.44 and 1.60kg/min), screw speed (305, 355 and 405rpm), moisture content (16, 19 and 22%), temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120°C), cutting speed (1300, 1400 and 1500rpm), pomace inclusion ratio (5, 10, 15, 20%) and open surface die (50, 75 and 100%) on the extrudate physical properties (bulk density, unit density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability) were investigated using optimal custom design (OCD) matrix and response surface methodology. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values for, expansion ratio, durability and floatability (R2 = 0.7970; 0.9264; 0.9098 respectively) with the exceptions of unit density and bulk density (R2 = 0.1639; 0.2768 respectively). All the extrudates showed relatively high floatability, durability. The inclusion of pineapple pomace produced less expanded and more compact textured extrudates. Results indicated that increased in the value of pineapple pomace, screw speed, feeding rate decreased unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, durability and floatability of the extrudate. However, increasing moisture content of feed mash resulted in increase unit density and bulk density. Addition of extrusion temperature and cutting speed increased the floatability and durability of extrudate. The proportion of pineapple pomace in aquafeed extruded product was observed to have significantly lower effect on the selected responses.
59
34053
On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative
Abstract:
The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.
58
46554
The Beta-Fisher Snedecor Distribution with Applications to Cancer Remission Data
Abstract:
In this paper, a new four-parameter generalized version of the Fisher Snedecor distribution called Beta- F distribution is introduced. The comprehensive account of the statistical properties of the new distributions was considered. Formal expressions for the cumulative density function, moments, moment generating function and maximum likelihood estimation, as well as its Fisher information, were obtained. The flexibility of this distribution as well as its robustness using cancer remission time data was demonstrated. The new distribution can be used in most applications where the assumption underlying the use of other lifetime distributions is violated.
57
103571
Agro-Measures Influence Soil Physical Parameters in Alternative Farming
Abstract:
Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high-quality food products and sustain the viability and fertility of the soil. Plant nutrition in all ecosystems depends not only on fertilization intensity or soil richness in organic matter but also on soil physical parameters –bulk density, structure, pores with the optimum moisture and air ratio available to plants. The field experiments of alternative (sustainable and organic) farming systems were conducted at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In alternative farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and catch crops for green manure were used for fertilization both in the soil with low and moderate humus contents. It had a more significant effect in the 0–20 cm depth layer on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, where catch crops were grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil of farming systems without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil with moderate humus content, compared with the soil with low humus content, bulk density was by 1.4% lower, and porosity by 1.8% higher. The research findings allow to make improvements in alternative farming systems by choosing appropriate combinations of organic fertilizers and catch crops that have a sustainable effect on soil and maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote the development of organic agriculture.
56
96631
Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds
Abstract:
Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.
55
32755
Seismic Response Mitigation of Structures Using Base Isolation System Considering Uncertain Parameters
Authors:
Abstract:
The present study deals with the performance of Linear base isolation system to mitigate seismic response of structures characterized by random system parameters. This involves optimization of the tuning ratio and damping properties of the base isolation system considering uncertain system parameters. However, the efficiency of base isolator may reduce if it is not tuned to the vibrating mode it is designed to suppress due to unavoidable presence of system parameters uncertainty. With the aid of matrix perturbation theory and first order Taylor series expansion, the total probability concept is used to evaluate the unconditional response of the primary structures considering random system parameters. For this, the conditional second order information of the response quantities are obtained in random vibration framework using state space formulation. Subsequently, the maximum unconditional root mean square displacement of the primary structures is used as the objective function to obtain optimum damping parameters Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters uncertainties on the optimization of parameters of linear base isolator and system performance.
54
40418
Theoretical Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of Matlockite CaFX (X = I and Br) Compounds
Abstract:
The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW)method within density functional theory is applied to study, for the first time, the structural and electronic properties of CaFI and to compare them with CaFCl and CaFBr, all compounds belonging to the tetragonal PbFCl structure group with space group P4/nmm. We used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) based on exchange–correlation energy optimization to calculate the total energy and also the Engel– Vosko GGA formalism, which optimizes the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. Ground state properties such as the lattice parameters, c/a ratio, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are calculated, as well as the optimized internal parameters, by relaxing the atomic position in the force directions. The variations of the calculated interatomic distances and angles between different atomic bonds are discussed. CaFCl was found to have a direct band gap at whereas CaFBr and BaFI have indirect band gaps. From these computed bands, all three materials are found to be insulators having band gaps of 6.28, 5.46, and 4.50 eV, respectively. We also calculated the valence charge density and the total density of states at equilibrium volume for each compound. The results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.
53
47769
Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining
Abstract:
Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today&rsquo;s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.
52
35906
Evaluation of Geotechnical Parameters at Nubian Habitations in Kurkur Area, Aswan, Egypt
Abstract:
The Egyptian Government proposed a general plan, aiming at constructing new settlements for Nubian in south Aswan in different places around Nasser Lake, one of these settlements in Kurkur area. The Nubian habitations in Wadi Kurkur are located around 30 km southwest of Aswan City. This area are affecting by near distance earthquakes from Kalabsha faults system. The shallow seismic refraction technique was conducted at the study area, to evaluate the soil and rock material quality and geotechnical parameters, in addition to the detection of the subsurface ground model under the study area. The P and S-wave velocities were calculated. The surface layer has P-wave, velocity ranges from 900 m/sec to 1625 m/sec and S-wave velocity ranges from 650 m/sec to 1400 m/sec. On the other hand the bedrock has P-wave velocity ranges from 1300 m/sec to 1980 m/sec and S-wave velocity ranges from 1050 m/sec to1725 m/sec. Measuring Vp and Vs velocities together with bulk density are calculated and used to extract the mechanical properties and geotechnical parameters of the foundation material at the study area. Output of this study is very important for solving the problems, which associated with the construction of various civil engineering purposes, for land use planning and for earthquakes resistant structure design.
