Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material
Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.
Enhanced Thermal Properties of Rigid PVC Foams Using Fly Ash
PVC foam-fly ash composites (PVC-FA) are characterized for their structural, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the composites increased modestly with higher fly ash loading, while there was a significant increase in the elastic modulus for the same composites. On the other hand, a decrease in elongation at UTS was observed upon increasing fly ash content due to increased rigidity of the composites. Similarly, the flexural modulus increased as the fly ash loading increased, where the composites containing 25 phr fly ash showed the highest flexural strength. Thermal properties of PVC-fly ash composites were determined by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The micro structural properties were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM results confirm that fly ash particles were mechanically interlocked in PVC matrix with good inter facial interaction with the matrix. Particle agglomeration and debonding was observed in samples containing higher amounts of fly ash.
Development of Al-5%Cu/Si₃N₄, B₄C or BN Composites for Piston Applications
The purpose of this research is to provide a competitive alternative to aluminum silicon alloys used in automotive applications. This alternative was created by developing three types of composites Al-5%Cu- (B₄C, BN or Si₃N₄) particulates with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. Stir casting was used to synthesis composites containing 2, 5 and 7 wt. % of B₄C, Si₃N₄ and 2, 5 of BN followed by squeeze casting. The squeeze casting process decreased the porosity of the final composites. The composites exhibited a fairly uniform particle distribution throughout the matrix alloy. The microstructure and XRD results of the composites suggested a significant reaction occurred at the interface between the particles and alloy. Increasing the aging temperature from 200 to 250°C decreased the hardness values of the matrix and the composites and decreased the time required to reach the peak. Turner model was used to calculate the expected values of thermal expansion coefficient CTE of matrix and its composites. Deviations between calculated and experimental values of CTE were not exceeded 10%. Al-5%Cu-B₄C composites experimentally showed the lowest values of CTE (17-19)·10-6 °С-1 and (19-20) ·10-6 °С-1 in the temperature range 20-100 °С and 20-200 °С respectively.
Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose
The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).
Changes in the Properties of Composites Caused by Chemical Treatment of Hemp Hurds
The possibility of using industrial hemp as a source of natural fibers for purpose of construction, mainly for the preparation of lightweight composites based on hemp hurds is described. In this article, an overview of measurement results of important technical parameters (compressive strength, density, thermal conductivity) of composites based on organic filler - chemically modified hemp hurds in three solutions (EDTA, NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and inorganic binder MgO-cement after 7, 28, 60, 90 and 180 days of hardening is given. The results of long-term water storage of 28 days hardened composites at room temperature were investigated. Changes in the properties of composites caused by chemical treatment of hemp material are discussed.
A Review on Aluminium Metal Matric Composites
Metal matrix composites with aluminum as the matrix material have been heralded as the next great development in advanced engineering materials. Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) refer to the class of light weight high performance material systems. Properties of AMMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. AMMC finds its application in automotive, aerospace, defense, sports and structural areas. This paper presents an overview of AMMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, types and applications with case studies.
A Comparative Study of Microstructure, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of A359 Composites Reinforced with SiC, Si3N4 and AlN Particles
A comparative study of the thermal and mechanical behavior of squeezed A359 composites containing 5, 10 and 15 wt.% SiC, (SiC+ Si3N4) and AlN particulates was investigated. Stir followed by squeeze casting techniques are used to produce A359 composites. It was noticed that, A359/AlN composites have high thermal conductivity as compared to A359 alloy and even to A359/SiC or A359/(SiC+Si3N4) composites. Microstructures of the composites have shown homogeneous and even distribution of reinforcements within the matrix. Interfacial reactions between particles and matrix were investigated using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of particles led not only to increase peak hardness of the composites but also to accelerate the aging kinetics. As compared with A359 matrix alloy, compression test of the composites has exhibited a significant increase in the yield and the ultimate compressive strengths with a relative reduction in the failure strain. Those light weight composites have a high potential to be used for automotive and aerospace applications.
Wear Damage of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites with the Addition of Graphite
The glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyimide (PL) composites filled with graphite powders were fabricated by means of hot press molding technique. The friction and wear properties of the resulting composites sliding against GCr15 steel were investigated on a model ring-on-block test rig at dry sliding condition. The wear mechanisms were also discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn surface of the PL composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart. With the increasing normal loads, the friction coefficient of the composites increased under the dry sliding, owing to inconsistent influences of shear strength and real contact areas. Experimental results revealed that the incorporation of graphite significantly improve the wear resistance of the glass fibers reinforced polyimide composites. For best combination of friction coefficient and wear rate, the optimal volume content of graphite in the composites appears to be 45 %. It was also found that the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PL composites filled with graphite powders were closely related with the sliding condition such as sliding rate and applied load.
Study of Biocomposites Based of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Olive Husk Flour
In this work, the composites were prepared with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and olive husk flour (OHF) with different percentages (10, 20 and 30%) using extrusion method followed by injection molding. The morphological, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of composites were investigated. Tensile strength and elongation at break of composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, Young modulus and storage modulus were increased. The addition of OHF resulted in a decrease in thermal stability of composites. The presence of OHF led to an increase in percentage of crystallinity (Xc) of PLA matrix.
Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites
In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.
Study of the ZnO Effect on the Properties of HDPE/ ZnO Nanocomposites
A HDPE/ZnO nano composites have been successfully performed using the co-mixing. The ZnO was first co-mixed with the stearic acid then added to the polymer in the plastograph. The nano composites prepared with the co-mixed ZnO were compared to those prepared with the neat TiO2. The nano composites were characterized by different techniques as the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nano structure/properties relationships were investigated. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation
Bamboo fiber (BF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, bamboo composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-65% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the BF/PP composites untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical, and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact, and bending properties were observed precisely. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) were found for 50 wt% fiber composites, 65 MPa, and 85.5 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 5.73 GPa and 7.85 GPa respectively. The BF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (i.e. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy doses). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 30.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated BF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated BF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.
Fatigue of Multiscale Nanoreinforced Composites: 3D Modelling
3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro-micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement (localized in the fiber/matrix interface (fiber sizing) and distributed throughout the matrix) on the crack path, damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior is investigated in numerical experiments.
Dielectric Properties of PANI/h-BN Composites
Polyaniline (PANI), the most studied member of the conductive polymers, has a wide range of uses from several electronic devices to various conductive high-technology applications. Boron nitride (BN) is a boron and nitrogen containing compound with superior chemical and thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Even though several composites of PANI was prepared in literature, the preparation of h-BN/PANI composites is rare. In this work PANI was polymerized in the presence of different amounts of h-BN (1, 3 and 5% with respect to PANI) by using 0.1 M solution of NH4S2O8 in HCl as the oxidizing agent and conductive composites were prepared. Composites were structurally characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties of conductive composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range of 106–108 Hz at room temperature. The corresponding bands for the benzenoid and quinoid rings at around 1593 and 1496 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the composites proved the formation of polyaniline. Together with the FTIR spectra, XRD analysis also revealed the existence of the interactions between PANI and h-BN. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the composites increased with the increasing amount of PANI (from 87 to 101). TGA revealed that the char yield of the composites increased as the amount of h-BN was increased in the composites. Finally the dielectric permittivity of 3 wt.%h-BN-containing composite was measured and found as approximately 17. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.
Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites
In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNTs-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on ratio 30:70 were studies. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by two method; (a) muscovite-MWCNTs hybrids were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing of muscovite with MWCNTs. The effect of different preparations of the composites and filler loading was evaluated. It is revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher compared to MIXED epoxy composites. It is also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increases the MWCNTs filler loading.
Study on the Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Pineapple Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Irradiation
Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were fabricated by a conventional compression molding technique. In this investigation, PALF composites were manufactured using different percentages of fiber, which were varying from 25-50% on the total weight of the composites. To fabricate the PALF/PP composites, untreated and treated fibers were selected. A systematic study was done to observe the physical, mechanical and interfacial behavior of the composites. In this study, mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile, impact and bending properties were observed precisely. It was found that 45wt% of fiber composites showed better mechanical properties than others. Maximum tensile strength (TS) and bending strength (BS) was observed, 65 MPa and 50 MPa respectively, whereas the highest tensile modulus (TM) and bending modulus (BM) was examined, 1.7 GPa and 0.85 GPa respectively. The PALF/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The values of TS, BS, TM, and BM of the irradiated (5.0 kGy) composites were found to improve by 19%, 23%, 17% and 25 % over non-irradiated composites. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated PALF/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion and interfacial bonding than untreated PALF/PP based composites. Water uptake and soil degradation tests of untreated and treated composites were also investigated.
Polypropylene/Red Mud Polymer Composites: Effects of Powder Size on Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Polymer/clay composites have received great attention in the past three decades owing to their light weight coupled with significantly better mechanical and barrier properties than the corresponding neat polymer resins. An investigation was carried out on the effects of red mud powder size and ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene /red mud polymer composites. Red mud, in four different concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 wt %) and three different powder size (180, 63 and 38 micron) were added to PP to produce composites. The mechanical properties, including the elasticity modulus, tensile & yield strength, % elongation, hardness, Izod impact strength and the thermal properties including the melt flow index, heat deflection temperature and vicat softening point of the composites were investigated. The structures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and compared to mechanical and thermal properties as a function of red mud powder content and size.
Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites
In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.
Determination of Sintering Parameters of TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ Composites
The densification behavior of TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites is investigated for temperatures in the range of 1200°C to 1400°C, for the pressure of 40 and 50MPa, and for holding time between 15-30 min by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Ti, Si, TiC and 5 wt.% TiB₂ were used to synthesize TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites and the effect of different sintering parameters on the densification and phase evolution of these composites were investigated. The bulk densities were determined by using the Archimedes method. The polished and fractured surfaces of the samples were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The phase analyses were accomplished by using the X-Ray diffractometer. Sintering temperature and holding time are found to play a dominant role in the phase development of composites. TiₓCᵧ and TiSi₂ secondary phases were found in 5 wt.%TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites densified at 1200°C and 1400°C under the pressure of 40 MPa, due to decomposition of Ti₃SiC₂. The results indicated that 5 wt.%TiB₂ – Ti₃SiC₂ composites were densified into the dense parts with a relative density of 98.77% by sintering at 1300 °C, for 15 min, under a pressure of 50 MPa via SPS without the formation of any other ancillary phase. This work was funded and supported by Scientific Research Projects Commission of Eskisehir Osmangazi University with the Project Number 201915C103 (2019-2517).
Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies
The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.
Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers
Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.
Melaleuca alternifolia Fibre Composites: Effect of Different Type of Fibre on Mechanical and Physical Properties
The fabrication of melaleuca alternifolia fibre reinforced thermoplastic starch composites was successfully done. This paper aims to show the effect of melaleuca alternifolia fibres on mechanical and physical properties of composites by using starch as a matrix. The fibres were extracted from three different part i.e. tea tree trunk (TTT), tea tree bunch (TTB) and tea tree leaf (TTL) and combined with tapioca starch by casting method. All composites showed superior mechanical properties in comparison to TS. The addition of 5% (v/v) fibres as a filler to TS led to the improvement in young’s modulus by 350% for TTB/TS, 282% for TTT/TS and 220% for TTL/TS. The tensile strength also increased to 34.39% for TTL/TS, 82.80% for TTB/TS and 203.18% for TTT/TS respectively. The trend can be correlated to the amount of cellulose in the fibres. For physical properties, it can be seen that, with the addition of fibres, the water absorption and swelling of composites decreased. The addition of melaleuca alternifolia fibre improved mechanical and physical properties of thermoplastic starch composites.
Recycling of Plastic Waste into Composites Using Kaolin as Reinforcement
Plastics have been used extensively in both food and water packaging and other applications because of their inherent properties of low bulk densities and inertness as well as its low cost. Waste management of these plastics after usage is troubling in Ghana. One way of addressing the environmental problems associated with these plastic wastes is by recycling into useful products such as composites for energy and construction applications using natural or local materials as reinforcement. In this work, composites have been formed from waste low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and kaolin at temperatures as low as 70 ֯C using low-cost solvents like kerosene. Chemical surface modifications have been employed to improve the interfacial bonding resulting in the enhancement of properties of the composites. Kaolin particles of sizes ≤ 90µm were dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. The content of the LDPE was varied between 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %wt. Results obtained indicated that all the composites exhibited impressive compressive and flexural strengths with the 50%wt. composition having the highest strength. The hardness value of the composites increased as the polyethylene composition reduces and that of the kaolin increased. The average density and water of absorption of the composites were 530kg/m³ and 1.3% respectively.
Evaluation of Drilling-Induced Delamination of Flax/Epoxy Composites by Non-Destructive Testing Methods
The use of natural fiber composites (NFCs) is growing at a fast rate regarding industrial applications and principle researches due to their eco-friendly, renewable nature, and low density/costs. Drilling is one of the most important machining operations that are carried out on natural fiber composites. Delamination is a major concern in the drilling process of NFCs that affects the structural integrity and long-term reliability of the machined components. Flax fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates were prepared by hot press technique. In this research, we evaluated drilling-induced delamination of flax/epoxy composites by X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasonic testing (UT), and optical methods and compared the results.
Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites
Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.
Compressive Response of Unidirectional Basalt Fiber/Epoxy/MWCNTs Composites
The aim of this work is to study the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) addition at various contents with respect to the matrix (0-0.5 wt.% at a step of 0.1 wt.%) on the compressive response of unidirectional basalt fiber (UD-BF)/epoxy composites. Toward this end, MWCNTs were firstly functionalized with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS) to improve their dispersion state and interfacial compatibility with the epoxy. Subsequently, UD-BF/epoxy and multiscale 3-GPTMS-MWCNTs/UD-BF/epoxy composites were prepared. The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by quasi-static compression test. The compressive strength of the composites was obtained through performing the compression test on the off-axis specimens and extracting their longitudinal compressive strength. Results demonstrated that the highest value in compressive strength was attained at 0.4 wt.% MWCNTs with 41% increase, compared to the BF/epoxy composite. Potential mechanisms behind these were implied.
Magnetorheological Elastomer Composites Obtained by Extrusion
Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized magnetite, gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy). The use of extrusion method instead of traditional preparation processes (two-roll mill, mixer) of composites is presented. Micro and nan-sized magnetites as well as gamma iron oxide and carbonyl iron powder were found to be an active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Application of extrusion process also influenced the mechanical properties of composites and the dispersion of magnetic fillers. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM) show that the dispersion improvement had significant effect on the composites properties. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.
Mechanical Properties of the Sugarcane Bagasse Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of sugarcane bagasse fibers-polypropylene composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar polypropylene. The treatment characterization was obtained by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/PP composites when compared to the pure PP and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.
Low-Temperature Fabrication of Reaction Bonded Composites, Based on Sic and (Sic+B4C) Mixture, Infiltrated with Si-Al Alloy
The conventional approach for manufacturing silicon carbide and boron carbide reaction bonded composites is based on infiltrating a ceramic porous preform with molten silicon. The relatively high melting temperature of the silicon infiltrating medium is a drawback of the process. The present contribution is concerned with an approach that allows obtaining reaction bonded composites by pressure-less infiltration at a significantly lower (850-1000oC) temperature range. This approach was applied for the fabrication of fully dense SiC/(Si-Al) and (SiC+B4C)/(Si-Al) composites. The key feature of the approach is based on using Si alloys with low melting temperature and the Mg-vapor atmosphere, under which an adequate wetting between ceramics and liquid alloys for the infiltration process is achieved. In the first set of the experiments ceramic performs compacted from multimodal SiC powders (with the green density of about 27 vol. %) without free carbon addition were infiltrated by Si-20%Al alloy at 950oC. In the second set, 19 vol. % of a fine boron carbide powder was added to SiC powders as a source of carbon. The green density of the SiC-B4C preforms was about 23-25 vol. %. In both cases, successful infiltration was achieved and the composites were fully dense. The density of the composites was about 3g/cm3. For the SiC based composites the hardness value was 750±150HV, Young modulus-280GPa and bending strength-240±30MPa. These values for (SiC-B4C)/(Si-Al) composites (1460±200HV, 317GPa and 360±20MPa) were significantly higher due to the formation of novel ceramics phases. Microstructural characteristics of the composites and their phase composition will be discussed.
Phosphate Bonded Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Fibre Composites
The properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) in phosphate bonded composites were investigated in this research. Hemp hurds were collected from the Hemporium institute for research, South Africa. The hurds were air-dried and shredded using a hammer mill. The shives were screened into different particle sizes and were treated separately with 5% solution of acetic anhydride and sodium hydroxide. The binding matrix was prepared using a reactive magnesia, phosphoric acid, class S fly ash and unslaked lime. The treated and untreated hemp fibers were mixed thoroughly in different ratios with the inorganic matrix. Boric acid and excess water were used to retard and control the rate of the reaction and the setting of the binder. The Hemp composite was formed in a rectangular mold and compressed at room temperature at a pressure of 100KPa. After de-molding the composites, they were cured in a conditioning room for 96 h. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate the properties of the composites. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the best conditions to optimize the performance of the composites. Thereafter, these combinations were applied in the production of the composites, and the properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to carry out the advance examination of the behavior of the composites while X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to analyze the reaction pathway in the composites. The results revealed that all properties of phosphate bonded Hemp composites exceeded the LD-1 grade classification of particle boards. The proposed product can be used for ceiling, partitioning, wall claddings and underlayment.
Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing
In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.
