Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 64156

Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric
Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.
Conceptualising Project Complexity in Ghana’s Construction Industry: A Qualitative Study
Project complexity has been cited as one of the essential areas of project management. It can be observed from environmental, social, technological, and organisational viewpoints, and its handling is critical to project success. Conceptualised in varied industries, this paper seeks to ascertain the meaning and understanding of project complexity within the Ghanaian construction industry based on the three dimensions of complexities (faith, fact, and interaction) using experts' opinions. Taking the form of a focus group discussion, the paper sought to gain an in-depth understanding of project complexity issues in Ghana’s construction industry. The method use obtained data from experts (a purposely selected group) comprising project leaders and project management academics. The findings indicated that the experts broadly agreed with the complexity items but offered varied reasons for their agreement. In the composite assessment of the complexity dimensions of (faith, fact, and interaction), it emerged that there was some agreement with the complexity dimensions of fact and interaction within Ghana’s construction industry. On the other hand, with the dimension for complexity by faith, it was noted that the experts in Ghana’s construction construed complexity by faith, not as the absence of evidence but the evidence that hinges on at least a member of the project team. It is expected that other researches on project complexity will focus on other industries to enhance the knowledge of the same within the field of project management.
Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE
In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.
Software Engineering Revolution Driven by Complexity Science
This paper introduces a new software engineering paradigm based on complexity science, called NSE (Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm). The purpose of establishing NSE is to help software development organizations double their productivity, half their cost, and increase the quality of their products in several orders of magnitude simultaneously. NSE complies with the essential principles of complexity science. NSE brings revolutionary changes to almost all aspects in software engineering. NSE has been fully implemented with its support platform Panorama++.
Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction
Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.
The Relationship between Rhythmic Complexity and Listening Engagement as a Proxy for Perceptual Interest
Although it has been confirmed by multiple studies, the inverted-U relationship between stimulus complexity and preference (liking) remains contentious. Research aimed at substantiating the model are largely reliant upon anecdotal self-assessments of subjects and basic measures of complexity, leaving potential confounds unresolved. This study attempts to address the topic by assessing listening time as a behavioral correlate of liking (with the assumption that engagement prolongs listening time) and by looking for latent factors underlying several measures of rhythmic complexity. Participants listened to groups of rhythms, stopping each one when they started to lose interest and were asked to rate each rhythm in each group in terms of interest, complexity, and preference. Subjects were not informed that the time spent listening to each rhythm was the primary measure of interest. The hypothesis that listening time does demonstrate the same inverted-U relationship with complexity as verbal reports of liking was confirmed using a variety of metrics for rhythmic complexity, including meter-dependent measures of syncopation and meter-independent measures of entropy.
The Quality of Management: A Leadership Maturity Model to Leverage Complexity
Today´s production processes experience a constant increase in complexity paving new ways for progressive forms of leadership. In the customized production, individual customer requirements drive companies to adapt their manufacturing processes constantly while the pressure for smaller lot sizes, lower costs and faster lead times grows simultaneously. When production processes are becoming more dynamic and complex, the conventional quality management approaches show certain limitations. This paper gives an introduction to complexity science from a quality management perspective. By analyzing and evaluating different characteristics of complexity, the critical complexity parameters are identified and assessed. We found that the quality of leadership plays a crucial role when dealing with increasing complexity. Therefore, we developed a concept for qualitative leadership customized for the management within complex processes based on a maturity model. The maturity model was then applied in the industry to assess the leadership quality of several shop floor managers with a positive evaluation feedback. In result, the maturity model proved to be a sustainable approach to leverage the rising complexity in production processes more effectively.
The Latent Model of Linguistic Features in Korean College Students’ L2 Argumentative Writings: Syntactic Complexity, Lexical Complexity, and Fluency
This study explores a range of linguistic features used in Korean college students’ argumentative writings for the purpose of developing a model that identifies variables which predict writing proficiencies. This study investigated the latent variable structure of L2 linguistic features, including syntactic complexity, the lexical complexity, and fluency. One hundred forty-six university students in Korea participated in this study. The results of the study’s confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that indicators of linguistic features from this study-provided a foundation for re-categorizing indicators found in extant research on L2 Korean writers depending on each latent variable of linguistic features. The CFA models indicated one measurement model of L2 syntactic complexity and L2 learners’ writing proficiency; these two latent factors were correlated with each other. Based on the overall findings of the study, integrated linguistic features of L2 writings suggested some pedagogical implications in L2 writing instructions.
Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education
Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – complexity leadership that encompasses multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. The success of higher education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge sharing and knowledge applications. In this paper are the elements of globalization, the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization are discussed. The complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.
Production Line Layout Planning Based on Complexity Measurement
Mass customization production increases the difficulty of the production line layout planning. The material distribution process for variety of parts is very complex, which greatly increases the cost of material handling and logistics. In response to this problem, this paper presents an approach of production line layout planning based on complexity measurement. Firstly, by analyzing the influencing factors of equipment layout, the complexity model of production line is established by using information entropy theory. Then, the cost of the part logistics is derived considering different variety of parts. Furthermore, the function of optimization including two objectives of the lowest cost, and the least configuration complexity is built. Finally, the validity of the function is verified in a case study. The results show that the proposed approach may find the layout scheme with the lowest logistics cost and the least complexity. Optimized production line layout planning can effectively improve production efficiency and equipment utilization with lowest cost and complexity.
Rapid Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition
A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.
Rapid Parallel Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition
A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information's are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.
Contractual Complexity and Contract Parties' Opportunistic Behavior in Construction Projects: In a Contractual Function View
The complexity and specificity of construction projects have made common opportunism phenomenon, and contractual governance for opportunism has been a topic of considerable ongoing research. Based on TCE, the research distinguishes control and coordination as different functions of the contract to investigate their complexity separately. And in a nuanced way, the dimensionality of contractual control is examined. Through the analysis of motivation and capability of strong or weak form opportunism, the framework focuses on the relationship between the complexity of above contractual dimensions and different types of opportunistic behavior and attempts to verify the possible explanatory mechanism. The explanatory power of the research model is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence from questionnaires. We collect data from Chinese companies in the construction industry, and the data collection is still in progress. The findings will speak to the debate surrounding the effects of contract complexity on opportunistic behavior. This nuanced research will derive implications for research on the role of contractual mechanisms in dealing with inter-organizational opportunism and offer suggestions for curbing contract parties’ opportunistic behavior in construction projects.
Performance Complexity Measurement of Tightening Equipment Based on Kolmogorov Entropy
The performance of the tightening equipment will decline with the working process in manufacturing system. The main manifestations are the randomness and discretization degree increasing of the tightening performance. To evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening performance accurately, a complexity measurement approach based on Kolmogorov entropy is presented. At first, the states of performance index are divided for calibrating the discrete degree. Then the complexity measurement model based on Kolmogorov entropy is built. The model describes the performance degradation tendency of tightening equipment quantitatively. At last, a study case is applied for verifying the efficiency and validity of the approach. The research achievement shows that the presented complexity measurement can effectively evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening equipment. It can provide theoretical basis for preventive maintenance and life prediction of equipment.
A Subband BSS Structure with Reduced Complexity and Fast Convergence
A blind source separation method is proposed; in this method, we use a non-uniform filter bank and a novel normalisation. This method provides a reduced computational complexity and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, adaptive sub-band scheme has been recommended to solve two problems: reduction of computational complexity and increase the convergence speed of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. In this work, the reduction in computational complexity is achieved with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filters, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each subband than the input signal at full bandwidth, and can promote better rates of convergence.
Variable Tree Structure QR Decomposition-M Algorithm (QRD-M) in Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) Systems
In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, QR decomposition-M algorithm (QRD-M) has suboptimal error performance. However, the QRD-M has still high complexity due to many calculations at each layer in tree structure. To reduce the complexity of the QRD-M, proposed QRD-M modifies existing tree structure by eliminating unnecessary candidates at almost whole layers. The method of the elimination is discarding the candidates which have accumulated squared Euclidean distances larger than calculated threshold. The simulation results show that the proposed QRD-M has same bit error rate (BER) performance with lower complexity than the conventional QRD-M.
The Effects of Anthropomorphism on Complex Technological Innovations
Many companies have suffered as a result of consumers’ rejection of complex new products and experienced huge losses in the market. Marketers have to understand what block from new technology adoption or positive product attitude may exist in the market. This research examines the effects of techno-complexity and anthropomorphism on consumer psychology and product attitude when new technologies are introduced to the market. This study conducted a pretest and a 2 x 2 between-subjects experiment. Four simulated experimental web pages were constructed to collect data. The empirical analysis tested the moderation-mediation relationships among techno-complexity, technology anxiety, ability, and product attitude. These empirical results indicate (1) Techno-complexity of an innovation is negatively related to consumers’ product attitude, as well as increases consumers’ technology anxiety and reduces their self-ability perception. (2) Consumers’ technology anxiety and ability perception towards an innovation completely mediate the relationship between techno-complexity and product attitude. (3) Product anthropomorphism is positively related to consumers’ attitude of new technology, and also significantly moderates the effect of techno-complexity in the hypothesized model. In this work, the study presents the moderation-mediation model and the effects of anthropomorphized strategy, which describes how managers can better predict and influence the diffusion of complex technological innovations.
Leadership's Controlling via Complexity Investigation in Crisis Scenarios
In this paper will be discussed two coin´s sides of crisis scenarios dynamics. On the one's side is negative role of subsidiary scenario branches in its compactness weakening by means unduly chaotic atomizing, having many interactive feedbacks cases, increasing a value of a complexity here. This negative role reflects the complexity of use cases, weakening leader compliancy, which brings something as a ´readiness for controlling capabilities provision´. Leader´s dissatisfaction has zero compliancy, but factual it is a ´crossbar´ (interface in fact) between planning and executing use cases. On the other side of this coin, an advantage of rich scenarios embranchment is possible to see in a support of response awareness, readiness, preparedness, adaptability, creativity and flexibility. Here rich scenarios embranchment contributes to the steadiness and resistance of scenario mission actors. These all will be presented in live power-points ´Blazons´, modelled via DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) on the Conference.
Handling Complexity of a Complex System Design: Paradigm, Formalism and Transformations
Current systems' complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account environmental, operational, social, legal, and financial aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponentially growing effort, cost, and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework, and an environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and suggests a graph-based formalism for modeling complex systems. Finally, a set of transformations are defined to handle the model complexity.
A Fast Convergence Subband BSS Structure
A blind source separation method is proposed; in this method we use a non-uniform filter bank and a novel normalisation. This method provides a reduced computational complexity and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, adaptive sub-band scheme has been recommended to solve two problems: reduction of computational complexity and increase the convergence speed of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. In this work the reduction in computational complexity is achieved with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filters, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full bandwidth, and can promote better rates of convergence.
Uncovering the Complex Structure of Building Design Process Based on Royal Institute of British Architects Plan of Work
The notion of complexity science has been attracting the interest of researchers and professionals due to the need of enhancing the efficiency of understanding complex systems dynamic and structure of interactions. In addition, complexity analysis has been used as an approach to investigate complex systems that contains a large number of components interacts with each other to accomplish specific outcomes and emerges specific behavior. The design process is considered as a complex action that involves large number interacted components, which are ranked as design tasks, design team, and the components of the design process. Those three main aspects of the building design process consist of several components that interact with each other as a dynamic system with complex information flow. In this paper, the goal is to uncover the complex structure of information interactions in building design process. The Investigating of Royal Institute of British Architects Plan Of Work 2013 information interactions as a case study to uncover the structure and building design process complexity using network analysis software to model the information interaction will significantly enhance the efficiency of the building design process outcomes.
Determination of Complexity Level in Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher
Today, it has been observed security of information along the superhighway is often compromised by those who are not authorized to have access to such information. In order to ensure the security of information along the superhighway, such information should be encrypted by some means to conceal the real meaning of the information. There are many encryption techniques out there in the market. However, some of these encryption techniques are often easily decrypted by adversaries. The researcher has decided to develop an encryption technique that may be more difficult to decrypt. This may be achieved by splitting the message to be encrypted into parts and encrypting each part separately and swapping the positions before transmitting the message along the superhighway. The method is termed Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. Also, the research would determine the complexity level in respect to the number of splits of the message.
Low-Complexity Multiplication Using Complement and Signed-Digit Recoding Methods
In this paper, a fast multiplication computing method utilizing the complement representation method and canonical recoding technique is proposed. By performing complements and canonical recoding technique, the number of partial products can be reduced. Based on these techniques, we propose an algorithm that provides an efficient multiplication method. On average, our proposed algorithm is to reduce the number of k-bit additions from (0.25k+logk/k+2.5) to (k/6 +logk/k+2.5), where k is the bit-length of the multiplicand A and multiplier B. We can therefore efficiently speed up the overall performance of the multiplication. Moreover, if we use the new proposes to compute common-multiplicand multiplication, the computational complexity can be reduced from (0.5 k+2 logk/k+5) to (k/3+2 logk/k+5) k-bit additions.
Modal Density Influence on Modal Complexity Quantification in Dynamic Systems
The viscous damping in dynamic systems can be proportional or non-proportional. In the first case, the mode shapes are real whereas in the second case they are complex. From an engineering point of view, the complexity of the mode shapes is important in order to quantify the non-proportional damping. Different indices exist to provide estimates of the modal complexity. These indices are or not zero, depending whether the mode shapes are not or are complex. The modal density problem arises in the experimental identification when the dynamic systems have close modal frequencies. Depending on the entity of this closeness, the mode shapes can hold fictitious imaginary quantities that affect the values of the modal complexity indices. The results are the failing in the identification of the real or complex mode shapes and then of the proportional or non-proportional damping. The paper aims to show the influence of the modal density on the values of these indices in case of both proportional and non-proportional damping. Theoretical and pseudo-experimental solutions are compared to analyze the problem according to an appropriate mechanical system.
Green Energy, Fiscal Incentives and Conflicting Signals: Analysing the Challenges Faced in Promoting on Farm Waste to Energy Projects
Renewable energy (RE) promotion in the UK relies on multiple policy instruments, which are required to overcome the path dependency pressures favouring fossil fuels. These instruments include targeted funding schemes and economy-wide instruments embedded in the tax code. The resulting complexity of incentives raises important questions around the coherence and effectiveness of these instruments for RE generation. This complexity is exacerbated by UK RE policy being nested within EU policy in a multi-level governance (MLG) setting. To gain analytical traction on such complexity, this study will analyse policies promoting the on-farm generation of energy for heat and power, from farm and food waste, via anaerobic digestion. Utilising both primary and secondary data, it seeks to address a particular lacuna in the academic literature. Via a localised, in-depth investigation into the complexity of policy instruments promoting RE, this study will help our theoretical understanding of the challenges that MLG and path dependency pressures present to policymakers of multi-dimensional policies.
Determination of Complexity Level in Okike's Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher
Today, it has been observed security of information along the superhighway is often compromised by those who are not authorized to have access to such information. In other to ensure the security of information along the superhighway, such information should be encrypted by some means to conceal the real meaning of the information. There are many encryption techniques out there in the market. However, some of these encryption techniques are often decrypted by adversaries with ease. The researcher has decided to develop an encryption technique that may be more difficult to decrypt. This may be achieved by splitting the message to be encrypted into parts and encrypting each part separately and swapping the positions before transmitting the message along the superhighway. The method is termed Okike’s Merged Irregular Transposition Cipher. Also, the research would determine the complexity level in respect to the number of splits of the message.
Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System
In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.
Theoretical Paradigms for Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM)
Quality management is dominated by rational paradigms for the measurement and management of quality, but these paradigms start to ‘break down’, when faced with the inherent complexity of managing quality in intensely competitive changing environments. In this article, the various theoretical paradigms employed to manage quality are reviewed and the advantages and limitations of these paradigms are highlighted. A major implication of this review is that when faced with complexity, an ideological stance to any single strategy paradigm for total quality environmental management is ineffective. We suggest that as complexity increases and we envisage intensely competitive changing environments there will be a greater need to consider a multi-paradigm integrationist view of strategy for TQEM.
Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems
An effort estimation model is needed for software-intensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.
Visual Analytics in K 12 Education: Emerging Dimensions of Complexity
The aim of this paper is to understand emerging learning conditions, when a visual analytics is implemented and used in K 12 (education). To date, little attention has been paid to the role visual analytics (digital media and technology that highlight visual data communication in order to support analytical tasks) can play in education, and to the extent to which these tools can process actionable data for young students. This study was conducted in three public K 12 schools, in four social science classes with students aged 10 to 13 years, over a period of two to four weeks at each school. Empirical data were generated using video observations and analyzed with help of metaphors by Latour. The learning conditions are found to be distinguished by broad complexity characterized by four dimensions. These emerge from the actors’ deeply intertwined relations in the activities. The paper argues in relation to the found dimensions that novel approaches to teaching and learning could benefit students’ knowledge building as they work with visual analytics, analyzing visualized data.
Robust Numerical Scheme for Pricing American Options under Jump Diffusion Models
We evaluate the American option price with jump diffusion models by using efficient time-dependent numerical methods. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used as a matrix-vector multiplication solver, which reduces the complexity from O(M²) into O(M logM). Partial fraction forms of rational approximation schemes are used to overcome the complexity of inverting polynomial of matrices. Fourth-order and second-order convergence are numerically proved.
Nonlinear Analysis in Investigating the Complexity of Neurophysiological Data during Reflex Behavior
Methods of nonlinear signal analysis are based on finding that random behavior can arise in deterministic nonlinear systems with a few degrees of freedom. Considering the dynamical systems, entropy is usually understood as a rate of information production. Changes in temporal dynamics of physiological data are indicating evolving of system in time, thus a level of new signal pattern generation. During last decades, many algorithms were introduced to assess some patterns of physiological responses to external stimulus. However, the reflex responses are usually characterized by short periods of time. This characteristic represents a great limitation for usual methods of nonlinear analysis. To solve the problems of short recordings, parameter of approximate entropy has been introduced as a measure of system complexity. Low value of this parameter is reflecting regularity and predictability in analyzed time series. On the other side, increasing of this parameter means unpredictability and a random behavior, hence a higher system complexity. Reduced neurophysiological data complexity has been observed repeatedly when analyzing electroneurogram and electromyogram activities during defence reflex responses. Quantitative phrenic neurogram changes are also obvious during severe hypoxia, as well as during airway reflex episodes. Concluding, the approximate entropy parameter serves as a convenient tool for analysis of reflex behavior characterized by short lasting time series.
Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves
Newton-Lagrange interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for constructing them. In computer-aided geometric and design (CAGD), they are some polynomial curves, Wang-Ball, DP, and Dejdumrong curves that have linear complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP, and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdum-rong algorithms, firstly it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP, and Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP, and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be taken.
Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves
Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.
Towards a Simulation Model to Ensure the Availability of Machines in Maintenance Activities
The aim of this paper is to present a model based on multi-agent systems in order to manage the maintenance activities and to ensure the reliability and availability of machines just with the required resources (operators, tools). The interest of the simulation is to solve the complexity of the system and to find results without cost or wasting time. An implementation of the model is carried out on the AnyLogic platform to display the defined performance indicators.
A Time-Reducible Approach to Compute Determinant |I-X|
Computation of determinant in the form |I-X| is primary and fundamental because it can help to compute many other determinants. This article puts forward a time-reducible approach to compute determinant |I-X|. The approach is derived from the Newton’s identity and its time complexity is no more than that to compute the eigenvalues of the square matrix X. Mathematical deductions and numerical example are presented in detail for the approach. By comparison with classical approaches the new approach is proved to be superior to the classical ones and it can naturally reduce the computational time with the improvement of efficiency to compute eigenvalues of the square matrix.
The Revenue Management Implementation and Its Complexity in the Airline Industry: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Airline Industry
The airline industry nowadays is becoming a more growing industry facing a severe competition. It is an influential issue in this context to utilize revenue management (RM) concept and practice in order to develop the pricing strategy. There is an unfathomable necessity for RM to assist the airlines and their associates to disparage the cost and recuperate their revenue, which in turn will boost the airline industry performance. The complexity of RM imposes enormous challenges on the airline industry. Several studies have been proposed on the RM adaptation in airlines industry while there is a limited availability of implementing RM and its complexity in the developing countries such as Egypt. This research represents a research schema about the implementation of the RM to the Egyptian airline industry. The research aims at investigating and demonstrating the complexities face implementing RM in the airline industry, up on which the research provides a comprehensive understanding of how to overcome these complexities while adapting RM in the Egyptian airline industry. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian airline sector based on a sample of four airlines (Egyptair, Britishair, KLM, and Lufthansa). The empirical study was conducted using a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to analyze the Egyptian airline sector status and the main challenges faced by the airlines. Then, a structured survey on the three different parties of airline industry; airlines, airfreight forwarders, and passengers were conducted in order to investigate the main complexity factors from different parties' points of view. Finally, a focus group was conducted to develop a best practice framework to overcome the complexities faced the RM adaptation in the Egyptian airline industry. The research provides an original contribution to knowledge by creating a framework to overcome the complexities and challenges in adapting RM in the airline industry generally and the Egyptian airline industry particularly. The framework can be used as a RM tool to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the Egyptian airline industry performance.