51
28571
The Linear Combination of Kernels in the Estimation of the Cumulative Distribution Functions
Abstract:
The Kernel Distribution Function Estimator (KDFE) method is the most popular method for nonparametric estimation of the cumulative distribution function. The kernel and the bandwidth are the most important components of this estimator. In this investigation, we replace the kernel in the KDFE with a linear combination of kernels to obtain a new estimator based on the linear combination of kernels, the mean integrated squared error (MISE), asymptotic mean integrated squared error (AMISE) and the asymptotically optimal bandwidth for the new estimator are derived. We propose a new data-based method to select the bandwidth for the new estimator. The new technique is based on the Plug-in technique in density estimation. We evaluate the new estimator and the new technique using simulations and real-life data.
50
68927
Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells
Abstract:
One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.
49
40094
Parameters Estimation of Power Function Distribution Based on Selective Order Statistics
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the power function distribution and derive the maximum likelihood estimator of its parameter as well as the reliability parameter. We derive the large sample properties of the estimators based on the selective order statistic scheme. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the significance of the selective order statistic scheme in our setup and to compare the efficiency of the new proposed estimators.
48
55176
A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol
Abstract:
Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.
47
21158
Impact of Twin Therapeutic Approaches on Certain Biophysiological Parameters among Breast Cancer Patients after Breast Surgery at Selected Hospital
Abstract:
Introduction: Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of all cancer incidence among women. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths). Many women who undergo breast surgery suffer from ill-defined pain syndromes. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: A study to assess the effectiveness of twin therapeutic approaches on certain bio-physiological parameters in breast cancer patients after breast surgery at selected hospital, Chennai. Objectives: This study is to 1. assess the level of certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy. 2. assess the effectiveness of twin therapeutic approaches on certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy. 3. correlate the practice of twin therapeutic approaches with certain biophysiological parameters. 4. associate the selected demographic variables with certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy Research Design and Method: Pre experimental research design was used. Fifty women were selected by using convenient sampling technique at government general hospital, Chennai. Results: The Level of pain shows, in the study group 49(98%) of them had moderate in the pre test and after the intervention all of them had mild pain in the post test. In relation to level of shoulder function before the intervention shows that in the study group 49(98%) of them had movement towards gravity and after intervention 24 (48%) of them had movement against gravity maximum resistance. There was a significant reduction in pain and shoulder stiffness level at a ‘P’ level of < 0.001. There was a negative correlation between the pranayama practice and the level of pain, there was a positive correlation between the arm exercise practice and the level of shoulder function. There was no significant association between demographic and clinical variables with the level of pain and shoulder function in the study. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in level of pain and shoulder function among women following breast surgery who receive pranayama & arm exercise programme. The pranayama had effect in terms of reduction of pain, arm exercise programme had effect in prevention of arm stiffness among post operative women following breast surgery. Thus the stated hypothesis was accepted. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of the present study there was Advancing age related to increasing risk of breast cancer, level of pain also the type of surgery was associated with level of pain and shoulder function, There fore it is to be concluded that the study participants may get benefited by practice of pranayama and arm exercise program.
46
14044
Opto-Electronic Properties and Structural Phase Transition of Filled-Tetrahedral NaZnAs
Abstract:
We predict structural, phase transition as well as opto-electronic properties of the filled-tetrahedral (Nowotny-Juza) NaZnAs compound in this study. Calculations are carried out by employing the full potential (FP) linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) plus local orbitals (lo) scheme developed within the structure of density functional theory (DFT). Exchange-correlation energy/potential (EXC/VXC) functional is treated using Perdew-Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization for generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In addition to Trans-Blaha (TB) modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is incorporated to get better precision for optoelectronic properties. Geometry optimization is carried out to obtain the reliable results of the total energy as well as other structural parameters for each phase of NaZnAs compound. Order of the structural transitions as a function of pressure is found as: Cu2Sb type → β → α phase in our study. Our calculated electronic energy band structures for all structural phases at the level of PBE-GGA as well as mBJ potential point out; NaZnAs compound is a direct (Γ–Γ) band gap semiconductor material. However, as compared to PBE-GGA, mBJ potential approximation reproduces higher values of fundamental band gap. Regarding the optical properties, calculations of real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity coefficient, absorption coefficient and energy loss-function spectra are performed over a photon energy ranging from 0.0 to 30.0 eV by polarizing incident radiation in parallel to both [100] and [001] crystalline directions.
45
45835
Electrocoagulation of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH for the Removal of Boron Using Nickel Foam as Sacrificial Anode
Abstract:
Electrocoagulation (EC) using metallic nickel foam as anode and cathode for the removal of boron from solution was studied. The electrolytic parameters included pH, current density, and initial boron concentration for optimizing the EC process. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency was increased by elevating pH from 4.0 to 8.0, and then decreased at higher pH. The electrolytic efficacy was not affected by current density. In respect of energy consumption, 1.25 mA/cm2 of current density was acceptable for an effective EC of boron, while increasing boric acid from 10 to 100 ppm-B did not impair removal efficiency too much. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxide film, Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH, at specific overpotentials would result in less weight loss of anode than that predicted by the Faraday&rsquo;s law. The optimal conditions under which 99.2% of boron was removed and less than 1 ppm-B remained in the electrolyte would be pH 8, four pairs of electrodes, and 1.25 mA/cm2 in 120 min as treating wastewaters containing 10 ppm-B. XRD and SEM characterization suggested that the granular crystallites of hydroxide precipitates was composed of theophrastite.
