Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62282

Electronic Mentoring: How Can It Be Used with Teachers?
Electronic mentoring is defined as a relationship between a mentor and a mentee using computer mediated communication (CMC) that is intended to develop and improve mentee’s skills, confidence, and cultural understanding. This session will increase knowledge about electronic mentoring, its uses, and outcomes. The research behind electronic mentoring and descriptions of existing programs will also be shared.
Polymer in Electronic Waste: An Analysis
Electronic waste is inundating the traditional solid-waste-disposal facilities, which are inadequately designed to handle and manage such type of new wastes. Since electronic waste contains mostly hazardous and even toxic materials, the seriousness of its effects on human health and the environment cannot be ignored in present scenario. Waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. From the last 20 years, we are continuously generating huge quantities of e-waste such as obsolete computers and other discarded electronic components, mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this sector. Polymers, one of the major constituents in almost every electronic waste, such as computers, printers, electronic equipment, entertainment devices, mobile phones, television sets etc., are if properly recycled can create a new business opportunity. This would not only create potential market for polymers to improve economy but also the priceless land used as dumping sites of electronic waste, can be utilized for other productive purposes.
Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century
This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.
Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis
From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.
A Framework for Organizational Architecture of Electronic City and Electronic Municipality
This study provides a framework for enterprise architecture in electronic city is electronic municipality. Nowadays, information technology as an emerging phenomenon has a special place in the world. Development of information and communication technology causes many changes in various fields, including emerging e-cities, municipalities and citizens. However, e-city and e-municipality need essential enterprise architecture. In order to develop enterprise architecture of e-city and e-municipality, enterprise architecture maturity method should be applied. Therefore, one of the most important needs of organizations is to choose important activities according to limitations. The studies show that there is a close relationship between IT, enterprise architecture, e-city and e-municipality. This study aimed to clarify the concept of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic city and e-municipality and how they are related to each other. Is the existence of each of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic and electronic municipal requires each other?
Electronic Transparency in Georgia as a Basis for Development of Electronic Governance
Technological changes have an impact not only on economic but also on social elements of society which in turn has created new challenges for states’ political systems and their regimes. As a result of unprecedented growth of information technologies and communications digital democracy and electronic governance have emerged. Nowadays effective state functioning cannot be imagined without electronic governance. In Georgia, special attention is paid to the development of such new systems and establishment of electronic governance. Therefore, in parallel to intensive development of information technologies an important priority for public sector in Georgia is the development of electronic governance. In spite of the fact that today Georgia with its economic indicators satisfies the standards of western informational society, and major part of its gross domestic product comes from the service sector (59.6%), it still remains a backward country on the world map in terms of information technologies and electronic governance. E-transparency in Georgia should be based on such parameters as government accountability when the government provides citizens information about their activities; e-participation which involves government’s consideration of external expert assessments; cooperation between officials and citizens in order to solve national problems. In order to improve electronic systems the government should actively do the following: Fully develop electronic programs concerning HR and exchange of data between public organizations; develop all possible electronic services; improve existing electronic programs; make electronic services available on different mobile platforms (iPhone, Android, etc.).
Provision Electronic Management Requirements in Libyan Oil Companies
This study will focus primarily on assessing the availability requirements of the electronic management of oil companies in Libya, and the mean objectives of the research applying electronic management and make recommendations and steps to approach electronic management. There are limited research and statistical analysis to support electronic management in Libyan companies. The groundwork for the proposed approach is to develop independent variables and the dependent variables to be restructured after it Alntra side of the field and the side to get the data to achieve the desired results and solving the problem faced by the Libyan Oil Corporation. All these strategies are proposed to achieve the goal, and solving Libyan oil installations.