Analysis of Cardiac Health Using Chaotic Theory
The prevalent knowledge of the biological systems is based on the standard scientific perception of natural equilibrium, determination and predictability. Recently, a rethinking of concepts was presented and a new scientific perspective emerged that involves complexity theory with deterministic chaos theory, nonlinear dynamics and theory of fractals. The unpredictability of the chaotic processes probably would change our understanding of diseases and their management. The mathematical definition of chaos is defined by deterministic behavior with irregular patterns that obey mathematical equations which are critically dependent on initial conditions. The chaos theory is the branch of sciences with an interest in nonlinear dynamics, fractals, bifurcations, periodic oscillations and complexity. Recently, the biomedical interest for this scientific field made these mathematical concepts available to medical researchers and practitioners. Any biological network system is considered to have a nominal state, which is recognized as a homeostatic state. In reality, the different physiological systems are not under normal conditions in a stable state of homeostatic balance, but they are in a dynamically stable state with a chaotic behavior and complexity. Biological systems like heart rhythm and brain electrical activity are dynamical systems that can be classified as chaotic systems with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In biological systems, the state of a disease is characterized by a loss of the complexity and chaotic behavior, and by the presence of pathological periodicity and regulatory behavior. The failure or the collapse of nonlinear dynamics is an indication of disease rather than a characteristic of health.
A Gradient Orientation Based Efficient Linear Interpolation Method
This paper proposes a low-complexity image interpolation method. Image interpolation is used to convert a low dimension video/image to high dimension video/image. The objective of a good interpolation method is to upscale an image in such a way that it provides better edge preservation at the cost of very low complexity so that real-time processing of video frames can be made possible. However, low complexity methods tend to provide real-time interpolation at the cost of blurring, jagging and other artifacts due to errors in slope calculation. Non-linear methods, on the other hand, provide better edge preservation, but at the cost of high complexity and hence they can be considered very far from having real-time interpolation. The proposed method is a linear method that uses gradient orientation for slope calculation, unlike conventional linear methods that uses the contrast of nearby pixels. Prewitt edge detection is applied to separate uniform regions and edges. Simple line averaging is applied to unknown uniform regions, whereas unknown edge pixels are interpolated after calculation of slopes using gradient orientations of neighboring known edge pixels. As a post-processing step, bilateral filter is applied to interpolated edge regions in order to enhance the interpolated edges.
Analysis of Diabetes Patients Using Pearson, Cost Optimization, Control Chart Methods
In this paper, we have taken certain important factors and health parameters of diabetes patients especially among children by birth (pediatric congenital) where using the above three metrics methods we are going to assess the importance of each attributes in the dataset and thereby determining the most highly responsible and co-related attribute causing diabetics among young patients. We use cost optimization, control chart and Spearmen methodologies for the real-time application of finding the data efficiency in this diabetes dataset. The Spearmen methodology is the correlation methodologies used in software development process to identify the complexity between the various modules of the software. Identifying the complexity is important because if the complexity is higher, then there is a higher chance of occurrence of the risk in the software. With the use of control; chart mean, variance and standard deviation of data are calculated. With the use of Cost optimization model, we find to optimize the variables. Hence we choose the Spearmen, control chart and cost optimization methods to assess the data efficiency in diabetes datasets.
Low Complexity Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation for Cooperative Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication Systems without Cyclic Prefix
Cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which possesses the advantages of better connectivity, expanded coverage, and resistance to frequency selective fading, has been a more powerful solution for the physical layer in wireless communications. However, such a hybrid scheme suffers from the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effects inherited from the OFDM-based systems, which lead to a significant degradation in performance. In addition, insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP) at each symbol block head for combating inter-symbol interference will lead to a reduction in spectral efficiency. The design on the CFO estimation for the cooperative OFDM system without CP is a suspended problem. This motivates us to develop a low complexity CFO estimator for the cooperative OFDM decode-and-forward (DF) communication system without CP over the multipath fading channel. Especially, using a block-type pilot, the CFO estimation is first derived in accordance with the least square criterion. A reliable performance can be obtained through an exhaustive two-dimensional (2D) search with a penalty of heavy computational complexity. As a remedy, an alternative solution realized with an iteration approach is proposed for the CFO estimation. In contrast to the 2D-search estimator, the iterative method enjoys the advantage of the substantially reduced implementation complexity without sacrificing the estimate performance. Computer simulations have been presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed CFO estimation.
Parametric Design as an Approach to Respond to Complexity
A city is an intertwined texture from the relationship of different components in a whole which is united in a one, so designing the whole complex and its planning is not an easy matter. By considering that a city is a complex system with infinite components and communications, providing flexible layouts that can respond to the unpredictable character of the city, which is a result of its complexity, is inevitable. Parametric design approach as a new approach can produce flexible and transformative layouts in any stage of design. This study aimed to introduce parametric design as a modern approach to respond to complex urban issues by using descriptive and analytical methods. This paper firstly introduces complex systems and then giving a brief characteristic of complex systems. The flexible design and layout flexibility is another matter in response and simulation of complex urban systems that should be considered in design, which is discussed in this study. In this regard, after describing the nature of the parametric approach as a flexible approach, as well as a tool and appropriate way to respond to features such as limited predictability, reciprocating nature, complex communications, and being sensitive to initial conditions and hierarchy, this paper introduces parametric design.
2D Hexagonal Cellular Automata: The Complexity of Forms
We created two-dimensional hexagonal cellular automata to obtain complexity by using simple rules same as Conway’s game of life. Considering the game of life rules, Wolfram's works about life-like structures and John von Neumann's self-replication, self-maintenance, self-reproduction problems, we developed 2-states and 3-states hexagonal growing algorithms that reach large populations through random initial states. Unlike the game of life, we used six neighbourhoods cellular automata instead of eight or four neighbourhoods. First simulations explained that whether we are able to obtain sort of oscillators, blinkers, and gliders. Inspired by Wolfram's 1D cellular automata complexity and life-like structures, we simulated 2D synchronous, discrete, deterministic cellular automata to reach life-like forms with 2-states cells. The life-like formations and the oscillators have been explained how they contribute to initiating self-maintenance together with self-reproduction and self-replication. After comparing simulation results, we decided to develop the algorithm for another step. Appending a new state to the same algorithm, which we used for reaching life-like structures, led us to experiment new branching and fractal forms. All these studies tried to demonstrate that complex life forms might come from uncomplicated rules.
Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration
In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.
Taleb's Complexity Theory Concept of 'Antifragility' Has a Significant Contribution to Make to Positive Psychology as Applied to Wellbeing
Given the increasingly manifest phenomena, as described in complexity theory, of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA), Taleb's notion of 'antifragility, has a significant contribution to make to positive psychology applied to wellbeing. Antifragility is argued to be fundamentally different from the concepts of resiliency; as the ability to recover from failure, and robustness; as the ability to resist failure. Rather it describes the capacity to reorganise in the face of stress in such a way as to cope more effectively with systemic challenges. The concept, which has been applied in disciplines ranging from physics, molecular biology, planning, engineering, and computer science, can now be considered for its application in individual human and social wellbeing. There are strong correlations to Antonovsky's model of 'salutogenesis' in which an attitude and competencies are developed of transforming burdening factors into greater resourcefulness. We demonstrate, from the perspective of neuroscience, how technology measuring nervous system coherence can be coupled to acquired psychodynamic approaches to not only identify contextual stressors, utilise biofeedback instruments for facilitating greater coherence, but apply these insights to specific life stressors that compromise well-being. Employing an on-going case study with BMW South Africa, the neurological mapping is demonstrated together with 'reframing' and emotional anchoring techniques from neurolinguistic programming. The argument is contextualised in the discipline of psychoneuroimmunology which describes the stress pathways from the CNS and endocrine systems and their impact on immune function and the capacity to restore homeostasis.
A Holistic Workflow Modeling Method for Business Process Redesign
In a highly competitive environment, it becomes more important to shorten the whole business process while delivering or even enhancing the business value to the customers and suppliers. Although the workflow management systems receive much attention for its capacity to practically support the business process enactment, the effective workflow modeling method remain still challenging and the high degree of process complexity makes it more difficult to gain the short lead time. This paper presents a workflow structuring method in a holistic way that can reduce the process complexity using activity-needs and formal concept analysis, which eventually enhances the key performance such as quality, delivery, and cost in business process.
Reduced Complexity Iterative Solution For I/Q Imbalance Problem in DVB-T2 Systems
The mismatch between in-phase and quadrature signals in Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, such as DVB-T2, results in a severe degradation in performance. Several general solutions have been proposed in the past, but these are largely computationally intensive, leading to complex implementations. In this paper, we propose a relatively simple iterative solution, which provides good results in relatively few iterations, using fixed precision arithmetic. An additional advantage is that complex digital blocks, such as dividers and square root, are not required. Thus, the proposed solution may be implemented in relatively simple hardware.
Gender Based Variability Time Series Complexity Analysis
Nonlinear methods of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis are becoming more popular. It has been observed that complexity measures quantify the regularity and uncertainty of cardiovascular RR-interval time series. In the present work, SampEn has been evaluated in healthy Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR) male and female subjects for different data lengths and tolerance level r. It is demonstrated that SampEn is small for higher values of tolerance r. Also SampEn value of healthy female group is higher than that of healthy male group for short data length and with increase in data length both groups overlap each other and it is difficult to distinguish them. The SampEn gives inaccurate results by assigning higher value to female group, because male subject have more complex HRV pattern than that of female subjects. Therefore, this traditional algorithm exhibits higher complexity for healthy female subjects than for healthy male subjects, which is misleading observation. This may be due to the fact that SampEn do not account for multiple time scales inherent in the physiologic time series and the hidden spatial and temporal fluctuations remains unexplored.
Measuring the Effectiveness of Response Inhibition regarding to Motor Complexity: Evidence from the Stroop Effect
We studied the effectiveness of response inhibition in movements with different degrees of motor complexity when they were executed in isolation and alternately. Sixteen participants performed the Stroop task which was used as a measure of response inhibition. Participants responded by lifting the index finger and reaching the screen with the same finger. Both actions were performed separately and alternately in different experimental blocks. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare reaction time, movement time, kinematic errors and Movement errors across conditions (experimental block, movement, and congruency). Delta plots were constructed to perform distributional analyses of response inhibition and accuracy rate. The effectiveness of response inhibition did not show difference when the movements were performed in separated blocks. Nevertheless, it showed differences when they were performed alternately in the same experimental block, being more effective for the lifting action. This could be due to a competition of the available resources during a more complex scenario which also demands to adopt some strategy to avoid errors.
Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Carriers’ Perceptions
Empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception of the virtual container yard using chi-square tests. It examines if the carriers perceive that the selected independent variables, namely culture, organization, decision, marketing, attitudes, legal, independent, complexity, and stakeholders of carriers, impact the efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that complexity, attitudes, and stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Secondly, the three factors of legal, organization, and decision influence only the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of the virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors, namely complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce overall shipping costs, it is vital to examine the carriers’ perception of this concept.
Visualizing the Commercial Activity of a City by Analyzing the Data Information in Layers
This paper aims to demonstrate how network models can be used to understand and to deal with some aspects of urban complexity. As it is well known, the Theory of Architecture and Urbanism has been using for decades’ intellectual tools based on the ‘sciences of complexity’ as a strategy to propose theoretical approaches about cities and about architecture. In this sense, it is possible to find a vast literature in which for instance network theory is used as an instrument to understand very diverse questions about cities: from their commercial activity to their heritage condition. The contribution of this research consists in adding one step of complexity to this process: instead of working with one single primal graph as it is usually done, we will show how new network models arise from the consideration of two different primal graphs interacting in two layers. When we model an urban network through a mathematical structure like a graph, the city is usually represented by a set of nodes and edges that reproduce its topology, with the data generated or extracted from the city embedded in it. All this information is normally displayed in a single layer. Here, we propose to separate the information in two layers so that we can evaluate the interaction between them. Besides, both layers may be composed of structures that do not have to coincide: from this bi-layer system, groups of interactions emerge, suggesting reflections and in consequence, possible actions.
Explaining Irregularity in Music by Entropy and Information Content
In 2017, we conducted a research study using data consisting of 160 musical excerpts from different musical styles, to analyze the impact of entropy of the harmony on the acceptability of music. In measuring the entropy of harmony, we were interested in unigrams (individual chords in the harmonic progression) and bigrams (the connection of two adjacent chords). In this study, it has been found that 53 musical excerpts out from 160 were evaluated by participants as very complex, although the entropy of the harmonic progression (unigrams and bigrams) was calculated as low. We have explained this by particularities of chord progression, which impact the listener's feeling of complexity and acceptability. We have evaluated the same data twice with new participants in 2018 and with the same participants for the third time in 2019. These three evaluations have shown that the same 53 musical excerpts, found to be difficult and complex in the study conducted in 2017, are exhibiting a high feeling of complexity again. It was proposed that the content of these musical excerpts, defined as “irregular,” is not meeting the listener's expectancy and the basic perceptual principles, creating a higher feeling of difficulty and complexity. As the “irregularities” in these 53 musical excerpts seem to be perceived by the participants without being aware of it, affecting the pleasantness and the feeling of complexity, they have been defined as “subliminal irregularities” and the 53 musical excerpts as “irregular.” In our recent study (2019) of the same data (used in previous research works), we have proposed a new measure of the complexity of harmony, “regularity,” based on the irregularities in the harmonic progression and other plausible particularities in the musical structure found in previous studies. We have in this study also proposed a list of 10 different particularities for which we were assuming that they are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity in harmony. These ten particularities have been tested in this paper, by extending the analysis in our 53 irregular musical excerpts from harmony to melody. In the examining of melody, we have used the computational model “Information Dynamics of Music” (IDyOM) and two information-theoretic measures: entropy - the uncertainty of the prediction before the next event is heard, and information content - the unexpectedness of an event in a sequence. In order to describe the features of melody in these musical examples, we have used four different viewpoints: pitch, interval, duration, scale degree. The results have shown that the texture of melody (e.g., multiple voices, homorhythmic structure) and structure of melody (e.g., huge interval leaps, syncopated rhythm, implied harmony in compound melodies) in these musical excerpts are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity. High information content values were found in compound melodies in which implied harmonies seem to have suggested additional harmonies, affecting the participant’s perception of the chord progression in harmony by creating a sense of an ambiguous musical structure.
11-Round Impossible Differential Attack on Midori64
This paper focuses on examining the strength of Midori against impossible differential attack. The Midori family of light weight block cipher orienting to energy-efficiency is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. Using a 6-round property, the authors implement an 11-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 by extending two rounds on the top and three rounds on the bottom. There is enough key space to consider pre-whitening keys in this attack. An impossible differential path that minimises the key bits involved is used to reduce computational complexity. Several additional observations such as partial abort technique are used to further reduce data and time complexities. This attack has data complexity of 2 ⁶⁹·² chosen plaintexts, requires 2 ¹⁴·⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2 ⁹⁴·⁷ 11- round Midori64 encryptions.
The Role Played by Awareness and Complexity through the Use of a Logistic Regression Analysis
Adoption of Precision Agriculture (PA) is involved in a multidimensional and complex scenario. The process of adopting innovations is complex and social inherently, influenced by other producers, change agents, social norms and organizational pressure. Complexity depends on factors that interact and influence the decision to adopt. Farm and operator characteristics, as well as organizational, informational and agro-ecological context directly affect adoption. This influence has been studied to measure drivers and to clarify 'bottlenecks' of the adoption of agricultural innovation. Making decision process involves a multistage procedure, in which individual passes from first hearing about the technology to final adoption. Awareness is the initial stage and represents the moment in which an individual learns about the existence of the technology. 'Static' concept of adoption has been overcome. Awareness is a precondition to adoption. This condition leads to not encountering some erroneous evaluations, arose from having carried out analysis on a population that is only in part aware of technologies. In support of this, the present study puts forward an empirical analysis among Italian farmers, considering awareness as a prerequisite for adoption. The purpose of the present work is to analyze both factors that affect the probability to adopt and determinants that drive an aware individual to not adopt. Data were collected through a questionnaire submitted in November 2017. A preliminary descriptive analysis has shown that high levels of adoption have been found among younger farmers, better educated, with high intensity of information, with large farm size and high labor-intensive, and whose perception of the complexity of adoption process is lower. The use of a logit model permits to appreciate the weight played by the intensity of labor and complexity perceived by the potential adopter in PA adoption process. All these findings suggest important policy implications: measures dedicated to promoting innovation will need to be more specific for each phase of this adoption process. Specifically, they should increase awareness of PA tools and foster dissemination of information to reduce the degree of perceived complexity of the adoption process. These implications are particularly important in Europe where is pre-announced the reform of Common Agricultural Policy, oriented to innovation. In this context, these implications suggest to the measures supporting innovation to consider the relationship between various organizational and structural dimensions of European agriculture and innovation approaches.
A Comparative Study of High Order Rotated Group Iterative Schemes on Helmholtz Equation
In this paper, we present a high order group explicit method in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The presented method is derived from a nine-point fourth order finite difference approximation formula obtained from a 45-degree rotation of the standard grid which makes it possible for the construction of iterative procedure with reduced complexity. The developed method will be compared with the existing group iterative schemes available in literature in terms of computational time, iteration counts, and computational complexity. The comparative performances of the methods will be discussed and reported.
Structuring Paraphrases: The Impact Sentence Complexity Has on Key Leader Engagements
Soldiers are taught about the importance of effective communication with repetition of the phrase, “Communication is key.” They receive training in preparing for, and carrying out, interactions between foreign and domestic leaders to gain crucial information about a mission. These interactions are known as Key Leader Engagements (KLEs). For the training of KLEs, doctrine mandates the skills needed to conduct these “engagements” such as how to: behave appropriately, identify key leaders, and employ effective strategies. Army officers in training learn how to confront leaders, what information to gain, and how to ask questions respectfully. Unfortunately, soldiers rarely learn how to formulate questions optimally. Since less complex questions are easier to understand, we hypothesize that semantic complexity affects content understanding, and that age and education levels may have an effect on one’s ability to form paraphrases and judge their quality. In this study, we looked at paraphrases of queries as well as judgments of both the paraphrases’ naturalness and their semantic similarity to the query. Queries were divided into three complexity categories based on the number of relations (the first number) and the number of knowledge graph edges (the second number). Two crowd-sourced tasks were completed by Amazon volunteer participants, also known as turkers, to answer the research questions: (i) Are more complex queries harder to paraphrase and judge and (ii) Do age and education level affect the ability to understand complex queries. We ran statistical tests as follows: MANOVA for query understanding and two-way ANOVA to understand the relationship between query complexity and education and age. A probe of the number of given-level queries selected for paraphrasing by crowd-sourced workers in seven age ranges yielded promising results. We found significant evidence that age plays a role and marginally significant evidence that education level plays a role. These preliminary tests, with output p-values of 0.0002 and 0.068, respectively, suggest the importance of content understanding in a communication skill set. This basic ability to communicate, which may differ by age and education, permits reproduction and quality assessment and is crucial in training soldiers for effective participation in KLEs.
Modified RSA in Mobile Communication
The security in mobile communication is very different from the internet or telecommunication, because of its poor user interface and limited processing capacity, as well as combination of complex network protocols. Hence, it poses a challenge for less memory usage and low computation speed based security system. Security involves all the activities that are undertaken to protect the value and on-going usability of assets and the integrity and continuity of operations. An effective network security strategies requires identifying threats and then choosing the most effective set of tools to combat them. Cryptography is a simple and efficient way to provide security in communication. RSA is an asymmetric key approach that is highly reliable and widely used in internet communication. However, it has not been efficiently implemented in mobile communication due its computational complexity and large memory utilization. The proposed algorithm modifies the current RSA to be useful in mobile communication by reducing its computational complexity and memory utilization.
Five Pitfalls in Defining a Health System and Implications for Research and Management
Globally, researchers have struggled over time to adequately define the notion of health system to inform research. This study is significant because it proposes an integrative framework for a robust definition of the health system. The objective of this article is to examine major pitfalls in definitions of health system used in prior literature and implications of these for research and management. The study used methodological steps of a scoping review proposed by Arksey and O'Malley to identify and examine 24 definitions of a health system in articles selected from six databases and web search engines. Thematic analysis was used to delineate and categorise definitional pitfalls into broader themes. There are a plethora of five major pitfalls in the extant definitions of a health system which may easily scupper any unsuspecting researcher if not avoided or addressed in research. These definitional pitfalls are reductionist assumptions which ignore dynamic and complex connections, overly wide boundary and lack of specification of levels in a health system, and limited focus on process in a health system. In addition, there is the tendency of treating different components of the health system as equal and simplifying of the ontological complexity of the health system. Future scholars are advised to avoid or address the identified five major pitfalls if they are to develop robust definitions of an HS. The use of an integrative framework for a robust definition of a health system is recommended, while implications of the pitfalls are discussed as a basis and catalyst for complexity-informed research and managing interactively.