44
71241
Analysis on Urban Form and Evolution Mechanism of High-Density City: Case Study of Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
Along with large population and great demands for urban development, Hong Kong serves as a typical high-density city with multiple altitudes, advanced three-dimensional traffic system, rich city open space, etc. This paper contributes to analyzing its complex urban form and evolution mechanism from three aspects of view, separately as time, space and buildings. Taking both horizontal and vertical dimension into consideration, this paper provides a perspective to explore the fascinating process of growing and space folding in the urban form of high-density city, also as a research reference for related high-density urban design.
43
96629
High-Performance Li Doped CuO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode
Abstract:
High-performance Li: CuO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated via a low-temperature and low-cost route. To increase energy density while maintaining high power density and long-term cyclability, Li was doped to increase the electrical conductivity of CuO particles between RGO flakes. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrical conductivity, specific capacitance, energy density, and rate capability were all enhanced by Li incorporation. The optimized Li:CuO/RGO electrodes show a high energy density of 179.9 Wh/kg and a power density of 900.0 W/kg at a current density of 1 A/g. Cyclic life tests show excellent stability over 10,000 cycles with a capacitance retention of 93.2%. Li doping improves the electrochemical performance of CuO, making CuO a promising pseudocapacitive material for fabricating low-cost excellent supercapacitors.
42
116538
Dynamic Response around Inclusions in Infinitely Inhomogeneous Media
Abstract:
The problem of elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous medium has always been a classic problem. Due to the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, many economic losses and casualties have been caused, therefore, to prevent earthquake damage to people and reduce damage, this paper studies the dynamic response around the circular inclusion in the whole space with inhomogeneous modulus, the inhomogeneity of the medium is reflected in the shear modulus of the medium with the spatial position, and the density is constant, this method can be used to solve the problem of the underground buried pipeline. Stress concentration phenomena are common in aerospace and earthquake engineering, and the dynamic stress concentration factor (DSCF) is one of the main factors leading to material damage, one of the important applications of the theory of elastic dynamics is to determine the stress concentration in the body with discontinuities such as cracks, holes, and inclusions. At present, the methods include wave function expansion method, integral transformation method, integral equation method and so on. Based on the complex function method, the Helmholtz equation with variable coefficients is standardized by using conformal transformation method and wave function expansion method, the displacement and stress fields in the whole space with circular inclusions are solved in the complex coordinate system, the unknown coefficients are solved by using boundary conditions, by comparing with the existing results, the correctness of this method is verified, based on the superiority of the complex variable function theory to the conformal transformation, this method can be extended to study the inclusion problem of arbitrary shapes. By solving the dynamic stress concentration factor around the inclusions, the influence of the inhomogeneous parameters of the medium and the wavenumber ratio of the inclusions to the matrix on the dynamic stress concentration factor is analyzed. The research results can provide some reference value for the evaluation of nondestructive testing (NDT), oil exploration, seismic monitoring, and soil-structure interaction.
41
95353
Invalidation of the Start of Lunar Calendars Based on Sighting of Crescent: A Survey of 101 Years of Data between 1938 and 2038
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to invalidate decisions made by the Islamic conference led at Istanbul in 2016, which had defined two basic criteria to determine the start of the lunar month: (1)they are all based on the sighting of the crescent, be it observed or computed with modern methods, and (2) they've strongly recommended the adoption of the principle of 'unification of sighting', by which any occurrence of sighting anywhere would be applicable everywhere. To demonstrate the invalidation of those statements, a survey of 101 years of data, from 1938 to 2038, have been analyzed to compare the probability density function (PDF) of time difference between different types of fajr and new moon. Two groups of fajr have been considered: the 'natural fajr', which is the very first fajr following new moon, and the 'biased fajr', which is defined by human being inclusively of all chosen definitions. The parametric and non-parametric statistical comparisons between the different groups have shown the all the biased PDFs are significantly different from the unbiased (natural) PDF with probability value (p-value) less than 0.001. The significance level was fixed to 0.05. Conclusion: the on-going reference to sighting of crescent is inducing an significant bias in defining lunar calendar. Therefore, 'natural' calendar would be more applicable requiring a more contextualized revision of issue in fiqh.
40
75022
The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering
Abstract:
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons &ndash; optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
39
32454
The Pressure Effect and First-Principles Study of Strontium Chalcogenides SrS
Abstract:
The study of the pressure effect on the materials, their functionality and their properties is very important, insofar as it provides the opportunity to identify others applications such the optical properties in the alkaline earth chalcogenides, as like the SrS. Here we present the first-principles calculations which have been performed using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation developed by Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhor for solids (PBEsol). The calculated structural parameters like the lattice parameters, the bulk modulus B and their pressure derivative B' are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constants (C11, C12, and C44), the shear modulus G, the Young modulus E, the Poisson’s ratio ν and the B/G ratio are also given. The treatments of exchange and correlation effects were done by the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential for the electronic. The pressure effect on the electronic properties was visualized by calculating the variations of the gap as a function of pressure. The obtained results are compared to available experimental data and to other theoretical calculations
38
13545
Structural and Electronic Properties of the Rock-salt BaxSr1−xS Alloys
Abstract:
Structural and electronic properties of the rock-salt BaxSr1−xS are calculated using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the local density approximation (LDA) and the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA). The calculated lattice parameters at equilibrium volume for x=0 and x=1 are in good agreement with the literature data. The BaxSr1−xS alloys are found to be an indirect band gap semiconductor. Moreoever, for the composition (x) ranging between [0-1], we think that our results are well discussed and well predicted.
37
112635
Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation
Abstract:
In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.
36
77503
Study and Analysis of a Susceptible Infective Susceptible Mathematical Model with Density Dependent Migration
Abstract:
In this paper, a susceptible infective susceptible mathematical model is proposed and analyzed where the migration of human population is given by migration function. It is assumed that the disease is transmitted by direct contact of susceptible and infective populations with constant contact rate. The equilibria and their stability are studied by using the stability theory of ordinary differential equations and computer simulation. The model analysis shows that the spread of infectious disease increases when human population immigration increases in the habitat but it decreases if emigration increases.