Corrosion Characterization of Al6061 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites in Acid Medium
This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the hybrid metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy. Matrix selected is Al6061. Reinforcements selected are graphite and red mud particulates. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Metal matrix composites containing 2 percent graphite and 2 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 4 percent red mud, 2 percent graphite and 6 percent of red mud are prepared. Bar castings are cut into cylindrical discs of 20mm diameter and 20mm thickness. Corrosion tests were conducted at room temperature (230 °C) using conventional weight loss method according to ASTM G69-80. The corrodents used for the test were hydrochloric acid solution of different concentrations. Specimens were tested for every 24 hours interval up to 96 hours. Four specimens for each condition and time were immersed in corrodent. In each case the corrosion rate decreases with increase in exposure time for matrix and metal matrix composites whatever may be the concentration of hydrochloric acid. This may be due to aluminium, which may induce passivation due to development of non-porous layer. As red mud content increases the composites become corrosion resistant due to insulating nature of ceramic material red mud and less exposure of matrix alloy in those metal matrix composites.
Encapsulated Bacteria In Polymer Composites For Bioremediation Applications
Encapsulation of Micrococcus Luteus (M. Luteus) in polymeric composites has been employed for the bioremediation, sequestration of metals and for the biodegradation of chemical pollutants and toxic components in waste water. Polymer composites in the form of nonwovens of nanofibers, or core/shell particles can provide a bacterial friendly environment for transfer of nutrients and metabolisms, with the least leakage of bacteria. M. Luteus is encapsulated in a hydrophilic core of poly (vinyl alcohol), following by synthesis or coating of a proper shell as a support to maintain the chemical and mechanical strength. The biological activity of bacteria is confirmed by Live/Dead analysis and agar plate tests. SEM and TEM analysis were utilized for morphological studies of polymer composites. As a result of the successful encapsulation of the alive bacteria in polymers, longer storage time in their functional state were achieved.
Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites
In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.
Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites
Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.
Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Based Composites: Effect of Gamma Radiation
Sugarcane bagasse (SCB)-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) Based matrix composites (25-45 wt% fiber) were fabricated by a compression molding technique. The SCB surface was chemically modified using 5%-10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and after that, mechanical properties, water uptake, and soil degradation of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM) and elongation at break (Eb%) of the 30wt% composites were found to be 35.6 MPa, 10.2 GPa, 56 MPa, 5.6 GPa, and 11%, respectively. The SCB/PP based composites were treated with irradiated under gamma radiation (the source strength 50 kCi Cobalt-60) of various doses (2.5 kGy to 10 kGy). The effect of gamma radiation on the composites was also investigated, and it found that the effect of 5.0 kGy (i.e. units for radiation measurement is 'gray', kGy=kilogray ) gamma dose showed better mechanical properties than other doses. The results revealed that the combination of the chemical modification of the SCB fibers and irradiation of the composites were more effective in compatibility improvement than chemical modification alone. After flexural testing, fracture sides of the untreated and treated both composites were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM results of the treated SCB/PP based composites showed better fiber-matrix adhesion than untreated SCB/PP based composites. However, it was found that the treated SCB/PP composite has better mechanical strength, durability, and more receptivity than untreated SCB/PP based composite.
Corrosion Characterization of ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites
This paper deals with the high corrosion resistance developed by the metal matrix composites when compared with that of matrix alloy by open circuit potential test. Matrix selected is ZA-27 and reinforcement selected is red mud particulates, which is a ceramic material. The composites are prepared using liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Preheated but uncoated red mud particulates are added to the melt. Metal matrix composites containing 2, 4 and 6 weight percentage of red mud are casted. Matrix was also casted in the same way for comparison. Specimen are fabricated according to ASTM standards. The corrodents used for the tests were 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 molar sodium hydroxide solutions. They are subjected to Open Circuit Potential studies and weight loss corrosion tests. Corrosion rate was found to be decreased with increase in exposure time in both experiments. Effect of exposure time and presence of increased percentage of reinforcement red mud is discussed in detail.
Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites
The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.
Magnetic (Ethylene-Octene) Polymer Composites Reinforced With Carbon Black
The aim of the study was to receive magnetorheological elastomer composites (MRE) with the best mechanical characteristics. MRE based on different magnetoactive fillers in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. To improve mechanical properties of polymer mixtures, also carbon black (N550) was added during the composites preparation process. Micro and nan-sized magnetites (Fe3O4), as well as gamma iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP) are added together with carbon black (N550) were found to be an active fillers systems improving both static and dynamic mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Reinforcing character of applied different fillers systems results in an increased stress at 100% elongation, tensile strength and cross-linking density of the vulcanizates. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.
Investigations of Flame Retardant Properties of Beneficiated Huntite and Hydromagnesite Mineral Reinforced Polymer Composites
Huntite and hydromagnesite minerals have been used as additive materials to achieve incombustible material due to their inflammability property. Those fire retardants materials can help to extinguish in the early stages of fire. Thus dispersion of the flame can be prevented even if the fire started. Huntite and hydromagnesite minerals are known to impart fire-proofing of the polymer composites. However, the additives used in the applications led to deterioration in the mechanical properties due to the usage of high amount of the powders in the composites. In this study, by enriching huntite and hydromagnesite, it was aimed to use purer minerals to reinforce the polymer composites. Thus, predictably, using purer mineral will lead to use lower amount of mineral powders. By this manner, the minerals free from impurities by various processes were added to the polymer matrix with different loading level and grades. Different types of samples were manufactured, and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, XRF and flame-retardant tests. Tensile strength and elongation at break values were determined according to loading levels and grades. Besides, a comparison on the properties of the polymer composites produced by using of minerals with and without impurities was performed. As a result of the work, it was concluded that it is required to use beneficiated minerals to provide better fire-proofing behaviors in the polymer composites.
Mechanical Properties of the Palm Fibers Reinforced HDPE Composites
Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non-renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of palm fibers-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar HDPE. The treatment characterization was obtained by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/HDPE composites when compared to the pure HDPE and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.
Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium
Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.
Development of an Elastic Functionally Graded Interphase Model for the Micromechanics Response of Composites
A new micromechanics framework is developed for long fibre reinforced composites using a single fibre surrounded by a functionally graded interphase and matrix as a representative unit cell. The unit cell is formulated to represent any number of aligned fibres by a single fibre. Using this model the elastic response of long fibre composites is predicted in all directions. The model is calibrated to experimental results and shows very good agreement in the elastic regime. The differences between the proposed model and existing models are discussed.
Study of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Locally Developed Carbon Fibers-Silica Sand Nanoparticles Aluminium Based Hybrid Composites
Hybrid aluminum metal matrix composites with 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. % of silica sand nanoparticles and electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers were successfully developed using sand casting technique. Epoxy coating of carbon fibers was removed and phosphorous-nickel coating was successfully applied via electro-less route. The developed hybrid composites were characterized using micro hardness tester, tensile testing, and optical microscopy. The gradual increase of reinforcing phases yielded improved mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength. The increase in hardness was attributed to the presence of silica sand nanoparticles whereas electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers enhanced the tensile properties of developed hybrid composites. The microstructure of the developed hybrid composites revealed the homogeneous distribution of both carbon fibers and silica sand nanoparticles in aluminum based hybrid composites. The formation of dendrite microstructure is the main cause of improving mechanical properties.
Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture
The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.
Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation
The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.
Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency
This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular wave guide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10 mm thick.
Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.
Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications
This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.
Tensile and Flexural Behavior of Particulate Filled/Polymer Matrix Composites
This paper experimentally investigates the flexural and tensile properties of the industrial wastes sewage sludge ash (SSA) and fly ash (FA), and conventional ceramic powder silicon carbide (SiC) filled polyester composites. Four weight fractions (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) for each micro filler were used for production of composites. Then, test samples were produced according to ASTM. The resulting degree of particle dispersion in the polymer matrix was visualized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results from this study showed that the tensile strength increased up to its maximum value at filler content 5 wt% of SSA, FA and SiC. Flexural strength increased with addition of particulate filler up to its maximum value at filler content 5 wt% of SSA and FA while for SiC decreased for all weight fractions gradually. The addition of SSA, FA and SiC fillers resulted in increase of tensile and flexural modulus for all the particulate composites. Industrial waste SSA can be used as an additive with polymer to produce composite materials.
Tribological Characterization of Composites Based on Epoxy Resin Filled with Tailings of Scheelite
The use of mineral fillers in the preparation of organic matrix composites can be an efficient alternative in minimizing the environmental damage generated in passive mineral beneficiation processes. In addition, it may represent a new material option for wind, construction, and aeronautical industries, for example. In this sense, epoxy resin composites with Tailings of Scheelite (TS) were developed. The composites were manufactured with 5%, 10% and 20% of TS in volume percentage, homogenized by mechanical mixing and molded in a silicon mold. In order to make the tribological evaluation, pin on disk tests were performed to analyze coefficient of friction and wear. The wear mechanisms were identified by SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. The coefficient of friction had a tendency to decrease with increasing amount of filler. The wear tends to increase with increasing amount of filler, although it exhibits a similar wear behavior. The results suggest characteristics that are potential used in many tribological applications.
Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.
Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites
The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.
Improvement of Thermal Stability in Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Composites for Gasket Application
A typical used of ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) gasket is in the manufacture of optical lens, and often, they are deteriorated rapidly due to high temperature during the process. The objective of this project is to improve the thermal stability of the EMA copolymer gasket by preparing EMA with cellulose and silica composites. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) were used in preparing of EMA/cellulose composites and fumed silica (SiO2) was used in preparing EMA/silica composites with different amounts of filler (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 wt.%), using a twin screw extruder at 160 °C and the test specimens were prepared by the injection molding machine. The morphology and dispersion of fillers in the EMA matrix were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The thermal stability of the composite was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. The developed composites were found to enhance thermal and mechanical properties when compared to that of the EMA copolymer alone.
Effects of Li2O Doping on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Bovine Hydroxyapatite Composites (BHA)
Hydroxyapatite (HA) materials have common use in bone repairing due to its ability to accelerate the bone growth around the implant. In spite of being a biocompatible and bioactive material, HA has a limited usage as an implant material because of its weak mechanical properties. HA based composites are required to improve the strength and toughness properties of the implant materials without compromising of biocompatibility. The excellent mechanical properties and higher biocompatibilities are expected from each of biomedical composites. In this study, HA composites were synthesized by using bovine bone reinforced doped with different amount of (wt.%) Li2O. The pressed pellets were sintered at various sintering temperatures between 1000ºC and 1300°C, and mechanical, electrical properties of the obtained products were characterized. In addition to that, in vitro stimulated body fluid (SBF) tests for these samples were conducted. The most suitable composite composition for biomedical applications was discussed among the composites studied.
Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites
The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.
Effects of Interfacial Modification Techniques on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Particle Based Polymer Composites
Composites combining the particulates and polymer components have attracted great interest in various application areas such as packaging, furniture, electronics and automotive industries. For strengthening the plastic matrices, the utilization of natural fillers instead of traditional reinforcement materials has received increased attention. The properties of natural filler based polymer composites (NFPC) may be improved by applying proper surface modification techniques to the powder phase of the structures. In this study, acorn powder-epoxy and pine corn powder-epoxy composites containing up to 45% weight percent particulates were prepared by casting method. Alkali treatment and acetylation techniques were carried out to the natural particulates for investigating their influences under mechanical forces. The effects of filler type and content on the tensile properties of the composites were compared with neat epoxy. According to the quasi-static tensile tests, the pine cone based composites showed slightly higher rigidity and strength properties compared to the acorn reinforced samples. Furthermore, the structures independent of powder type and surface modification technique, showed higher tensile properties with increasing the particle content.
Elaboration of Composites with Thermoplastic Matrix Polypropylene Charged by the Polyaniline Synthesized by the Self-Curling Method
This work is dedicated to the elaboration of composites (PP/PANI) with Polypropylene (PP) as thermoplastic polymer and the polyaniline (PANI) as electric charge doped with sulfanilic acid (PANI-As). These realized formulations are intended for the antistatic domain. The used conductive polymer is synthesized by the method self-curling which proved the obtaining of the nanoparticles of PANI in regular morphological forms. The PANI and PP composites are fabricated into a film by a twin-screw extruding. Several methods of characterization are proposed: spectroscopic, thermal, and electric. The realized composites proved a pseudo-homogeneous aspect and the threshold percolation study, showed that the formulation with 7% of PANI presents a better formulation which can be used in the antistatic domain.
BiFeO3-CoFe2O4-PbTiO3 Composites: Structural, Multiferroic and Optical Characteristics
Three phase magnetoelectric (ME) composites (1-x)(0.7BiFeO3-0.3CoFe2O4)-xPbTiO3 (or equivalently written as (1-x)(0.7BFO-0.3CFO)-xPT) with x variations 0, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and 1.0 were synthesized using hybrid processing route. The effects of PT addition on structural, multiferroic and optical properties have been subsequently investigated. A detailed Rietveld refinement analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns has been performed, which confirms the presence of structural phases of individual constituents in the composites. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images are taken for microstructural analysis and grain size determination. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of 0.3CFO-0.7BFO reveals the average particle size to be lying in the window of 8-10 nm. The temperature dependent dielectric constant at various frequencies (1 kHz, 10 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz and 500 kHz) has been studied and the dielectric study reveals that the increase of dielectric constant and decrease of average dielectric loss of composites with incorporation of PT content. The room temperature ferromagnetic behavior of composites is confirmed through the observation of Magnetization vs. Magnetic field (M-H) hysteresis loops. The variation of magnetization with temperature indicates the presence of spin glass behavior in composites. Magnetoelectric coupling is evidenced in the composites through the observation of the dependence of the dielectric constant on the magnetic field, and magnetodielectric response of 2.05 % is observed for 45 mol% addition of PT content. The fractional change of magnetic field induced dielectric constant can also be expressed as ∆ε_r~γM^2 and the value of γ is found to be ~1.08×10-2 (emu/g)-2 for composite with x=0.40. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples is carried out to analyze various bonds formation in the composites.
Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace
In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills, as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550- 1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM- 800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer.
Thermo-Mechanical Properties of PBI Fiber Reinforced HDPE Composites: Effect of Fiber Length and Composition
High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly benzimidazole fiber (PBI) composites were prepared by melt blending in a twin screw extruder (TSE). The thermo-mechanical properties of PBI fiber reinforced HDPE composite samples (1%, 4% and 8% fiber content) of fiber lengths 3 mm and 6 mm were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), rheometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of fiber content and fiber lengths on the thermo-mechanical properties of the HDPE-PBI composites was studied. The DSC analysis showed decrease in crystallinity of HDPE-PBI composites with the increase of fiber loading. Maximum decrease observed was 12% at 8% fiber length. The thermal stability was found to increase with the addition of fiber. T50% was notably increased to 40oC for both grades of HDPE using 8% of fiber content. The mechanical properties were not much affected by the increase in fiber content. The optimum value of tensile strength was achieved using 4% fiber content and slight increase of 9% in tensile strength was observed. No noticeable change was observed in flexural strength. In rheology study, the complex viscosities of HDPE-PBI composites were higher than the HDPE matrix and substantially increased with even minimum increase of PBI fiber loading i.e. 1%. We found that the addition of the PBI fiber resulted in a modest improvement in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the prepared composites.
Behavioural Studies on Multidirectional Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations
The main advantage of multi-directionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fibre types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D preforms fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.
Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites
Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.
Development and Characterization of Ceramic-Filled Composite Filaments and Functional Structures for Fused Deposition Modeling
We present a process flow for the development of ceramic-filled polymer composite filaments compatible with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. Thermoplastic-ceramic composites were developed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and 10- and 20 vol.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (corresponding to 39.47- and 58.23 wt.% respectively) and characterized for their flow properties. To make them compatible with the existing FDM process, the composites were extruded into filaments. These composite filaments were subsequently structured into tensile stress specimens using a commercially available FDM 3D printer and characterized for their mechanical properties. Rheometric characterization of the material composites revealed non-Newtonian behavior with the viscosity logarithmically decreasing over increasing shear rates, as well as higher viscosities for samples with higher BaTiO3 filler content for a given shear rate (with the ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3 composite being over 50% more viscous compared to pure ABS at a shear rate of 1x〖10〗^3 s^(-1)). Mechanical characterization of the tensile stress specimens exhibited increasingly brittle behavior as well as a linearly decreasing ultimate tensile strength of the material composites with increasing volumetric ratio of BaTiO3 (from σ_max=32.4MPa for pure ABS to σ_max=21.3MPa for ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3). Further studies being undertaken include the development of composites with higher filler concentrations, sintering of the printed composites to yield pure dielectric structures and the determination of the dielectric characteristics of the composites.
Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques
The combination of the properties of graphene oxide (OG) and PVDF homopolymer makes their combined composite materials as multifunctional systems with great potential. Knowledge of the molecular structure is essential for better use. In this work, the degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared to degradation of PVDF/OG composites. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate, with doses ranging from 100 kGy to 1,000 kGy. In FTIR data shown that the formation of oxidation products was at the both samples with formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups amongst the most prevalent products in the pure PVDF samples. In the other hand, the composites samples exhibit less presence of degradation products with predominant formation of carbonyl groups, these results also seen in the UV-Vis analysis. The results show that the samples of composites may have greater resistance to the irradiation process, since they have less degradation products than pure PVDF samples seen by spectroscopic techniques.
Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites
Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.
Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites
In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.