Difficulty and Complexity in Dealing with Visual Pollution in the Historical Cities: The Historical City of Ibb-Yemen as a Case Study
The historical cities in the third world suffer from many environmental problems; one of them is the spread of visual pollution manifestations. These phenomena increase with low levels of public awareness and low per capita income. The historical city of Ibb is suffering from a variety of visual pollution of the urban environment, so it has been chosen as a case study. This study aims to identify the difficulty and complexity of dealing with visual pollutions manifestations in the historical city of Ibb, and to provide appropriate solutions, which suit with the complex and contradictory circumstances. The study relies on an inductive approach to achieve its aims through two methods; the first is a visual survey of the visual pollution phenomenon based on images and researcher notes. The Second method is the analyses of the opinions and impressions of the city's residents and visitors through interviews, in addition to interviews with the officials in the competent authorities, and some specialists in the field of urban environment. Through the results of the field study and discussion of the interview results, this study presents an analysis of the phenomenon of visual distortion of the historical city of Ibb regarding the appearances and the reasons. Furthermore, this study provides appropriate solutions, which suitable with the complex and contradictory circumstances. These solutions take two paths: the first one is to stop the spread of visual distortions, and the second path is to address the current visual pollutions.
Improved Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of Midori64
The Midori family of light weight block cipher is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. It has attracted the attention of numerous cryptanalysts. There are two versions of Midori: Midori64 which takes a 64-bit block size and Midori128 the size of which is 128-bit. In this paper, an improved 10-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 is proposed. Pre-whitening keys are considered in this attack. A better impossible differential path is used to reduce time complexity by decreasing the number of key bits guessed. A hash table is built in the pre-computation phase to reduce computational complexity. Partial abort technique is used in the key seiving phase. The attack requires 2⁵⁹ chosen plaintexts, 2¹⁴.⁵⁸ blocks of memory and 2⁶⁸.⁸³ 10-round Midori64 encryptions.
Improved Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis of Midori64
The Midori family of light weight block cipher is proposed in ASIACRYPT2015. It has attracted the attention of numerous cryptanalysts. There are two versions of Midori: Midori64 which takes a 64-bit block size and Midori128 the size of which is 128-bit. In this paper an improved 10-round impossible differential attack on Midori64 is proposed. Pre-whitening keys are considered in this attack. A better impossible differential path is used to reduce time complexity by decreasing the number of key bits guessed. A hash table is built in the pre-computation phase to reduce computational complexity. Partial abort technique is used in the key seiving phase. The attack requires 259 chosen plaintexts, 214.58 blocks of memory and 268.83 10-round Midori64 encryptions.
Low Complexity Deblocking Algorithm
A low computational deblocking filter including three frequency related modes (smooth mode, intermediate mode, and non-smooth mode for low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high frequency regions, respectively) is proposed. The suggested approach requires zero additions, zero subtractions, zero multiplications (for intermediate region), no divisions (for non-smooth region) and no comparison. The suggested method thus keeps the computation lower and thus suitable for image coding systems based on blocks. Comparison of average number of operations for smooth, non-smooth, intermediate (per pixel vector for each block) using filter suggested by Chen and the proposed method filter suggests that the proposed filter keeps the computation lower and is thus suitable for fast processing algorithms.
Electroencephalography (EEG) Analysis of Alcoholic and Control Subjects Using Multiscale Permutation Entropy
Brain electrical activity as reflected in Electroencephalography (EEG) have been analyzed and diagnosed using various techniques. Among them, complexity measure, nonlinearity, disorder, and unpredictability play vital role due to the nonlinear interconnection between functional and anatomical subsystem emerged in brain in healthy state and during various diseases. There are many social and economical issues of alcoholic abuse as memory weakness, decision making, impairments, and concentrations etc. Alcoholism not only defect the brains but also associated with emotional, behavior, and cognitive impairments damaging the white and gray brain matters. A recently developed signal analysis method i.e. Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MPE) is proposed to estimate the complexity of long-range temporal correlation time series EEG of Alcoholic and Control subjects acquired from University of California Machine Learning repository and results are compared with MSE. Using MPE, coarsed grained series is first generated and the PE is computed for each coarsed grained time series against the electrodes O1, O2, C3, C4, F2, F3, F4, F7, F8, Fp1, Fp2, P3, P4, T7, and T8. The results computed against each electrode using MPE gives higher significant values as compared to MSE as well as mean rank differences accordingly. Likewise, ROC and Area under the ROC also gives higher separation against each electrode using MPE in comparison to MSE.
Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation
In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC‑1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based ME employing 2-bit depth constraint mask instead of a 1-bit depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.
Efficient Iterative V-BLAST Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System
Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMOOFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative VBLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6 % less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.
Interbank Networks and the Benefits of Using Multilayer Structures
Complexity science seeks the understanding of systems adopting diverse theories from various areas. Network analysis has been gaining space and credibility, namely with the biological, social and economic systems. Significant part of the literature focuses only monolayer representations of connections among agents considering one level of their relationships, and excludes other levels of interactions, leading to simplistic results in network analysis. Therefore, this work aims to demonstrate the advantages of the use of multilayer networks for the representation and analysis of networks. For this, we analyzed an interbank network, composed of 42 banks, comparing the centrality measures of the agents (degree and PageRank) resulting from each method (monolayer x multilayer). This proved to be the most reliable and efficient the multilayer analysis for the study of the current networks and highlighted JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank as the most important banks of the analyzed network.
Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna
To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.
Defining a Holistic Approach for Model-Based System Engineering: Paradigm and Modeling Requirements
Current systems complexity has reached a degree that requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into account all the necessary aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex systems are specified and designed. The exponential growing effort, cost and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework and a environment to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and defines the refined functional as well as non functional requirements modeling tools needs to meet to be useful in model-based system engineering.
Web-Based Paperless Campus: An Approach to Reduce the Cost and Complexity of Education Administration
Recent increase in access to personal computer and networking systems have made it feasible to perform much of cumbersome and costly paper-based administration in all organization. Desktop computers, networking systems, high capacity storage devices and telecommunications system is currently allowing the transfer of various format of data to be processed, stored and dissemination for the purpose of decision making. Going paperless is more of benefits compare to full paper-based office. This paper proposed a model for design and implementation of e-administration system (paperless campus) for an institution of learning. If this model is design and implemented it will reduced cost and complexity of educational administration also eliminate menaces and environmental hazards attributed to paper-based administration within schools and colleges.
Hypergraph Models of Metabolism
In this paper, we employ a directed hypergraph model to investigate the extent to which environmental variability influences the set of available biochemical reactions within a living cell. Such an approach avoids the limitations of the usual complex network formalism by allowing for the multilateral relationships (i.e. connections involving more than two nodes) that naturally occur within many biological processes. More specifically, we extend the concept of network reciprocity to complex hyper-networks, thus enabling us to characterize a network in terms of the existence of mutual hyper-connections, which may be considered a proxy for metabolic network complexity. To demonstrate these ideas, we study 115 metabolic hyper-networks of bacteria, each of which can be classified into one of 6 increasingly varied habitats. In particular, we found that reciprocity increases significantly with increased environmental variability, supporting the view that organism adaptability leads to increased complexities in the resultant biochemical networks.
Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems
Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages
Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.
Economical Dependency Evolution and Complexity
The purpose of this work is to show the complexity behind economical interrelations in a country and provide a linear dynamic model of economical dependency evolution in a country. The model is based on National Transfer Account which is one of the most robust methodology developed in order to measure a level of demographic dividend captured in a country. It is built upon three major factors: demography, economical dependency and migration. The established mathematical model has been simulated using Netlogo software. The innovation of this study is in describing economical dependency as a complex system and simulating using mathematical equation the evolution of the two populations: the economical dependent and the non-economical dependent as defined in the National Transfer Account methodology. It also allows us to see the interactions and behaviors of both populations. The model can track individual characteristics and look at the effect of birth and death rates on the evolution of these two populations. The developed model is useful to understand how demographic and economic phenomenon are related
Empirical Exploration of Correlations between Software Design Measures: A Replication Study
Software engineers apply different measures to quantify the quality of software design. These measures consider artifacts developed at low or high level software design phases. The results are used to point to design weaknesses and to indicate design points that have to be restructured. Understanding the relationship among the quality measures and among the design quality aspects considered by these measures is important to interpreting the impact of a measure for a quality aspect on other potentially related aspects. In addition, exploring the relationship between quality measures helps to explain the impact of different quality measures on external quality aspects, such as reliability and maintainability. In this paper, we report a replication study that empirically explores the correlation between six well known and commonly applied design quality measures. These measures consider several quality aspects, including complexity, cohesion, coupling, and inheritance. The results indicate that inheritance measures are weakly correlated to other measures, whereas complexity, coupling, and cohesion measures are mostly strongly correlated.  
A Phenomenological Study of Sports for the Analysis of Soccer Game: On Embodiment of the Goal Type Ball Games of Team Sports
This study aims to identify phenomenologically the embodiment of soccer in order to analyze soccer games. In this paper the authors focused on the embodiment of sports and the embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports. The authors revealed that the embodiment of sports is represented by inverse proportional body. It is possible for this structure (body scheme) of intercorporeality of sports to be compared to the symbolic figure of Uroboros which is a monster connected the tails of two snakes. The embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports has dependency on situation and complexity. In doing this, it revealed that soccer is sensitive and emotional sports.
Enunciation on Complexities of Selected Tree Searching Algorithms
Searching trees is a most interesting application of Artificial Intelligence. Over the period of time, many innovative methods have been evolved to better search trees with respect to computational complexities. Tree searches are difficult to understand due to the exponential growth of possibilities when increasing the number of nodes or levels in the tree. Usually it is understood when we traverse down in the tree, traverse down to greater depth, in the search of a solution or a goal. However, this does not happen in reality as explicit enumeration is not a very efficient method and there are many algorithmic speedups that will find the optimal solution without the burden of evaluating all possible trees. It was a common question before all researchers where they often wonder what algorithms will yield the best and fastest result The intention of this paper is two folds, one to review selected tree search algorithms and search strategies that can be applied to a problem space and the second objective is to stimulate to implement recent developments in the complexity behavior of search strategies. The algorithms discussed here apply in general to both brute force and heuristic searches.
UWB Channel Estimation Using an Efficient Sub-Nyquist Sampling Scheme
Recently, low-complexity sub-Nyquist sampling schemes based on the Finite Rate of Innovation (FRI) theory have been introduced to sample parametric signals at minimum rates. The multichannel modulating waveforms (MCMW) is such an efficient scheme, where the received signal is mixed with an appropriate set of arbitrary waveforms, integrated and sampled at rates far below the Nyquist rate. In this paper, the MCMW scheme is adapted to the special case of ultra wideband (UWB) channel estimation, characterized by dense multipaths. First, an appropriate structure, which accounts for the bandpass spectrum feature of UWB signals, is defined. Then, a novel approach to decrease the number of processing channels and reduce the complexity of this sampling scheme is presented. Finally, the proposed concepts are validated by simulation results, obtained with real filters, in the framework of a coherent Rake receiver.
Fractal Analysis of Polyacrylamide-Graphene Oxide Composite Gels
The fractal analysis is a bridge between the microstructure and macroscopic properties of gels. Fractal structure is usually provided to define the complexity of crosslinked molecules. The complexity in gel systems is described by the fractal dimension (Df). In this study, polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were prepared by free radical crosslinking copolymerization. The fractal analysis of polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were analyzed in various GO contents during gelation and were investigated by using Fluorescence Technique. The analysis was applied to estimate Df s of the composite gels. Fractal dimension of the polymer composite gels were estimated based on the power law exponent values using scaling models. In addition, here we aimed to present the geometrical distribution of GO during gelation. And we observed that as gelation proceeded GO plates first organized themselves into 3D percolation cluster with Df=2.52, then goes to diffusion limited clusters with Df =1.4 and then lines up to Von Koch curve with random interval with Df=1.14. Here, our goal is to try to interpret the low conductivity and/or broad forbidden gap of GO doped PAAm gels, by the distribution of GO in the final form of the produced gel.
Fractal Analysis of Polyacrylamide-Graphene Oxide Composite Gels
The fractal analysis is a bridge between the microstructure and macroscopic properties of gels. Fractal structure is usually provided to define the complexity of crosslinked molecules. The complexity in gel systems is described by the fractal dimension (Df). In this study, polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were prepared by free radical crosslinking copolymerization. The fractal analysis of polyacrylamide- graphene oxide (GO) composite gels were analyzed in various GO contents during gelation and were investigated by using Fluorescence Technique. The analysis was applied to estimate Df s of the composite gels. Fractal dimension of the polymer composite gels were estimated based on the power law exponent values using scaling models. In addition, here we aimed to present the geometrical distribution of GO during gelation. And we observed that as gelation proceeded GO plates first organized themselves into 3D percolation cluster with Df=2.52, then goes to diffusion limited clusters with Df =1.4 and then lines up to Von Koch curve with random interval with Df=1.14. Here, our goal is to try to interpret the low conductivity and/or broad forbidden gap of GO doped PAAm gels, by the distribution of GO in the final form of the produced gel.
An Approach for Multilayered Ecological Networks
Although networks provide a powerful approach to the study of a wide variety of ecological systems, their formulation usually does not include various types of interactions, interactions that vary in space and time, and interconnected systems such as networks. The emerging field of 'multilayer networks' provides a natural framework for extending ecological systems analysis to include these multiple layers of complexity as it specifically allows for differentiation and modeling of intralayer and interlayer connectivity. The structure provides a set of concepts and tools that can be adapted and applied to the ecology, facilitating research in high dimensionality, heterogeneous systems in nature. Here, ecological multilayer networks are formally defined based on a review of prior and related approaches, illustrates their application and potential with existing data analyzes, and discusses limitations, challenges, and future applications. The integration of multilayer network theory into ecology offers a largely untapped potential to further address ecological complexity, to finally provide new theoretical and empirical insights into the architecture and dynamics of ecological systems.
Variations in Spatial Learning and Memory across Natural Populations of Zebrafish, Danio rerio
Cognitive abilities aid fishes in foraging, avoiding predators & locating mates. Factors like predation pressure & habitat complexity govern learning & memory in fishes. This study aims to compare spatial learning & memory across four natural populations of zebrafish. Zebrafish, a small cyprinid inhabits a diverse range of freshwater habitats & this makes it amenable to studies investigating role of native environment in spatial cognitive abilities. Four populations were collected across India from waterbodies with contrasting ecological conditions. Habitat complexity of the water-bodies was evaluated as a combination of channel substrate diversity and diversity of vegetation. Experiments were conducted on populations under controlled laboratory conditions. A square shaped spatial testing arena (maze) was constructed for testing the performance of adult zebrafish. The square tank consisted of an inner square shaped layer with the edges connected to the diagonal ends of the tank-walls by connections thereby forming four separate chambers. Each of the four chambers had a main door in the centre. Each chamber had three sections separated by two windows. A removable coloured window-pane (red, yellow, green or blue) identified each main door. A food reward associated with an artificial plant was always placed inside the left-hand section of the red-door chamber. The position of food-reward and plant within the red-door chamber was fixed. A test fish would have to explore the maze by taking turns and locate the food inside the right-side section of the red-door chamber. Fishes were sorted from each population stock and kept individually in separate containers for identification. At a time, a test fish was released into the arena and allowed 20 minutes to explore in order to find the food-reward. In this way, individual fishes were trained through the maze to locate the food reward for eight consecutive days. The position of red door, with the plant and the reward, was shuffled every day. Following training, an intermission of four days was given during which the fishes were not subjected to trials. Post-intermission, the fishes were re-tested on the 13th day following the same protocol for their ability to remember the learnt task. Exploratory tendencies and latency of individuals to explore on 1st day of training, performance time across trials, and number of mistakes made each day were recorded. Additionally, mechanism used by individuals to solve the maze each day was analyzed across populations. Fishes could be expected to use algorithm (sequence of turns) or associative cues in locating the food reward. Individuals of populations did not differ significantly in latencies and tendencies to explore. No relationship was found between exploration and learning across populations. High habitat-complexity populations had higher rates of learning & stronger memory while low habitat-complexity populations had lower rates of learning and much reduced abilities to remember. High habitat-complexity populations used associative cues more than algorithm for learning and remembering while low habitat-complexity populations used both equally. The study, therefore, helped understand the role of natural ecology in explaining variations in spatial learning abilities across populations.
From Mobility to Complexity: French Language Use among Algerian Doctoral Postgraduates in Scotland
The study explores the phenomenon of second language use in a migratory setting and uses the case of Algerian international students in Scotland, United Kingdom. The linguistic history of Algeria reveals that French language has a high status among the Algerians’ verbal repertoires and Algerian English students consider it as a language of prestige. With mobility of some of these students towards Scotland -in the guise of internationalization of higher education, mobility and exchange programs, the transition was deemed to bring more complexity to their pre-migratory linguistic repertoires and resulted into their French language- being endangered and threatened by a potential shift to English. The study employed semi-structured interviews among six Ph.D. ethnically related students, and the main aim behind that is to explore their current experiences with regards to French language use and to provide an account of the factors which assist in shifting to English as a second language instead. The six participants identified in interviews were further invited to focus group sessions based on an in-group interaction fashion to discuss different topics using heritage languages. This latter was opted for as part of the methodology as a means to observe their real linguistic practice and to investigate the link between behaviors and previous perceptions. The findings detect a variety of social, individual and socio-psychological factors that would contribute in refining the concept of language shift among newly established émigré communities with short stay vis a vis the linguistic outcomes of immigrants with long stay, across generational basis that was –to some extent-the focus of previous research on language shift. The results further reveal a mismatch between students' perceptions and observed behaviors. The research is then largely relevant to international students’ sociolinguistic experience of study abroad.
Complex Decision Rules in the Form of Decision Trees
Decision rules become more and more complex as the number of conditions increase. As a consequence, the complexity of the decision rule also influences the time complexity of computer implementation of such a rule. Consider, for example, a decision that depends on four conditions A, B, C and D. For simplicity, suppose each of these four conditions is binary. Even then the decision rule will consist of 16 lines, where each line will be of the form: If A and B and C and D, then action 1. If A and B and C but not D, then action 2 and so on. While executing this decision rule, each of the four conditions will be checked every time until all the four conditions in a line are satisfied. The minimum number of logical comparisons is 4 whereas the maximum number is 64. This paper proposes to present a complex decision rule in the form of a decision tree. A decision tree divides the cases into branches every time a condition is checked. In the form of a decision tree, every branching eliminates half of the cases that do not satisfy the related conditions. As a result, every branch of the decision tree involves only four logical comparisons and hence is significantly simpler than the corresponding complex decision rule. The conclusion of this paper is that every complex decision rule can be represented as a decision tree and the decision tree is mathematically equivalent but computationally much simpler than the original complex decision rule
Using the Technology Acceptance Model to Examine Seniors’ Attitudes toward Facebook
Using the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examined the external variables of technological complexity (TC) to acquire a better understanding of the factors that influence the acceptance of computer application courses by learners at Active Aging Universities. After the learners in this study had completed a 27-hour Facebook course, 44 learners responded to a modified TAM survey. Data were collected to examine the path relationships among the variables that influence the acceptance of Facebook-mediated community learning. The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to test the measurement and the structural model. The study results demonstrated that attitudes toward Facebook use directly influence behavioral intentions (BI) with respect to Facebook use, evincing a high prediction rate of 58.3%. In addition to the perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) measures that are proposed in the TAM, other external variables, such as TC, also indirectly influence BI. These four variables can explain 88% of the variance in BI and demonstrate a high level of predictive ability. Finally, limitations of this investigation and implications for further research are discussed.
Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition
In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.
The Biosphere as a Supercomputer Directing and Controlling Evolutionary Processes
The evolutionary processes are not linear. Long periods of quiet and slow development turn to rather rapid emergences of new species and even phyla. During Cambrian explosion, 22 new phyla were added to the previously existed 3 phyla. Contrary to the common credence the natural selection or a survival of the fittest cannot be accounted for the dominant evolution vector which is steady and accelerated advent of more complex and more intelligent living organisms. Neither Darwinism nor alternative concepts including panspermia and intelligent design propose a satisfactory solution for these phenomena. The proposed hypothesis offers a logical and plausible explanation of the evolutionary processes in general. It is based on two postulates: a) the Biosphere is a single living organism, all parts of which are interconnected, and b) the Biosphere acts as a giant biological supercomputer, storing and processing the information in digital and analog forms. Such supercomputer surpasses all human-made computers by many orders of magnitude. Living organisms are the product of intelligent creative action of the biosphere supercomputer. The biological evolution is driven by growing amount of information stored in the living organisms and increasing complexity of the biosphere as a single organism. Main evolutionary vector is not a survival of the fittest but an accelerated growth of the computational complexity of the living organisms. The following postulates may summarize the proposed hypothesis: biological evolution as a natural life origin and development is a reality. Evolution is a coordinated and controlled process. One of evolution’s main development vectors is a growing computational complexity of the living organisms and the biosphere’s intelligence. The intelligent matter which conducts and controls global evolution is a gigantic bio-computer combining all living organisms on Earth. The information is acting like a software stored in and controlled by the biosphere. Random mutations trigger this software, as is stipulated by Darwinian Evolution Theories, and it is further stimulated by the growing demand for the Biosphere’s global memory storage and computational complexity. Greater memory volume requires a greater number and more intellectually advanced organisms for storing and handling it. More intricate organisms require the greater computational complexity of biosphere in order to keep control over the living world. This is an endless recursive endeavor with accelerated evolutionary dynamic. New species emerge when two conditions are met: a) crucial environmental changes occur and/or global memory storage volume comes to its limit and b) biosphere computational complexity reaches critical mass capable of producing more advanced creatures. The hypothesis presented here is a naturalistic concept of life creation and evolution. The hypothesis logically resolves many puzzling problems with the current state evolution theory such as speciation, as a result of GM purposeful design, evolution development vector, as a need for growing global intelligence, punctuated equilibrium, happening when two above conditions a) and b) are met, the Cambrian explosion, mass extinctions, happening when more intelligent species should replace outdated creatures.