35
28239
Asymmetric of the Segregation-Enhanced Brazil Nut Effect
Abstract:
We study the motion of particles in cylinders which are subjected to a sinusoidal vertical vibration. We measure the rising time of a large intruder from the bottom of the container to free surface of the bed particles and find that the rising time as a function of intruder density increases to a maximum and then decreases monotonically. The result is qualitatively accord to the previous findings in experiments using relative humidity of the bed particles and found speed convection of the bed particles containers it moving slowly, and the rising time of the intruder where a minimal instead of maximal rising time in the small density region was found. Our experimental results suggest that the topology of the container plays an important role in the Brazil nut effect.
34
32384
A Multi-Objective Programming Model to Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Problem in Stochastic Environment
Abstract:
This paper aims at developing a multi-objective model for supplier selection and order allocation problem in stochastic environment, where purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. In this regard, dependent chance programming is used which maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. The abovementioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem is then transformed into a stochastic single objective programming problem using minimum deviation method. In the next step, the further problem is solved applying a genetic algorithm, which performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. Finally, the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution is examined via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that whatever stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of the objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is deteriorated.
33
23605
Surface Induced Alteration of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina
Abstract:
Various nanosized amorphous alumina thin films in the range of (2.4 - 63.1) nm were deposited onto amorphous carbon and amorphous Si3N4 membrane grids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to probe the size effect on the short range order and the amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature. It was found that the short-range order changes as a function of size: the fraction of tetrahedral Al sites is greater in thinner amorphous films. This result correlates with the change of amorphous alumina density with the film thickness demonstrated by the reflectivity experiments: the thinner amorphous films have the less density. These effects are discussed in terms of surface reconstruction of the amorphous alumina films. The average atomic binding energy in the thin film layer decreases with decease of the thickness, while the average O-Al interatomic distance increases. The reconstruction of amorphous alumina is induced by the surface reconstruction, and the short range order changes being dependent on the density. Decrease of the surface energy during reconstruction is the driving force of the alumina reconstruction (density change) followed by relaxation process (short range order change). The amorphous to crystalline phase transition temperature measured by DSC rises with the decrease in thickness from 997.6°C for 13.9 nm to 1020.4 °C for 2.7 nm thick. This effect was attributed to the different film densities: formation of nanovoids preceding and accompanying crystallization process influences the crystallization rate, and by these means, the temperature of crystallization peak.
32
111057
Dislocation Density-Based Modeling of the Grain Refinement in Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment
Abstract:
In the present study, an analytical model based on dislocation density model was developed to simulate grain refinement in surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The correlation between SMAT time and development in plastic strain on one hand, and dislocation density evolution, on the other hand, was established to simulate the grain refinement in SMAT. A dislocation density-based constitutive material law was implemented using VUHARD subroutine. A random sequence of shots is taken into consideration for multiple impacts model using Python programming language by utilizing a random function. The simulation technique was to model each impact in a separate run and then transferring the results of each run as initial conditions for the next run (impact). The developed Finite Element (FE) model of multiple impacts describes the coverage evolution in SMAT. Simulations were run to coverage levels as high as 4500%. It is shown that the coverage implemented in the FE model is equal to the experimental coverage. It is depicted that numerical SMAT coverage parameter is adequately conforming to the well-known Avrami model. Comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements for residual stresses and depth of deformation layers confirms the performance of the established FE model for surface engineering evaluations in SMA treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of grain refinement, including resultant grain size and dislocation density, were conducted to validate the established model. The full width at half-maximum in XRD profiles can be used to measure the grain size. Numerical results and experimental measurements of grain refinement illustrate good agreement and show the capability of established FE model to predict the gradient microstructure in SMA treatment.
31
42682
Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach
Abstract:
This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.
30
103835
Comparison of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Smoothing Methods
Authors:
Abstract:
The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a commonly used statistical tool for evaluating the diagnostic performance of screening and diagnostic test with continuous or ordinal scale results which aims to predict the presence or absence probability of a condition, usually a disease. When the test results were measured as numeric values, sensitivity and specificity can be computed across all possible threshold values which discriminate the subjects as diseased and non-diseased. There are infinite numbers of possible decision thresholds along the continuum of the test results. The ROC curve presents the trade-off between sensitivity and the 1-specificity as the threshold changes. The empirical ROC curve which is a non-parametric estimator of the ROC curve is robust and it represents data accurately. However, especially for small sample sizes, it has a problem of variability and as it is a step function there can be different false positive rates for a true positive rate value and vice versa. Besides, the estimated ROC curve being in a jagged form, since the true ROC curve is a smooth curve, it underestimates the true ROC curve. Since the true ROC curve is assumed to be smooth, several smoothing methods have been explored to smooth a ROC curve. These include using kernel estimates, using log-concave densities, to fit parameters for the specified density function to the data with the maximum-likelihood fitting of univariate distributions or to create a probability distribution by fitting the specified distribution to the data nd using smooth versions of the empirical distribution functions. In the present paper, we aimed to propose a smooth ROC curve estimation based on the boundary corrected kernel function and to compare the performances of ROC curve smoothing methods for the diagnostic test results coming from different distributions in different sample sizes. We performed simulation study to compare the performances of different methods for different scenarios with 1000 repetitions. It is seen that the performance of the proposed method was typically better than that of the empirical ROC curve and only slightly worse compared to the binormal model when in fact the underlying samples were generated from the normal distribution.
29
30993
Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method
Abstract:
Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.
28
54572
Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment
Abstract:
The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.