An Overview on Aluminum Matrix Composites: Liquid State Processing
Modern composite materials are increasingly being chosen in replacement of heavier metallic material systems within many engineering fields including aerospace and automotive industries. The increasing push towards satisfying environmental targets are fuelling new material technologies and manufacturing processes. This paper will introduce materials and manufacturing processes using metal matrix composites along with manufacturing processes optimized at Alvant Ltd., based in Basingstoke in the UK which offers modern, cost effective, selectively reinforced composites for light-weighting applications within engineering. An overview and introduction into modern optimized manufacturing methods capable of producing viable replacements for heavier metallic and lower temperature capable polymer composites are offered. A review of the capabilities and future applications of this viable material is discussed to highlight the potential involved in further optimization of old manufacturing techniques, to fully realize the potential to lightweight material using cost-effective methods.
Water Absorption Studies on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
In the recent years, researchers have drawn their focus on natural fibers reinforced composite materials because of their excellent properties like low cost, lower weight, better tensile and flexural strengths, biodegradability etc. There is little concern however that when these materials are put in moist conditions for long duration, their mechanical properties degrade. Therefore, in order to take maximum advantage of these novel materials, one should have a complete understanding of their moisture or water absorption phenomena. Various fiber surface treatment methods like alkaline treatment, acetylation etc. have also been suggested for reduction in water absorption of these composites. In the present study, a detailed review is done for water absorption behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, and experiments also have been performed on these composites with varying the parameters like fiber loading etc. for understanding the water absorption kinetics. Various surface treatment methods also performed to reduce the water absorption behavior of these materials and effort is made to develop a proper understanding of water absorption mechanism mathematically and experimentally for full potential utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials.
Development and Characterization of Wear Properties of Aluminum 8011 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites
The objective of present investigation is to study the effect of reinforcements on the wear properties of E-Glass short fibers and Flyash reinforced Al 8011 hybrid metal matrix composites. The alloy of Al 8011 reinforced with E-glass and fly ash particulates are prepared by simple stir casting method. The MMC is obtained for different composition of E-glass and flyash particulates (varying E-glass with constant fly ash and varying flyash with constant E-glass percentage). The wear results of ascast hybrid composites with different compositions of reinforcements at varying sliding speeds and different loads are discussed. The results reveals that as the percentage of reinforcement increases wear rate will decrease.
Computer Simulations of Stress Corrosion Studies of Quartz Particulate Reinforced ZA-27 Metal Matrix Composites
The stress corrosion resistance of ZA-27 / TiO2 metal matrix composites (MMC’s) in high temperature acidic media has been evaluated using an autoclave. The liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method was used to fabricate MMC’s. TiO2 particulates of 50-80 µm in size are added to the matrix. ZA-27 containing 2,4,6 weight percentage of TiO2 are prepared. Stress corrosion tests were conducted by weight loss method for different exposure time, normality and temperature of the acidic medium. The corrosion rates of composites were lower to that of matrix ZA-27 alloy under all conditions.
Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites
In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.
Effect of Hollow and Solid Recycled-Poly Fibers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
The aim of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the effect of short hollow and solid recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers in different breaking tenacities reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites on the mechanical and morphological properties. Composites of iPP/3, 7and 10 wt% of solid and hollow recycled PET fibers were prepared by batched melt mixing in a Brabender. The incorporation of solid recycled-PET fibers in isotactic polypropylene increase Young’s modulus of iPP relatively, meanwhile it increased proportionally with hollow fibers content. An improvement of the storage modulus, and a shift up in glass transition temperatures of hollow fibers/iPP composites was determined by DMA results. The morphology of composites was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical polarized microscopy (OM) showing a good dispersion of the hollow fibers. Also, their flexible aspect (folding, bending) was observed. But, one weak interaction between the polymer/fibers phases was shown. Polymers can be effectively reinforced with short hollow recycled PET fibers due to their characteristics like recyclability, lightweight and the flexible aspect, which allows the absorbance of the energy of a striker with a minimum damage of the matrix. Aiming to improve the affinity matrix–recycled hollow PET fibers, it is suggested the addition of compatibilizers, as maleic anhydride.
Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag
Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.
A Numerical Study on Micromechanical Aspects in Short Fiber Composites
This study focused on the contribution of micro-mechanical parameters on the macro-mechanical response of short fiber composites, namely polypropylene matrix reinforced by glass fibers. In the framework of this paper, an attention has been given to the glass fibers length, as micromechanical parameter influences the overall macroscopic material’s behavior. Three dimensional numerical models were developed and analyzed through the concept of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). Results of the RVE-based approach were compared with analytical Halpin-Tsai’s model.
Damage Tolerance of Composites Containing Hybrid, Carbon-Innegra, Fibre Reinforcements
Carbon fibre (CF) - polymer laminate composites have very low densities (approximately 40% lower than aluminium), high strength and high stiffness but in terms of toughness properties they often require modifications. For example, adding rubbers or thermoplastics toughening agents are common ways of improving the interlaminar fracture toughness of initially brittle thermoset composite matrices. The main aim of this project was to toughen CF-epoxy resin laminate composites using hybrid CF-fabrics incorporating Innegra™ a commercial highly-oriented polypropylene (PP) fibre, in which more than 90% of its crystal orientation is parallel to the fibre axis. In this study, the damage tolerance of hybrid (carbon-Innegra, CI) composites was investigated. Laminate composites were produced by resin-infusion using: pure CF fabric; fabrics with different ratios of commingled CI, and two different types of pure Innegra fabrics (Innegra 1 and Innegra 2). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite matrix and values of flexural storage modulus versus temperature. Mechanical testing included drop-weight impact, compression-after-impact (CAI), and interlaminar (short-beam) shear strength (ILSS). Ultrasonic C-Scan imaging was used to determine the impact damage area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the fracture mechanisms that occur during failure of the composites. For all composites, 8 layers of fabrics were used with a quasi-isotropic sequence of [-45°, 0°, +45°, 90°]s. DMTA showed the Tg of all composites to be approximately same (123 ±3°C) and that flexural storage modulus (before the onset of Tg) was the highest for the pure CF composite while the lowest were for the Innegra 1 and 2 composites. Short-beam shear strength of the commingled composites was higher than other composites, while for Innegra 1 and 2 composites only inelastic deformation failure was observed during the short-beam test. During impact, the Innegra 1 composite withstood up to 40 J without any perforation while for the CF perforation occurred at 10 J. The rate of reduction in compression strength upon increasing the impact energy was lowest for the Innegra 1 and 2 composites, while CF showed the highest rate. On the other hand, the compressive strength of the CF composite was highest of all the composites at all impacted energy levels. The predominant failure modes for Innegra composites observed in cross-sections of fractured specimens were fibre pull-out, micro-buckling, and fibre plastic deformation; while fibre breakage and matrix delamination were a major failure observed in the commingled composites due to the more brittle behaviour of CF. Thus, Innegra fibres toughened the CF composites but only at the expense of reducing compressive strength.
POSS as Modifiers and Additives for Elastomer Composites
The studies were focused on POSS application with methylvinylsilicone rubber (MVQ). The obtained results indicate that they can be successfully incorporated into silica-filled rubbers as modifying agents since they enhance cross-link density and improve most properties of the resulting network. It is also worth noting that the incorporation of POSS molecules resulted in stabilizing effect against adverse changes induced by the climatic, ozone or UV ageing of the rubbers. Furthermore, we obtained interesting results of rubbers surface modification using POSS functionalised with halogen groups (Cl, F, and Br). As the results, surface energy of the elastomeric composites and their hydrophobicity increased, barrier properties improved and thermal stability increased as well. Additionally, the studies with silicone rubber and POSS containing acidic and alkaline groups revealed composites with self-healing properties. The observed effects strictly depend on a kind and quantity of functional groups present in angles of POSS cages.
The Fabrication and Characterization of Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites via Twin-Screw Extrusion
The hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) was fabricated via compound extrusion and injection molding, in which to author’s best knowledge CNT was employed as a nano-coatings on the surface of CF for the first time by spray coating technique. The CNT coatings relative to CF was set at 1 wt% and the CF content relative to the composites varied from 0 to 25 wt% to study the influence of CNT coatings and CF contents on the mechanical, thermal and morphological performance of this hierarchical composites. The results showed that with the rise of CF contents, the mechanical properties, including the tensile properties, flexural properties, and hardness of CNT/CF/HDPE composites, were effectively improved. Furthermore, the CNT-coated composites showed overall higher mechanical performance than the uncoated counterparts. It can be ascribed to the enhancement of interfacial bonding between the CF and HDPE via the incorporation of CNT, which was demonstrated by the scanning electron microscopy observation. Meanwhile, the differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that by the introduction of CNT and CF, the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE were affected while the melting temperature did not have an obvious alteration.
The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites
The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).
A Comparative Study on Creep Modeling in Composites
Composite structures, having incredible properties, have gained considerable popularity in the last few decades. Among all types, polymer matrix composites are being used extensively due to their unique characteristics including low weight, convenient fabrication process and low cost. Having polymer as matrix, these type of composites show different creep behavior when compared to metals and even other types of composites since most polymers undergo creep even in room temperature. One of the most challenging topics in creep is to introduce new techniques for predicting long term creep behavior of materials. Depending on the material which is being studied the appropriate method would be different. Methods already proposed for predicting long term creep behavior of polymer matrix composites can be divided into five categories: (1) Analytical Modeling, (2) Empirical Modeling, (3) Superposition Based Modeling (Semi-empirical), (4) Rheological Modeling, (5) Finite Element Modeling. Each of these methods has individual characteristics. Studies have shown that none of the mentioned methods can predict long term creep behavior of all PMC composites in all circumstances (loading, temperature, etc.) but each of them has its own priority in different situations. The reason to this issue can be found in theoretical basis of these methods. In this study after a brief review over the background theory of each method, they are compared in terms of their applicability in predicting long-term behavior of composite structures. Finally, the explained materials are observed through some experimental studies executed by other researchers.
SiC Particulate-Reinforced SiC Composites Fabricated by PIP Method Using Highly Concentrated SiC Slurry
SiC particulate-reinforced SiC ceramic composites (SiCp/SiC) were successfully fabricated using polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) method. The effects of green density, infiltrated method, pyrolytic temperature, and heating rate on the densification behavior of the composites were investigated. SiCp/SiC particulate reinforced composites with high relative density up to 88.06% were fabricated after 4 PIP cycles using SiC pellets with high green density. The pellets were prepared by drying 62-70 vol.% aqueous SiC slurries, and the maximum relative density of the pellets was 75.5%. The hardness of the as-fabricated SiCp/SiCs was 21.05 GPa after 4 PIP cycles, which value increased to 23.99 GPa after a heat treatment at 2000℃. Excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and short processing time render the SiCp/SiC composite as a challenging candidate for the high-temperature application.
Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical Properties of KENAF Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites
In this study the treated and untreated kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester conventional composites were prepared. Hand lay-up technique was used with dump-bell shaped mold. The kenaf bast fiber was retted enzymatically, washed, dried and combed with a nylon brush. A portion of the kenaf fiber was mercerized and treated with benzoylchloride prior to composite fabrication. Untreated kenaf fiber was also used to prepare the composites to serve as control. The cured composites were subjected to various mechanical testes, such as hardness test, impact test and tensile strength test. The results obtained indicated an increase in all the parameters tested with the fiber treatment. This is because the lignin, hemi-celluloses, pectin and other impurities were removed during alkaline treatment (i.e mercerization). This shows that, the durability of the natural cellulosic fibers to different composite applications can be achieved via fiber treatments.
Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.
Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cellulose Fibers/HNT Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites
Natural fiber reinforced composites have attracted researchers for their desirable properties of toughness, high modulus, low density, recyclability, and renewability. In fact, the use of natural fibers in polymer composites has the potential to produce materials with higher specific strength and specific modulus due of their low density. Likewise, polymer-nano-filler composites have been widely investigated for their unique and significant improvement in strength, modulus, impact strength, barrier properties, heat resistance and thermal stability. In this paper, The addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with three different weight percentages (1%, 3% and 5%) on enhancing barrier and flexural strength and modulus of cellulose-fiber (CF) /epoxy composites after water treatment for six months was studied. Results indicated that water uptake decreased as HNT content increased. The presence of HNT improved flexural strength and flexural modulus of CF/epoxy composites. SEM results showed damages in fiber-matrix interfacial bonding due to water absorption. The addition of HNTs was found to enhance to adhesion between fibers and matrix.
Preparation of 1D Nano-Polyaniline/Dendritic Silver Composites
In this paper, an interesting and easy method to prepare one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is reported. It is well known that the morphology of metal particle is a very important factor to influence the properties of polymer-metal composites. Usually, the dendritic silver is prepared by kinetic control in reduction reaction. It is not a thermodynamically stable structure. It is the goal to reduce silver ion to dendritic silver by polyaniline polymer via kinetic control and form one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites. The preparation is a two steps sequential reaction. First step, the polyaniline networks composed of nano fibrillar polyaniline are synthesized from aniline monomers aqueous with ammonium persulfate as the initiator at room temperature. In second step, the silver nitrate is added into polyaniline networks dispersed in deionized water. The dendritic silver is formed via reduction by polyaniline networks under the kinetic control. The formation of polyaniline is discussed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosheets, nanotubes, nanospheres, nanosticks, and networks are observed via TEM. Then, the mechanism of formation of one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is discussed. The formation of dendritic silver is observed by TEM and X-ray diffraction.
Effect of Alloying Elements on Particle Incorporation of Boron Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites
The outstanding performance of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) regarding stiffness/weight ratio makes AMCs attractive material for lightweight construction. Low-density boride compounds promise simultaneously an increase in stiffness and decrease in composite density. This is why boron carbide is chosen for composite manufacturing. The composites are fabricated with the stir casting process. To avoid gas entrapment during mixing and ensure nonporous composites, partial vacuum is adapted during particle feeding and stirring. Poor wettability of boron carbide with liquid aluminum hinders particle incorporation, but alloying elements such as magnesium and titanium could improve wettability and thus particle incorporation. Next to alloying elements, adapted stirring parameters and impeller geometries improve particle incorporation and enable homogenous particle distribution and high particle volume fractions of boron carbide. AMCs with up to 15 vol.% of boron carbide particles are produced via melt stirring, resulting in an increase in stiffness and strength.
Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase
Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test, Vickers indentations and fracture toughness. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical and wear results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 particles.
Graphene Reinforced Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications
Magnesium (Mg) metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have been developed by powder metallurgy (PM). In this study, GNPs with different concentrations (0.1-0.3 wt.%) were dispersed into Mg powders by high-energy ball-milling processes. The microstructure and resultant mechanical properties of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), compression and nano-wear tests. The corrosion resistance of the fabricated composites was evaluated by electrochemical tests and hydrogen evolution measurements. Finally, the biological response of Mg-GNPs composites was assessed using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The results indicate that GNPs are excellent candidates as reinforcements in Mg matrices for the manufacture of biodegradable Mg-based composite implants. GNP addition improved the mechanical properties of Mg via synergetic strengthening modes. Moreover, retaining the structural integrity of GNPs during PM processing improved the ductility, compressive strength, and corrosion resistance of the Mg-GNP composites as compared to monolithic Mg. Cytotoxicity assessments did not reveal any significant toxicity with the addition of GNPs to Mg matrices. This study demonstrates that Mg-xGNPs with x < 0.3 wt.%, may constitute novel biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications.
Cold Crystallization of Poly (Ether Ether Ketone)/Graphene Composites by Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction
Since graphene was discovered in 2004, has been considered as superb material, due to its outstanding mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Graphene has been incorporated as reinforcement in several high performance polymers in order to obtain a good balance of properties and to get new properties as thermal or electric conductivity. As well known, the properties of semicrystalline polymer and its composites depends heavily on degree of crystallinity. In this context, our research group has studied the crystallization behavior from amorphous state of PEEK/GNP composites. The monitoring of cold crystallization processes studied by time-resolved simultaneous wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). These techniques allowed to get an extremely relevant information about the evolution of the morphology of the PEEK/GNP composites. In addition, the thermal evolution of cold crystallization was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well. The experimental results showed changes in crystallization kinetics and c parameter unit cell when adding graphene. The main aim of this work is to produce PEEK/GNP composites and characterize their morphology, unit cell parameters and crystallization kinetic.
Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber
Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and bio-derived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based. In this research, the green phenolic resin was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) was used as filler. The matrix was synthesized from soda lignin, phenol and hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. The phenolic resin was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol during the process. Later, the phenolic resin was mixed with EFB by using mechanical stirrer and was molded with hot press at 180 oC. In this research, the composites were prepared with EFB content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the EFB filler remained embedded in the resin. From impact and hardness testing, samples 10% of EFB showed the optimum properties meanwhile sample 15% showed the optimum properties for flexural testing. Thermal stability of the composites was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.
Role of Amount of Glass Fibers in PAEK Composites to Control Mechanical and Tribological Properties
PAEK (Polyaryl ether ketone) being a high-performance polymer, is currently being explored for its tribo-potential by incorporating various fibers, solid lubricants. In this work, influence of amount (30 and 40 %) of short glass fibers (GF) in two composites containing PAEK (60 and 50 %) and synthetic graphite (10 %) on mechanical and tribological behaviour was studied. The composites were developed by injection molding and evaluated in adhesive wear mode (pin on disc configuration) against mild steel disc. The load and speed were selected as variable input parameters while coefficient of friction (µ), specific wear rate (K0) and PVlimit (pressure × velocity) values were selected as output parameters for performance evaluation. Although higher amount of GF lead to better mechanical properties, tribological properties were not in tune to this. Overall, µ and K0 for both composites were in the range 0.04-0.08 and 3-8x 10-16 m3/Nm respectively and decreased with increase in applied PV values till failure was observed. PVlimit was indicated by 112 and 100 MPa m/s. Such high PVlimit values are not reported for any polymer composites running in dry conditions in the literature. The mechanical properties of the C40 composite (40 % GF) proved superior to C30 composite (30 % GF). However, all tribological properties of C40 were inferior to C30. It exhibited higher µ, higher K0 and slightly lower PVlimit value. The higher % fibers proved detrimental for tribo-performance and worn surface analysis by SEM & EDAX was done on the discs & pins to understand wear mechanisms.