Examining the Effects of College Education on Democratic Attitudes in China: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis
Education is widely believed to be a prerequisite for democracy and civil society, but the causal link between education and outcome variables is usually hardly to be identified. This study applies a fuzzy regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of college education on democratic attitudes in the Chinese context. In the analysis treatment assignment is determined by students’ college entry years and thus naturally selected by subjects’ ages. Using a sample of Chinese college students collected in Beijing in 2009, this study finds that college education actually reduces undergraduates’ motivation for political development in China but promotes political loyalty to the authoritarian government. Further hypotheses tests explain these interesting findings from two perspectives. The first is related to the complexity of politics. As college students progress over time, they increasingly realize the complexity of political reform in China’s authoritarian regime and rather stay away from politics. The second is related to students’ career opportunities. As students are close to graduation, they are immersed with job hunting and have a reduced interest in political freedom.
Convex Restrictions for Outage Constrained MU-MISO Downlink under Imperfect Channel State Information
In this paper, we consider the MU-MISO downlink scenario, under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The main issue in imperfect CSI is to keep the probability of each user achievable outage rate below the given threshold level. Such a rate outage constraints present significant and analytical challenges. There are many probabilistic methods are used to minimize the transmit optimization problem under imperfect CSI. Here, decomposition based large deviation inequality and Bernstein type inequality convex restriction methods are used to perform the optimization problem under imperfect CSI. These methods are used for achieving improved output quality and lower complexity. They provide a safe tractable approximation of the original rate outage constraints. Based on these method implementations, performance has been evaluated in the terms of feasible rate and average transmission power. The simulation results are shown that all the two methods offer significantly improved outage quality and lower computational complexity.
Second-Order Complex Systems: Case Studies of Autonomy and Free Will
Although there does not exist a definitive consensus on a precise definition of a complex system, it is generally considered that a system is complex by nature. The presented work illustrates a different point of view: a system becomes complex only with regard to the question posed to it, i.e., with regard to the problem which has to be solved. A complex system is a couple (question, object). Because the number of questions posed to a given object can be potentially substantial, complexity does not present a uniform face. Two types of complex systems are clearly identified: first-order complex systems and second-order complex systems. First-order complex systems physically exist. They are well-known because they have been studied by the scientific community for a long time. In second-order complex systems, complexity results from the system composition and its articulation that are partially unknown. For some of these systems, there is no evidence of their existence. Vagueness is the keyword characterizing this kind of systems. Autonomy and free will, two mental productions of the human cognitive system, can be identified as second-order complex systems. A classification based on the properties structure makes it possible to discriminate complex properties from the others and to model this kind of second order complex systems. The final outcome is an implementable synthetic property that distinguishes the solid aspects of the actual property from those that are uncertain.
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Social Media as a Medium of Public Service Broadcasting
The increased usage of Social media for different uses in turn makes it important to develop an understanding of users and their attitudes toward these sites, and moreover, the uses of such sites in a broader perspective such as broadcasting. This quantitative study addressed the problem of factors influencing the adoption of social media as a medium of public service broadcasting in the Republic of Maldives. These powerful and increasingly usable tools, accompanied by large public social media datasets, are bringing in a golden age of social science by empowering researchers to measure social behavior on a scale never before possible. This was conducted by exploring social responses on the use of social media. Research model was developed based on the previous models such as TAM, DOI and Trust combined model. It evaluates the influence of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, complexity, compatibility and relative advantage influence on the adoption of social Media. The model was tested on a sample of 365 Maldivian people using survey method via questionnaire. The result showed that perceived usefulness, trust, relative advantage and complexity would highly influence the adoption of social media.
The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance
Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.
Customer Adoption and Attitudes in Mobile Banking in Sri Lanka
This paper intends to identify and analyze customer adoption and attitudes towards mobile banking facilities. The study uses six perceived characteristics of innovation that can be used to form a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an innovation, namely: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trailability, risk, and observability. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. The results showed that mobile bank users were predominantly males. There is a growing trend among young, educated customers towards converting to mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The research outcomes suggested that all the six factors are statistically highly significant in influencing mobile banking adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The major reasons for adopting mobile banking services are the accessibility and availability of services regardless of time and place. Over the 75 percent of the respondents mentioned that savings in time and effort and low financial costs of conducting mobile banking were advantageous. Issue of security was found to be the most important factor that motivated consumer adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking. Main barriers to mobile banking were the lack of technological skills, the traditional cash‐carry banking culture, and the lack of awareness and insufficient guidance to using mobile banking.
Designing Presentational Writing Assessments for the Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams
This paper outlines the criteria that assessment specialists use when they design the 'Persuasive Essay' task for the four Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams (AP French, German, Italian, and Spanish). The 'Persuasive Essay' is a free-response, source-based, standardized measure of presentational writing. Each 'Persuasive Essay' item consists of three sources (an article, a chart, and an audio) and a prompt, which is a statement of the topic phrased as an interrogative sentence. Due to its richness of source materials and due to the amount of time that test takers are given to prepare for and write their responses (a total of 55 minutes), the 'Persuasive Essay' is the free-response task on the AP World Language and Culture Exams that goes to the greatest lengths to unleash the test takers' proficiency potential. The author focuses on the work that goes into designing the 'Persuasive Essay' task, outlining best practices for the selection of topics and sources, the interplay that needs to be present among the sources and the thinking behind the articulation of prompts for the 'Persuasive Essay' task. Using released 'Persuasive Essay' items from the AP World Language and Culture Exams and accompanying data on test taker performance, the author shows how different passages, and features of passages, have succeeded (and sometimes not succeeded) in eliciting writing proficiency among test takers over time. Data from approximately 215.000 test takers per year from 2014 to 2017 and approximately 35.000 test takers per year from 2012 to 2013 form the basis of this analysis. The conclusion of the study is that test taker performance improves significantly when the sources that test takers are presented with express directly opposing viewpoints. Test taker performance also improves when the interrogative prompt that the test takers respond to is phrased as a yes/no question. Finally, an analysis of linguistic difficulty and complexity levels of the printed sources reveals that test taker performance does not decrease when the complexity level of the article of the 'Persuasive Essay' increases. This last text complexity analysis is performed with the help of the 'ETS TextEvaluator' tool and the 'Complexity Scale for Information Texts (Scale)', two tools, which, in combination, provide a rubric and a fully-automated technology for evaluating nonfiction and informational texts in English translation.
A Configurational Approach to Understand the Effect of Organizational Structure on Absorptive Capacity: Results from PLS and fsQCA
Based on the theory of organizational design and the theory of knowledge, this study uses complexity theory to explain and better understand the causal impacts of various patterns of organizational structural factors stimulating absorptive capacity (ACAP). Organizational structure can be thought of as heterogeneous configurations where various components are often intertwined. This study argues that impact of the traditional variables which define a firm’s organizational structure (centralization, formalization, complexity and integration) on ACAP is better understood in terms of set-theoretic relations rather than correlations. This study uses a data sample of 347 from a multiple industrial sector in South Korea. The results from PLS-SEM support all the hypothetical relationships among the variables. However, fsQCA results suggest the possible configurations of centralization, formalization, complexity, integration, age, size, industry and revenue factors that contribute to high level of ACAP. The results from fsQCA demonstrate the usefulness of configurational approaches in helping understand equifinality in the field of knowledge management. A recent fsQCA procedure based on a modeling subsample and holdout subsample is use in this study to assess the predictive validity of the model under investigation. The same type predictive analysis is also made through PLS-SEM. These analyses reveal a good relevance of causal solutions leading to high level of ACAP. In overall, the results obtained from combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA are very insightful. In particular, they could help managers to link internal organizational structural with ACAP. In other words, managers may comprehend finely how different components of organizational structure can increase the level of ACAP. The configurational approach may trigger new insights that could help managers prioritize selection criteria and understand the interactions between organizational structure and ACAP. The paper also discusses theoretical and managerial implications arising from these findings.
Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition
Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.
Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation
Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.
Healthcare Big Data Analytics Using Hadoop
Healthcare industry is generating large amounts of data driven by various needs such as record keeping, physician’s prescription, medical imaging, sensor data, Electronic Patient Record(EPR), laboratory, pharmacy, etc. Healthcare data is so big and complex that they cannot be managed by conventional hardware and software. The complexity of healthcare big data arises from large volume of data, the velocity with which the data is accumulated and different varieties such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured nature of data. Despite the complexity of big data, if the trends and patterns that exist within the big data are uncovered and analyzed, higher quality healthcare at lower cost can be provided. Hadoop is an open source software framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity hardware using a simple programming model. The core components of Hadoop include Hadoop Distributed File System which offers way to store large amount of data across multiple machines and MapReduce which offers way to process large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. Hadoop ecosystem also includes various other tools such as Hive (a SQL-like query language), Pig (a higher level query language for MapReduce), Hbase(a columnar data store), etc. In this paper an analysis has been done as how healthcare big data can be processed and analyzed using Hadoop ecosystem.
The Material-Process Perspective: Design and Engineering
The development of design and engineering in large construction projects are characterized by an increased degree of flattening out of formal structures, extended use of parallel and integrated processes (‘Integrated Concurrent Engineering’) and an increased number of expert disciplines. The integration process is based on ongoing collaborations, dialogues, intercommunication and comments on each other’s work (iterations). This process based on reciprocal communication between actors and disciplines triggers value creation. However, communication between equals is not in itself sufficient to create effective decision making. The complexity of the process and time pressure contribute to an increased risk of a deficit of decisions and loss of process control. The paper refers to a study that aims at developing a resilient decision-making system that does not come in conflict with communication processes based on equality between the disciplines in the process. The study includes the construction of a hospital, following the phases design, engineering and physical building. The Research method is a combination of formative process research, process tracking and phenomenological analyses. The study tracked challenges and problems in the building process to the projection substrates (drawing and models) and further to the organization of the engineering and design phase. A comparative analysis of traditional and new ways of organizing the projecting made it possible to uncover an implicit material order or structure in the process. This uncovering implied a development of a material process perspective. According to this perspective the complexity of the process is rooted in material-functional differentiation. This differentiation presupposes a structuring material (the skeleton of the building) that coordinates the other types of material. Each expert discipline´s competence is related to one or a set of materials. The architect, consulting engineer construction etc. have their competencies related to structuring material, and inherent in this; coordination competence. When dialogues between the disciplines concerning the coordination between them do not result in agreement, the disciplines with responsibility for the structuring material decide the interface issues. Based on these premises, this paper develops a self-organized expert-driven interdisciplinary decision-making system.
Enhancing Disaster Response Capabilities in Asia-Pacific: An Explorative Study Applied to Decision Support Tools for Logistics Network Design
Logistics operations in the context of disaster response are characterized by a high degree of complexity due to the combined effect of a large number of stakeholders involved, time pressure, uncertainties at various levels, massive deployment of goods and personnel, and gigantic financial flow to be managed. It also involves several autonomous parties such as government agencies, militaries, NGOs, UN agencies, private sector to name few, to have a highly collaborative approach especially in the critical phase of the immediate response. This is particularly true in the context of L3 emergencies that are the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. Decision-making processes in disaster management are thus extremely difficult due to the presence of multiple decision-makers involved, and the complexity of the tasks being tackled. Hence, in this paper, we look at applying ICT based solutions to enable a speedy and effective decision making in the golden window of humanitarian operations. A high-level view of ICT based solutions in the context of logistics operations for humanitarian response in Southeast Asia is presented, and their viability in a real-life case about logistics network design is explored.
A Mixed Integer Programming Model for Optimizing the Layout of an Emergency Department
During the recent years, demand for healthcare services has dramatically increased. As the demand for healthcare services increases, so does the necessity of constructing new healthcare buildings and redesigning and renovating existing ones. Increasing demands necessitate the use of optimization techniques to improve the overall service efficiency in healthcare settings. However, high complexity of care processes remains the major challenge to accomplish this goal. This study proposes a method based on process mining results to address the high complexity of care processes and to find the optimal layout of the various medical centers in an emergency department. ProM framework is used to discover clinical pathway patterns and relationship between activities. Sequence clustering plug-in is used to remove infrequent events and to derive the process model in the form of Markov chain. The process mining results served as an input for the next phase which consists of the development of the optimization model. Comparison of the current ED design with the one obtained from the proposed method indicated that a carefully designed layout can significantly decrease the distances that patients must travel.
The Effects of Three Levels of Contextual Inference among adult Athletes
Considering the critical role permanence has on predictions related to the contextual interference effect on laboratory and field research, this study sought to determine whether the paradigm of the effect depends on the complexity of the skill during the acquisition and transfer phases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of contextual interference CI by extending previous laboratory and field research with adult athletes through the acquisition and transfer phases. Male (n=60) athletes age 18-22 years-old, were chosen randomly from Eastern Province Clubs. They were assigned to complete blocked, random, or serial practices. Analysis of variance with repeated measures MANOVA indicated that, the results did not support the notion of CI. There were no significant differences in acquisition phase between blocked, serial and random practice groups. During the transfer phase, there were no major differences between the practice groups. Apparently, due to the task complexity, participants were probably confused and not able to use the advantages of contextual interference. This is another contradictory result to contextual interference effects in acquisition and transfer phases in sport settings. One major factor that can influence the effect of contextual interference is task characteristics as the nature of level of difficulty in sport-related skill.
An Improved Data Aided Channel Estimation Technique Using Genetic Algorithm for Massive Multi-Input Multiple-Output
With the increasing rate of wireless devices and high bandwidth operations, wireless networking and communications are becoming over crowded. To cope with such crowdy and messy situation, massive MIMO is designed to work with hundreds of low costs serving antennas at a time as well as improve the spectral efficiency at the same time. TDD has been used for gaining beamforming which is a major part of massive MIMO, to gain its best improvement to transmit and receive pilot sequences. All the benefits are only possible if the channel state information or channel estimation is gained properly. The common methods to estimate channel matrix used so far is LS, MMSE and a linear version of MMSE also proposed in many research works. We have optimized these methods using genetic algorithm to minimize the mean squared error and finding the best channel matrix from existing algorithms with less computational complexity. Our simulation result has shown that the use of GA worked beautifully on existing algorithms in a Rayleigh slow fading channel and existence of Additive White Gaussian Noise. We found that the GA optimized LS is better than existing algorithms as GA provides optimal result in some few iterations in terms of MSE with respect to SNR and computational complexity.
Factors Impacting Geostatistical Modeling Accuracy and Modeling Strategy of Fluvial Facies Models
Geostatistical modeling is the key technic for reservoir characterization, the quality of geological models will influence the prediction of reservoir performance greatly, but few studies have been done to quantify the factors impacting geostatistical reservoir modeling accuracy. In this study, 16 fluvial prototype models have been established to represent different geological complexity, 6 cases range from 16 to 361 wells were defined to reproduce all those 16 prototype models by different methodologies including SIS, object-based and MPFS algorithms accompany with different constraint parameters. Modeling accuracy ratio was defined to quantify the influence of each factor, and ten realizations were averaged to represent each accuracy ratio under the same modeling condition and parameters association. Totally 5760 simulations were done to quantify the relative contribution of each factor to the simulation accuracy, and the results can be used as strategy guide for facies modeling in the similar condition. It is founded that data density, geological trend and geological complexity have great impact on modeling accuracy. Modeling accuracy may up to 90% when channel sand width reaches up to 1.5 times of well space under whatever condition by SIS and MPFS methods. When well density is low, the contribution of geological trend may increase the modeling accuracy from 40% to 70%, while the use of proper variogram may have very limited contribution for SIS method. It can be implied that when well data are dense enough to cover simple geobodies, few efforts were needed to construct an acceptable model, when geobodies are complex with insufficient data group, it is better to construct a set of robust geological trend than rely on a reliable variogram function. For object-based method, the modeling accuracy does not increase obviously as SIS method by the increase of data density, but kept rational appearance when data density is low. MPFS methods have the similar trend with SIS method, but the use of proper geological trend accompany with rational variogram may have better modeling accuracy than MPFS method. It implies that the geological modeling strategy for a real reservoir case needs to be optimized by evaluation of dataset, geological complexity, geological constraint information and the modeling objective.
Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through IoT and forms Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have enormous amount of information to be presented which becomes complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in context of Industry 4.0. Authors conclude that information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in Industry 4.0 context will become main challenges for the interface designers.
Managing Information Technology: An Overview of Information Technology Governance
Today, investment on Information Technology (IT) solutions in most organizations is the largest component of capital expenditure. As capital investment on IT continues to grow, IT managers and strategists are expected to develop and put in practice effective decision making models (frameworks) that improve decision-making processes for the use of IT in organizations and optimize the investment on IT solutions. To be exact, there is an expectation that organizations not only maximize the benefits of adopting IT solutions but also avoid the many pitfalls that are associated with rapid introduction of technological change. Different organizations depending on size, complexity of solutions required and processes used for financial management and budgeting may use different techniques for managing strategic investment on IT solutions. Decision making processes for strategic use of IT within organizations are often referred to as IT Governance (or Corporate IT Governance). This paper examines IT governance - as a tool for best practice in decision making about IT strategies. Discussions in this paper represent phase I of a project which was initiated to investigate trends in strategic decision making on IT strategies. Phase I is concerned mainly with review of literature and a number of case studies, establishing that the practice of IT governance, depending on the complexity of IT solutions, organization's size and organization's stage of maturity, varies significantly – from informal approaches to sophisticated formal frameworks.
Testing a Flexible Manufacturing System Facility Production Capacity through Discrete Event Simulation: Automotive Case Study
In the age of automation and computation aiding manufacturing, it is clear that manufacturing systems have become more complex than ever before. Although technological advances provide the capability to gain more value with fewer resources, sometimes utilisation of the manufacturing capabilities available to organisations is difficult to achieve. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) provide a unique capability to manufacturing organisations where there is a need for product range diversification by providing line efficiency through production flexibility. This is very valuable in trend driven production set-ups or niche volume production requirements. Although FMS provides flexible and efficient facilities, its optimal set-up is key in achieving production performance. As many variables are interlinked due to the flexibility provided by the FMS, analytical calculations are not always sufficient to predict the FMS’ performance. Simulation modelling is capable of capturing the complexity and constraints associated with FMS. This paper demonstrates how discrete event simulation (DES) can address complexity in an FMS to optimise the production line performance. A case study of an automotive FMS is presented. The DES model demonstrates different configuration options depending on prioritising objectives: utilisation and throughput. Additionally, this paper provides insight into understanding the impact of system set-up constraints on the FMS performance and demonstrates the exploration into the optimal production set-up.
Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on the interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine, and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through Internet of Things (IoT) and form Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have an enormous amount of information to be presented, which become complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling, and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing the context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in the context of industry 4.0. Authors conclude that the information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in industry 4.0 context will become the main challenges for the interface designers.
Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on the interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine, and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through Internet of Things (IoT) and form Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have an enormous amount of information to be presented, which become complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling, and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing the context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in the context of industry 4.0. Authors conclude that the information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in industry 4.0 context will become the main challenges for the interface designers.
Pushing the Boundary of Parallel Tractability for Ontology Materialization via Boolean Circuits
Materialization is an important reasoning service for applications built on the Web Ontology Language (OWL). To make materialization efficient in practice, current research focuses on deciding tractability of an ontology language and designing parallel reasoning algorithms. However, some well-known large-scale ontologies, such as YAGO, have been shown to have good performance for parallel reasoning, but they are expressed in ontology languages that are not parallelly tractable, i.e., the reasoning is inherently sequential in the worst case. This motivates us to study the problem of parallel tractability of ontology materialization from a theoretical perspective. That is we aim to identify the ontologies for which materialization is parallelly tractable, i.e., in the NC complexity. Since the NC complexity is defined based on Boolean circuit that is widely used to investigate parallel computing problems, we first transform the problem of materialization to evaluation of Boolean circuits, and then study the problem of parallel tractability based on circuits. In this work, we focus on datalog rewritable ontology languages. We use Boolean circuits to identify two classes of datalog rewritable ontologies (called parallelly tractable classes) such that materialization over them is parallelly tractable. We further investigate the parallel tractability of materialization of a datalog rewritable OWL fragment DHL (Description Horn Logic). Based on the above results, we analyze real-world datasets and show that many ontologies expressed in DHL belong to the parallelly tractable classes.