27
72691
Density Determination of Liquid Niobium by Means of Ohmic Pulse-Heating for Critical Point Estimation
Abstract:
Experimental determination of critical point data like critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and critical compressibility of high-melting metals such as niobium is very rare due to the outstanding experimental difficulties in reaching the necessary extreme temperature and pressure regimes. Experimental techniques to achieve such extreme conditions could be diamond anvil devices, two stage gas guns or metal samples hit by explosively accelerated flyers. Electrical pulse-heating under increased pressures would be another choice. This technique heats thin wire samples of 0.5 mm diameter and 40 mm length from room temperature to melting and then further to the end of the stable phase, the spinodal line, within several microseconds. When crossing the spinodal line, the sample explodes and reaches the gaseous phase. In our laboratory, pulse-heating experiments can be performed under variation of the ambient pressure from 1 to 5000 bar and allow a direct determination of critical point data for low-melting, but not for high-melting metals. However, the critical point also can be estimated by extrapolating the liquid phase density according to theoretical models. A reasonable prerequisite for the extrapolation is the existence of data that cover as much as possible of the liquid phase and at the same time exhibit small uncertainties. Ohmic pulse-heating was therefore applied to determine thermal volume expansion, and from that density of niobium over the entire liquid phase. As a first step, experiments under ambient pressure were performed. The second step will be to perform experiments under high-pressure conditions. During the heating process, shadow images of the expanding sample wire were captured at a frame rate of 4 × 105 fps to monitor the radial expansion as a function of time. Simultaneously, the sample radiance was measured with a pyrometer operating at a mean effective wavelength of 652 nm. To increase the accuracy of temperature deduction, spectral emittance in the liquid phase is also taken into account. Due to the high heating rates of about 2 × 108 K/s, longitudinal expansion of the wire is inhibited which implies an increased radial expansion. As a consequence, measuring the temperature dependent radial expansion is sufficient to deduce density as a function of temperature. This is accomplished by evaluating the full widths at half maximum of the cup-shaped intensity profiles that are calculated from each shadow image of the expanding wire. Relating these diameters to the diameter obtained before the pulse-heating start, the temperature dependent volume expansion is calculated. With the help of the known room-temperature density, volume expansion is then converted into density data. The so-obtained liquid density behavior is compared to existing literature data and provides another independent source of experimental data. In this work, the newly determined off-critical liquid phase density was in a second step utilized as input data for the estimation of niobium’s critical point. The approach used, heuristically takes into account the crossover from mean field to Ising behavior, as well as the non-linearity of the phase diagram’s diameter.
26
66265
Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data
Abstract:
This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.
25
37614
Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud
Abstract:
Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.
24
45358
A Textile-Based Scaffold for Skin Replacements
Abstract:
The therapeutic treatment of extensive, deep wounds is limited. Autologous split-skin grafts are used as a so-called ‘gold standard’. Most common deficits are the defects at the donor site, the risk of scarring as well as the limited availability and quality of the autologous grafts. The aim of this project is a tissue engineered dermal-epidermal skin replacement to overcome the limitations of the gold standard. A key requirement for the development of such a three-dimensional implant is the formation of a functional capillary-like network inside the implant to ensure a sufficient nutrient and gas supply. Tailored three-dimensional warp knitted spacer fabrics are used to reinforce the mechanically week fibrin gel-based scaffold and further to create a directed in vitro pre-vascularization along the parallel-oriented pile yarns within a co-culture. In this study various three-dimensional warp knitted spacer fabrics were developed in a factorial design to analyze the influence of the machine parameters such as the stitch density and the pattern of the fabric on the scaffold performance and further to determine suitable parameters for a successful fibrin gel-incorporation and a physiological performance of the scaffold. The fabrics were manufactured on a Karl Mayer double-bar raschel machine DR 16 EEC/EAC. A fine machine gauge of E30 was used to ensure a high pile yarn density for sufficient nutrient, gas and waste exchange. In order to ensure a high mechanical stability of the graft, the fabrics were made of biocompatible PVDF yarns. Key parameters such as the pore size, porosity and stress/strain behavior were investigated under standardized, controlled climate conditions. The influence of the input parameters on the mechanical and morphological properties as well as the ability of fibrin gel incorporation into the spacer fabric was analyzed. Subsequently, the pile yarns of the spacer fabrics were colonized with Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) to analyze the ability of the fabric to further function as a guiding structure for a directed vascularization. The cells were stained with DAPI and investigated using fluorescence microscopy. The analysis revealed that the stitch density and the binding pattern have a strong influence on both the mechanical and morphological properties of the fabric. As expected, the incorporation of the fibrin gel was significantly improved with higher pore sizes and porosities, whereas the mechanical strength decreases. Furthermore, the colonization trials revealed a high cell distribution and density on the pile yarns of the spacer fabrics. For a tailored reinforcing structure, the minimum porosity and pore size needs to be evaluated which still ensures a complete incorporation of the reinforcing structure into the fibrin gel matrix. That will enable a mechanically stable dermal graft with a dense vascular network for a sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply of the cells. The results are promising for subsequent research in the field of reinforcing mechanically weak biological scaffolds and develop functional three-dimensional scaffolds with an oriented pre-vascularization.
23
36518
Estimation of Optimum Parameters of Non-Linear Muskingum Model of Routing Using Imperialist Competition Algorithm (ICA)
Abstract:
Non-linear Muskingum model is an efficient method for flood routing, however, the efficiency of this method is influenced by three applied parameters. Therefore, efficiency assessment of Imperialist Competition Algorithm (ICA) to evaluate optimum parameters of non-linear Muskingum model was addressed through this study. In addition to ICA, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) were also used aiming at an available criterion to verdict ICA. In this regard, ICA was applied for Wilson flood routing; then, routing of two flood events of DoAab Samsami River was investigated. In case of Wilson flood that the target function was considered as the sum of squared deviation (SSQ) of observed and calculated discharges. Routing two other floods, in addition to SSQ, another target function was also considered as the sum of absolute deviations of observed and calculated discharge. For the first floodwater based on SSQ, GA indicated the best performance, however, ICA was on first place, based on SAD. For the second floodwater, based on both target functions, ICA indicated a better operation. According to the obtained results, it can be said that ICA could be used as an appropriate method to evaluate the parameters of Muskingum non-linear model.