Role of Amount of Glass Fibers in PAEK Composites to Control Mechanical and Tribological Properties
PAEK (Polyaryl ether ketone) being a high-performance polymer, is currently being explored for its tribo-potential by incorporating various fibers, solid lubricants. In this work, influence of amount (30 and 40 %) of short glass fibers (GF) in two composites containing PAEK (60 and 50 %) and synthetic graphite (10 %) on mechanical and tribological behaviour was studied. The composites were developed by injection molding and evaluated in adhesive wear mode (pin on disc configuration) against mild steel disc. The load and speed were selected as variable input parameters while coefficient of friction (µ), specific wear rate (K0) and PVlimit (pressure × velocity) values were selected as output parameters for performance evaluation. Although higher amount of GF lead to better mechanical properties, tribological properties were not in tune to this. Overall, µ and K0 for both composites were in the range 0.04-0.08 and 3-8x 10-16 m3/Nm respectively and decreased with increase in applied PV values till failure was observed. PVlimit was indicated by 112 and 100 MPa m/s. Such high PVlimit values are not reported for any polymer composites running in dry conditions in the literature. The mechanical properties of the C40 composite (40 % GF) proved superior to C30 composite (30 % GF). However, all tribological properties of C40 were inferior to C30. It exhibited higher µ, higher K0 and slightly lower PVlimit value. The higher % fibers proved detrimental for tribo-performance and worn surface analysis by SEM & EDAX was done on the discs & pins to understand wear mechanisms.
Role of Amount of Glass Fibers in PAEK Composites to Control Mechanical and Tribological Properties
PAEK (Polyaryl ether ketone) being a high-performance polymer, is currently being explored for its tribo-potential by incorporating various fibers, solid lubricants. In this work, influence of amount (30 and 40 %) of short glass fibers (GF) in two composites containing PAEK (60 and 50 %) and synthetic graphite (10 %) on mechanical and tribological behaviour was studied. The composites were developed by injection molding and evaluated in adhesive wear mode (pin on disc configuration) against mild steel disc. The load and speed were selected as variable input parameters while coefficient of friction (µ), specific wear rate (K0) and PVlimit (pressure × velocity) values were selected as output parameters for performance evaluation. Although higher amount of GF lead to better mechanical properties, tribological properties were not in tune to this. Overall, µ and K0 for both composites were in the range 0.04-0.08 and 3-8x 10-16 m3/Nm respectively and decreased with increase in applied PV values till failure was observed. PVlimit was indicated by 112 and 100 MPa m/s. Such high PVlimit values are not reported for any polymer composites running in dry conditions in the literature. The mechanical properties of the C40 composite (40 % GF) proved superior to C30 composite (30 % GF). However, all tribological properties of C40 were inferior to C30. It exhibited higher µ, higher K0 and slightly lower PVlimit value. The higher % fibers proved detrimental for tribo-performance and worn surface analysis by SEM & EDAX was done on the discs & pins to understand wear mechanisms.
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites
This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with jute and filled with rice husk flour. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylene tetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.
Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites
Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 &deg;C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.
Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor
Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.
Effect of Chemical Modifier on the Properties of Polypropylene (PP) / Coconut Fiber (CF) in Automotive Application
Chemical modifier (Acrylic Acid) is used as filler treatment to improve mechanical properties and swelling behavior of polypropylene/coconut fiber (PP/CF) composites by creating more adherent bonding between CF filler and PP Matrix. Treated (with chemical modifier) and untreated (without chemical modifier) composites were prepared in the formulation of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, and 40 wt%. The mechanical testing indicates that composite with 10 wt% of untreated composite has the optimum value of tensile strength, and the composite with chemical modifier shows the tensile strength was increased. By increasing of filler loading, elastic modulus was increased while the elongation at brake was decreased. Meanwhile, the swelling test discerned that the increase of filler loading increased the water absorption of composites and the presence of chemical modifier reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.
Multiscale Modeling of Damage in Textile Composites
Textile composites, in which the reinforcing fibers are woven or braided, have become very popular in numerous applications in aerospace, automotive, and maritime industry. These textile composites are advantageous due to their ease of manufacture, damage tolerance, and relatively low cost. However, physics-based modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile composites is challenging. Compared to their unidirectional counterparts, textile composites introduce additional geometric complexities, which cause significant local stress and strain concentrations. Since these internal concentrations are primary drivers of nonlinearity, damage, and failure within textile composites, they must be taken into account in order for the models to be predictive. The macro-scale approach to modeling textile-reinforced composites treats the whole composite as an effective, homogenized material. This approach is very computationally efficient, but it cannot be considered predictive beyond the elastic regime because the complex microstructural geometry is not considered. Further, this approach can, at best, offer a phenomenological treatment of nonlinear deformation and failure. In contrast, the mesoscale approach to modeling textile composites explicitly considers the internal geometry of the reinforcing tows, and thus, their interaction, and the effects of their curved paths can be modeled. The tows are treated as effective (homogenized) materials, requiring the use of anisotropic material models to capture their behavior. Finally, the micro-scale approach goes one level lower, modeling the individual filaments that constitute the tows. This paper will compare meso- and micro-scale approaches to modeling the deformation, damage, and failure of textile-reinforced polymer matrix composites. For the mesoscale approach, the woven composite architecture will be modeled using the finite element method, and an anisotropic damage model for the tows will be employed to capture the local nonlinear behavior. For the micro-scale, two different models will be used, the one being based on the finite element method, whereas the other one makes use of an embedded semi-analytical approach. The goal will be the comparison and evaluation of these approaches to modeling textile-reinforced composites in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and utility.
Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface
Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.
Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Composites Reinforced with Coconut Fiber in the Polymeric Matrix of Recycled PVC
In the search for materials that replace conventional polymers in order to preserve natural resources, combined with the need to minimize the problems arising from environmental pollution generated by plastic waste, comes the recycled materials biodegradable, especially the composites reinforced with natural fibers. However, such materials exhibit properties little known, requiring studies of manufacturing methods and characterization of these composites. This article shows informations about preparation and characterization of a composite produced by extrusion, which consists of recycled PVC derived from the recycling of materials discarded, added of the micronized coconut fiber. The recycled PVC with 5% of micronized fiber were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical analysis and optical microscopy. The use of fiber in the composite caused a decrease in its specific weight, due to the lower specific weight of fibers and the appearance of porosity, in addition to the decrease of mechanical properties.
Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymeric Composites
Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is one of the most used experimental techniques to investigate the temperature and frequency dependence of the mechanical behavior of viscoelastic materials. The measured data are generally shifted by the application of the principle of the time– temperature superposition (TTS) to obtain the viscoelastic system’s master curve. The aim of this work is to show the methodology to define the horizontal shift factor to be applied to the storage modulus measured in order to indicate the validity of (TTS) principle for this material system. This principle was successfully used to determine the long-term properties of the Sheet Moulding Compound (SMC) composites.
Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins
The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.
Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications
Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.
Effect of Surface Treatment on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester Composites
Sisal fibre was extracted from Sisal leaves by enzymatic retting method. A portion of the fibre was subjected to treatment with alkali, benzoyl chloride and silane compounds. Sisal fibre composites were fabricated using unsaturated polyester resin, by hand lay-up technique using both the treated and untreated fibre. Tensile, flexural and water absorption tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. The results obtained were found to increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. Surface morphology of the fibre was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. FT-IR results showed inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix, mechanical properties of the composites were also found to improve.
Minimizing the Drilling-Induced Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites
Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are finding wide-spread industrial applications because of their exceptionally high specific strength and specific modulus of elasticity. Nevertheless, it is very seldom to get ready-for-use components or products made of FRP composites. Secondary processing by machining, particularly drilling, is almost always required to make holes for fastening components together to produce assemblies. That creates problems since the FRP composites are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. Some of the problems that are encountered include the subsequent damage in the region around the drilled hole and the drilling &ndash; induced delamination of the layer of ply, that occurs both at the entrance and the exit planes of the work piece. Evidently, the functionality of the work piece would be detrimentally affected. The current work was carried out with the aim of eliminating or at least minimizing the work piece damage associated with drilling of FPR composites. Each test specimen involves a woven reinforced graphite fiber/epoxy composite having a thickness of 12.5 mm (0.5 inch). A large number of test specimens were subjected to drilling operations with different combinations of feed rates and cutting speeds. The drilling induced damage was taken as the absolute value of the difference between the drilled hole diameter and the nominal one taken as a percentage of the nominal diameter. The later was determined for each combination of feed rate and cutting speed, and a matrix comprising those values was established, where the columns indicate varying feed rate while and rows indicate varying cutting speeds. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach was employed using Minitab software, in order to obtain the combination that would improve the drilling induced damage. Experimental results show that low feed rates coupled with low cutting speeds yielded the best results.
The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites
Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.
Theoretical Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Derived from Sugar Palm
Eco-friendly composites have been successfully prepared by using sugar palm tree as a sources. The effect of fibre content on mechanical properties of (SPF/SPS) biocomposites have been done and the experimentally tensile properties (tensile strength and modulus) of biocomposites have been compared with the existing theories of reinforcement. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent). The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Both approaches (experimental and theoretical) show that the young’s modulus of the biocomposites is consistently increased when the sugar palm fibre (SPF) are placed into the sugar palm starch matrix (SPS). Surface morphological study through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites. The observed deviations between the experimental and theoretical values are explained by the simplifying model assumptions applied for the configuration of the composites, in particular the sugar palm starch composites.
Influence of Magnetic Field on Microstructure and Properties of Copper-Silver Composites
The Cu-alloy composites are a kind of high-strength and high-conductivity Cu-based alloys, which have excellent mechanical and electrical properties and is widely used in electronic, electrical, machinery industrial fields. However, the solidification microstructure of the composites, such as the primary or second dendrite arm spacing, have important rule to its tensile strength and conductivity, and that is affected by its fabricating method. In this paper, two kinds of directional solidification methods; the exothermic powder method (EP method) and liquid metal cooling method (LMC method), were used to fabricate the Cu-alloy composites with applied different magnetic fields to investigate their influence on the solidifying microstructure of Cu-alloy, and further the fabricated Cu-alloy composites was drawn to wires to investigate the influence of fabricating method and magnetic fields on the drawing microstructure of fiber-reinforced Cu-alloy composites and its properties. The experiment of Cu-Ag alloy under directional solidification and horizontal magnetic fields with different processing parameters show that: 1) For the Cu-Ag alloy with EP method, the dendrite is directionally developed in the cooling copper mould and the solidifying microstructure is effectively refined by applying horizontal magnetic fields. 2) For the Cu-Ag alloy with LMC method, the primary dendrite arm spacing is decreased and the content of Ag in the dendrite increases as increasing the drawing velocity of solidification. 3) The dendrite is refined and the content of Ag in the dendrite increases as increasing the magnetic flux intensity; meanwhile, the growth direction of dendrite is also affected by magnetic field. The research results of Cu-Ag alloy in situ composites by drawing deforming process show that the micro-hardness of alloy is higher by decreasing dendrite arm spacing. When the dendrite growth orientation is consistent with the axial of the samples. the conductivity of the composites increases with the second dendrite arm spacing increases. However, its conductivity reduces with the applied magnetic fields owing to disrupting the dendrite growth orientation.
Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites
Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.
The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites
Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.
Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers
Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.
Wear Assessment of SS316l-Al2O3 Composites for Heavy Wear Applications
The abrasive wear of composite materials is a major challenge in highly demanding wear applications. Therefore, this study focuses on fabricating, testing and assessing the properties of 50wt% SS316L stainless steel–50wt% Al2O3 particle composites. Composite samples were fabricated using the powder metallurgy route. The effects of the powder metallurgy processing parameters and hard particle reinforcement were studied. The microstructure, density, hardness and toughness were characterized. The wear behaviour was studied using pin-on-disc testing under dry sliding conditions. The highest hardness of 1085.2 HV, the highest theoretical density of 94.7% and the lowest wear rate of 0.00397 mm3/m were obtained at a milling speed of 720 rpm, a compaction pressure of 794.4 MPa and sintering at 1400 °C in an argon atmosphere. Compared to commercial SS316 and fabricated SS316L, the composites had 7.4 times and 11 times lower wear rate, respectively. However, the commercial 90WC-10Co showed 2.2 times lower wear rate compared to the fabricated SS316L-Al2O3 composites primarily due to the higher ceramic content of 90 wt.% in the reference WC-Co. However, eliminating the relatively high porosity of about 5 vol% using processes such as HIP and hot pressing can be expected to lead to further substantial improvements of the composites wear resistance.
Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles
Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.
AG Loaded WO3 Nanoplates for Photocatalytic Degradation of Sulfanilamide and Bacterial Removal under Visible Light
Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics; photocatalysis is an effective, way to remove the SAs from water driven by solar energy. Here we used WO3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts to investigate their photodegradation efficiency against sulfanilamide (SAM) which is the precursor of SAs. Results showed that WO3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% can be achieved under visible light irradiation. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO3, and 100% removal efficiency could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all WO3/Ag composites. Generally, WO3/Ag composites are very effective photocatalysts with potentials in practical applications which mainly use cheap, clean and green solar energy as energy source.
Influence of Some Technological Parameters on the Content of Voids in Composite during On-Line Consolidation with Filament Winding Technology
In this study was performed in situ consolidation of polypropylene matrix/glass reinforced roving by combining heating systems and roll pressing. The commingled roving during hoop winding was winded on a cylindrical mandrel. The work also presents the advances made in the processing of these materials into composites by conventional technique filament winding. Experimental studies were performed with changing parameters – temperature, pressure and speed. Finally, it describes the investigation of the optimal processing conditions that maximize the mechanical properties of the composites. These properties are good enough for composites to be used as engineering materials in many structural applications.
Effect of Curing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Polylactic Acid Based Green Composite
Global warming, growing awareness of the environment, waste management issues, dwindling fossil resources, and rising oil prices resulted to increase the research in the materials that are friendly to our health and environment. Due to these reasons, green products are increasingly being promoted for sustainable development. In this work, fully biodegradable green composites have been developed using jute fibers as reinforcement and poly lactic acid as matrix material by film stacking technique. The effect of curing temperature during development of composites ranging from 160 &deg;C, 170 &deg;C, 180 &deg;C and 190 &deg;C was investigated for various mechanical properties. Results obtained from various tests indicate that impact strength decreases with an increase in curing temperature, but tensile and flexural strength increases till 180 &deg;C, thereafter both the properties decrease. This study gives an optimum curing temperature for the development of jute/PLA composites.
Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions
This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.
Correlation Volumic Shrinkage, Conversion Degree of Dental Composites
During polymerization of dental composites, the volumic shrinkage is related to the conversion degree. The variation of the volumic shrinkage (S max according to the degree of conversion CD.), was examined for the experimental composites: (BisGMA/TEGDMA): (50/50), (75/25), (25/75) mixed with seven radiopac fillers: La2O3, BaO, BaSO4, SrO, ZrO2 , SrZrO3 and BaZrO 3 with different contents in weight, from 0 to 80%. We notice that whatever the filler and the composition in monomers, Smax increases with the increase in CD. This variation is, linear in particular in the case of the fillers containing only one heavy metal, and that whatever the composition in monomers. For a given salt, the increase of BisGMA composition leads to significant increase of S max more pronounced than the increase in CD. The variation of ratio (S max / CD.) with the increase of filler content is negligible. However the fillers containing two types of heavy metals have more effect on the volumic shrinkage than on the degree of conversion. Whatever the composition in monomer, and the content of filler containing only one heavy atom, S max increases with the increase in CD. Nevertheless, S max is affected by the viscosity of the medium compared with CD. For high percentages of mineral fillers (≥ 70% in weight), the diagrams S max according to CD are deviated of the linearity, owing to the fact that S max is affected by the high percentage of fillers compared with CD. The number of heavy atoms influences directly correlation (S max / CD.). In the case of the two mineral fillers: SrZrO3 and BaZrO3 ratio (S max / CD) moves away from the proportionality. The linearity of the diagrams Smax according to CD is less regular, due to the viscosity of high content of BisGMA. The study of Smax and DC of four commercial composites are presented and compared to elaborate experimental composites.
Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Al6061-Red Mud Composites
The mechanical properties and morphological analysis of Al6061-Red mud particulate composites were investigated. The compositions of the composite include a matrix of Al6061 and the red mud particles of 53-75 micron size as reinforcement ranging from 0% to 12% at an interval of 2%. Stir casting technique was used to fabricate Al6061-Red mud composites. Density measurement, estimation of percentage porosity, tensile properties, fracture toughness, hardness value, impact energy, percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. Further, the microstructures and SEM examinations were investigated to characterize the composites produced. The result shows that a uniform dispersion of the red mud particles along the grain boundaries of the Al6061 alloy. The tensile strength and hardness values increases with the addition of Red mud particles, but there is a slight decrease in the impact energy values, values of percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area as the reinforcement increases. From these results of investigation, we concluded that the red mud, an industrial waste can be used to enhance the properties of Al6061 alloy for engineering applications.