Optimization Based Extreme Learning Machine for Watermarking of an Image in DWT Domain
In this paper, we proposed the implementation of optimization based Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) for watermarking of B-channel of color image in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. ELM, a regularization algorithm, works based on generalized single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFNs). However, hidden layer parameters, generally called feature mapping in context of ELM need not to be tuned every time. This paper shows the embedding and extraction processes of watermark with the help of ELM and results are compared with already used machine learning models for watermarking.Here, a cover image is divide into suitable numbers of non-overlapping blocks of required size and DWT is applied to each block to be transformed in low frequency sub-band domain. Basically, ELM gives a unified leaning platform with a feature mapping, that is, mapping between hidden layer and output layer of SLFNs, is tried for watermark embedding and extraction purpose in a cover image. Although ELM has widespread application right from binary classification, multiclass classification to regression and function estimation etc. Unlike SVM based algorithm which achieve suboptimal solution with high computational complexity, ELM can provide better generalization performance results with very small complexity. Efficacy of optimization method based ELM algorithm is measured by using quantitative and qualitative parameters on a watermarked image even though image is subjected to different types of geometrical and conventional attacks.
Maintenance Optimization for a Multi-Component System Using Factored Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes
Over the past years, technological innovations and advancements have played an important role in the industrial world. Due to technological improvements, the degree of complexity of the systems has increased. Hence, all systems are getting more uncertain that emerges from increased complexity, resulting in more cost. It is challenging to cope with this situation. So, implementing efficient planning of maintenance activities in such systems are getting more essential. Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) are powerful tools for stochastic sequential decision problems under uncertainty. Although maintenance optimization in a dynamic environment can be modeled as such a sequential decision problem, POMDPs are not widely used for tackling maintenance problems. However, they can be well-suited frameworks for obtaining optimal maintenance policies. In the classical representation of the POMDP framework, the system is denoted by a single node which has multiple states. The main drawback of this classical approach is that the state space grows exponentially with the number of state variables. On the other side, factored representation of POMDPs enables to simplify the complexity of the states by taking advantage of the factored structure already available in the nature of the problem. The main idea of factored POMDPs is that they can be compactly modeled through dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs), which are graphical representations for stochastic processes, by exploiting the structure of this representation. This study aims to demonstrate how maintenance planning of dynamic systems can be modeled with factored POMDPs. An empirical maintenance planning problem of a dynamic system consisting of four partially observable components deteriorating in time is designed. To solve the empirical model, we resort to Symbolic Perseus solver which is one of the state-of-the-art factored POMDP solvers enabling approximate solutions. We generate some more predefined policies based on corrective or proactive maintenance strategies. We execute the policies on the empirical problem for many replications and compare their performances under various scenarios. The results show that the computed policies from the POMDP model are superior to the others. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) under grant no: 117M587.
Community Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Wildlife Crime in South Africa
Wildlife crime is a complex problem with many interconnected facets, which are generally responded to in parts or fragments in efforts to "break down" the complexity into manageable components. However, fragmentation increases complexity as coherence and cooperation become diluted. A whole-of-society approach has been developed towards finding a common goal and integrated approach to preventing wildlife crime. As part of this development, research was conducted in rural communities adjacent to conservation areas in South Africa to define and comprehend the challenges faced by them, and to understand their perceptions of wildlife crime. The results of the research showed that the perceptions of community members varied - most were in favor of conservation and of protecting rhinos, only if they derive adequate benefit from it. Regardless of gender, income level, education level, or access to services, conservation was perceived to be good and bad by the same people. Even though people in the communities are poor, a willingness to stop rhino poaching does exist amongst them, but their perception of parks not caring about people triggered an attitude of not being willing to stop, prevent or report poaching. Understanding the nuances, the history, the interests and values of community members, and the drivers behind poaching mind-sets (intrinsic or driven by transnational organized crime) is imperative to create sustainable and resilient communities on multiple levels that make a substantial positive impact on people’s lives, but also conserve wildlife for posterity.
Benthic Cover in Coral Reef Environments under Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharges
Changes in benthic cover of coral dominated systems to macroalgae dominance are widely studied worldwide. Watershed pollutants are potentially as important as overfishing causing phase shift. In certain regions of the world most of the continental inputs are through submarine groundwater discharges (SGD), which can play a significant ecological role because the concentration of its nutrients is usually greater that the one found in surface seawater. These stressors have adversely affected coral reefs, particularly in the Caribbean. Measurements of benthic cover (with video tracing, through a Go Pro camera), reef roughness (acoustic estimates with an Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler and a differential GPS), thermohaline conditions (conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument) and nutrient measurements were taken in different sites in the reef lagoon of Puerto Morelos, Q. Roo, Mexico including those with influence of SGD and without it. The results suggest a link between SGD, macroalgae cover and structural complexity. Punctual water samples and data series from a CTD Diver confirm the presence of the SGD. On the site where the SGD is, the macroalgae cover is larger than in the other sites. To establish a causal link between this phase shift and SGD, the DELFT 3D hydrodynamic model (FLOW and WAVE modules) was performed under different environmental conditions and discharge magnitudes. The model was validated using measurements of oceanographic instruments anchored in the lagoon and forereef. The SGD is consistently favoring macroalgae populations and affecting structural complexity of the reef.
Extracting the Coupled Dynamics in Thin-Walled Beams from Numerical Data Bases
In this work we use the Discrete Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform to characterize the properties of coupled dynamics in thin-walled beams by exploiting numerical simulations obtained from finite element simulations. The outcomes of the will improve our understanding of the linear and nonlinear coupled behavior of thin-walled beams structures. Thin-walled beams have widespread usage in modern engineering application in both large scale structures (aeronautical structures), as well as in nano-structures (nano-tubes). Therefore, detailed knowledge in regard to the properties of coupled vibrations and buckling in these structures are of great interest in the research community. Due to the geometric complexity in the overall structure and in particular in the cross-sections it is necessary to involve computational mechanics to numerically simulate the dynamics. In using numerical computational techniques, it is not necessary to over simplify a model in order to solve the equations of motions. Computational dynamics methods produce databases of controlled resolution in time and space. These numerical databases contain information on the properties of the coupled dynamics. In order to extract the system dynamic properties and strength of coupling among the various fields of the motion, processing techniques are required. Time- Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform is a powerful tool for processing databases for the dynamics. It will be used to study the coupled dynamics of thin-walled basic structures. These structures are ideal to form a basis for a systematic study of coupled dynamics in structures of complex geometry.
Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects
Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values< 0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.
The Impact of Regulatory Changes on the Development of Mobile Medical Apps
Mobile applications are being used to perform a wide variety of tasks in day-to-day life, ranging from checking email to controlling your home heating. Application developers have recognized the potential to transform a smart device into a medical device, by using a mobile medical application i.e. a mobile phone or a tablet. When initially conceived these mobile medical applications performed basic functions e.g. BMI calculator, accessing reference material etc.; however, increasing complexity offers clinicians and patients a range of functionality. As this complexity and functionality increases, so too does the potential risk associated with using such an application. Examples include any applications that provide the ability to inflate and deflate blood pressure cuffs, as well as applications that use patient-specific parameters and calculate dosage or create a dosage plan for radiation therapy. If an unapproved mobile medical application is marketed by a medical device organization, then they face significant penalties such as receiving an FDA warning letter to cease the prohibited activity, fines and possibility of facing a criminal conviction. Regulatory bodies have finalized guidance intended for mobile application developers to establish if their applications are subject to regulatory scrutiny. However, regulatory controls appear contradictory with the approaches taken by mobile application developers who generally work with short development cycles and very little documentation and as such, there is the potential to stifle further improvements due to these regulations. The research presented as part of this paper details how by adopting development techniques, such as agile software development, mobile medical application developers can meet regulatory requirements whilst still fostering innovation.
Anti-Corruption, an Important Challenge for the Construction Industry!
The construction industry is perhaps one of the oldest industry of the world. The ancient monuments like the egyptian pyramids, the temples of Greeks and Romans like Parthenon and Pantheon, the robust bridges, old Roman theatres, the citadels and many more are the best testament to that. The industry also has a symbiotic relationship with other . Some of the heavy engineering industry provide construction machineries, chemical industry develop innovative construction materials, finance sector provides fund solutions for complex construction projects and many more. Construction Industry is not only mammoth but also very complex in nature. Because of the complexity, construction industry is prone to various tribulations which may have the propensity to hamper its growth. The comparitive study of this industry with other depicts that it is associated with a state of tardiness and delay especially when we focus on the managerial aspects and the study of triple constraint (time, cost and scope). While some institutes says the complexity associated with it as a major reason, others like lean construction, refers to the wastes produced across the construction process as the prime reason. This paper introduces corruption as one of the prime factors for such delays.To support this many international reports and studies are available depicting that construction industry is one of the most corrupt sectors worldwide, and the corruption can take place throught the project cycle comprising project selection, planning, design, funding, pre-qualification, tendering, execution, operation and maintenance, and even through the reconstrction phase. It also happens in many forms such as bribe, fraud, extortion, collusion, embezzlement and conflict of interest and the self-sufficient. As a solution to cope the corruption in construction industry, the paper introduces the integrity as a key factor and build a new integrity framework to develop and implement an integrity management system for construction companies and construction projects.
An Estimating Equation for Survival Data with a Possibly Time-Varying Covariates under a Semiparametric Transformation Models
An estimating equation technique is an alternative method of the widely used maximum likelihood methods, which enables us to ease some complexity due to the complex characteristics of time-varying covariates. In the situations, when both the time-varying covariates and left-truncation are considered in the model, the maximum likelihood estimation procedures become much more burdensome and complex. To ease the complexity, in this study, the modified estimating equations those have been given high attention and considerations in many researchers under semiparametric transformation model was proposed. The purpose of this article was to develop the modified estimating equation under flexible and general class of semiparametric transformation models for left-truncated and right censored survival data with time-varying covariates. Besides the commonly applied Cox proportional hazards model, such kind of problems can be also analyzed with a general class of semiparametric transformation models to estimate the effect of treatment given possibly time-varying covariates on the survival time. The consistency and asymptotic properties of the estimators were intuitively derived via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The characteristics of the estimators in the finite sample performance for the proposed model were illustrated via simulation studies and Stanford heart transplant real data examples. To sum up the study, the bias for covariates has been adjusted by estimating density function for the truncation time variable. Then the effect of possibly time-varying covariates was evaluated in some special semiparametric transformation models.
Estimation of Endogenous Brain Noise from Brain Response to Flickering Visual Stimulation Magnetoencephalography Visual Perception Speed
Intrinsic brain noise was estimated via magneto-encephalograms (MEG) recorded during perception of flickering visual stimuli with frequencies of 6.67 and 8.57 Hz. First, we measured the mean phase difference between the flicker signal and steady-state event-related field (SSERF) in the occipital area where the brain response at the flicker frequencies and their harmonics appeared in the power spectrum. Then, we calculated the probability distribution of the phase fluctuations in the regions of frequency locking and computed its kurtosis. Since kurtosis is a measure of the distribution’s sharpness, we suppose that inverse kurtosis is related to intrinsic brain noise. In our experiments, the kurtosis value varied among subjects from K = 3 to K = 5 for 6.67 Hz and from 2.6 to 4 for 8.57 Hz. The majority of subjects demonstrated leptokurtic kurtosis (K < 3), i.e., the distribution tails approached zero more slowly than Gaussian. In addition, we found a strong correlation between kurtosis and brain complexity measured as the correlation dimension, so that the MEGs of subjects with higher kurtosis exhibited lower complexity. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics and complex network theories. Specifically, in a network of coupled oscillators, phase synchronization is mainly determined by two antagonistic factors, noise, and the coupling strength. While noise worsens phase synchronization, the coupling improves it. If we assume that each neuron and each synapse contribute to brain noise, the larger neuronal network should have stronger noise, and therefore phase synchronization should be worse, that results in smaller kurtosis. The described method for brain noise estimation can be useful for diagnostics of some brain pathologies associated with abnormal brain noise.
An Analytical Approach of Computational Complexity for the Method of Multifluid Modelling
In this paper we deal building blocks of the computer simulation of the multiphase flows. Whole simulation procedure can be viewed as two super procedures; The implementation of VOF method and the solution of Navier Stoke’s Equation. Moreover, a sequential code for a Navier Stoke’s solver has been studied.
Hybrid Precoder Design Based on Iterative Hard Thresholding Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems
The technology advances have most lately made the millimeter wave (mmWave) communication possible. Due to the huge amount of spectrum that is available in MmWave frequency bands, this promising candidate is considered as a key technology for the deployment of 5G cellular networks. In order to enhance system capacity and achieve spectral efficiency, very large antenna arrays are employed at mmWave systems by exploiting array gain. However, it has been shown that conventional beamforming strategies are not suitable for mmWave hardware implementation. Therefore, new features are required for mmWave cellular applications. Unlike traditional multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems for which only digital precoders are essential to accomplish precoding, MIMO technology seems to be different at mmWave because of digital precoding limitations. Moreover, precoding implements a greater number of radio frequency (RF) chains supporting more signal mixers and analog-to-digital converters. As RF chain cost and power consumption is increasing, we need to resort to another alternative. Although the hybrid precoding architecture has been regarded as the best solution based on a combination between a baseband precoder and an RF precoder, we still do not get the optimal design of hybrid precoders. According to the mapping strategies from RF chains to the different antenna elements, there are two main categories of hybrid precoding architecture. Given as a hybrid precoding sub-array architecture, the partially-connected structure reduces hardware complexity by using a less number of phase shifters, whereas it sacrifices some beamforming gain. In this paper, we treat the hybrid precoder design in mmWave MIMO systems as a problem of matrix factorization. Thus, we adopt the alternating minimization principle in order to solve the design problem. Further, we present our proposed algorithm for the partially-connected structure, which is based on the iterative hard thresholding method. Through simulation results, we show that our hybrid precoding algorithm provides significant performance gains over existing algorithms. We also show that the proposed approach reduces significantly the computational complexity. Furthermore, valuable design insights are provided when we use the proposed algorithm to make simulation comparisons between the hybrid precoding partially-connected structure and the fully-connected structure.
Text Analysis to Support Structuring and Modelling a Public Policy Problem-Outline of an Algorithm to Extract Inferences from Textual Data
Policy making situations are real-world problems that exhibit complexity in that they are composed of many interrelated problems and issues. To be effective, policies must holistically address the complexity of the situation rather than propose solutions to single problems. Formulating and understanding the situation and its complex dynamics, therefore, is a key to finding holistic solutions. Analysis of text based information on the policy problem, using Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Text analysis techniques, can support modelling of public policy problem situations in a more objective way based on domain experts knowledge and scientific evidence. The objective behind this study is to support modelling of public policy problem situations, using text analysis of verbal descriptions of the problem. We propose a formal methodology for analysis of qualitative data from multiple information sources on a policy problem to construct a causal diagram of the problem. The analysis process aims at identifying key variables, linking them by cause-effect relationships and mapping that structure into a graphical representation that is adequate for designing action alternatives, i.e., policy options. This study describes the outline of an algorithm used to automate the initial step of a larger methodological approach, which is so far done manually. In this initial step, inferences about key variables and their interrelationships are extracted from textual data to support a better problem structuring. A small prototype for this step is also presented.
Quoting Jobshops Due Dates Subject to Exogenous Factors in Developing Nations
In manufacturing systems, especially job shops, service performance is a key factor that determines customer satisfaction. Service performance depends not only on the quality of the output but on the delivery lead times as well. Besides product quality enhancement, delivery lead time must be minimized for optimal patronage. Quoting accurate due dates is sine quo non for job shop operational survival in a global competitive environment. Quoting accurate due dates in job shops has been a herculean task that nearly defiled solutions from many methods employed due to complex jobs routing nature of the system. This class of NP-hard problems possessed no rigid algorithms that can give an optimal solution. Jobshop operational problem is more complex in developing nations due to some peculiar factors. Operational complexity in job shops emanated from political instability, poor economy, technological know-how, and the non-promising socio-political environment. The mentioned exogenous factors were hardly considered in the previous studies on scheduling problem related to due date determination in job shops. This study has filled the gap created in the past studies by developing a dynamic model that incorporated the exogenous factors for accurate determination of due dates for varying jobs complexity. Real data from six job shops selected from the different part of Nigeria, were used to test the efficacy of the model, and the outcomes were analyzed statistically. The results of the analyzes showed that the model is more promising in determining accurate due dates than the traditional models deployed by many job shops in terms of patronage and lead times minimization.
Sensing of Cancer DNA Using Resonance Frequency
Lung cancer is one of the most common severe diseases driving to the death of a human. Lung cancer can be divided into two cases of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC), and about 80% of lung cancers belong to the case of NSCLC. From several studies, the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NSCLCs has been investigated. Therefore, EGFR inhibitor drugs such as gefitinib and erlotinib have been used as lung cancer treatments. However, the treatments result showed low response (10~20%) in clinical trials due to EGFR mutations that cause the drug resistance. Patients with resistance to EGFR inhibitor drugs usually are positive to KRAS mutation. Therefore, assessment of EGFR and KRAS mutation is essential for target therapies of NSCLC patient. In order to overcome the limitation of conventional therapies, overall EGFR and KRAS mutations have to be monitored. In this work, the only detection of EGFR will be presented. A variety of techniques has been presented for the detection of EGFR mutations. The standard detection method of EGFR mutation in ctDNA relies on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR method provides high sensitive detection performance. However, as the amplification step increases cost effect and complexity increase as well. Other types of technology such as BEAMing, next generation sequencing (NGS), an electrochemical sensor and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor have been presented. However, those technologies have limitations of low sensitivity, high cost and complexity of data analyzation. In this report, we propose a label-free and high-sensitive detection method of lung cancer using quartz crystal microbalance based platform. The proposed platform is able to sense lung cancer mutant DNA with a limit of detection of 1nM.
The Design and Implementation of an Enhanced 2D Mesh Switch
In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of an enhanced wormhole virtual channel on chip router. It is a heart of a mesh NoC using the XY deterministic routing algorithm. It is characterized by its simple virtual channel allocation strategy which allows reducing area and complexity of connections without affecting the performance. We implemented our router on a Tezzaron process to validate its performances. This router is a basic element that will be used later to design a 3D mesh NoC.
A 0-1 Goal Programming Approach to Optimize the Layout of Hospital Units: A Case Study in an Emergency Department in Seoul
This paper proposes a method to optimize the layout of an emergency department (ED) based on real executions of care processes by considering several planning objectives simultaneously. Recently, demand for healthcare services has been dramatically increased. As the demand for healthcare services increases, so do the need for new healthcare buildings as well as the need for redesign and renovating existing ones. The importance of implementation of a standard set of engineering facilities planning and design techniques has been already proved in both manufacturing and service industry with many significant functional efficiencies. However, high complexity of care processes remains a major challenge to apply these methods in healthcare environments. Process mining techniques applied in this study to tackle the problem of complexity and to enhance care process analysis. Process related information such as clinical pathways extracted from the information system of an ED. A 0-1 goal programming approach is then proposed to find a single layout that simultaneously satisfies several goals. The proposed model solved by optimization software CPLEX 12. The solution reached using the proposed method has 42.2% improvement in terms of walking distance of normal patients and 47.6% improvement in walking distance of critical patients at minimum cost of relocation. It has been observed that lots of patients must unnecessarily walk long distances during their visit to the emergency department because of an inefficient design. A carefully designed layout can significantly decrease patient walking distance and related complications.
The Process of Crisis: Model of Its Development in the Organization
The main aim of this paper is to present a clear and comprehensive picture of the process of a crisis in the organization which will help to better understand its possible developments. For a description of the sequence of individual steps and an indication of their causation and possible variants of the developments, a detailed flow diagram with verbal comment is applied. For simplicity, the process of the crisis is observed in four basic phases called: symptoms of the crisis, diagnosis, action and prevention. The model highlights the complexity of the phenomenon of the crisis and that the various phases of the crisis are interweaving.
Demand-Oriented Supplier Integration in Agile New Product Development Projects
Companies are facing an increasing pressure to innovate faster, cheaper and more radical in last years, due to shrinking product lifecycles and higher volatility of markets and customer demands. Especially established companies struggle meeting those demands. Thus, many producing companies are adapting their development processes to address this increasing pressure. One approach taken by many companies is the use of agile, highly iterative development processes to reduce development times and costs as well as to increase the fulfilled customer requirements and the realized level of innovation. At the same time decreasing depths of added value and increasing focus on core competencies as well as a growing product complexity result in a high dependency on suppliers and external development partners during the product development. Thus, a successful introduction of agile development methods into the development of physical products requires also a successful integration of the necessary external partners and suppliers into the new processes and procedures and an adaption of the organizational interfaces to external partners according to the new circumstances and requirements of agile development processes. For an effective and efficient product development, the design of customer-supplier-relationships should be demand-oriented. A significant influence on the required design has the characteristics of the procurement object. Examples therefore are the complexity of technical interfaces between supply object and final product or the importance of the supplied component for the major product functionalities. Thus, this paper presents an approach to derive general requirements on the design of supplier integration according to the characteristics of supply objects. First, therefore the most relevant evaluation criteria and characteristics have been identified based on a thorough literature review. Subsequently the resulting requirements on the design of the supplier integration were derived depending on the different possible values of these criteria.