22
8089
Numerical Modeling the Cavitating Flow in Injection Nozzle Holes
Abstract:
Cavitating flows inside a diesel injection nozzle hole were simulated using a mixture model. A 2D numerical model is proposed in this paper to simulate steady cavitating flows. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the liquid and vapor mixture, which is considered as a single fluid with variable density which is expressed as function of the vapor volume fraction. The closure of this variable is provided by the transport equation with a source term TEM. The processes of evaporation and condensation are governed by changes in pressure within the flow. The source term is implanted in the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The influence of numerical and physical parameters is presented in details. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data for steady flow.
21
12450
Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings
Abstract:
Topology optimization technique utilizes constant element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that regions with element density values become occupied by solids in design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of proper web-opening&rsquo;s position. Numerical examples of linear elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate the proper deposition of web-openings.
20
112313
Nonstationary Modeling of Extreme Precipitation in the Wei River Basin, China
Authors:
Abstract:
Under the impact of global warming together with the intensification of human activities, the hydrological regimes may be altered, and the traditional stationary assumption was no longer satisfied. However, most of the current design standards of water infrastructures were still based on the hypothesis of stationarity, which may inevitably result in severe biases. Many critical impacts of climate on ecosystems, society, and the economy are controlled by extreme events rather than mean values. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify the non-stationarity of precipitation extremes and model the precipitation extremes in a nonstationary framework. The Wei River Basin (WRB), located in a continental monsoon climate zone in China, is selected as a case study in this study. Six extreme precipitation indices were employed to investigate the changing patterns and stationarity of precipitation extremes in the WRB. To identify if precipitation extremes are stationary, the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Pettitt test, which is used to examine the occurrence of abrupt changes are adopted in this study. Extreme precipitation indices series are fitted with non-stationary distributions that selected from six widely used distribution functions: Gumbel, lognormal, Weibull, gamma, generalized gamma and exponential distributions by means of the time-varying moments model generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), where the distribution parameters are defined as a function of time. The results indicate that: (1) the trends were not significant for the whole WRB, but significant positive/negative trends were still observed in some stations, abrupt changes for consecutive wet days (CWD) mainly occurred in 1985, and the assumption of stationarity is invalid for some stations; (2) for these nonstationary extreme precipitation indices series with significant positive/negative trends, the GAMLSS models are able to capture well the temporal variations of the indices, and perform better than the stationary model. Finally, the differences between the quantiles of nonstationary and stationary models are analyzed, which highlight the importance of nonstationary modeling of precipitation extremes in the WRB.
19
39252
Lifetime Assessment for Test Strips of POCT Device through Accelerated Degradation Test
Abstract:
In general, single parameter, i.e. temperature, as an accelerating parameter is used to assess the accelerated stability of Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) diagnostic devices. However, humidity also plays an important role in deteriorating the strip performance since major components of test strips are proteins such as enzymes. 4 different Temp./Humi. Conditions were used to assess the lifetime of strips. Degradation of test strips were studied through the accelerated stability test and the lifetime was assessed using commercial POCT products. The life distribution of strips, which were obtained by monitoring the failure time of test strip under each stress condition, revealed that the weibull distribution was the most proper distribution describing the life distribution of strips used in the present study. Equal shape parameters were calculated to be 0.9395 and 0.9132 for low and high concentrations, respectively. The lifetime prediction was made by adopting Peck Eq. Model for Stress-Life relationship, and the B10 life was calculated to be 70.09 and 46.65 hrs for low and high concentrations, respectively.
18
42319
Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Using a Stochastic Multi-Objective Programming Model and Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a supplier selection and order allocation multi-objective model in stochastic environment in which purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. To do so, we use dependent chance programming (DCP) that maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. After transforming the above mentioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem into a stochastic single objective problem using minimum deviation method, we apply a genetic algorithm to get the later single objective problem solved. The employed genetic algorithm performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. At the end, we explore the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that as stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is worsened.
17
10083
Effect of Different Levels of Dried Citrus Sinensis Peel on Blood Parameters of Broilers
Abstract:
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dried citrus sinensis peel (DCSP) on the blood parameters of broilers. Four hundred Ross 308 strain day old broiler in a completely randomized design with five treatments (four replicates per treatment and each replicate had 20 chicks) were categorized. Each treatment used either regulatory diet including 1.5% and 3% DCSP in the base diet and in two periods of 1st to 21st day and 1st to 42nd day and base diet without any additive for six weeks. Data analysis was performed using SAS software and mean comparison was conducted by Duncan method. The results determined that using different level of DCSP has significant effects on blood plasma parameters (P< 0.05). Cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) at the rearing period was significantly influenced by experimental treatments (P< 0.05). However, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was not affected by experimental treatments (P>0.05). The lowest rate of blood cholesterol was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood cholesterol were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood triglyceride was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood triglyceride were concerned to the control treatment. The lowest rate of blood alkaline phosphatase was concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 42nd day and the highest mean of blood alkaline phosphatase were concerned to the treatment which was used 3% DCSP 1st to 21st day.