The Effect of Super-Plasticizer and Ultra-sonic Process on the Carbon Nano Tubes Dispersion in Combination with Nano Silica in Cement Composites to Enhance Its Mechanical Properties
nowadays, nanotechnology is the main trend of research in different areas due to the new potential of using nanometer materials sized less than 100nm. Nanomaterials are needed in cement composites to act as bridging for Nano and micro-cracks to increase tensile strength, reduce the permeability of gases and water in concrete to solve corrosion problem, react with excess Calcium Hydroxide, produce additional C-S-H, act as filler materials to densify the cement matrix and increase its mechanical properties. The present study focuses on the effectiveness of super-plasticizers and ultrasonic processing on the dispersion of Carbon Nanotube at first in water and then in cement composites in combination with Nano silica to enhance the mechanical properties of cement composites. A qualitative analysis using a compressive strength test is conducted with a view to investigate the influence of different dispersion techniques on the mechanical properties of cement composites containing Carbon Nanotube (CNT) and Nano Silica (NS) particles with different percentages. In addition, micro-structural analysis was carried out to understand the surface morphology and microstructure of cement composites with different dosages of NS addition. The investigational study results showed that the combination of NS with a low amount of CNT had a positive effect on the hydration reaction; on the other hand, the combination of CNT and a high amount of NS had a negative effect on the hydration reaction. The compressive strength can be improved by optimum combination 0.02% CNT and 1% NS with gain in strength by 72% and 35% after 7 and 28 days compared to control samples; these results were with an agreement with the morphology structure of composites using microstructure analysis.
Mechanical Performances and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Starch-Grafted-Polypropylene/Kenaf Fibres Composites
The paper focuses on the evaluation of mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour of starch-grafted-PP reinforced with kenaf fibres. Investigations were carried out on composites prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. Two aspects have been taken into account, the effects of various fibres loading rates (10, 20 and 30 wt.%) and the fibres aspect ratios (L/D=30 and 160). Good fibres/matrix interaction has been evidenced by SEM observations. However, processing induced variation of fibre length quantified by optical microscopy observations. Tensile modulus and ultimate properties, hardness and tensile impact stress, were found to remarkably increase with fibre loading. Moreover, short term tensile creep tests have proven that kenaf fibres improved considerably the creep stability. Modelling of creep behaviour by a four parameter Burger model was successfully used. An empirical equation involving Halpin-Tsai semi empirical model was also used to predict the elastic modulus of composites.
Mechanical Behavior of Banana Peel Reinforced Polymer Composites
This paper examines the results of an experimental study based on the engineering properties of banana peel reinforced epoxy composites. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of weight fraction on mechanical behavior of epoxy based polymer composites. The composites were made by varying the weight fraction of banana peel from 0 to 30% and banana peel were made using hand layup method. The fabricated composite samples were cut according to the ASTM standards for different experiments. Hardness test and density test were carried out at the samples. The maximum hardness, density, tensile strength, flexural strength and ILSS are getting for the material prepared with the 20 % reinforced banana peel epoxy composite. The detailed test results and observations are discussed sequentially in the paper.
Controlled Conductivity of Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonate) Composites with Polyester
Poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) attracted a great deal of attention because of its unique characteristics of flexibility, optical properties, heat resistance and colloidal dispersion in water. It is well known that when high boiling solvents such as ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulfoxide are added as a secondary dopant to the micellar structure, PEDOT microcrystallizes and becomes highly conductive. In previous study bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) was used as a secondary dopant for PEDOT:PSS and the enhancement of the conductivity was revealed. However, ductility is one of the serious issues which limited the application of PEDOT:PSS/BPS. So far, the composition with polymer binders has been conducted, however, polymer binders decrease the conductivity of the materials. In this study, PEDOT: PSS composites with polyester (PEs) were prepared by a simple aqueous process using PEs emulsion. The structural studies revealed that PEDOT:PSS and PEs were homogeneously distributed in the composites. It was found that the properties of PEDOT:PSS were remarkably enhanced by the incorporation of PEs. According to the tensile test, the ductility of PEDOT:PSS was remarkably improved. Interestingly, the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS/PEs composites was higher than that of neat PEDOT:PSS. For example, the conductivity increased by 8% at PEs content of 25 wt%. Since PEDOT:PSS were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of PEs particles, it was assumed that the conductive pathway was constructed by PEs particles in the nanocomposites. Therefore, a significant increase in conductivity was achieved.
Parametric Optimization of Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) for Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites
In this present work, metal matrix composites with combination of aluminium with (Sic/Al2O3) were fabricated using stir casting technique. The objective of the present work is to optimize the process parameters of Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) composites. Pulse ON Time, Pulse OFF Time, wire feed and sensitivity are considered as input process parameters with responses Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Roughness (SR) for optimization of WEDM process. Taguchi L18 Orthogonal Array (OA) is used for experimentation. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is coupled with Taguchi technique for multiple process parameters optimization. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used for finding the impact of process parameters individually. Finally confirmation experiments were carried out to validate the predicted results.
The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites
Plant-based natural fibres are used more increasingly in construction materials. This is in order to reduce the pressure on the built environment which has been increased dramatically due to the increase in the world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibres are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibres as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fibre types; fibre characteristics and fibre-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview of the main factors affecting the properties of plant-based natural fibre cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibres in producing various construction materials such as mud bricks and blocks are investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibres as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.
The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites
Plant-based natural fibres are used more increasingly in construction materials. This is in order to reduce the pressure on the built environment which has been increased dramatically due to the increase in the world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibres are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibres as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fibre types; fibre characteristics and fibre-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview of the main factors affecting the properties of plant-based natural fibre cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibres in producing various construction materials such as mud bricks and blocks are investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibres as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.
Physico-Mechanical Properties of Chemically Modified Sisal Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites
Sisal leaves were subjected to enzymatic retting method to extract the sisal fibre. A portion of the fibre was pretreated with alkali (NaOH), and further treated with benzoyl chloride and silane treatment reagents. Both the treated and untreated Sisal fibre composites were used to fabricate the composite by hand lay-up technique using unsaturated polyester resin. Tensile, flexural, water absorption, density, thickness swelling and chemical resistant tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. Results obtained for all the parameters showed an increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. FT-IR spectra results ascertained the inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. Chemical modification was found to improve adhesion of the fibre to the matrix, as well as physico-mechanical properties of the composites.
Optimization of Cutting Parameters on Delamination Using Taguchi Method during Drilling of GFRP Composites
Drilling composite materials is a frequently practiced machining process during assembling in various industries such as automotive and aerospace. However, drilling of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites is significantly affected by damage tendency of these materials under cutting forces such as thrust force and torque. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the various cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate; subsequently also to study the influence of number of layers on delamination produced while drilling a GFRP composite. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi techniques, was instituted considering drilling with prefixed cutting parameters in a hand lay-up GFRP material. The damage induced associated with drilling GFRP composites were measured. Moreover, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain minimization of delamination influenced by drilling parameters and number layers. The optimum drilling factor combination was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio. The conclusion revealed that feed rate was the most influential factor on the delamination. The best results of the delamination were obtained with composites with a greater number of layers at lower cutting speeds and feed rates.
Graphene-Reinforced Silicon Oxycarbide Composite with Lamellar Structures Prepared by the Phase Transfer Method
Graphene was successfully introduced into a polymer-derived silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) matrix by phase transfer of graphene oxide (GO) from an aqueous (GO dispersed in water) to an organic phase (copolymer as SiOC precursor in diethyl ether). With GO concentrations increasing up to 2 vol%, graphene-containing flakes self-assembled into a lamellar structure in the matrix leading to composite with the anisotropic property. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was applied to densify the composites with four different GO concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 vol%) up to ~2.3 g/cm3. The fracture toughness of SiOC-2 vol% GO composites was significantly increased by ~91% (from 0.70 to 1.34 MPa·m¹/²), at the expense of a decrease in the flexural strength (from 85MPa to 55MPa), compared to SiOC-0 vol% GO composites. Moreover, the electrical conductivity in the perpendicular direction (σ┴=3×10⁻¹ S/cm) in SiOC-2 vol% GO composite was two orders of magnitude higher than the parallel direction (σ║=4.7×10⁻³ S/cm) owing to the self-assembled lamellar structure of graphene in the SiOC matrix. The composites exhibited increased electrical conductivity (σ┴) from 8.4×10⁻³ to 3×10⁻¹ S/cm, with the increasing GO content from 0.5 to 2 vol%. The SiOC-2 vol% GO composites further showed the better electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than pure graphene, exhibiting a similar onset potential (~0.75V vs. RHE) and more positive half-wave potential (~0.6V vs. RHE).
Preparation and Analysis of Enhanced Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics with Al Base Alloy
Common replacement for glass in composites is the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The GFRP has its own advantages for being a good alternative. The purpose of this research is to find a suitable enhancement for the commonly used composite Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). The goal is to enhance the material properties of the composite by providing a suitable matrix with Al base. The various mechanical tests are performed to analyze and compare the improvement in the mechanical properties of the composite. As a result, this material can be used as an alternative for the commonly used GFRP in various fields with increased effectiveness in its functioning.
Electrical and Magnetoelectric Properties of (y)Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y)Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Magnetoelectric Composites
(y) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 magnetoelectric composites with y = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were prepared by a conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase formation of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites. logρdc Vs 1/T graphs reveal that the dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature exhibiting semiconductor behavior. The plots of logσac Vs logω2 are almost linear indicating that the conductivity increases with increase in frequency i.e, conductivity in the composites is due to small polaron hopping. Dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were studied as a function of frequency in the range 100Hz–1MHz which reveals the normal dielectric behavior except the composite with y=0.1 and as a function of temperature at four fixed frequencies (i.e. 100Hz, 1KHz, 10KHz, 100KHz). ME voltage coefficient decreases with increase in ferrite content and was observed to be maximum of about 7.495 mV/cmOe for (0.1) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (0.9) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 composite.
A Phase Field Approach to Model Crack Interface Interaction in Ceramic Matrix Composites
There are various failure modes in ceramic matrix composites; notable ones are fiber breakage, matrix cracking and fiber matrix debonding. Crack nucleation and propagation in microstructure of such composites requires an understanding of interaction of crack with the multiple inclusion heterogeneous system and interfaces. In order to assess structural integrity, the material parameters especially of the interface that governs the crack growth should be determined. In the present work, a nonlocal phase field approach is proposed to model the crack interface interaction in such composites. Nonlocal approaches help in understanding the complex mechanisms of delamination growth and mitigation and operates at a material length scale. The performance of the proposed formulation is illustrated through representative numerical examples. The model proposed is implemented in the framework of the finite element method. Several parametric studies on interface crack interaction are conducted. The proposed model is easy and simple to implement and works very well in modeling fracture in composite systems.
Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium
TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. &beta;-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of &beta;-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.
Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.
Magnetorheological Silicone Composites Filled with Micro- and Nano-Sized Magnetites with the Addition of Ionic Liquids
Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized Fe3O4 magnetoactive fillers in silicone rubber are reported and studied. To improve the dispersion of applied fillers in polymer matrix, ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride were added during the process of composites preparation. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy), similarly to ferromagnetic particles content and theirs quantity. Micro and non-sized magnetites were active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties and reinforced the magnetorheological effect of composites. Application of ionic liquids as dispersing agents influenced the dispersion of magnetic fillers in the elastomer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy images used to observe magnetorheological elastomer microstructures proved that the dispersion improvement had a significant effect on the composites properties. Moreover, the particles orientation and their arrangement in the elastomer investigated by vibration sample magnetometer showed the correlation between MRE microstructure and their magnetic properties.
UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite
Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 &deg;C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 &deg;C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.
Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.
Mitigation of Size Effects in Woven Fabric Composites Using Finite Element Analysis Approach
High-performance requirements and emission norms were forcing the automobile industry to opt for lightweight materials which improve the fuel efficiency and absorb energy during crash applications. In such scenario, the woven fabric composites are providing better energy absorption compared to metals. Woven fabric composites have a repetitive unit cell (RUC) and the mechanical properties of these materials are highly dependent on RUC. This work investigates the importance of detailed modelling of the RUC, the size effects associated and the mitigation techniques to avoid them using Finite element analysis approach.
Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition
In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5% PES waste, (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste, (c) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and bending strength measurements, water absorption test and determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed. The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength, while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water absorption.
Complex Analysis of Annual Plats Utilization for Particleboard Production
The presented research deals with a complex evaluation of after-harvest remnants utilization for particleboard production. Agricultural crops that are in the Czech Republic widely grown are in the scope of interest. Researches dealing with composites from agricultural rests solved mostly physical and mechanical properties of produced materials. For the commercialization of these results, however, one another step is essential. It is needed to evaluate the composites production from agricultural rests more comprehensive, take into account all aspects that affect their production, not only material characteristics of produced composites. In this study, descriptive, comparative and synthesis methods were used. Results of this research include a supply stability forecast, technical and technological differences of production of particleboards from agricultural rests and quantification of an economical potential of the agricultural rests.
Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites
Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 &deg;C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 &deg;C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.
Experimental Study of Various Sandwich Composites
The use of Sandwich composite materials in aerospace and civil infrastructure application has been increasing especially due to their enormously low weight that leads to a reduction in the total weight and fuel consumption, high flexural and transverse shear stiffness, and corrosion resistance. The essential properties of sandwich materials vary according to the application area of the structure. The objectives of this study are to identify the mechanical behaviour and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures made of bamboo, V- board and metal (Aluminium as face sheet and Foam as Core material). The three-point bending test and UTM (Universal testing machine) experimental tests are done for three specimens for each type of sandwich composites. From the experiment results of three sandwich composites, bamboo shows high Young’s modulus of elasticity and low density.
Tensile Behaviours of Sansevieria Ehrenbergii Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites with Water Absorption Time
The research work investigates the variation of tensile properties for the sansevieria ehrenbergii fiber (SEF) and SEF reinforced polyester composites respect to various water absorption time. The experiments were conducted according to ATSM D3379-75 and ASTM D570 standards. The percentage of water absorption for composite specimens was measured according to ASTM D570 standard. The fiber of SE was cut in to 30 mm length for preparation of the composites. The simple hand lay-up method followed by compression moulding process adopted to prepare the randomly oriented SEF reinforced polyester composites at constant fiber weight fraction of 40%. The surface treatment was done on the SEFs with various chemicals such as NaOH, KMnO4, Benzoyl Peroxide, Benzoyl Chloride and Stearic Acid before preparing the composites. NaOH was used for pre-treatment of all other chemical treatments. The morphology of the tensile fractured specimens studied using the Scanning Electron Microscopic. The tensile strength of the SEF and SEF reinforced polymer composites were carried out with various water absorption time such as 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours respectively. The result shows that the tensile strength was drop off with increase in water absorption time for all composites. The highest tensile property of raw fiber was found due to lowest moistures content. Also the chemical bond between the cellulose and cementic materials such as lignin and wax was highest due to lowest moisture content. Tensile load was lowest and elongation was highest for the water absorbed fibers at various water absorption time ranges. During this process, the fiber cellulose inhales the water and expands the primary and secondary fibers walls. This increases the moisture content in the fibers. Ultimately this increases the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water. In tensile testing, the water absorbed fibers shows highest elongation by stretching of expanded cellulose walls and the bonding strength between the fiber cellulose is low. The load carrying capability was stable at 20 hours of water absorption time. This could be directly affecting the interfacial bonding between the fiber/matrix and composite strength. The chemically treated fibers carry higher load and lower elongation which is due to removal of lignin, hemicellulose and wax content. The water time absorption decreases the tensile strength of the composites. The chemically SEF reinforced composites shows highest tensile strength compared to untreated SEF reinforced composites. This was due to highest bonding area between the fiber/matrix. This was proven in the morphology at the fracture zone of the composites. The intra-fiber debonding was occurred by water capsulation in the fiber cellulose. Among all, the tensile strength was found to be highest for KMnO4 treated SEF reinforced composite compared to other composites. This was due to better interfacial bonding between the fiber-matrix compared to other treated fiber composites. The percentage of water absorption of composites increased with time of water absorption. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 4 hours to zero water absorption are 9, 9, 10, 10.8 and 9.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 24 hours to zero water absorption 5.2, 7.3, 12.5, 16.7 and 13.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. Hence the lowest weight gain was found for KMnO4 treated SEF composites by highest percentage with lowest water uptake. However the chemically treated SEF reinforced composites is possible materials for automotive application like body panels, bumpers and interior parts, and household application like tables and racks etc.
Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Properties of Arenga pinnata Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Effects of Alkaline Treatment
In present investigations, thermal behaviours of Arenga pinnata fibres prior and after alkaline treatment were studied. The alkaline treatments were applied on the Arenga pinnata fibres by immersing in the alkaline solution, 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Using hand lay-out technique, composites were fabricated at 20% and 40% by Arenga pinnata fibres weight contents. The thermal behaviours of both untreated and treated composites were determined by employing Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The results show that the TAP owned better results of Storage Modulus (E’), Loss Modulus (E”) and Tan Delta temperatures ranges from 0°C to 60°C.
The Effect of Addition of Dioctyl Terephthalate and Calcite on the Tensile Properties of Organoclay/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites
In recent years, polymer/clay nanocomposites have generated great interest in the polymer industry as a new type of composite material because of their superior properties, which includes high heat deflection temperature, gas barrier performance, dimensional stability, enhanced mechanical properties, optical clarity and flame retardancy when compared with the pure polymer or conventional composites. The investigation of change of the tensile properties of organoclay/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) nanocomposites with the use of Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) (as plasticizer) and calcite (as filler) has been aimed. The composites and organoclay synthesized were characterized using the techniques such as XRD, HRTEM and FTIR techniques. The spectroscopic results indicate that platelets of organoclay were well dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The tensile properties of the composites were compared considering the stress-strain curve drawn for each composite and pure polymer. It was observed that the composites prepared by adding the plasticizer at different ratios and a certain amount of calcite exhibited different tensile behaviors compared to pure polymer.