Linking Temporal Changes of Climate Factors with Staple Cereal Yields in Southern Burkina Faso
In the Sahel, climate variability has been associated with a complex web of direct and indirect impacts. This natural phenomenon has been an impediment to agro-pastoral communities who experience uncertainty while involving in farming activities which is also their key source of livelihood. In this scenario, the role of climate variability in influencing the performance, quantity and quality of staple cereals yields, vital for food and nutrition security has been a topic of importance. This response of crops and subsequent yield variability is also a subject of immense debate due to the complexity of crop development at different stages. This complexity is further compounded by influence of slowly changing non-climatic factors. With these challenges in mind, the present paper initially explores the occurrence of climate variability at an inter annual and inter decadal level in South Burkina Faso. This is evidenced by variation of the total annual rainfall and the number of rainy days among other climatic descriptors. Further, it is shown how district-scale cereal yields in the study area including maize, sorghum and millet casually associate variably to the inter-annual variation of selected climate variables. Statistical models show that the three cereals widely depict sensitivity to the length of the growing period and total dry days in the growing season. Maize yields on the other hand relate strongly to the rainfall amount variation (R2=51.8%) showing high moisture dependence during critical growth stages. Our conclusions emphasize on adoption of efficient water utilization platforms especially those that have evidently increased yields and strengthening of forecasts dissemination.
A Framework for Assessing and Implementing Ecological-Based Adaptation Solutions in Urban Areas of Shanghai
The uncertainty and the complexity of the urban environment combining with the threat of climate change are contributing factors to the vulnerability in multiple-dimensions in Chinese megacities, especially in Shanghai. The urban area occupied high valuable technological infrastructure and density buildings is under the threats of climate change and can provide insufficient ecological service to remain the trade-off on urban sustainable development. Urban ecological-based adaptation (UEbA) combines practices and theoretical work and integrates ecological services into multiple-layers of urban environment planning in order to reduce the impact of the complexity and uncertainty. To understand and to respond to the challenges in the urban level, this paper considers Shanghai as the research objective. It is necessary that its urban adaptation strategies should be reflected and contain the concept and knowledge of EbA. In this paper, we firstly use software to illustrates the visualizing patterns and trends of UEBA research in the current 10 years. Specifically, Citespace software was used for interpreting the significant hubs, landmarks points of peer-reviewed literature on the context of ecological service research in recent 10 years. Secondly, 135 evidence-based EbA literature were reviewed for categorizing the methodologies and framework of evidence-based EbA by the systematic map protocol. Finally, a conceptual framework combined with culture, economic and social components was developed in order to assess the current adaptation strategies in Shanghai. This research founds that the key to reducing urban vulnerability does not only focus on co-benefit arguments but also should pay more attention to the concept of trade-off. This research concludes that the designed framework can provide key knowledge and indicates the essential gap as a valuable tool against climate variability in the process of urban adaptation in Shanghai.
Influence of Shading on a BIPV System’s Performance in an Urban Context: Case Study of BIPV Systems of the Science Center of Complexity Building of the National and Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City
The purpose of this paper is to establish the influence of shading on a Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system&acute;s performance in an urban context. The PV systems of the Science Center of Complexity (Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad) Building based in the Main Campus of the National and Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City was taken as case study. &nbsp;The PV systems are placed on the rooftop and on the south fa&ccedil;ade of the building.&nbsp; The south-fa&ccedil;ade PV system, operating as sunshades, consists of two strings:&nbsp; one at the ground floor and the other one at the first floor.&nbsp; According to the building&rsquo;s facility manager, the south-fa&ccedil;ade PV system generates 42% less electricity per kilowatt peak (kWp) installed than the one on the roof.&nbsp; The methods applied in this study were Solar Radiation Analysis (SRA) simulations performed with the Insight 360 Plug-in from Revit 2018&reg; and an on-site measurement using specialized tools.&nbsp; The results of the SRA simulations showed that the shading casted by the PV system placed on the first floor on top of the PV system of the ground floor decreases its solar incident radiation over 50%.&nbsp; The simulation outcome was compared and validated to the measured data obtained from the on-site measurement.&nbsp; In conclusion, the loss factor achieved from the shading of the PVs is due to the surroundings and the PV system&acute;s own design.&nbsp; The south-fa&ccedil;ade BIPV system&rsquo;s deficient design generates critical losses on its performance and decreases its profitability.
Complexity in a Leslie-Gower Delayed Prey-Predator Model
The complex dynamics is explored in a prey predator system with multiple delays. The predator dynamics is governed by Leslie-Gower scheme. The existence of periodic solutions via Hopf bifurcation with respect to delay parameters is established. To substantiate analytical findings, numerical simulations are performed. The system shows rich dynamic behavior including chaos and limit cycles.
Quantification and Evaluation of Tumors Heterogeneity Utilizing Multimodality Imaging
Tumors are regularly inhomogeneous. Provincial varieties in death, metabolic action, multiplication and body part are watched. There’s expanding proof that strong tumors may contain subpopulations of cells with various genotypes and phenotypes. These unmistakable populaces of malignancy cells can connect during a serious way and may contrast in affectability to medications. Most tumors show organic heterogeneity1–3 remembering heterogeneity for genomic subtypes, varieties inside the statement of development variables and genius, and hostile to angiogenic factors4–9 and varieties inside the tumoural microenvironment. These can present as contrasts between tumors in a few people. for instance, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA fix compound, is hushed by methylation of the quality advertiser in half of glioblastoma (GBM), adding to chemosensitivity, and improved endurance. From the outset, there includes been specific enthusiasm inside the usage of dissemination weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic complexity upgraded MRI (DCE-MRI). DWI sharpens MRI to water dispersion inside the extravascular extracellular space (EES) and is wiped out with the size and setup of the cell populace. Additionally, DCE-MRI utilizes dynamic obtaining of pictures during and after the infusion of intravenous complexity operator. Signal changes are additionally changed to outright grouping of differentiation permitting examination utilizing pharmacokinetic models. PET scan modality gives one of a kind natural particularity, permitting dynamic or static imaging of organic atoms marked with positron emanating isotopes (for example, 15O, 18F, 11C). The strategy is explained to a colossal radiation portion, which points of confinement rehashed estimations, particularly when utilized together with PC tomography (CT). At long last, it's of incredible enthusiasm to quantify territorial hemoglobin state, which could be joined with DCE-CT vascular physiology estimation to create significant experiences for understanding tumor hypoxia.
Evaluating the Effect of Spatial Qualities, Openness and Complexity, on Human Cognitive Performance within Virtual Reality
Architects have developed a series of objective evaluations, using spatial analysis tools such as Isovist, that show how certain spatial qualities are beneficial to specific human activities hosted in the built environments. In return, they can build more adapted environments by tuning those spatial qualities in their design. In parallel, virtual reality technologies have been developed by engineers with the dream of creating a system that immerses users in a new form of spatial experiences. They already have demonstrated a useful range of benefits not only in simulating critical events to assist people in acquiring new skills, but also to enhance memory retention, to name just a few. This paper investigates the effects of two spatial qualities, openness, and complexity, on cognitive performance within immersive virtual environments. Isovist measure is used to design a series of room settings with different levels of each spatial qualities. In an empirical study, each room was then used by every participant to solve a navigational puzzle game and give a rating of their spatial experience. They were then asked to fill in a questionnaire before solving the visual-spatial memory quiz, which addressed how well they remembered the different rooms. Findings suggest that those spatial qualities have an effect on some of the measures, including navigation performance and memory retention. In particular, there is an order effect for the navigation puzzle game. Participants tended to spend a longer time in the complex room settings. Moreover, there is an interaction effect while with more open settings, participants tended to perform better when in a simple setting; however, with more closed settings, participants tended to perform better in a more complex setting. For the visual-spatial memory quiz, participants performed significantly better within the more open rooms. We believe this is a first step in using virtual environments to enhance participant cognitive performances through better use of specific spatial qualities.
Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design
Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.
A Universal Approach to Categorize Failures in Production
The increasing interconnectedness and complexity of production processes raise the susceptibility of production systems to failure. Therefore, the ability to respond quickly to failures is increasingly becoming a competitive factor. The research project "Sustainable failure management in manufacturing SMEs" is developing a methodology to identify failures in the production and select preventive and reactive measures in order to correct failures and to establish sustainable failure management systems.
The Tramway in French Cities: Complication of Public Spaces and Complexity of the Design Process
The redeployment of tram networks in French cities has considerably modified public spaces and the way citizens use them. Above and beyond the image that trams have of contributing to the sustainable urban development, the question of safety for users in these spaces has not been studied much. This study is based on an analysis of use of public spaces laid out for trams, from the standpoint of legibility and safety concerns. The study also examines to what extent the complexity of the design process, with many interactions between numerous and varied players in this process has a role in the genesis of these problems. This work is mainly based on the analysis of links between the uses of these re-designed public spaces (through observations, interviews of users and accident studies) and the analysis of the design conditions and processes of the projects studied (mainly based on interviews with the actors of these projects). Practical analyses were based three points of view: that of the planner, that of the user (based on observations and interviews) and that of the road safety expert. The cities of Montpellier, Marseille and Nice are the three fields of study on which the demonstration of this thesis is based. On part, the results of this study allow showing that the insertion of tram poses some problems complication of public areas of French cities. These complications related to the restructuring of public spaces for the tram, create difficulties of use and safety concerns. On the other hand, interviews depth analyses, fully transcribed, have led us to develop particular dysfunction scenarios in the design process. These elements lead to question the way the legibility and safety of these new forms of public spaces are taken into account. Then, an in-depth analysis of the design processes of public spaces with trams systems would also be a way of better understanding the choices made, the compromises accepted, and the conflicts and constraints at work, weighing on the layout of these spaces. The results presented concerning the impact that spaces laid out for trams have on the difficulty of use, suggest different possibilities for improving the way in which safety for all users is taken into account in designing public spaces.
Analysis of Direct Current Motor in LabVIEW
DC motors have been widely used in the past centuries which are proudly known as the workhorse of industrial systems until the invention of the AC induction motors which makes a huge revolution in industries. Since then, the use of DC machines have been decreased due to enormous factors such as reliability, robustness and complexity but it lost its fame due to the losses. A new methodology is proposed to construct a DC motor through the simulation in LabVIEW to get an idea about its real time performances, if a change in parameter might have bigger improvement in losses and reliability.
A Cooperative Signaling Scheme for Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Recently, the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) such as Galileo and GPS is employing more satellites to provide a higher degree of accuracy for the location service, thus calling for a more efficient signaling scheme among the satellites used in the overall GNSS network. In that the network throughput is improved, the spatial diversity can be one of the efficient signaling schemes; however, it requires multiple antenna that could cause a significant increase in the complexity of the GNSS. Thus, a diversity scheme called the cooperative signaling was proposed, where the virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signaling is realized with using only a single antenna in the transmit satellite of interest and with modeling the neighboring satellites as relay nodes. The main drawback of the cooperative signaling is that the relay nodes receive the transmitted signal at different time instants, i.e., they operate in an asynchronous way, and thus, the overall performance of the GNSS network could degrade severely. To tackle the problem, several modified cooperative signaling schemes were proposed; however, all of them are difficult to implement due to a signal decoding at the relay nodes. Although the implementation at the relay nodes could be simpler to some degree by employing the time-reversal and conjugation operations instead of the signal decoding, it would be more efficient if we could implement the operations of the relay nodes at the source node having more resources than the relay nodes. So, in this paper, we propose a novel cooperative signaling scheme, where the data signals are combined in a unique way at the source node, thus obviating the need of the complex operations such as signal decoding, time-reversal and conjugation at the relay nodes. The numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme provides the same performance in the cooperative diversity and the bit error rate (BER) as the conventional scheme, while reducing the complexity at the relay nodes significantly. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National GNSS Research Center program of Defense Acquisition Program Administration and Agency for Defense Development.
Quantifying Uncertainties in an Archetype-Based Building Stock Energy Model by Use of Individual Building Models
Focus on reducing energy consumption in existing buildings at large scale, e.g. in cities or countries, has been increasing in recent years. In order to reduce energy consumption in existing buildings, political incentive schemes are put in place and large scale investments are made by utility companies. Prioritising these investments requires a comprehensive overview of the energy consumption in the existing building stock, as well as potential energy-savings. However, a building stock comprises thousands of buildings with different characteristics making it difficult to model energy consumption accurately. Moreover, the complexity of the building stock makes it difficult to convey model results to policymakers and other stakeholders. In order to manage the complexity of the building stock, building archetypes are often employed in building stock energy models (BSEMs). Building archetypes are formed by segmenting the building stock according to specific characteristics. Segmenting the building stock according to building type and building age is common, among other things because this information is often easily available. This segmentation makes it easy to convey results to non-experts. However, using a single archetypical building to represent all buildings in a segment of the building stock is associated with loss of detail. Thermal characteristics are aggregated while other characteristics, which could affect the energy efficiency of a building, are disregarded. Thus, using a simplified representation of the building stock could come at the expense of the accuracy of the model. The present study evaluates the accuracy of a conventional archetype-based BSEM that segments the building stock according to building type- and age. The accuracy is evaluated in terms of the archetypes&rsquo; ability to accurately emulate the average energy demands of the corresponding buildings they were meant to represent. This is done for the buildings&rsquo; energy demands as a whole as well as for relevant sub-demands. Both are evaluated in relation to the type- and the age of the building. This should provide researchers, who use archetypes in BSEMs, with an indication of the expected accuracy of the conventional archetype model, as well as the accuracy lost in specific parts of the calculation, due to use of the archetype method.
A CORDIC Based Design Technique for Efficient Computation of DCT
A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is described and a technique to compute it using fast Fourier transform (FFT) is developed. In this work, DCT of a finite length sequence is obtained by incorporating CORDIC methodology in radix-2 FFT algorithm. The proposed methodology is simple to comprehend and maintains a regular structure, thereby reducing computational complexity. DCTs are used extensively in the area of digital processing for the purpose of pattern recognition. So the efficient computation of DCT maintaining a transparent design flow is highly solicited.
Approaches to Reduce the Complexity of Mathematical Models for the Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Virtual Power Plants in Public Energy Supply
In context of the energy transition in Germany, the importance of so-called virtual power plants in the energy supply continues to increase. The progressive dismantling of the large power plants and the ongoing construction of many new decentralized plants result in great potential for optimization through synergies between the individual plants. These potentials can be exploited by mathematical optimization algorithms to calculate the optimal application planning of decentralized power and heat generators and storage systems. This also includes linear or linear mixed integer optimization. In this paper, procedures for reducing the number of decision variables to be calculated are explained and validated. On the one hand, this includes combining n similar installation types into one aggregated unit. This aggregated unit is described by the same constraints and target function terms as a single plant. This reduces the number of decision variables per time step and the complexity of the problem to be solved by a factor of n. The exact operating mode of the individual plants can then be calculated in a second optimization in such a way that the output of the individual plants corresponds to the calculated output of the aggregated unit. Another way to reduce the number of decision variables in an optimization problem is to reduce the number of time steps to be calculated. This is useful if a high temporal resolution is not necessary for all time steps. For example, the volatility or the forecast quality of environmental parameters may justify a high or low temporal resolution of the optimization. Both approaches are examined for the resulting calculation time as well as for optimality. Several optimization models for virtual power plants (combined heat and power plants, heat storage, power storage, gas turbine) with different numbers of plants are used as a reference for the investigation of both processes with regard to calculation duration and optimality.
Risk Management Approach for a Secure and Performant Integration of Automated Drug Dispensing Systems in Hospitals
Medication dispensing system is a life critical system whose failure may result in preventable adverse events leading to longer patient stays in hospitals or patient death. Automation has led to great improvements in Life critical systems as it increased safety, efficiency and comfort. However, critical risks related to medical organization complexity and automated solutions integration can threat drug dispensing security and performance. Knowledge about the system’s complexity aspects and Human Machine parameters to control for automated equipment’s security and performance, will help operators to secure their automation process and to optimize their system’s reliability. In this context, this study aims to document operator’s situation awareness about automation risks, and parameters involved in automation security and performance. Our risk management approach has been deployed in North Luxembourg hospital center’s pharmacy which is equipped with automated drug dispensing systems since 2009. With more than 4 711 541 euros of gains generated, North Luxembourg hospital center’s success story was enabled by the management commitment, pharmacy’s involvement in the implementation and improvement of automation project, and the close collaboration between the pharmacy and Sinteco’s firm to implement the necessary innovation and organizational actions for automated solutions integration security and performance. An analysis of the actions implemented by the hospital, and the parameters involved in automated equipment’s integration security and performance have been made. The parameters to control for automated equipment’s integration security and performance are: human aspects (6,25%), technical aspects (50%), and human-machine interaction (43,75%). The implementation of an anthropocentric analysis system before automation would have prevented and optimized the control of risks related to automation.
Bounded Rational Heterogeneous Agents in Artificial Stock Markets: Literature Review and Research Direction
In this paper, we provided a literature survey on the artificial stock problem (ASM). The paper began by exploring the complexity of the stock market and the needs for ASM. ASM aims to investigate the link between individual behaviors (micro level) and financial market dynamics (macro level). The variety of patterns at the macro level is a function of the AFM complexity. The financial market system is a complex system where the relationship between the micro and macro level cannot be captured analytically. Computational approaches, such as simulation, are expected to comprehend this connection. Agent-based simulation is a simulation technique commonly used to build AFMs. The paper proceeds by discussing the components of the ASM. We consider the roles of behavioral finance (BF) alongside the traditionally risk-averse assumption in the construction of agent's attributes. Also, the influence of social networks in the developing of agents’ interactions is addressed. Network topologies such as a small world, distance-based, and scale-free networks may be utilized to outline economic collaborations. In addition, the primary methods for developing agents learning and adaptive abilities have been summarized. These incorporated approach such as Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Artificial neural network and Reinforcement Learning. In addition, the most common statistical properties (the stylized facts) of stock that are used for calibration and validation of ASM are discussed. Besides, we have reviewed the major related previous studies and categorize the utilized approaches as a part of these studies. Finally, research directions and potential research questions are argued. The research directions of ASM may focus on the macro level by analyzing the market dynamic or on the micro level by investigating the wealth distributions of the agents.
Regulatory Guidelines to Support the Design of Nanosatellite Projects in Mexican Academic Contexts
The availability and affordability of commercial off-the-shell products have brought a major impetus in the development of university projects related to the design, construction and launching of small satellites on a global scale. Universities in emerging economies as well as in least developed countries have been able to develop prototypes of small satellites (cubesats and cansats) with limited budgets. The experience gained in the development of small satellites gives rise to capacity building for designing more complex aerospace systems. This trend has significantly increased the pace and number of aerospace university projects around the world. In the case of Mexico, projects funded by different agencies have been very effective in accelerating the capacity building and technology transfer initiatives in the aerospace ecosystem. However, many of this initiatives have centered their efforts in technology development matters with minimum or no considerations of key regulatory issues related to frequency assignment, management and licensing, as well as launching requirements and measures of mitigation of space debris. These regulatory concerns are fundamental to accomplish successful missions that take into account the complete value chain of an aerospace project. The purpose of this paper is to develop a regulatory framework to support the efforts of educational institutions working on the development of small satellites in Mexico. We base our framework on recommendations from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and other major actors of the Mexican regulatory ecosystem. In order to develop an integrated and cohesive framework, we draw on complexity science to identify the agents, their role and interactions. Our goal is to create a guiding instrument available both in print and online that can also be used in other regions of the world
Methodology for the Integration of Object Identification Processes in Handling and Logistic Systems
The uprising complexity in production systems due to an increasing amount of variants up to customer innovated products leads to requirements that hierarchical control systems are not able to fulfil. Therefore, factory planners can install autonomous manufacturing systems. The fundamental requirement for an autonomous control is the identification of objects within production systems. In this approach an attribute-based identification is focused for avoiding dose-dependent identification costs. Instead of using an identification mark (ID) like a radio frequency identification (RFID)-Tag, an object type is directly identified by its attributes. To facilitate that it’s recommended to include the identification and the corresponding sensors within handling processes, which connect all manufacturing processes and therefore ensure a high identification rate and reduce blind spots. The presented methodology reduces the individual effort to integrate identification processes in handling systems. First, suitable object attributes and sensor systems for object identification in a production environment are defined. By categorising these sensor systems as well as handling systems, it is possible to match them universal within a compatibility matrix. Based on that compatibility further requirements like identification time are analysed, which decide whether the combination of handling and sensor system is well suited for parallel handling and identification within an autonomous control. By analysing a list of more than thousand possible attributes, first investigations have shown, that five main characteristics (weight, form, colour, amount, and position of subattributes as drillings) are sufficient for an integrable identification. This knowledge limits the variety of identification systems and leads to a manageable complexity within the selection process. Besides the procedure, several tools, as an example a sensor pool are presented. These tools include the generated specific expert knowledge and simplify the selection. The primary tool is a pool of preconfigured identification processes depending on the chosen combination of sensor and handling device. By following the defined procedure and using the created tools, even laypeople out of other scientific fields can choose an appropriate combination of handling devices and sensors which enable parallel handling and identification.