16
45164
Optical and Double Folding Model Analysis for Alpha Particles Elastically Scattered from 9Be and 11B Nuclei at Different Energies
Abstract:
Elastic scattering of α-particles from 9Be and 11B nuclei at different alpha energies have been analyzed. Optical model parameters (OMPs) of α-particles elastic scattering by these nuclei at different energies have been obtained. In the present calculations, the real part of the optical potential are derived by folding of nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction into nuclear matter density distribution of the projectile and target nuclei using computer code FRESCO. A density-dependent version of the M3Y interaction (CDM3Y6), which is based on the G-matrix elements of the Paris NN potential, has been used. Volumetric integrals of the real and imaginary potential depth (JR, JW) have been calculated and found to be energy dependent. Good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions in the whole angular range. In double folding (DF) calculations, the obtained normalization coefficient Nr is in the range 0.70–1.32.
15
37514
Application Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Tool in Design of Aero Pumps Based on System Engineering
Abstract:
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) was developed in 1960 in Japan and introduced in 1983 in America and Europe. The paper presents a real application of this technique in a way that the method of applying QFD in design and production aero fuel pumps has been considered. While designing a product and in order to apply system engineering process, the first step is identification customer needs then its transition to engineering parameters. Since each change in deign after production process leads to extra human costs and also increase in products quality risk, QFD can make benefits in sale by meeting customer expectations. Since the needs identified as well, the use of QFD tool can lead to increase in communications and less deviation in design and production phases, finally it leads to produce the products with defined technical attributes.
14
25969
Filler Elastomers Abrasion at Steady State: Optimal Use Conditions
Abstract:
The search of a mechanism for the elastomer abrasive wear study is an open issue. The practice difficulties are complex due to the complexity of deformation mechanism, to the complex mechanism of the material tearing and to the marked interactions between the tribological parameters. In this work, we present an experimental technique to study the elastomers abrasive wear. The interaction 'elastomer/indenter' implicate dependant ant temporary of different tribological parameters. Consequently, the phenomenon that governs this interaction is not easy to explain. An optimal elastomers compounding and an adequate utilization conditions of these materials that define its resistance at the abrasion is discussed. The results are confronted to theoretical models: the weight loss variation in function of blade angle or in function of cycle number is in agreement with rupture models and with the mechanism of fissures propagation during the material tearing in abrasive wear of filler elastomers. The weight loss in function of the sliding velocity shows the existence of a critical velocity that corresponds to the maximal wear. The adding of silica or black carbon influences in a different manner on wear abrasive behavior of filler elastomers.
13
82843
Electromagnetic Modeling of a MESFET Transistor Using the Moments Method Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit Method
Abstract:
The communications' and radar systems' demands give rise to new developments in the domain of active integrated antennas (AIA) and arrays. The main advantages of AIA arrays are the simplicity of fabrication, low cost of manufacturing, and the combination between free space power and the scanner without a phase shifter. The integrated active antenna modeling is the coupling between the electromagnetic model and the transport model that will be affected in the high frequencies. Global modeling of active circuits is important for simulating EM coupling, interaction between active devices and the EM waves, and the effects of EM radiation on active and passive components. The current review focuses on the modeling of the active element which is a MESFET transistor immersed in a rectangular waveguide. The proposed EM analysis is based on the Method of Moments combined with the Generalised Equivalent Circuit method (MOM-GEC). The Method of Moments which is the most common and powerful software as numerical techniques have been used in resolving the electromagnetic problems. In the class of numerical techniques, MOM is the dominant technique in solving of Maxwell and Transport’s integral equations for an active integrated antenna. In this situation, the equivalent circuit is introduced to the development of an integral method formulation based on the transposition of field problems in a Generalised equivalent circuit that is simpler to treat. The method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit (MGEC) was suggested in order to represent integral equations circuits that describe the unknown electromagnetic boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit presents a true electric image of the studied structures for describing the discontinuity and its environment. The aim of our developed method is to investigate the antenna parameters such as the input impedance and the current density distribution and the electric field distribution. In this work, we propose a global EM modeling of the MESFET AsGa transistor using an integral method. We will begin by describing the modeling structure that allows defining an equivalent EM scheme translating the electromagnetic equations considered. Secondly, the projection of these equations on common-type test functions leads to a linear matrix equation where the unknown variable represents the amplitudes of the current density. Solving this equation resulted in providing the input impedance, the distribution of the current density and the electric field distribution. From electromagnetic calculations, we were able to present the convergence of input impedance for different test function number as a function of the guide mode numbers. This paper presents a pilot study to find the answer to map out the variation of the existing current evaluated by the MOM-GEC. The essential improvement of our method is reducing computing time and memory requirements in order to provide a sufficient global model of the MESFET transistor.
12
73917
Numerical Approach to a Mathematical Modeling of Bioconvection Due to Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms over a Nonlinear Inclined Stretching Sheet
Abstract:
The water-based bioconvection of a nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms over nonlinear inclined stretching sheet has been investigated. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations of the model are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation and similarity transformations. Further, the modified set of equations with associated boundary conditions are solved using Finite Element Method. The impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, density of motile micro-organisms profiles are obtained and analyzed in details. The results show that with the increase in angle of inclination &delta;, velocity decreases while temperature, nanoparticles concentration, a density of motile micro-organisms increases. Additionally, the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, density number are computed for various thermophysical parameters. It is noticed that increasing Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter leads to an increase in temperature of fluid which results in a reduction in Nusselt number. On the contrary, Sherwood number rises with an increase in Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameter. The findings have been validated by comparing the results of special cases with existing studies.
11
26921
Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma
Abstract:
In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In)-Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (InI) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.
10
28635
Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Based on Liquid Glass
Abstract:
Fly ash (FA) thanks to the significant presence of SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components is a potential raw material for geopolymers production. Mechanical activation is a method for improving FA reactivity and also the porosity of final mixture; those parameters can be analysed through sorption properties. They have direct impact on the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars. In the paper, effect of FA fineness on sorption properties of geopolymers based on sodium silicate, as well as relationship between fly ash fineness and apparent density, compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers are presented. The best results in the evaluated area reached the sample H1, which contents the highest portion of particle under 20μm (100% of GFA). The interdependence of individual tested properties was confirmed for geopolymer mixtures corresponding to those in the cement based mixtures: higher is portion of fine particles < 20μm, higher is strength, density and lower are sorption properties. The compressive strength as well as sorption parameters of the geopolymer can be reasonably controlled by grinding process and also ensured by the higher share of fine particle (to 20μm) in total mass of the material.