Rule-Of-Mixtures: Predicting the Bending Modulus of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Dental Composites
Rule of mixtures is the simple analytical model is used to predict various properties of composites before design. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of the Rule-of-Mixtures (ROM) for predicting bending modulus of a continuous and unidirectional fiber reinforced composites using in dental applications. The Composites were fabricated from light curing resin (with and without silica nanoparticles) and modified and non-modified fibers. Composite samples were divided into eight groups with ten specimens for each group. The bending modulus (flexural modulus) of samples was determined from the slope of the initial linear region of stress-strain curve on 2mm×2mm×25mm specimens with different designs: fibers corona treatment time (0s, 5s, 7s), fibers silane treatment (0%wt, 2%wt), fibers volume fraction (41%, 33%, 25%) and nanoparticles incorporation in resin (0%wt, 10%wt, 15%wt). To study the fiber and matrix interface after fracture, single edge notch beam (SENB) method and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. SEM also was used to show the nanoparticles dispersion in resin. Experimental results of bending modulus for composites made of both physical (corona) and chemical (silane) treated fibers were in reasonable agreement with linear ROM estimates, but untreated fibers or non-optimized treated fibers and poor nanoparticles dispersion did not correlate as well with ROM results. This study shows that the ROM is useful to predict the mechanical behavior of unidirectional dental composites but fiber-resin interface and quality of nanoparticles dispersion play important role in ROM accurate predictions.
Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites
Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson&rsquo;s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.
Strength Performance and Microstructure Characteristics of Natural Bonded Fiber Composites from Malaysian Bamboo
Formaldehyde release from wood-based panel composites can be very toxicity and may increase the risk of human health as well as environmental problems. A new bio-composites product without synthetic adhesive or resin is possible to be developed in order to reduce these problems. Apart from formaldehyde release, adhesive is also considered to be expensive, especially in the manufacturing of composite products. Natural bonded composites can be termed as a panel product composed with any type of cellulosic materials without the addition of synthetic resins. It is composed with chemical content activation in the cellulosic materials. Pulp and paper making method (chemical pulping) was used as a general guide in the composites manufacturing. This method will also generally reduce the manufacturing cost and the risk of formaldehyde emission and has potential to be used as an alternative technology in fiber composites industries. In this study, the natural bonded bamboo fiber composite was produced from virgin Malaysian bamboo fiber (Bambusa vulgaris). The bamboo culms were chipped and digested into fiber using this pulping method. The black liquor collected from the pulping process was used as a natural binding agent in the composition. Then the fibers were mixed and blended with black liquor without any resin addition. The amount of black liquor used per composite board was 20%, with approximately 37% solid content. The composites were fabricated using a hot press machine at two different board densities, 850 and 950 kg/m³, with two sets of hot pressing time, 25 and 35 minutes. Samples of the composites from different densities and hot pressing times were tested in flexural strength and internal bonding (IB) for strength performance according to British Standard. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) was determined in flexural test, while tensile force perpendicular to the surface was recorded in IB test. Results show that the strength performance of the composites with 850 kg/m³ density were significantly higher than 950 kg/m³ density, especially for samples from 25 minutes hot pressing time. Strength performance of composites from 25 minutes hot pressing time were generally greater than 35 minutes. Results show that the maximum mean values of strength performance were recorded from composites with 850 kg/m³ density and 25 minutes pressing time. The maximum mean values for MOE, MOR and IB were 3251.84, 16.88 and 0.27 MPa, respectively. Only MOE result has conformed to high density fiberboard (HDF) standard (2700 MPa) in British Standard for Fiberboard Specification, BS EN 622-5: 2006. Microstructure characteristics of composites can also be related to the strength performance of the composites, in which, the observed fiber damage in composites from 950 kg/m³ density and overheat of black liquor led to the low strength properties, especially in IB test.
An Overview of Nano-Particles Effect on Mechanical Properties of Composites
Composites depending on the nature of their constituents and mode of production are regarded as one of the advanced materials that drive today’s technology. This paper attempts a short review of the subject matter with a general aim of pushing to the next level the frontier of knowledge as it impacts the technology of nano-particles manufacturing. The objectives entail an effort to; aggregate recent research efforts in this field, analyse research findings and observations, streamline research efforts and support industry in taking decision on areas of fund deployment. It is envisaged that this work will serve as a quick hand-on compendium material for researchers in this field and a guide to relevant government departments wishing to fund a research whose outcomes have the potential of improving the nation’s GDP.
The Effects of Orientation on Energy and Plasticity of Metallic Crystalline-Amorphous Interface
Commercial applications of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) were restricted due to the sudden brittle failure mode which was the main drawback in these new class of materials. Therefore, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced as a toughening strategy in BMGs. In spite of numerous researches in the area of metallic C-A composites, the fundamental structure-property relation in these composites that are not exactly known yet. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the fundamental properties of crystalline-amorphous interface in a model system of Cu/CuZr by using molecular dynamics simulations. Several parameters including interface energy and mechanical properties were investigated by means of atomic models and employing Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential function. It is found that the crystalline-amorphous interfacial energy weakly depends on the orientation of the crystalline layer, which is in stark contrast to that in a regular crystalline grain boundary. Additionally, the results showed that the interface controls the yielding of the crystalline-amorphous composites during uniaxial tension either by serving as sources for dislocation nucleation in the crystalline layer or triggering local shear transformation zones in amorphous layer. The critical resolved shear stress required to nucleate the first dislocation is also found to strongly depend on the crystalline orientation. Furthermore, it is found that the interaction between dislocations and shear localization at the crystalline-amorphous interface oriented in different directions can lead to a change in the deformation mode. For instance, while the dislocation and shear banding are aligned to each other in {0 0 1} interface plane, the misorientation angle between these failure mechanisms causing more homogeneous deformation in {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} crystalline-amorphous interfaces. These results should help clarify the failure mechanism of crystalline-amorphous composites under various loading conditions.
The Effect of Volume Fraction of Nano-Alumina Strengthening on AC4B Composite Characteristics through the Stir Casting Method as a Material Brake Shoe
Brake shoe is a component that serves to reduce speed or stop the train's speed by utilizing the friction force. Generally, the material used as a brake shoe is cast iron, where cast iron itself is a heavy, expensive, and easily worn material. Aluminum matrix composites are one of candidates for the cast iron replacement material as the basic material for brake shoe. The matrix in the composite used is Aluminum AC4B. Reinforcement used in aluminum matrix composites is nano-alumina, where the use of nano-alumina of 0.25%, 0.3%, 0.35%, 0.4%, and 0.5% volume fraction will be tested. The sample is made using the stir casting method; then, it will be tested mechanically. The use of nano-alumina as a reinforcement will increase the strength of the matrix. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing is used to test the distribution of reinforcing particles due to stirring. Therefore, the addition of nano-alumina will improve AC4B aluminum matrix composites.
A Thermographic and Energy Based Approach to Define High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Flax Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Composites
Fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites have a wide range of applications in the sectors of automotive, aerospace, sports utilities, among others, due to their high specific strength, stiffness as well as reduced weight. In addition to those favorable properties, composites composed of natural fibers and bio-based resins (i.e., biocomposites) have eco-friendliness and biodegradability. However, the applications of biocomposites are limited due to the lack of knowledge about their long-term reliability under fluctuating loads. In order to explore the long-term reliability of flax fiber reinforced composites under fluctuating loads through high cycle fatigue strength (HCFS), fatigue test were conducted on unidirectional flax fiber reinforced thermoset composites at different percentage loads of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) with a loading frequency of 5 Hz. Change of temperature of the sample during cyclic loading was captured using an IR camera. Initially, the temperature increased rapidly, but after a certain time, it stabilized. A mathematical model was developed to predict the fatigue life from the data of stabilized temperature. Stabilized temperature and dissipated energy per cycle were compared with applied stress. Both showed bilinear behavior and the intersection of those curves were used to determine HCFS. HCFS for unidirectional flax fiber reinforced composites is around 45% of UTS for a loading frequency of 5Hz. Unlike fatigue life, stabilized temperature and dissipated energy-based models are convenient to define HCFS as they have little variation from sample to sample.
Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites
In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.
Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites
E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.
Fabrication Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Fly Ash-Alumina Reinforced Zn-27Al Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Using Stir-Casting Technique
This paper reports the viability of developing Zn-27Al alloy matrix hybrid composites reinforced with alumina, graphite and fly ash (a solid waste byproduct of coal in thermal power plants). This research work was aimed at developing low cost-high performance Zn-27Al matrix composite with low density. Alumina particulates (Al2O3), graphite added with 0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt% fly ash were utilized to prepare 10wt% reinforcing phase with Zn-27Al alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement estimated percentage porosity, tensile testing, micro hardness measurement, and optical microscopy were used to assess the performance of the composites produced. The results show that the hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the hybrid composites decrease with increase in fly ash content. The maximum decrease in hardness and ultimate tensile strength of 13.72% and 15.25% respectively were observed for composite grade containing 5wt% fly ash. The percentage elongation of composite sample without fly ash is 8.9% which is comparable with that of the sample containing 2wt% fly ash with percentage elongation of 8.8%. The fracture toughness of the fly ash containing composites was, however, superior to those of composites without fly ash with 5wt% fly ash containing composite exhibiting the highest fracture toughness. The results show that fly ash can be utilized as complementary reinforcement in ZA-27 alloy matrix composite to reduce cost.
Elaboration and Characterization of PP/TiO2 Composites
The aim of present work is to characterize the PP/TiO2 blends as composites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the impact strength results which increased about 39% compared to neat PP. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed composite compositions, involved by the good dispersion of TiO2 particles.
Mechanical Analysis of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
In the field of material engineering, composites are in great concern for their nonbiodegradability and their cost. In order to reduce its cost and weight, plant derived fibers witnessed miraculous triumph. Plant fibers can be of different types like seed fibers, blast fibers, leaf fibers, etc. Composites can be reinforced with exclusively one type of natural fiber or also can be combined with two or more different types of natural or synthetic fibers to boost up their specific properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes like HDPE, LDPE, PET, epoxy, etc. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its adhesion and compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix i.e. epoxy resin. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of fiber loading and surface treatments have been studied for different mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, flexural strength and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber composites. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. Scanning electron microscopy has also been used to study and compare the morphology of untreated and treated fibers. Also, the fracture surface has been reviewed comparing the reported literature of other eminent researchers of this field.
Analysis of Solvent Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) Using Nano-Indentation
The contact performance of polymeric composites is dependent on the localized mechanical properties of materials. This is particularly important for fiber oriented polymeric materials where self-lubrication from top layers has been the basic requirement. The nanoindentation response of fiber reinforced poly(etheretherketone), PEEK, composites have been evaluated to determine the near-surface mechanical characteristics. Load-displacement compliance, hardness and elastic modulus data based on contact compliance mode (CSM) indentation of carbon fiber oriented and glass fiber oriented PEEK composites are reported as a function of indentation contact displacement. The composite surfaces were indented to a maximum penetration depth of 5µm using Berkovich tip indenter. A typical multiphase response of the composite surface is depicted from analysis of the indentation data for the composites, showing presence of polymer matrix, fibers, and interphase regions. The observed experimental results show that although the surface mechanical properties of carbon fiber based PEEK composite were comparatively higher, the properties of matrix material were seen to be increased in the presence of glass fibers. The experimental methodology may provide a convenient means to understand morphological description of the multimodal polymeric composites.
Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites
In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.
Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites
In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.
Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes
Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.
MXene-Based Self-Sensing of Damage in Fiber Composites
Multifunctional composites with enhanced strength and toughness for superior damage tolerance are essential for advanced aerospace and military applications. Detection of structural changes prior to visible damage may be achieved by incorporating fillers with tunable properties such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high aspect ratios and more surface-active sites. While 2D graphene with large surface areas, good mechanical properties, and high electrical conductivity seems ideal as a filler, the single-atomic thickness can lead to bending and rolling during processing, requiring post-processing to bond to polymer matrices. Lately, an emerging family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, MXenes, has attracted much attention since their discovery in 2011. Metallic electronic conductivity and good mechanical properties, even with increased polymer content, coupled with hydrophilicity make MXenes a good candidate as a filler material in polymer composites and exceptional as multifunctional damage indicators in composites. Here, we systematically study MXene-based (Ti₃C₂) coated on glass fibers for fiber reinforced polymer composite for self-sensing using microscopy and micromechanical testing. Further testing is in progress through the investigation of local variations in optical, acoustic, and thermal properties within the damage sites in response to strain caused by mechanical loading.
Si3N4-SiC Composites Produced by Using C Black and Sic Powder
In this study, Si3N4-SiC composites were synthesized by using different raw materials. In the first method, Si3N4 and C black powder mixtures were used to fabricate Si3N4-SiC composites by in-situ carbothermal reduction process. The percentage of C black was only changed. The effects of carbon black percentage in the mixtures were analysed by characterization of SiC particles which were obtained in the Si3N4 matrix. In the second method, SiC particles were added to the matrix in different weight ratios. The composites were pressed by cold isostatic method under 150 MPa pressure and pressureless sintered at 1700-1850 °C during 1 hour in the argon atmosphere. AlN and Y2O3 were used as sintering additives. Sintering temperature, time and all the effects on in-situ reaction were studied. The densification and microstructure properties of the produced ceramics were analysed. Density was one of the main subjects in these reactions. It is very important during porous SiC sintering. Green density and relative density were measured higher for CIP samples. Samples which were added carbon black were more porous than SiC added samples. The increase in the carbon black, makes increase in porosity. The outcome of the experiments was SiC powders which were obtained at the grain boundries of β-Si3N4 particles.
Mechanical Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites
Short sugar palm fibre and thermoplastic polyurethane were combined to produce new composites by using the extrude method. Two techniques used to prepare a new composite material, firstly, extrusion of the base material with short fibre, secondly hot pressing them. The size of sugar palm fibre was fixed at 250µm. Different weight percent (10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt%) were used in order to optimise preparation process. The optimization of process depended on the characterization mechanical properties such as impact, tensile, and flexural of the new (TPU/SPF) composite material. The results proved that best tensile and impact properties of weight additive fibre applied 10 wt%. There was an increasing trend recorded of flexural properties during increased the fibre loading. Meanwhile, the maximum tensile strength was 14.0 MPa at 10 wt% of the fibre. Moreover, there was no significant effect for additions more than 30 wt% of the fibre.
Flexible, Hydrophobic and Mechanical Strong Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride): Carbon Nanotube Composite Films for Strain-Sensing Applications
Carbon nanotube (CNT) – polymer composites have been extensively studied due to their exceptional electrical and mechanical properties. In the present study, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) – multi-walled CNT composites were prepared by melt-blending technique using pristine (ufCNT) and a modified dilute nitric acid-treated CNTs (fCNT). Due to this dilute acid-treatment, the fCNTs were found to show significantly improved dispersion and retained their electrical property. The fCNT showed an electrical percolation threshold (PT) of 0.15 wt% in the PVDF matrix as against 0.35 wt% for ufCNT. The composites were made into films of thickness ~0.3 mm by compression-molding and the resulting composite films were subjected to various property evaluations. It was found that the water contact angle (WCA) of the films increased with CNT weight content in composites and the composite film surface became hydrophobic (e.g., WCA ~104° for 4 wt% ufCNT and 111.5° for 0.5 wt% fCNT composites) in nature; while the neat PVDF film showed hydrophilic behavior (WCA ~68°). Significant enhancements in the mechanical properties were observed upon CNT incorporation and there is a progressive increase in the tensile strength and modulus with increase in CNT weight fraction in composites. The composite films were tested for strain-sensing applications. For this, a simple and non-destructive method was developed to demonstrate the strain-sensing properties of the composites films. In this method, the change in electrical resistance was measured using a digital multimeter by applying bending strain by oscillation. It was found that by applying dynamic bending strain, there is a systematic change in resistance and the films showed piezo-resistive behavior. Due to the high flexibility of these composite films, the change in resistance was reversible and found to be marginally affected, when large number of tests were performed using a single specimen. It is interesting to note that the composites with CNT content notwithstanding their type near the percolation threshold (PT) showed better strain-sensing properties as compared to the composites with CNT contents well-above the PT. On account of the excellent combination of the various properties, the composite films offer a great promise as strain-sensors for structural health-monitoring.
Determination of Fatigue Limit in Post Impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Polymer (CFRP) Specimens Using Self Heating Methodology
This paper presents the experimental identification of the fatigue limit for pristine and impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy polymer (CFRP) woven composites based on the relatively new self-heating methodology for composites. CFRP composites of [0/90]8 and quasi isotropic configurations prepared using hand-layup technique are subjected to low energy impacts (20 J energy) simulating a barely visible impact damage (BVID). Runway debris strike, tool drop or hailstone impact can cause a BVID on an aircraft fuselage made of carbon composites and hence understanding the post-impact fatigue response of CFRP laminates is of immense importance to the aerospace community. The BVID zone on the specimens is characterized using X-ray Tomography technique. Both pristine and impacted specimens are subjected to several blocks of constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loading keeping R-ratio a constant but with increments in the mean loading stress after each block. The number of loading cycles in each block is a subjective parameter and it varies for pristine and impacted CFRP specimens. To monitor the temperature evolution during fatigue loading, thermocouples are pasted on the CFRP specimens at specific locations. The fatigue limit is determined by two strategies, first is by considering the stabilized temperature in every block and second is by considering the change in the temperature slope per block. The results show that both strategies can be adopted to determine the fatigue limit in both pristine and impacted CFRP composites.
Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles
Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.
Synthesis, Characterization and Rheological Properties of Boronoxide, Polymer Nanocomposites
Advances and new discoveries in the field of the material science on the basis of technological developments have played an important role. Today, material science is branched the lower branches such as metals, nonmetals, chemicals, polymers. The polymeric nano composites have found a wide application field as one of the most important among these groups. Many polymers used in the different fields of the industry have been desired to improve the thermal stability. One of the ways to improve this property of the polymers is to form the nano composite products of them using different fillers. There are many using area of boron compounds and is increasing day by day. In order to the further increasing of the variety of using area of boron compounds and industrial importance, it is necessary to synthesis of nano-products and to find yourself new application areas of these products. In this study, PMMA/boronoxide nano composites were synthesized using solution intercalation, polymerization and melting methods; and PAA/boronoxide nano composites using solution intercalation method. Furthermore, rheological properties of nano composites synthesed according to melting method were also studied. Nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR-ATR, DTA/TG, BET, SEM, and TEM instruments. The effects of filler material amount, solvent types and mediating reagent on the thermal stability of polymers were investigated. In addition, the rheological properties of PMMA/boronoxide nano composites synthesized by melting method were investigated using High Pressure Capillary Rheometer. XRD analysis showed that boronoxide was dispersed in polymer matrix; FTIR-ATR that there were interactions with boronoxide between PAA and PMMA; and TEM that boronoxide particles had spherical structure, and dispersed in nano sized dimension in polymer matrix; the thermal stability of polymers was increased with the adding of boronoxide in polymer matrix; the decomposition mechanism of PAA was changed. From rheological measurements, it was found that PMMA and PMMA/boronoxide nano composites exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudo-plastic, shear thinning behavior under all experimental conditions.
A Novel Geometrical Approach toward the Mechanical Properties of Particle Reinforced Composites
Many investigations on the micromechanical structure of materials indicate that there exist fractal patterns at the micro scale in some of the main construction and industrial materials. A recently presented micro-fractal theory brings together the well-known periodic homogenization and the fractal geometry to construct an appropriate model for determination of the mechanical properties of particle reinforced composite materials. The proposed multi-step homogenization scheme considers the mechanical properties of different constituent phases in the composite together with the interaction between these phases throughout a step-by-step homogenization technique. In the proposed model the interaction of different phases is also investigated. By using this method the effect of fibers grading on the mechanical properties also could be studied. The theory outcomes are compared to the experimental data for different types of particle-reinforced composites which very good agreement with the experimental data is observed.
The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites
Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.
Effect of UV Radiation to Change the Properties of the Composite PA+GF
The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Some composites also exhibit great resistance to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and wear. Polymers are widely used indoors and outdoors, therefore they are exposed to a chemical environment which may include atmospheric oxygen, acidic fumes, acidic rain, moisture heat and thermal shock, ultra-violet light, high energy radiation, etc. Different polymers are affected differently by these factors even though the amorphous polymers are more sensitive. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors.
Lightweight Sheet Molding Compound Composites by Coating Glass Fiber with Cellulose Nanocrystals
There has been considerable interest in cellulose nanomaterials (CN) as polymer and polymer composites reinforcement due to their high specific modulus and strength, low density and toxicity, and accessible hydroxyl side groups that can be readily chemically modified. The focus of this study is making lightweight composites for better fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emission in auto industries with no compromise on mechanical performance using a scalable technique that can be easily integrated in sheet molding compound (SMC) manufacturing lines. Light weighting will be achieved by replacing part of the heavier components, i.e. glass fibers (GF), with a small amount of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in short GF/epoxy composites made using SMC. CNC will be introduced as coating of the GF rovings prior to their use in the SMC line. The employed coating method is similar to the fiber sizing technique commonly used and thus it can be easily scaled and integrated to industrial SMC lines. This will be an alternative route to the most techniques that involve dispersing CN in polymer matrix, in which the nanomaterials agglomeration limits the capability for scaling up in an industrial production. We have demonstrated that incorporating CNC as a coating on GF surface by immersing the GF in CNC aqueous suspensions, a simple and scalable technique, increases the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) by ~69% compared to the composites produced by uncoated GF, suggesting an enhancement of stress transfer across the GF/matrix interface. As a result of IFSS enhancement, incorporation of 0.17 wt% CNC in the composite results in increases of ~10% in both elastic modulus and tensile strength, and 40 % and 43 % in flexural modulus and strength respectively. We have also determined that dispersing 1.4 and 2 wt% CNC in the epoxy matrix of short GF/epoxy SMC composites by sonication allows removing 10 wt% GF with no penalty on tensile and flexural properties leading to 7.5% lighter composites. Although sonication is a scalable technique, it is not quite as simple and inexpensive as coating the GF by passing through an aqueous suspension of CNC. In this study, the above findings are integrated to 1) investigate the effect of CNC content on mechanical properties by passing the GF rovings through CNC aqueous suspension with various concentrations (0-5%) and 2) determine the optimum ratio of the added CNC to the removed GF to achieve the maximum possible weight reduction with no cost on mechanical performance of the SMC composites. The results of this study are of industrial relevance, providing a path toward producing high volume lightweight and mechanically enhanced SMC composites using cellulose nanomaterials.
Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced by Glassy Carbon-Titanium Spatial Structure
This study presents aluminum matrix composites reinforced by glassy carbon (GC) and titanium (Ti). In the first step, the heterophase (GC+Ti), spatial form (similar to skeleton) of reinforcement was obtained via own method. The polyurethane foam (with spatial, open-cells structure) covered by suspension of Ti particles in phenolic resin was pyrolyzed. In the second step, the prepared heterogeneous foams were infiltrated by aluminium alloy. The manufactured composites are designated to industrial application, especially as a material used in tribological field. From this point of view, the glassy carbon was applied to stabilise a coefficient of friction on the required value 0.6 and reduce wear. Furthermore, the wear can be limited due to titanium phase application, which reveals high mechanical properties. Moreover, fabrication of thin titanium layer on the carbon skeleton leads to reduce contact between aluminium alloy and carbon and thus aluminium carbide phase creation. However, the main modification involves the manufacturing of reinforcement in the form of 3D, skeleton foam. This kind on reinforcement reveals a few important advantages compared to classical form of reinforcement-particles: possibility to control homogeneity of reinforcement phase in composite material; low-advanced technique of composite manufacturing- infiltration; possibility to application the reinforcement only in required places of material; strict control of phase composition; High quality of bonding between components of material. This research is founded by NCN in the UMO-2016/23/N/ST8/00994.
Chemical Functionalization of Graphene Oxide for Improving Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyurethane Composites
Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically functionalized to prepare polyurethane (PU) composites with improved mechanical and thermal properties. In order to achieve a well exfoliated and stable GO suspension in an organic solvent (dimethylformamide, DMF), 4, 4′- methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) and polycaprolactone diol, which were the two monomers for synthesizing PU, were selectively used to functionalize GO. The obtained functionalized GO (FGO) could form homogeneous dispersions in DMF solvent and the PU matrix, as well as provide a good compatibility with the PU matrix. The most efficient improvement of mechanical properties was achieved when 0.4 wt% FGO was added into the PU matrix, showing increases in the tensile stress, elongation at break and toughness by 34.2%, 27.6% and 64.5%, respectively, compared with those of PU. Regarding the thermal stability, PU filled with 1 wt% FGO showed the largest extent of improvement with T2% and T50% (the temperatures at which 2% and 50% weight-loss happened) 16 °C and 21 °C higher than those of PU, respectively. The significant improvement in both mechanical properties and thermal stability of FGO/PU composites should be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion of FGO in the PU matrix and strong interfacial interaction between them.
A First Order Shear Deformation Theory Approach for the Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams
Due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, carbon nanotube (CNTs) reinforced polymer composites are being considered as one of the most promising nanocomposites which can improve the performance when used in structural applications. The buckling behavior is one of the most important parameter needs to be considered in the design of structural members like beams and plates. In the present paper, the elastic constants of CNT reinforced polymer composites are evaluated by using Mori-Tanaka micromechanics approach. Knowing the elastic constants, an analytical study is being conducted to investigate the buckling behavior of nanocomposites for different CNT volume fractions at different boundary conditions using first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The effect of stacking sequence and CNT radius on the buckling of beam has also been presented. This study is being conducted primarily with an intension to find the stiffening effect of CNTs when used in polymer composites as reinforcement.
Development of PPy-M Composites Materials for Sensor Application
The rapid growth of science and technology in energy and environmental fields has enlightened the substantial importance of the conducting polymer and metal composite materials engineered at nano-scale. In this study, polypyrrole-cobalt composites (PPy-Co Cs) and polypyrrole-nickel oxide composites (PPy-NiO Cs) were prepared by a simple and facile chemical polymerization method with an aqueous solution of pyrrole monomer in the presence of metal salt. These composites then fabricated into non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose sensor. The morphology and composition of the composites are characterized by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum and X-ray Powder Diffraction. The obtained results were compared with the pure PPy and metal oxide particles. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized composites are different from those of pure PPy and metal oxide particles, which were attributed to the strong interaction between the PPy and the metal particles. Besides, a favorable micro-environment for the electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 and glucose was achieved on the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with PPy-Co Cs and PPy-NiO Cs respectively, resulting in an enhanced amperometric response. Both PPy-Co/GCE and PPy-NiO/GCE give high response towards target analyte at optimum condition of 500 μl pyrrole monomer content. Furthermore, the presence of pyrrole monomer greatly increases the sensitivity of the respective modified electrode. The PPy-Co/GCE could detect H2O2 in a linear range of 20 μM to 80 mM with two linear segments (low and high concentration of H2O2) and the detection limit for both ranges is 2.05 μM and 19.64 μM, respectively. Besides, PPy-NiO/GCE exhibited good electrocatalytic behavior towards glucose oxidation in alkaline medium and could detect glucose in linear ranges of 0.01 mM to 0.50 mM and 1 mM to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.33 and 5.77 μM, respectively. The ease of modifying and the long-term stability of this sensor have made it superior to enzymatic sensors, which must kept in a critical environment.
Novel Ti/Al-Cr-Fe Metal Matrix Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering with Excellent Wear Properties
In this study, microstructure and sintering mechanism as well as wear resistance properties of Ti/Al-Cr-Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) with Ti as matrix and Al-Cr-Fe as reinforcement were investigated. Phases and microstructure of the sintered samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wear resistance properties were tested by ball-on-disk method. An Al3Ti ring forms around each Al-Cr-Fe particle as the bonding layer between Ti and Al-Cr-Fe particles. The Al content in Al-Cr-Fe particles experiences a decrease from 70 at.% to 60 at.% in the sintering process. And these particles consist of quasicrystalline icosahedral AlCrFe and quasicrystal approximants γ-brass Al8(Cr,Fe)5 and Al9(Cr,Fe)4 in the sintered compact. The addition of Al-Cr-Fe particles into the Ti matrix can improve the microhardness by about 40% and the wear resistance is improved by more than 50% due to the increase in the microhardness and the change of wear mechanism.
Effect of Nano/Micro Alumina Matrix on Alumina-Cubic Boron Nitride Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Alumina (Al2O3) - cubic boron nitride (cBN) ceramic composites were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using α-Al2O3 particle sizes; 150 µm, 150 nm and cBN particle size of 42 µm. Alumina-cBN composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% cBN with and without Ni coated were sintering at an elevated temperature of 1400°C at a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. The effect of matrix particle size, cBN and Ni content on mechanical properties and thermal properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, diffusivity, expansion, densification, phase transformation, microstructure, hardness and toughness of the Al2O3-cBN/(Ni) composites under specific sintering conditions were investigated. The highest relative densification of 150 nm-Al2O3 containing 30wt% cBN (Ni coated) composite was 99% at TSPS = 1400°C. In case of 150 µm- Al2O3 compositions, the phase transformation of cBN to hBN were observed, and the relative densification decreased. Thermal conductivity depicts maximum value in case of 150 nm- Al2O3-30wt% cBN-Ni composition. The Vickers hardness of this composition at TSPS = 1400°C also showed the highest value of 29 GPa.
Influence of Fiber Loading and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
In the current scenario, development of new biodegradable composites with the reinforcement of some plant derived natural fibers are in major research concern. Abundant quantity of these natural plant derived fibers including sisal, ramp, jute, wheat straw, pine, pineapple, bagasse, etc. can be used exclusively or in combination with other natural or synthetic fibers to augment their specific properties like chemical, mechanical or thermal properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes. Not much work has been carried out in this area. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of variation in fiber loading up to 20% in epoxy composites has been studied for mechanical properties like tensile strength and flexural strength. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. SEM micrographs have also been studied for fracture surface.
Prediction of Mechanical Strength of Multiscale Hybrid Reinforced Cementitious Composite
Novel multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites based on carbon nanotubes (MHRCC-CNT), and carbon nanofibers (MHRCC-CNF) are new types of cement-based material fabricated with micro steel fibers and nanofilaments, featuring superior strain hardening, ductility, and energy absorption. This study focused on established models to predict the compressive strength, and direct and splitting tensile strengths of the produced cementitious composites. The analysis was carried out based on the experimental data presented by the previous author’s study, regression analysis, and the established models that available in the literature. The obtained models showed small differences in the predictions and target values with experimental verification indicated that the estimation of the mechanical properties could be achieved with good accuracy.
Preparation and Characterization of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Oligo(D-Lactic Acid) Grafted Cellulose Composites
With the growth of environmental awareness, enormous researches are running to develop the next generation materials based on sustainability, eco-competence, and green chemistry to preserve and protect the environment. Due to biodegradability and biocompatibility, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has a great interest in ecological and medical applications. Also, cellulose is one of the most abundant biodegradable, renewable polymers found in nature. It has several advantages such as low cost, high mechanical strength, biodegradability and so on. Recently, an immense deal of attention has been paid for the scientific and technological development of α-cellulose based composite material. PLLA could be used for grafting of cellulose to improve the compatibility prior to the composite preparation. Here it is quite difficult to form a bond between lower hydrophilic molecules like PLLA and α-cellulose. Dimmers and oligomers can easily be grafted onto the surface of the cellulose by ring opening or polycondensation method due to their low molecular weight. In this research, α-cellulose extracted from jute fiber is grafted with oligo(D-lactic acid) (ODLA) via graft polycondensation reaction in presence of para-toluene sulphonic acid and potassium persulphate in toluene at 130°C for 9 hours under 380 mmHg. Here ODLA is synthesized by ring opening polymerization of D-lactides in the presence of stannous octoate (0.03 wt% of lactide) and D-lactic acids at 140°C for 10 hours. Composites of PLLA with ODLA grafted α-cellulose are prepared by solution mixing and film casting method. Confirmation of grafting was carried out through FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. A strongest carbonyl peak of FTIR spectroscopy at 1728 cm⁻¹ of ODLA grafted α-cellulose confirms the grafting of ODLA onto α-cellulose which is absent in α-cellulose. It is also observed from SEM photographs that there are some white areas (spot) on ODLA grafted α-cellulose as compared to α-cellulose may indicate the grafting of ODLA and consistent with FTIR results. Analysis of the composites is carried out by FTIR, SEM, WAXD and thermal gravimetric analyzer. Most of the FTIR characteristic absorption peak of the composites shifted to higher wave number with increasing peak area may provide a confirmation that PLLA and grafted cellulose have better compatibility in composites via intermolecular hydrogen bonding and this supports previously published results. Grafted α-cellulose distributions in composites are uniform which is observed by SEM analysis. WAXD studied show that only homo-crystalline structures of PLLA present in the composites. Thermal stability of the composites is enhanced with increasing the percentages of ODLA grafted α-cellulose in composites. As a consequence, the resultant composites have a resistance toward the thermal degradation. The effects of length of the grafted chain and biodegradability of the composites will be studied in further research.
Preparation and Characterization of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Oligo(D-Lactic Acid) Grafted Cellulose Composites
With the growth of environmental awareness, enormous researches are running to develop the next generation materials based on sustainability, eco-competence, and green chemistry to preserve and protect the environment. Due to biodegradability and biocompatibility, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) has a great interest in ecological and medical applications. Also, cellulose is one of the most abundant biodegradable, renewable polymers found in nature. It has several advantages such as low cost, high mechanical strength, biodegradability and so on. Recently, an immense deal of attention has been paid for the scientific and technological development of α-cellulose based composite material. PLLA could be used for grafting of cellulose to improve the compatibility prior to the composite preparation. Here it is quite difficult to form a bond between lower hydrophilic molecules like PLLA and α-cellulose. Dimmers and oligomers can easily be grafted onto the surface of the cellulose by ring opening or polycondensation method due to their low molecular weight. In this research, α-cellulose extracted from jute fiber is grafted with oligo(D-lactic acid) (ODLA) via graft polycondensation reaction in presence of para-toluene sulphonic acid and potassium persulphate in toluene at 130°C for 9 hours under 380 mmHg. Here ODLA is synthesized by ring opening polymerization of D-lactides in the presence of stannous octoate (0.03 wt% of lactide) and D-lactic acids at 140°C for 10 hours. Composites of PLLA with ODLA grafted α-cellulose are prepared by solution mixing and film casting method. Confirmation of grafting was carried out through FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. A strongest carbonyl peak of FTIR spectroscopy at 1728 cm⁻¹ of ODLA grafted α-cellulose confirms the grafting of ODLA onto α-cellulose which is absent in α-cellulose. It is also observed from SEM photographs that there are some white areas (spot) on ODLA grafted α-cellulose as compared to α-cellulose may indicate the grafting of ODLA and consistent with FTIR results. Analysis of the composites is carried out by FTIR, SEM, WAXD and thermal gravimetric analyzer. Most of the FTIR characteristic absorption peak of the composites shifted to higher wave number with increasing peak area may provide a confirmation that PLLA and grafted cellulose have better compatibility in composites via intermolecular hydrogen bonding and this supports previously published results. Grafted α-cellulose distributions in composites are uniform which is observed by SEM analysis. WAXD studied show that only homo-crystalline structures of PLLA present in the composites. Thermal stability of the composites is enhanced with increasing the percentages of ODLA grafted α-cellulose in composites. As a consequence, the resultant composites have a resistance toward the thermal degradation. The effects of length of the grafted chain and biodegradability of the composites will be studied in further research.