Exploring the Applications of Neural Networks in the Adaptive Learning Environment
Computer Adaptive Tests (CATs) is one of the most efficient ways for testing the cognitive abilities of students. CATs are based on Item Response Theory (IRT) which is based on item selection and ability estimation using statistical methods of maximum information selection/selection from posterior and maximum-likelihood (ML)/maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators respectively. This study aims at combining both classical and Bayesian approaches to IRT to create a dataset which is then fed to a neural network which automates the process of ability estimation and then comparing it to traditional CAT models designed using IRT. This study uses python as the base coding language, pymc for statistical modelling of the IRT and scikit-learn for neural network implementations. On creation of the model and on comparison, it is found that the Neural Network based model performs 7-10% worse than the IRT model for score estimations. Although performing poorly, compared to the IRT model, the neural network model can be beneficially used in back-ends for reducing time complexity as the IRT model would have to re-calculate the ability every-time it gets a request whereas the prediction from a neural network could be done in a single step for an existing trained Regressor. This study also proposes a new kind of framework whereby the neural network model could be used to incorporate feature sets, other than the normal IRT feature set and use a neural network’s capacity of learning unknown functions to give rise to better CAT models. Categorical features like test type, etc. could be learnt and incorporated in IRT functions with the help of techniques like logistic regression and can be used to learn functions and expressed as models which may not be trivial to be expressed via equations. This kind of a framework, when implemented would be highly advantageous in psychometrics and cognitive assessments. This study gives a brief overview as to how neural networks can be used in adaptive testing, not only by reducing time-complexity but also by being able to incorporate newer and better datasets which would eventually lead to higher quality testing.
Sustainability through Resilience: How Emergency Responders Cope with Stressors
Striving for sustainability brings a lot of challenges for different fields of interest, e. g. security or health concerns. In Germany, civil protection is predominantly carried out by emergency responders who perform essential tasks of civil protection. Based on theoretical concepts of different psychological stress theories this contribution focuses on the question, how the resilience of emergency responders can be improved. The goal is to identify resources and successful coping strategies that help to prevent and reduce negative outcomes during or after stressful events. The paper will present results from a qualitative analysis of semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 emergency responders. These results provide insights into the complexity of coping processes (e. g. controlling the situation, downplaying perceived personal threats through humor) and show the diversity of stressors (like complexity of the disastrous situation, intrusive press and media, or lack of social support within the organization). Self-efficacy expectation was a very important resource for coping with stressful situations. The results served as a starting point for a quantitative survey (that was conducted in March 2017), the development of education and training tools for emergency responders and the improvement of critical incident stress management processes. First results from the quantitative study with more than 700 participants show that, e. g., the emergency responders use social coping within their private social network and also within their aid organization and that both are correlated to resilience. Moreover, missing information, bureaucratic problems and social conflicts within the organization are events that the majority of the participants considered very onerous. Further results from regression analysis will be presented. The proposed paper will combine findings from the qualitative study with the quantitative results, illustrating figures and correlations with respective statements from the interviews. At the end, suggestions for the improvement of the emergency responder’s resilience are given and it is discussed how this can make a contribution to strive for civil security and furthermore a sustainable development.
Automated, Short Cycle Production of Polymer Composite Applications with Special Regards to the Complexity and Recyclability of Composite Elements
The purpose of the project is to develop a complex composite component with visible class ‘A’ surface. It is going to integrate more functions, including continuous fiber reinforcement, foam core, injection molded ribs, and metal inserts. Therefore we are going to produce recyclable structural composite part from thermoplastic polymer in serial production with short cycle time for automotive applications. Our design of the process line is determined by the principles of Industry 4.0. Accordingly, our goal is to map in details the properties of the final product including the mechanical properties in order to replace metal elements used in automotive industry, with special regard to the effect of each manufacturing process step on the afore mentioned properties. Period of the project is 3 years, which lasts from the 1st of December 2016 to the 30th November 2019. There are four consortium members in the R&D project evopro systems engineering Ltd., Department of Polymer Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Research Centre for Natural Sciences of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and eCon Engineering Ltd. One of the most important result that we can obtain short cycle time (up to 2-3 min) with in-situ polymerization method, which is an innovation in the field of thermoplastic composite production. Because of the mentioned method, our fully automated production line is able to manufacture complex thermoplastic composite parts and satisfies the short cycle time required by the automotive industry. In addition to the innovative technology, we are able to design, analyze complex composite parts with finite element method, and validate our results. We are continuously collecting all the information, knowledge and experience to improve our technology and obtain even more accurate results with respect to the quality and complexity of the composite parts, the cycle time of the production, and the design and analyzing method of the composite parts.
Low-Income African-American Fathers' Gendered Relationships with Their Children: A Study Examining the Impact of Child Gender on Father-Child Interactions
This quantitative study explores the correlation between child gender and father-child interactions. The author analyzes data from videotaped interactions between African-American fathers and their boy or girl toddler to explain how African-American fathers and toddlers interact with each other and whether these interactions differ by child gender. The purpose of this study is to investigate the research question: 'How, if at all, do fathers’ speech and gestures differ when interacting with their two-year-old sons versus daughters during free play?' The objectives of this study are to describe how child gender impacts African-American fathers’ verbal communication, examine how fathers gesture and speak to their toddler by gender, and to guide interventions for low-income African-American families and their children in early language development. This study involves a sample of 41 low-income African-American fathers and their 24-month-old toddlers. The videotape data will be used to observe 10-minute father-child interactions during free play. This study uses the already transcribed and coded data provided by Dr. Meredith Rowe, who did her study on the impact of African-American fathers’ verbal input on their children’s language development. The Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES program), created to study conversational interactions, was used for transcription and coding of the videotape data. The findings focus on the quantity of speech, diversity of speech, complexity of speech, and the quantity of gesture to inform the vocabulary usage, number of spoken words, length of speech, and the number of object pointings observed during father-toddler interactions in a free play setting. This study will help intervention and prevention scientists understand early language development in the African-American population. It will contribute to knowledge of the role of African-American fathers’ interactions on their children’s language development. It will guide interventions for the early language development of African-American children.
Chaotic Behavior in Monetary Systems: Comparison among Different Types of Taylor Rule
The aim of the present study is to detect the chaotic behavior in monetary economic relevant dynamical system. The study employs three different forms of Taylor rules: current, forward, and backward looking. The result suggests the existence of the chaotic behavior in all three systems. In addition, the results strongly represent that using expectations especially rational expectation hypothesis can increase complexity of the system and leads to more chaotic behavior.
Heuristic to Generate Random X-Monotone Polygons
A heuristic has been designed to generate a random simple monotone polygon from a given set of ‘n’ points lying on a 2-Dimensional plane. Our heuristic generates a random monotone polygon in O(n) time after O(nℓogn) preprocessing time which is improved over the previous work where a random monotone polygon is produced in the same O(n) time but the preprocessing time is O(k) for n < k < n2. However, our heuristic does not generate all possible random polygons with uniform probability. The space complexity of our proposed heuristic is O(n).
Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion
In this paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.
Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B
This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.
A Graph Theoretic Algorithm for Bandwidth Improvement in Computer Networks
Given two distinct vertices (nodes) source s and target t of a graph G = (V, E), the two node-disjoint paths problem is to identify two node-disjoint paths between s ∈ V and t ∈ V . Two paths are node-disjoint if they have no common intermediate vertices. In this paper, we present an algorithm with O(m)-time complexity for finding two node-disjoint paths between s and t in arbitrary graphs where m is the number of edges. The proposed algorithm has a wide range of applications in ensuring reliability and security of sensor, mobile and fixed communication networks.
Identification and Characterization of Small Peptides Encoded by Small Open Reading Frames using Mass Spectrometry and Bioinformatics
Short open reading frames (sORFs) located in 5’UTR of mRNAs are known as uORFs. Characterization of uORF-encoded peptides (uPEPs) i.e., a subset of short open reading frame encoded peptides (sPEPs) and their translation regulation lead to understanding of causes of genetic disease, proteome complexity and development of treatments. Existence of uORFs within cellular proteome could be detected by LC-MS/MS. The ability of uORF to be translated into uPEP and achievement of uPEP identification will allow uPEP’s characterization, structures, functions, subcellular localization, evolutionary maintenance (conservation in human and other species) and abundance in cells. It is hypothesized that a subset of sORFs are translatable and that their encoded sPEPs are functional and are endogenously expressed contributing to the eukaryotic cellular proteome complexity. This project aimed to investigate whether sORFs encode functional peptides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and bioinformatics were thus employed. Due to probable low abundance of sPEPs and small in sizes, the need for efficient peptide enrichment strategies for enriching small proteins and depleting the sub-proteome of large and abundant proteins is crucial for identifying sPEPs. Low molecular weight proteins were extracted using SDS-PAGE from Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells and Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography (SCX) from secreted HEK293 cells. Extracted proteins were digested by trypsin to peptides, which were detected by LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data obtained was searched against Swiss-Prot using MASCOT version 2.4 to filter out known proteins, and all unmatched spectra were re-searched against human RefSeq database. ProteinPilot v5.0.1 was used to identify sPEPs by searching against human RefSeq, Vanderperre and Human Alternative Open Reading Frame (HaltORF) databases. Potential sPEPs were analyzed by bioinformatics. Since SDS PAGE electrophoresis could not separate proteins
Paradox of Growing Adaptive Capacities for Sustainability Transformation in Urban Water Management in Bangladesh
Urban water governance in developing countries faces numerous challenges arising from uncontrolled urban population expansion, water pollution, greater economic push and more recently, climate change impact while undergoing transitioning towards a sustainable system. Sustainability transition requires developing adaptive capacities of the socio-ecological and socio-technical system to be able to deal with complexity. Adaptive capacities deliver strategies to connect individuals, organizations, agencies and institutions at multiple levels for dealing with such complexity. Understanding the level of adaptive capacities for sustainability transformation thus has gained significant research attention within developed countries, much less so in developing countries. Filling this gap, this article develops a conceptual framework for analysing the level of adaptive capacities (if any) within a developing context. This framework then applied to the chronological development of urban water governance strategies in Bangladesh for almost two centuries. The chronological analysis of governance interventions has revealed that crisis (public health, food and natural hazards) became the opportunities and thus opened the windows for experimentation and learning to occur as a deviation from traditional practices. Self-organization and networks thus created the platform for development or disruptions to occur for creating change. Leadership (internal or external) is important for nurturing and upscaling theses development or disruptions towards guiding policy vision and targets as well as championing ground implementation. In the case of Bangladesh, the leadership from the international and national aid organizations and targets have always lead the development whereas more often social capital tools (trust, power relations, cultural norms) act as disruptions. Historically, this has been evident in the development pathways of urban water governance in Bangladesh. Overall this research has shown some level of adaptive capacities is growing for sustainable urban growth in big cities, nevertheless unclear regarding the growth in medium and small cities context.
Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method
Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.
A Review of Applying Serious Games on Learning
Digital games have conquered a growing space in the lives of children, adolescents and adults. In this perspective, the use of this resource has shown to be an important strategy that facilitates the learning process. This research is a literature review on the use of serious games in teaching, which shows the characteristics of these games, the benefits and possible harms that this resource can produce, in addition to the possible methods of evaluating the effectiveness of this resource in teaching. The results point out that Serious Games have significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still poorly studied, mainly due to the complexity involved in evaluating intangible measures.
A Case Study Comparing the Effect of Computer Assisted Task-Based Language Teaching and Computer-Assisted Form Focused Language Instruction on Language Production of Students Learning Arabic as a Foreign Language
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) and focus on form instruction (FFI) methods were proven to improve quality and quantity of immediate language production. However, studies that compare between the effectiveness of the language production when using TBLT versus FFI are very little with results that are not consistent. Moreover, teaching Arabic using TBLT is a new field with few research that has investigated its application inside classrooms. Furthermore, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there are no prior studies that compared teaching Arabic as a foreign language in a classroom setting using computer-assisted task-based language teaching (CATBLT) with computer-assisted form focused language instruction (CAFFI). Accordingly, the focus of this presentation is to display CATBLT and CAFFI tools when teaching Arabic as a foreign language as well as demonstrate an experimental study that aims to identify whether or not CATBLT is a more effective instruction method. The effectiveness will be determined through comparing CATBLT and CAFFI in terms of accuracy, lexical complexity, and fluency of language produced by students. The participants of the study are 20 students enrolled in two intermediate-level Arabic as a foreign language classes. The experiment will take place over the course of 7 days. Based on a study conducted by Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz for teaching Turkish as a second language, an in-house computer assisted tool for the TBLT and another one for FFI will be designed for the experiment. The experimental group will be instructed using the in-house CATBLT tool and the control group will be taught through the in-house CAFFI tool. The data that will be analyzed are the dialogues produced by students in both the experimental and control groups when completing a task or communicating in conversational activities. The dialogues of both groups will be analyzed to understand the effect of the type of instruction (CATBLT or CAFFI) on accuracy, lexical complexity, and fluency. Thus, the study aims to demonstrate whether or not there is an instruction method that positively affects the language produced by students learning Arabic as a foreign language more than the other.
Problems of Boolean Reasoning Based Biclustering Parallelization
Biclustering is the way of two-dimensional data analysis. For several years it became possible to express such issue in terms of Boolean reasoning, for processing continuous, discrete and binary data. The mathematical backgrounds of such approach &mdash; proved ability of induction of exact and inclusion&ndash;maximal biclusters fulfilling assumed criteria &mdash; are strong advantages of the method. Unfortunately, the core of the method has quite high computational complexity. In the paper the basics of Boolean reasoning approach for biclustering are presented. In such context the problems of computation parallelization are risen.
Risk Based on Computer Auditing and Measures of ‎Prevention
The technology of computer audit played a major role in the progress and prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through research in this paper, we propose the causes of audit risk in a computer environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.
The Role of Optimization and Machine Learning in E-commerce Logistics in the Year 2030
Global e-commerce sales have reached unprecedented levels in the past few years. As this trend is only predicted to go up as we continue into the 20s, new challenges will be faced by companies when planning and controlling e-commerce logistics. In this paper, we survey the related literature on optimization and machine learning as well as on combined methodologies. We also identify the distinctive features of next-generation planning algorithms - namely scalability, model-and-run features, and learning capabilities - that will be fundamental to cope with the scale and complexity of logistics in the next decade.
Normalized Compression Distance Based Scene Alteration Analysis of a Video
In this paper, an application of Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) to detect notable scene alterations occurring in videos is presented. Several research groups have been developing methods to perform image classification using NCD, a computable approximation to Normalized Information Distance (NID) by studying the degree of similarity in images. The timeframes where significant aberrations between the frames of a video have occurred have been identified by obtaining a threshold NCD value, using two compressors: LZMA and BZIP2 and defining scene alterations using Pixel Difference Percentage metrics.
Communication Strategies of Russian-English Asymmetric Bilinguals Given Insufficient Language Faculty
In the age of globalization Internet communication as a new format of interactions have become an integral part of our daily routine. Internet environment allows for new conditions and provides participants to a communication act with extra communication tools which can be used on Internet forums or in chat rooms. As a result communicants tend to alternate their behavior patterns in contrast to those practiced in live communication. It is not yet clear which communication strategies participants to Internet communication abide by and what determines their choices. Given the continually changing environment of a forum or a chat the behavior of a communicant can be interpreted in terms of autopoiesis theory which sees adaptation as the major tool for coexistence between the living system and its niche. Each communication act is seen as interaction between the communicant (i.e. the living system) and the overall environment of the forum (i.e. the niche) rather than one particular interlocutor. When communicating via the Internet participants are believed to aim at reaching a balance between themselves and the environment of a forum or a chat. The research focuses on unveiling the adaptation strategies employed by a communicant in particular cases and looks into the reasons they are employed. There is a correlation between language faculty of the communicants and the strategies they opt for when communicating on Internet forums and in chat rooms. The research included an experiment with a sample of Russian-English asymmetric bilinguals aged 16-25. Respondents were given two texts of equivalent contents, but of different language complexity. They had to respond to the texts as if they were making a reciprocal comment at a forum. It has been revealed that when communicants realize that their language faculty is not sufficient to understand the initial text they tend to amend their communication strategy in order to maintain the balance with the niche (remain involved in the communication). Most common strategies for responding to a difficult-to-understand text were self-presentation, veiling poor language faculty and response evasion. The research has so far focused on a very narrow aspect of correlation between language faculty and communication behavior, namely the syntactic and lexicological complexity of initial texts. It is essential to conduct a series of experiments that dwell on other characteristics of the texts to determine the range of cases when language faculty determines the choice of adaptation strategy.
"Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty
In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?
A Corpus-Based Study on the Lexical, Syntactic and Sequential Features across Interpreting Types
Among the various modes of interpreting, simultaneous interpreting (SI) is regarded as a ‘complex’ and ‘extreme condition’ of cognitive tasks while consecutive interpreters (CI) do not have to share processing capacity between tasks. Given that SI exerts great cognitive demand, it makes sense to posit that the output of SI may be more compromised than that of CI in the linguistic features. The bulk of the research has stressed the varying cognitive demand and processes involved in different modes of interpreting; however, related empirical research is sparse. In keeping with our interest in investigating the quantitative linguistic factors discriminating between SI and CI, the current study seeks to examine the potential lexical simplification, syntactic complexity and sequential organization mechanism with a self-made inter-model corpus of transcribed simultaneous and consecutive interpretation, translated speech and original speech texts with a total running word of 321960. The lexical features are extracted in terms of the lexical density, list head coverage, hapax legomena, and type-token ratio, as well as core vocabulary percentage. Dependency distance, an index for syntactic complexity and reflective of processing demand is employed. Frequency motif is a non-grammatically-bound sequential unit and is also used to visualize the local function distribution of interpreting the output. While SI is generally regarded as multitasking with high cognitive load, our findings evidently show that CI may impose heavier or taxing cognitive resource differently and hence yields more lexically and syntactically simplified output. In addition, the sequential features manifest that SI and CI organize the sequences from the source text in different ways into the output, to minimize the cognitive load respectively. We reasoned the results in the framework that cognitive demand is exerted both on maintaining and coordinating component of Working Memory. On the one hand, the information maintained in CI is inherently larger in volume compared to SI. On the other hand, time constraints directly influence the sentence reformulation process. The temporal pressure from the input in SI makes the interpreters only keep a small chunk of information in the focus of attention. Thus, SI interpreters usually produce the output by largely retaining the source structure so as to relieve the information from the working memory immediately after formulated in the target language. Conversely, CI interpreters receive at least a few sentences before reformulation, when they are more self-paced. CI interpreters may thus tend to retain and generate the information in a way to lessen the demand. In other words, interpreters cope with the high demand in the reformulation phase of CI by generating output with densely distributed function words, more content words of higher frequency values and fewer variations, simpler structures and more frequently used language sequences. We consequently propose a revised effort model based on the result for a better illustration of cognitive demand during both interpreting types.
Estimating Algae Concentration Based on Deep Learning from Satellite Observation in Korea
Over the last few tens of years, the coastal regions of Korea have experienced red tide algal blooms, which are harmful and toxic to both humans and marine organisms due to their potential threat. It was accelerated owing to eutrophication by human activities, certain oceanic processes, and climate change. Previous studies have tried to monitoring and predicting the algae concentration of the ocean with the bio-optical algorithms applied to color images of the satellite. However, the accurate estimation of algal blooms remains problems to challenges because of the complexity of coastal waters. Therefore, this study suggests a new method to identify the concentration of red tide algal bloom from images of geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) which are representing the water environment of the sea in Korea. The method employed GOCI images, which took the water leaving radiances centered at 443nm, 490nm and 660nm respectively, as well as observed weather data (i.e., humidity, temperature and atmospheric pressure) for the database to apply optical characteristics of algae and train deep learning algorithm. Convolution neural network (CNN) was used to extract the significant features from the images. And then artificial neural network (ANN) was used to estimate the concentration of algae from the extracted features. For training of the deep learning model, backpropagation learning strategy is developed. The established methods were tested and compared with the performances of GOCI data processing system (GDPS), which is based on standard image processing algorithms and optical algorithms. The model had better performance to estimate algae concentration than the GDPS which is impossible to estimate greater than 5mg/m³. Thus, deep learning model trained successfully to assess algae concentration in spite of the complexity of water environment. Furthermore, the results of this system and methodology can be used to improve the performances of remote sensing. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.
Risk-Based Computer Auditing and Measures of Prevention
the technology of Computer audit played a major role in the progress and ‎prospects of a proper application to improve the quality and efficiency of audit ‎work. But due to the technical complexity and the specific risks of computer ‎audit, it should be shown effective in audit and preventive action. Mainly through ‎research in this paper, we proposes the causes of audit risk in a computer ‎environment and the risk of further proposals for measures to control, to some ‎extent reduce the risk of computer audit and improve the audit quality.‎
Revolutionary Solutions for Modeling and Visualization of Complex Software Systems
Existing software modeling and visualization approaches using UML are outdated, which are outcomes of reductionism and the superposition principle that the whole of a system is the sum of its parts, so that with them all tasks of software modeling and visualization are performed linearly, partially, and locally. This paper introduces revolutionary solutions for modeling and visualization of complex software systems, which make complex software systems much easy to understand, test, and maintain. The solutions are based on complexity science, offering holistic, automatic, dynamic, virtual, and executable approaches about thousand times more efficient than the traditional ones.