Effect of Baffles on the Cooling of Electronic Components
In this work, we made a numerical study of the thermal and dynamic behaviour of air in a horizontal channel with electronic components. The influence to use baffles on the profiles of velocity and temperature is discussed. The finite volume method and the algorithm Simple are used for solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The results found show that baffles improve heat transfer between the cooling air and electronic components. The velocity will increase from 3 times per rapport of the initial velocity.
Examining Effects of Electronic Market Functions on Decrease in Product Unit Cost and Response Time to Customer
Electronic markets in recent decades contribute remarkably in business transactions. Many organizations consider traditional ways of trade non-economical and therefore they do trade only through electronic markets. There are different categorizations of electronic markets functions. In one classification, functions of electronic markets are categorized into classes as information, transactions, and value added. In the present paper, effects of the three classes on the two major elements of the supply chain management are measured. The two elements are decrease in the product unit cost and reduction in response time to the customer. The results of the current research show that among nine minor elements related to the three classes of electronic markets functions, six factors and three factors influence on reduction of the product unit cost and reduction of response time to the customer, respectively.
Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose
The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a Diagnose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.
Feasibility Study of Implementing Electronic Commerce in Food Industries with a Case Study
Fast and increasing growth of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in developed countries and its resulting competitive advantages mean that those countries should revise dramatically their trade and commercial strategies and policies. Regarding the importance of food industry in Iran, the current paper studies the feasibility of implementing the e-commerce system in Shiraz’s petrochemical unit. The statistical population of the study includes 29 senior managers and experts of the food industries. In the present Feasibility study of implementing electronic commerce 249 research, senior managers and experts’ opinions on feasibility have been examined and some feedbacks have resulted in from the opinions. The current research concludes that the organization under study does not have favorable state either in software or in hardware. Implementation of the e-commerce system in food industries would reduce the average value of the transaction costs.
An Explorative Research on the Electric and Electronic Officers Employment: Turkish Flagged Ship's Perspective
Assistant department among the electric and electronic officers on ships, has an important place for the maintenance of electric and electronic devices. From this perspective, ships must be employed with a sufficient number of assistant department. In this study, in order to research on the Turkish-flagged ships electric and electronic officers employment; Our national manning regulation compared with international regulations. The data used in this study were collected via visiting of the ships. 3000 gross tonnage and above engaged in international voyages 181 Turkish-flagged ship’s crew lists were compared with Minimum Safety Manning Certificates. According to the findings; employment rate, %54 electric and electronic officers. According to the results of the study; Turkish-flagged ships, although it is not obliged to electric and electronic officers, were employed on ships.
A Case Study of Assessing the Impact of Electronic Payment System on the Service Delivery of Banks in Nigeria
Electronic payment system is simply a payment or monetary transaction made over the internet or a network of computers. This study was carried out in order to assess how electronic payment system has impacted on banks service delivery, to examine the efficiency of electronic payment system in Nigeria and to determine the level of customer's satisfaction as a direct result of the deployment of electronic payment systems. It is an empirical study conducted using structured questionnaire distributed to officials and customers of Access Bank plc. Chi-square(x2) was adopted for the purpose of data analysis. The result of the study showed that the development of electronic payment system offer great benefit to bank customers including improved services, reduced turn-around time, ease of banking transaction, significant cost saving etc. The study recommends that customer protection laws should be properly put in place to safeguard the interest of end users of e-payment instruments.
Juridical Protection to Consumers in Electronic Contracts: Need of a Uniform International Law
Electronic commerce facilitates increased choice and information on goods or services for consumers but at the same time it compounds the inequality of bargaining power many consumers face when contracting with sellers. Due to the ‘inequality of bargaining power’ experienced by consumers when contracting by electronic means with business sellers in different jurisdictions, it may be difficult to determine where either the consumer is domiciled or the place where the seller is situated or conducts its business. The question arises in such situation that if one party wants to sue the other, then where can one sue? Which court has jurisdiction to try international conflicts arising from electronic contracts concluded through the internet? Will the same rules applicable to conventional contracts apply? Or should other considerations be taken into account? In all these situations the degree of consumer protection in electronic contracts comes into picture. In the light of the above, the paper discusses the jurisdiction and choice of law rules applied in EU and United States. Further, the paper considers the current uncertainty plaguing questions of jurisdiction in India. Therefore, the jurisdiction and choice of law rules for electronic contracts must be applied consistently and provide an automatic, harmonised rule in favour of the consumer’s jurisdiction and law. Lastly, the paper suggests the need for a uniform law in order to achieve effective juridical protection.