Ceramic Composites and Its Applications for Pb Adsorption
Surface functionalization of ceramic composites with a special focus on tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) is discoursed. Mesoporous ceramic HAp-TEOS composites were prepared by the incorporation of hydroxyapatite into tetraethyl orthosilicate by sol-gel method. The resulting samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The removal of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions was evaluated using Atomic Absorbtion Spectroscopy (AAS). Removal experiments of Pb2+ ions were carried out in aqueous solutions with controlled Pb2+ at pH ~ 3 and pH ~ 5. After removal experiment of Pb2+ at pH 3 and pH 5, porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is transformed into PbHAp_3 and PbHAp_5 via the adsorption of Pb2+ ions followed by the cation exchange reaction. The diffraction patterns show that THAp nanoparticles were successfully coated with teos without any structural changes. On the other, the AAS analysis showed that THAp can be useful in the removal Pb2+ from water contaminated.
Study on Parallel Shear Stress of Cement-Wood Composites Using Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. in natura and Treated with CCA
Improper disposal of treated wood waste is a problem of the timber sector, since this residue is toxic, due to the harmful characteristics of the preservative substances. An environmentally friendly alternative is the use of this waste for the production of cement-wood composites. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using wood treated with CCA (Chromated Cooper Arsenate) in cement-wood. Specimens of Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. were produced with wood raw in natura and treated with CCA. A test was performed to determine the parallel shear stress of samples after 14 days of drying, according to the Brazilian Standard NBR-7215/97. Based on the analyzed results it is concluded that the use of wood treated with CCA is not feasible in cement-wood production, because the composite samples of treated wood showed lower mechanical strength in shear stress than those with wood in natura.
Nanoindentation Studies of Metallic Cu-CuZr Composites Synthesized by Accumulative Roll Bonding
Materials with microstructural heterogeneity have recently attracted dramatic attention in the materials science community. Although most of the metals are identified as crystalline, the new class of amorphous alloys, sometimes are known as metallic glasses (MGs), exhibited remarkable properties, particularly high mechanical strength and elastic limit. The unique properties of MGs led to the wide range of studies in developing and characterizing of new alloys or composites which met the commercial desires. In spite of applicable properties of MGs, commercializing of metallic glasses was limited due to a major drawback, the lack of ductility and sudden brittle failure mode. Hence, crystalline-amorphous (C-A) composites were introduced almost in 2000s as a toughening strategy to improve the ductility of MGs. Despite the considerable progress reported in previous studies, there are still challenges in both synthesis and characterization of metallic C-A composites. In this study, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used to synthesize bulk crystalline-amorphous composites starting from crystalline Cu-Zr multilayers. Due to the severe plastic deformation state, new CuZr phases were formed during the rolling process which was reflected in SEM-EDS analysis. EDS elemental analysis showed the variation in the composition of CuZr phases such as 38-62, 50-50 to 68-32 at Cu-Zr % respectively. Moreover, TEM with electron diffraction analysis indicated the presence of both crystalline and amorphous structures for the new formed CuZr phases. In addition to the microstructural analysis, the mechanical properties of the synthesized composites were studied using the nanoindentation technique. Hysitron Nanoindentation instrument was used to conduct nanoindentation tests with cube corner tip. The maximum load of 5000 µN was applied in load control mode to measure the elastic modulus and hardness of different phases. The trend of results indicated three distinct regimes of hardness and elastic modulus including pure Cu, pure Zr, and new formed CuZr phases. More specifically, pure Cu regions showed the lowest values for both nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus while the CuZr phases take the highest values. Consequently, pure Zr was placed in the intermediate range which is harder than pure Cu but softer than CuZr phases. In overall, it was found that CuZr phases with higher hardness were nucleated during ARB process as a result of mechanical alloying phenomenon.
Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber
The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.
Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite
Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.
Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes
Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.
Tricalcium Phosphate-Chitosan Composites for Tissue Engineering Applications
In the field of tissue engineering, the compositional and microstructural features of the employed materials play an important role, with implications on the mechanical and biological behaviour of the medical devices. In this context, the development of calcium phosphate-natural biopolymer composites represents a choice of many scientific groups. Thus, tricalcium phosphate powders were synthesized by a wet method, namely co-precipitation, starting from high purity reagents. Moreover, the substitution of calcium with magnesium have been approached, in the 5-10 wt.% range. Afterwards, the phosphate powders were integrated into two types of composites with chitosan, different from morphological point of view. First, 3D porous scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying procedure. Second, uniform compact films were achieved by film casting. The influence of chitosan molecular weight (low, medium and high), as well as phosphate powder to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the morphological properties, were analysed in detail. In conclusion, the reported biocomposites, prepared by a straightforward route are suitable for bone substitution or repairing applications.
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Surface Roughness of Nanofilled and Microhybrid Composites
Introduction: Nowadays cosmetic dentistry has gained greater attention because of the changing demands of dentistry patients. Composite resin restorations play an important role in the field of esthetic restorations. Due to the variation between the resin composites, it is important to be aware of their mechanical properties and surface roughness. So, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties (surface hardness, compressive strength, diametral tensile strength) and surface roughness of four kinds of resin composites after thermal aging process. Materials and Method: 10 samples of each composite resins (Gradia-direct (GC), Filtek Z250 (3M), G-ænial (GC), Filtek Z350 (3M- filtek supreme) prepared for evaluation of each properties (totally 120 samples). Thermocycling (with temperature 5 and 55 degree of centigrade and 10000 cycles) were applied. Then, the samples were tested about their compressive strength and diametral tensile strength using UTM. And surface hardness was evaluated with Microhardness testing machine. Either surface roughness was evaluated with Scanning electron microscope after surface polishing. Result: About compressive strength (CS), Filtek Z250 showed the highest value. But there were not any significant differences between 4 groups about CS. Either Filtek Z250 detected as a composite with highest value of diametral tensile strength (DTS) and after that highest to lowest DTS was related to: Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct. And about DTS all of the groups showed significant differences (P< 0.05). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of Filtek Z250 was the greatest. After that Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct followed it. The surface roughness of nano-filled composites was less than Microhybrid composites. Either the surface roughness of GC Ganial was a little greater than Filtek Z250. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is not any evident significant difference between the groups amoung their mechanical properties. But it seems that Filtek Z250 showed slightly better mechanical properties. About surface roughness, nanofilled composites were better that Microhybrid.
Effect of Graphene on the Structural and Optical Properties of Ceria:Graphene Nanocomposites
Bandgap engineering of CeO₂ nanocrystals is of high interest for many research groups to meet the requirement of desired applications. The band gap of CeO₂ nanostructures can be modified by varying the particle size, morphology and dopants. Anchoring the metal oxide nanostructures on graphene sheets will result in composites with improved properties than the parent materials. The presence of graphene sheets will acts a support for the growth, influences the morphology and provides external paths for electronic transitions. Thus, the controllable synthesis of ceria:graphene composites with various morphologies and the understanding of the optical properties is highly important for the usage of these materials in various applications. The development of ceria and ceria:graphene composites with low cost, rapid synthesis with tunable optical properties is still desirable. By this work, we discuss the synthesis of pure ceria (nanospheres) and ceria:graphene composites (nano-rice like morphology) by using commercial microwave oven as a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach. The influence of the graphene on the crystallinity, morphology, band gap and luminescence of the synthesized samples were analyzed. The average crystallite size obtained by using Scherrer formula of the CeO₂ nanostructures showed a decreasing trend with increasing the graphene loading. The higher graphene loaded ceria composite clearly depicted morphology of nano-rice like in shape with the diameter below 10 nm and the length over 50 nm. The presence of graphene and ceria related vibrational modes (100-4000 cm⁻¹) confirmed the successful formation of composites. We observed an increase in band gap (blue shift) with increasing loading amount of graphene. Further, the luminescence related to various F-centers was quenched in the composites. The authors gratefully acknowledge the FONDECYT Project No.: 3160142 and BECA Conicyt National Doctorado2017 No. 21170851 Government of Chile, Santiago, for the financial assistance.
Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods
Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.
Experimentation and Analysis of Reinforced Basalt and Carbon Fibres Composite Laminate Mechanical Properties
The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with matrix epoxy. At present, there is demand for nature friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently, and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibres for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibres (uni-directional) which are used as reinforcement materials for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY 556-HY 951) is taken into account to assess its influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorption are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results.
A Multi-Scale Approach for the Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Fiber reinforced polymer resin composite materials are finding wide variety of applications in automotive and aerospace industry because of their high specific stiffness and specific strengths when compared to metals. New class of 2D and 3D textile and woven fabric composites offer excellent fracture toughens as they bridge the cracks formed during fracture. Due to complexity of their fiber architectures and its resulting composite microstructures, optimized design and analysis of these structures is very complicated. A traditional homogenization approach is typically used to analyze structures made up of these materials. This approach usually fails to predict damage initiation as well as damage propagation and ultimate failure of structure made up of woven and textile composites. This study demonstrates a methodology to analyze woven and textile composites by using the multi-level multi-scale modelling approach. In this approach, a geometric repetitive unit cell (RUC) is developed with all its constituents to develop a representative volume element (RVE) with all its constituents and their interaction modeled correctly. The structure is modeled based on the RUC/RVE and analyzed at different length scales with desired levels of fidelity incorporating the damage and failure. The results are passed across (up and down) the scales qualitatively as well as quantitatively from the perspective of material, configuration and architecture.
Ultrasonic Studies of Polyurea Elastomer Composites with Inorganic Nanoparticles
Inorganic nanoparticles are used for fabrication of various composites based on polymer materials because they exhibit a good homogeneity and solubility of the composite material. Multifunctional materials based on composites of a polymer containing inorganic nanotubes are expected to have a great impact on industrial applications in the future. An emerging family of such composites are polyurea elastomers with inorganic MoS2 nanotubes or MoSI nanowires. Polyurea elastomers are a new kind of materials with higher performance than polyurethanes. The improvement of mechanical, chemical and thermal properties is due to the presence of hydrogen bonds between the urea motives which can be erased at high temperature softening the elastomeric network. Such materials are the combination of amorphous polymers above glass transition and crosslinkers which keep the chains into a single macromolecule. Polyurea exhibits a phase separated structure with rigid urea domains (hard domains) embedded in a matrix of flexible polymer chains (soft domains). The elastic properties of polyurea can be tuned over a broad range by varying the molecular weight of the components, the relative amount of hard and soft domains, and concentration of nanoparticles. Ultrasonic methods as non-destructive techniques can be used for elastomer composites characterization. In this manner, we have studied the temperature dependencies of the longitudinal ultrasonic velocity and ultrasonic attenuation of these new polyurea elastomers and composites with inorganic nanoparticles. It was shown that in these polyurea elastomers large ultrasonic attenuation peak and corresponding velocity dispersion exists at 10 MHz frequency below room temperature and this behaviour is related to glass transition Tg of the soft segments in the polymer matrix. The relaxation parameters and Tg depend on the segmental molecular weight of the polymer chains between crosslinking points, the nature of the crosslinkers in the network and content of MoS2 nanotubes or MoSI nanowires. The increase of ultrasonic velocity in composites modified by nanoparticles has been observed, showing the reinforcement of the elastomer. In semicrystalline polyurea elastomer matrices, above glass transition, the first order phase transition from quasi-crystalline to the amorphous state has been observed. In this case, the sharp ultrasonic velocity and attenuation anomalies were observed near the transition temperature TC. Ultrasonic attenuation maximum related to glass transition was reduced in quasicrystalline polyureas indicating less influence of soft domains below TC. The first order phase transition in semicrystalline polyurea elastomer samples has large temperature hysteresis (> 10 K). The impact of inorganic MoS2 nanotubes resulted in the decrease of the first order phase transition temperature in semicrystalline composites.
[Keynote Talk]: Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Radiation Shielding Nanoengineered Sandwich Composites
In recent years, nanotechnology has played an important role in the design of an efficient radiation shielding polymeric composites. It is well known that, high loading of nanomaterials with radiation absorption properties can enhance the radiation attenuation efficiency of shielding structures. However, due to difficulties in dispersion of nanomaterials into polymer matrices, there has been a limitation in higher loading percentages of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to provide a methodology to fabricate and then to characterize the functionally graded radiation shielding structures, which can provide an efficient radiation absorption property along with good structural integrity. Sandwich structures composed of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric as face sheets and functionally graded epoxy nanocomposite as core material were fabricated. A method to fabricate a functionally graded core panel with controllable gradient dispersion of nanoparticles is discussed. In order to optimize the design of functionally graded sandwich composites and to analyze the stress distribution throughout the sandwich composite thickness, a finite element method was used. The sandwich panels were discretized using 3-Dimensional 8 nodded brick elements. Classical laminate analysis in conjunction with simplified micromechanics equations were used to obtain the properties of the face sheets. The presented finite element model would provide insight into deformation and damage mechanics of the functionally graded sandwich composites from the structural point of view.
Microfluidization for Processing of Carbonized Chicken Feather Fiber (CCFF) Modified Epoxy Suspensions and the Thermal Properties of the Resulting Composites
In this study, microfluidization was considered a promising approach to breaking up of carbonized chicken feather fibers (CCFFs) flocs to synthesizing epoxy suspensions containing (1 wt. %) CCFFs. For comparison, CCFF was also treated using sonication. The energy consumed to break up CCFFs in the ethanol was the same for both processes. CCFFs were found to be dispersed in ethanol in a significantly shorter time with the high shear processor. The CCFFs treated by both sonication and microfluidization were dispersed in epoxy by sonication. SEM examination revealed that CCFFs were broken up into smaller pieces using the high shear processor while being not agglomerated. Further, DSC, TMA, and DMA were systematically used to measure thermal properties of the resulting composites. A significant improvement was observed in the composites including CCFFs treated with microfluidization.
Effects of Stiffness on Endothelial Cells Behavior
Endothelium proliferation is an important process in cardiovascular homeostasis and can be regulated by extracellular environment, as cells can actively sense mechanical environment. In this study, we evaluated endothelial cell proliferation on PDMS/alumina (Al2O3) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 5% and 10% Al2O3 at curing temperature 50˚C for 4 h and then characterized by mechanical, structural and morphological analyses. Higher stiffness was found in the composites compared to the pure PDMS substrate. Cell proliferation of the cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells on substrate materials were evaluated via Resazurin assay and 1, 1’-Dioctadecyl-1, 3, 3, 3’, 3’-Tetramethylindocarbocyanine Perchlorate-Acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The results revealed that stiffer substrates promote more endothelial cells proliferation to the less stiff substrates. Therefore, this study firmly hypothesizes that the stiffness elevates endothelial cells proliferation.
Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Crushed and Uncrushed Luffa cylindrica Fibre Reinforced rLDPE Composites
The use of suitable engineering materials which poses less harm to ,an and the environment is sort for in recent times, thus giving rise to polymer composites filled with natural organic reinforcement which are biodegradable. Treatment of natural fibres is essential in improving matrix to filler adhesion, hence improving its mechanical properties. In this study, investigations were carried out to determine the effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on the tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of crushed and uncrushed luffa cylindrica fibre reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites. The LC (Luffa Cylindrica) fibres were treated with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% wt. NaOH concentrations for a period of 24 hours under room temperature conditions. The compounding of the waste LDPE was done using a two roll mill at a temperature of 150 oC and cured in a hydraulic press at a temperature of 150oC for 3 minutes at 3 metric tonnes. A formulation of 20/80g (reinforcement to matrix ratio in grams) was maintained for all fabricated samples. Analysis of the results showed that the uncrushed luffa fibre samples gave better mechanical properties compared with the crushed luffa fibre samples. The uncrushed luffa fibre composites had optimum tensile and flexural strengths of 7.65MPa and 17.08Mpa respectively corresponding to a young modulus and flexural modulus of 21.08MPa and 232.22MPa for the 8% and 4%wt. NaOH concentration respectively. Results obtained in the research showed that NaOH treatment with the 8% NaOH concentration improves the mechanical properties of the LC fibre reinforced composites when compared with other NaOH treatment concentration values.
Experimental Assessment of Micromechanical Models for Mechanical Properties of Recycled Short Fiber Composites
Processing of polymer fiber composites has a remarkable influence on their mechanical performance. These mechanical properties are even more influenced when using recycled reinforcement. Therefore, we place particular attention on the evaluation of micromechanical models to estimate the mechanical properties and compare them against the experimental results of the manufactured composites. For the manufacturing process, an epoxy matrix and carbon fiber production cut-offs as reinforcing material are incorporated using a vacuum infusion process. In addition, continuous textile reinforcement in combination with the epoxy matrix is used as reference material to evaluate the kick-down in mechanical performance of the recycled composite. The experimental results show less degradation of the composite stiffness compared to the strength properties. Observations from the modeling also show the same trend as the error between the theoretical and experimental results is lower for stiffness comparisons than the strength calculations. Yet still, good mechanical performance for specific applications can be expected from these materials.