Emerging Technologies for Learning: In Need of a Pro-Active Educational Strategy
This paper is about an explorative research into the use of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher engineering education. The assumption is that these technologies and applications, which are not yet widely adopted, will help to improve education and as such actively work on the ability to better deal with the mismatch of skills bothering our industries. Technologies such as 3D printing, the Internet of Things, Virtual Reality, and others, are in a dynamic state of development which makes it difficult to grasp the value for education. Also, the instruments in current educational research seem not appropriate to assess the value of such technologies. This explorative research aims to foster an approach to better deal with this new complexity. The need to find out is urgent, because these technologies will be dominantly present in the near future in all aspects of life, including education. The methodology used in this research comprised an inventory of emerging technologies and tools that potentially give way to innovation and are used or about to be used in technical universities. The inventory was based on both a literature review and a review of reports and web resources like blogs and others and included a series of interviews with stakeholders in engineering education and at representative industries. In addition, a number of small experiments were executed with the aim to analyze the requirements for the use of in this case Virtual Reality and the Internet of Things to better understanding the opportunities and limitations in the day-today learning environment. The major findings indicate that it is rather difficult to decide about the value of these technologies for education due to the dynamic state of change and therefor unpredictability and the lack of a coherent policy at the institutions. Most decisions are being made by teachers on an individual basis, who in their micro-environment are not equipped to select, test and ultimately decide about the use of these technologies. Most experiences are being made in the industry knowing that the skills to handle these technologies are in high demand. The industry though is worried about the inclination and the capability of education to help bridge the skills gap related to the emergence of new technologies. Due to the complexity, the diversity, the speed of development and the decay, education is challenged to develop an approach that can make these technologies work in an integrated fashion. For education to fully profit from the opportunities, these technologies offer it is eminent to develop a pro-active strategy and a sustainable approach to frame the emerging technologies development.
The Generalized Pareto Distribution as a Model for Sequential Order Statistics
‎In this article‎, ‎sequential order statistics (SOS) censoring type II samples coming from the generalized Pareto distribution are considered‎. ‎Maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the unknown parameters are derived on the basis of the available multiple SOS data‎. ‎Necessary conditions for existence and uniqueness of the derived ML estimates are given‎. Due to complexity in the proposed likelihood function‎, ‎a useful re-parametrization is suggested‎. ‎For illustrative purposes‎, ‎a Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted and an illustrative example is analysed‎.
A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations
This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.
Competitiveness and Pricing Policy Assessment for Resilience Surface Access System at Airports
Considering a worldwide tendency, air transports are growing very fast and many changes have taken place in planning, management and decision making process. Given the complexity of airport operation, the best use of existing capacity is the key driver of efficiency and productivity. This paper deals with the evaluation framework for the ground access at airports, by using a set of mode choice indicators providing key messages towards airport&rsquo;s ground access performance. The application presents results for a sample of 12 European airports, illustrating recommendations to define policy and improve service for the air transport access chain.
Study of Variation of Winds Behavior on Micro Urban Environment with Use of Fuzzy Logic for Wind Power Generation: Case Study in the Cities of Arraial do Cabo and São Pedro da Aldeia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
This work provides details on the wind speed behavior within cities of Arraial do Cabo and S&atilde;o Pedro da Aldeia located in the Lakes Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This region has one of the best potentials for wind power generation. In interurban layer, wind conditions are very complex and depend on physical geography, size and orientation of buildings and constructions around, population density, and land use. In the same context, the fundamental surface parameter that governs the production of flow turbulence in urban canyons is the surface roughness. Such factors can influence the potential for power generation from the wind within the cities. Moreover, the use of wind on a small scale is not fully utilized due to complexity of wind flow measurement inside the cities. It is difficult to accurately predict this type of resource. This study demonstrates how fuzzy logic can facilitate the assessment of the complexity of the wind potential inside the cities. It presents a decision support tool and its ability to deal with inaccurate information using linguistic variables created by the heuristic method. It relies on the already published studies about the variables that influence the wind speed in the urban environment. These variables were turned into the verbal expressions that are used in computer system, which facilitated the establishment of rules for fuzzy inference and integration with an application for smartphones used in the research. In the first part of the study, challenges of the sustainable development which are described are followed by incentive policies to the use of renewable energy in Brazil. The next chapter follows the study area characteristics and the concepts of fuzzy logic. Data were collected in field experiment by using qualitative and quantitative methods for assessment. As a result, a map of the various points is presented within the cities studied with its wind viability evaluated by a system of decision support using the method multivariate classification based on fuzzy logic.
Analyzing the Connection between Productive Structure and Communicable Diseases: An Econometric Panel Study
The aim of this paper is to check possible convergence in health measures (aged-standard rate of morbidity and mortality) for communicable diseases between developed and developing countries, conditional to productive structures features. Understanding the interrelations between health patterns and economic development is particularly important in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where economic development comes along with deep social inequality. Developing countries with less diversified productive structures (measured through complexity index) but high heterogeneous inter-sectorial labor productivity (using as a proxy inter-sectorial coefficient of variation of labor productivity) has on average low health levels in communicable diseases compared to developed countries with high diversified productive structures and low labor market heterogeneity. Structural heterogeneity and productive diversification may have influence on health levels even considering per capita income. We set up a panel data for 139 countries from 1995 to 2015, joining several data about the countries, as economic development, health, and health system coverage, environmental and socioeconomic aspects. This information was obtained from World Bank, International Labour Organization, Atlas of Economic Complexity, United Nation (Development Report) and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Database. Econometric panel models evidence shows that the level of communicable diseases has a positive relationship with structural heterogeneity, even considering other factors as per capita income. On the other hand, the recent process of convergence in terms of communicable diseases have been motivated for other reasons not directly related to productive structure, as health system coverage and environmental aspects. These evidences suggest a joint dynamics between the unequal distribution of communicable diseases and countries' productive structure aspects. These set of evidence are quite important to public policy as meet the health aims in Millennium Development Goals. It also highlights the importance of the process of structural change as fundamental to shift the levels of health in terms of communicable diseases and can contribute to the debate between the relation of economic development and health patterns changes.
Approximate Spring Balancing for Swimming Pool Lift Mechanism to Reduce Actuator Torque
Reducing actuator loads is important for applications in which human effort is required for actuation. The potential benefit of applying spring balancing to rehabilitation devices which work against gravity on a nonhorizontal plane is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to a manually operated swimming pool lift mechanism which lowers and raises the physically challenged users into or out of the swimming pool is presented here. Various possible configurations using extension and compression springs as well as gas spring in the mechanism are compared. This work involves approximate spring balancing of the mechanism using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached inside the mechanism, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant swimming pool lift mechanism is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this user-actuated swimming pool lift for developing countries.
Cyclostationary Analysis of Polytime Coded Signals for LPI Radars
In radars, an electromagnetic waveform is sent, and an echo of the same signal is received by the receiver. From this received signal, by extracting various parameters such as round trip delay, Doppler frequency it is possible to find distance, speed, altitude, etc. However, nowadays as the technology increases, intruders are intercepting transmitted signal as it reaches them, and they will be extracting the characteristics and trying to modify them. So there is a need to develop a system whose signal cannot be identified by no cooperative intercept receivers. That is why LPI radars came into existence. In this paper, a brief discussion on LPI radar and its modulation (polytime code (PT1)), detection (cyclostationary (DFSM & FAM) techniques such as DFSM, FAM are presented and compared with respect to computational complexity.
Least Support Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (LS-OMP) Recovery Method for Invisible Watermarking Image
In this paper, first, we propose least support orthogonal matching pursuit (LS-OMP) algorithm to improve the performance, of the OMP (orthogonal matching pursuit) algorithm. LS-OMP algorithm adaptively chooses optimum L (least part of support), at each iteration. This modification helps to reduce the computational complexity significantly and performs better than OMP algorithm. Second, we give the procedure for the invisible image watermarking in the presence of compressive sampling. The image reconstruction based on a set of watermarked measurements is performed using LS-OMP.
An Overview of the Porosity Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and Their Challenges: An Example of Macro-Microporosity Classification from Offshore Miocene Carbonate in Central Luconia, Malaysia
Biological and chemical activities in carbonates are responsible for the complexity of the pore system. Primary porosity is generally of natural origin while secondary porosity is subject to chemical reactivity through diagenetic processes. To understand the integrated part of hydrocarbon exploration, it is necessary to understand the carbonate pore system. However, the current porosity classification scheme is limited to adequately predict the petrophysical properties of different reservoirs having various origins and depositional environments. Rock classification provides a descriptive method for explaining the lithofacies but makes no significant contribution to the application of porosity and permeability (poro-perm) correlation. The Central Luconia carbonate system (Malaysia) represents a good example of pore complexity (in terms of nature and origin) mainly related to diagenetic processes which have altered the original reservoir. For quantitative analysis, 32 high-resolution images of each thin section were taken using transmitted light microscopy. The quantification of grains, matrix, cement, and macroporosity (pore types) was achieved using a petrographic analysis of thin sections and FESEM images. The point counting technique was used to estimate the amount of macroporosity from thin section, which was then subtracted from the total porosity to derive the microporosity. The quantitative observation of thin sections revealed that the mouldic porosity (macroporosity) is the dominant porosity type present, whereas the microporosity seems to correspond to a sum of 40 to 50% of the total porosity. It has been proven that these Miocene carbonates contain a significant amount of microporosity, which significantly complicates the estimation and production of hydrocarbons. Neglecting its impact can increase uncertainty about estimating hydrocarbon reserves. Due to the diversity of geological parameters, the application of existing porosity classifications does not allow a better understanding of the poro-perm relationship. However, the classification can be improved by including the pore types and pore structures where they can be divided into macro- and microporosity. Such studies of microporosity identification/classification represent now a major concern in limestone reservoirs around the world.
Biomimetic Systems to Reveal the Action Mode of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Lipid Membrane
Catechins are powerful antioxidants which have attractive properties useful for tumor therapy. Considering their antioxidant activity, these molecules can act as a scavenger of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), alleviating the damage of cell membrane induced by oxidative stress. The complexity and dynamic nature of the cell membrane compromise the analysis of the biophysical interactions between drug and cell membrane and restricts the transport or uptake of the drug by intracellular targets. To avoid the cell membrane complexity, we used biomimetic systems as liposomes and Langmuir monolayers to study the interaction between catechin and membranes at the molecular level. Liposomes were formed after the dispersion of anionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)(sodium salt) (DPPG) phospholipids in an aqueous solution, which mimic the arrangement of lipids in natural cell membranes and allows the entrapment of catechins. Langmuir monolayers were formed after dropping amphiphilic molecules, DPPG phospholipids, dissolved in an organic solvent onto the water surface. In this work, we mixed epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with DPPG liposomes and exposed them to ultra-violet radiation in order to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these molecules against oxidative stress induced by radiation. The presence of EGCG in the mixture decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation, proving that EGCG protects membranes through the quenching of the reactive oxygen species. Considering the high amount of hydroxyl groups (OH groups) on structure of EGCG, a possible mechanism to these molecules interact with membrane is through hydrogen bonding. We also investigated the effect of EGCG at various concentrations on DPPG Langmuir monolayers. The surface pressure isotherms and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) results corroborate with absorbance results preformed on liposome-model, showing that EGCG interacts with polar heads of the monolayers. This study elucidates the physiological action of EGCG which can be incorporated in lipid membrane. These results are also relevant for the improvement of the current protocols used to incorporate catechins in drug delivery systems.
Software Architecture Optimization Using Swarm Intelligence Techniques
Optimization of software architecture can be done with respect to a quality attributes (QA). In this paper, there is an analysis of multiple research papers from different dimensions that have been used to classify those attributes. We have proposed a technique of swarm intelligence Meta heuristic ant colony optimization algorithm as a contribution to solve this critical optimization problem of software architecture. We have ranked quality attributes and run our algorithm on every QA, and then we will rank those on the basis of accuracy. At the end, we have selected the most accurate quality attributes. Ant colony algorithm is an effective algorithm and will perform best in optimizing the QA’s and ranking them.
Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures
Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.
European Countries Challenge’s in Value Added Tax
The value added tax came as a necessity of substituting the old tax on sales. Based on the advantages of this new tax in our days it is used successfully in more than 140 countries around the world. The aim of the paper is to describe the nature of this tax with its advantages and disadvantages. Also it will describe the way how it functions in most of the European countries and the actual challenges of these countries on value added tax. It will be present the types of goods which are exempt from this tax, the reasons and the consequences of those exemptions. The paper will be based on secondary data taken from respective literature. An econometric model will be present in order to identify the dependence of value tax from other parameters. The analyzing most refers to the two main principles of harmonization and billing on the fiscal system and the ways how to restructures the system in order to minimize the fiscal evasion.
A Survey on Concurrency Control Methods in Distributed Database
In the last years, remarkable improvements have been made in the ability of distributed database systems performance. A distributed database is composed of some sites which are connected to each other through network connections. In this system, if good harmonization is not made between different transactions, it may result in database incoherence. Nowadays, because of the complexity of many sites and their connection methods, it is difficult to extend different models in distributed database serially. The principle goal of concurrency control in distributed database is to ensure not interfering in accessibility of common database by different sites. Different concurrency control algorithms have been suggested to use in distributed database systems. In this paper, some available methods have been introduced and compared for concurrency control in distributed database.
Reverse Logistics Information Management Using Ontological Approach
Reverse Logistics (RL) Process is considered as complex and dynamic network that involves many stakeholders such as: suppliers, manufactures, warehouse, retails, and costumers, this complexity is inherent in such process due to lack of perfect knowledge or conflicting information. Ontologies, on the other hand, can be considered as an approach to overcome the problem of sharing knowledge and communication among the various reverse logistics partners. In this paper, we propose a semantic representation based on hybrid architecture for building the Ontologies in an ascendant way, this method facilitates the semantic reconciliation between the heterogeneous information systems (ICT) that support reverse logistics Processes and product data.
Adaptive Multiple Transforms Hardware Architecture for Versatile Video Coding
The Versatile Video Coding standard (VVC) is actually under development by the Joint Video Exploration Team (or JVET). An Adaptive Multiple Transforms (AMT) approach was announced. It is based on different transform modules that provided an efficient coding. However, the AMT solution raises several issues especially regarding the complexity of the selected set of transforms. This can be an important issue, particularly for a future industrial adoption. This paper proposed an efficient hardware implementation of the most used transform in AMT approach: the DCT II. The developed circuit is adapted to different block sizes and can reach a minimum frequency of 192 MHz allowing an optimized execution time.
Simulation and Hardware Implementation of Data Communication Between CAN Controllers for Automotive Applications
In automobile industries, Controller Area Network (CAN) is widely used to reduce the system complexity and inter-task communication. Therefore, this paper proposes the hardware implementation of data frame communication between one controller to other. The CAN data frames and protocols will be explained deeply, here. The data frames are transferred without any collision or corruption. The simulation is made in the KEIL vision software to display the data transfer between transmitter and receiver in CAN. ARM7 micro-controller is used to transfer data’s between the controllers in real time. Data transfer is verified using the CRO.
Turing Pattern in the Oregonator Revisited
In this paper, we reconsider the analysis of the Oregonator model. We highlight an error in this analysis which leads to an incorrect depiction of the parameter region in which diffusion driven instability is possible. We believe that the cause of the oversight is the complexity of stability analyses based on eigenvalues and the dependence on parameters of matrix minors appearing in stability calculations. We regenerate the parameter space where Turing patterns can be seen, and we use the common Lyapunov function (CLF) approach, which is numerically reliable, to further confirm the dependence of the results on diffusion coefficients intensities.
Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure
—Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.
Implementation of Iterative Algorithm for Earthquake Location
The development in the field of the digital signal processing (DSP) and the microelectronics technology reduces the complexity of the iterative algorithms that need large number of arithmetic operations. Virtex-Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are programmable silicon foundations which offer an important solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP designer. In this work, Virtex-7 FPGA technology is used to implement an iterative algorithm to estimate the earthquake location. Simulation results show that an implementation based on block RAMB36E1 and DSP48E1 slices of Virtex-7 type reduces the number of cycles of the clock frequency. This enables the algorithm to be used for earthquake prediction.
Solving SPDEs by Least Squares Method
We present in this paper a useful strategy to solve stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) involving stochastic coefficients. Using the Wick-product of higher order and the Wiener-Itˆo chaos expansion, the SPDEs is reformulated as a large system of deterministic partial differential equations. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. To obtain the chaos coefficients in the corresponding deterministic equations, we use a least square formulation. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.
"IS Cybernetics": An Idea to Base the International System Theory upon the General System Theory and Cybernetics
The spirit of post-modernity remains chaotic and obscure. Geopolitical rivalries raging at the more extreme levels and the ability of intellectual community to explain the entropy of global affairs has been diminishing. The Western-led idea of globalisation imposed upon the world does not seem to bring the bright future for human progress anymore, and its architects lose much of global control, as the strong non-western cultural entities develop new forms of post-modern establishments. The overall growing cultural misunderstanding and mistrust are expressions of political impotence to deal with the inner contradictions within the contemporary phenomenon (capitalism, economic globalisation) that embrace global society. The drivers and effects of global restructuring must be understood in the context of systems and principles reflecting on true complexity of society. The purpose of this paper is to set out some ideas about how cybernetics can contribute to understanding international system structure and analyse possible world futures. “IS Cybernetics” would apply to system thinking and cybernetic principles in IR in order to analyse and handle the complexity of social phenomena from global perspective. “IS cybernetics” would be, for now, the subfield of IR, concerned with applying theories and methodologies from cybernetics and system sciences by offering concepts and tools for addressing problems holistically. It would bring order to the complex relations between disciplines that IR touches upon. One of its tasks would be to map, measure, tackle and find the principles of dynamics and structure of social forces that influence human behaviour and consequently cause political, technological and economic structural reordering, forming and reforming the international system. “IS cyberneticists” task would be to understand the control mechanisms that govern the operation of international society (and the sub-systems in their interconnection) and only then suggest better ways operate these mechanisms on sublevels as cultural, political, technological, religious and other. “IS cybernetics” would also strive to capture the mechanism of social-structural changes in time, which would open space for syntheses between IR and historical sociology. With the cybernetic distinction between first order studies of observed systems and the second order study of observing systems, IS cybernetics would also provide a unifying epistemological and methodological, conceptual framework for multilateralism and multiple modernities theory.
Best Resource Recommendation for a Stochastic Process
The aim of this study was to develop an Artificial Neural Network0 s recommendation model for an online process using the complexity of load, performance, and average servicing time of the resources. Here, the proposed model investigates the resource performance using stochastic gradient decent method for learning ranking function. A probabilistic cost function is implemented to identify the optimal θ values (load) on each resource. Based on this result the recommendation of resource suitable for performing the currently executing task is made. The test result of CoSeLoG project is presented with an accuracy of 72.856%.
A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester
As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.
Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants
This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.
Coaching for Lecturers at German Universities: An Inventory Based on a Qualitative Interview Study
The society of the 21st century is characterized by dynamic and complexity, developments that also shape universities and university life. The Bologna reform, for example, has led to restructuring at many European universities. Today's university teachers, therefore, have to meet many expectations: Their tasks include not only teaching but also the general improvement of the quality of teaching, good research, the management of various projects or the development of their own personal skills. This requires a high degree of flexibility and openness to change. The resulting pressure can often lead to exhaustion. Coaching can be a way for university teachers to cope with these pressures because it gives them the opportunity to discuss stressful situations with a coach and self-reflect on them. As a result, more and more universities in Europe offer to coach to their teachers. An analysis of the services provided at universities in Germany, however, quickly reveals an immense disagreement with regard to the understanding of ‘coaching’. A variety of terms is used, such as coaching, counselling or supervision. In addition, each university defines its offer individually, from process-oriented consulting to expert consulting, from group training to individual coaching. The biographic backgrounds of those who coach are also very divergent, both external and internal coaches can be suitable. These findings lead to the following questions: Which structural characteristics for coaching at universities have been proven successful? What competencies should a good coach for university lecturers have? In order to answer these questions, a qualitative study was carried out. In a first step, qualitative semi-structured interviews (N = 14) were conducted, on the one hand with coaches for university teachers and on the other hand with university teachers who have been coached. In a second step, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using Mayring's qualitative content analysis. The study shows how great the potential of coaching can be for university teachers, who otherwise have little opportunity to talk about their teaching in a private setting. According to the study, the coach should neither be a colleague nor a superior of the coachee but should take an independent perspective, as this is the only way for the coachee to openly reflect on himself/herself. In addition, the coach should be familiar with the university system, i.e., be an academic himself/herself. Otherwise, he/she cannot fully understand the complexity of the teaching situation and the role expectations. However, internal coaches do not necessarily have much coaching experience or explicit coaching competencies. They often come from the university's own didactics department, are experts in didactics, but do not necessarily have a certified coaching education. Therefore, it is important to develop structures and guidelines for internal coaches to support their coaching. In further analysis, such guidelines will be developed on the basis of these interviews.
Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System
Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.
Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System
Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.
Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System
Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.