9
44989
Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating
Abstract:
We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnetic profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. The qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016 A.cm-2 to 0.074 A.cm-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300 W.
8
34103
Novel Inference Algorithm for Gaussian Process Classification Model with Multiclass and Its Application to Human Action Classification
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel inference algorithm for the multi-class Gaussian process classification model that can be used in the field of human behavior recognition. This algorithm can drive simultaneously both a posterior distribution of a latent function and estimators of hyper-parameters in a Gaussian process classification model with multi-class. Our algorithm is based on the Laplace approximation (LA) technique and variational EM framework. This is performed in two steps: called expectation and maximization steps. First, in the expectation step, using the Bayesian formula and LA technique, we derive approximately the posterior distribution of the latent function indicating the possibility that each observation belongs to a certain class in the Gaussian process classification model. Second, in the maximization step, using a derived posterior distribution of latent function, we compute the maximum likelihood estimator for hyper-parameters of a covariance matrix necessary to define prior distribution for latent function. These two steps iteratively repeat until a convergence condition satisfies. Moreover, we apply the proposed algorithm with human action classification problem using a public database, namely, the KTH human action data set. Experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm shows good performance on this data set.
7
72173
Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells
Abstract:
In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.
6
57694
A Parametric Study on Effects of Internal Factors on Carbonation of Reinforced Concrete
Abstract:
The carbonation of concrete is a phenomenon which is a function of various interdependent parameters. Therefore, in spite of numerous literature and database, the useful generalization is not an easy task. These interdependent parameters can be grouped under the category of internal and external factors. This paper focuses on the internal parameters which govern and increase the probability of the ingress of deleterious substances into concrete. The mechanism of effects of internal parameters such as microstructure for with and without supplementary cementing materials (SCM), water/binder ratio, the age of concrete etc. has been discussed. This is followed by the comparison of various proposed mathematical models for the deterioration of concrete. Based on existing laboratory experiments as well as field results, this paper concludes the present understanding of mechanism, modeling and future research needs in this field.
5
39776
The Influense of Alternative Farming Systems on Physical Parameters of the Soil
Abstract:
Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high quality food products and retain the viability and fertility of soil. The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2013. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In different farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and green manure catch crops used for fertilization both in the soil low in humus and in the soil moderate in humus. In the 0–20 cm depth layer, it had a more significant effect on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, in which catch crops had been grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil moderate in humus content, compared with the soil low in humus, bulk density was by 1.4 % lower, and porosity by 1.8 % higher. The research findings create a possibility to make improvements in alternative cropping systems by choosing organic fertilizers and catch crops’ combinations that have the sustainable effect on soil and that maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote a development of organic agriculture.
4
32486
Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox
Authors:
Abstract:
Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (µmax and µmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.
3
46155
Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi4Si-Type DyNi4Si Compound: A Full Potential Study
Abstract:
A theoretical formalism to calculate the structural, electronic and optical properties of orthorhombic crystals from first principle calculations is described. This is applied first time to new YNi4Si-type DyNi4Si compound. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Our optimized results of lattice parameters show good agreement to the previously reported experimental study. Analysis of the calculated band structure of DyNi4Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Dy-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and R-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in DNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band-to-band transitions. We also report the frequency-dependent refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω) of the compound.
2
67943
Genetic Algorithm Based Deep Learning Parameters Tuning for Robot Object Recognition and Grasping
Abstract:
This paper concerns with the problem of deep learning parameters tuning using a genetic algorithm (GA) in order to improve the performance of deep learning (DL) method. We present a GA based DL method for robot object recognition and grasping. GA is used to optimize the DL parameters in learning procedure in term of the fitness function that is good enough. After finishing the evolution process, we receive the optimal number of DL parameters. To evaluate the performance of our method, we consider the object recognition and robot grasping tasks. Experimental results show that our method is efficient for robot object recognition and grasping.
1
12954
The Effect of Ingredients Mixing Sequence in Rubber Compounding on the Formation of Bound Rubber and Cross-Link Density of Natural Rubber
Abstract:
This research purpose is to study the effect of Ingredients mixing sequence in rubber compounding onto the formation of bound rubber and cross link density of natural rubber and also the relationship of bound rubber and cross link density. Analysis of bound rubber formation of rubber compound and cross link density of rubber vulcanizates were carried out on a natural rubber formula having masticated and mixing, followed by curing. There were four methods of mixing and each mixing process was followed by four mixing sequence methods of carbon black into the rubber. In the first method of mixing sequence, rubber was masticated for 5 min and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were added simultaneously. In the second one, rubber was masticated for 1 min and followed by addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 simultaneously using the different method of mixing then the first one. In the third one, carbon black N 660 was used for the same mixing procedure of the second one, and in the last one, rubber was masticated for 3 min, carbon black N 330 and rubber chemicals were added subsequently. The addition of rubber chemicals and carbon black into masticated rubber was distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. Carbon black was added into two stages. In the first stage, 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In the second one to the fourth one, the addition of carbon black in the first and the second stage was added in the phr ratio 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The results showed that the ingredients mixing process influenced bound rubber formation and cross link density. In the three methods of mixing, the bound rubber formation was proportional with crosslink density. In contrast in the fourth one, bound rubber formation and cross link density had contradictive relation. Regardless of the mixing method operated, bound rubber had non linear relationship with cross link density. The high cross link density was formed when low bound rubber formation. The cross link density became constant at high bound rubber content.