Teachers' Accessibility to and Utilization of Electronic Media for Teaching Basic Science and Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara, Nigeria
Electronic media has created new options for enhancing education. It has long been providing innovative methods for arousing students’ attention in learning and improves teachers’ performance in disseminating instructional contents. However, the advancement of electronic media has increased the flexibility, availability, accessibility and improved communications among students-students, students-teacher, and teacher-students. This study investigated: (i) teachers’ accessibility to, and utilization of electronic media for teaching basic science and technology in Ilorin metropolis; (ii) the influence of school proprietorship on teachers’ access to and utilization of electronic media for teaching and; the influence of teachers’ gender on the use of electronic media. The research was a descriptive design using the survey method. The study sample was drawn for private and public secondary schools in Ilorin Metropolis. The respondents were 285 basic science and technology teachers, which comprised of 146 males and 139 females. A structured researcher designed questionnaire was used to gather data for the study. Pilot study was carried out on mini sample of 20 basic science and technology teachers in five schools which are not part of the study’s population. It was then subjected to Cronbach’s Alpha and yielded the values 0.794 for availability, 0.730 for accessibility and 0.84 for utilization of electronic media. The research questions were answered using mean and percentage while research hypotheses one and two was tested using t- test. The findings of the study showed that: (i) electronic media are available for teaching basic science and technology; (ii) teachers’ had access to electronic media for teaching; (iii) teachers’ utilized electronic media for teaching basic science and technology; (iv) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching; (v) there was no significant difference between teachers’ utilization of electronic media for teaching based on school proprietorship. The study, therefore, concluded that teachers’ had access to electronic media and utilized it for teaching purposes. Gender had no influence on teachers’ access to and utilization on electronic media for teaching and also, school proprietorship had no influence on access and utilization of electronic media for teaching. Based on findings it was recommended that electronic media should be made available and utilized in all schools across the nation to improve the learning rate of the students.
Assessing the Impact of Electronic Payment Systems on the Service Delivery of Banks: Case of Nigeria
The most recent development in the Nigerian payment system is the venture into “electronic payment system”. Electronic payment system is simply a payment or monetary transaction made over the internet or a network of computers. This study was carried out in order to assess how electronic payment system has impacted on banks service delivery, to examine the efficiency of electronic payment system in Nigeria and to determine the level of customer’s satisfaction as a direct result of the deployment of electronic payment systems. The study was conducted using structured questionnaire distributed to 50 bank officials and customers of Access Bank plc. Chi-square(x2) was adopted for the purpose of data analysis. The result of the study showed that the development of electronic payment system offer great benefit to bank customers including; improved services, reduced turn-around time, ease of banking transaction, significant cost saving etc. The study recommend that customer protection laws should be properly put in place to safeguard the interest of end users of e-payment instruments, the banking industry and government should show strong commitment and effort to educate the populace on the benefit of patronizing e-payment system to facilitate economic development.
Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia
In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.
Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing
The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.
Effect of Spatially Correlated Disorder on Electronic Transport Properties of Aperiodic Superlattices (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs)
We examine the electronic transport properties in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices. Using the transfer-matrix technique and the exact Airy function formalism, we investigate theoretically the effect of structural parameters on the electronic energy spectra of trimer thickness barrier (TTB). Our numerical calculations showed that the localization length of the states becomes more extended when the disorder is correlated (trimer case). We have also found that the resonant tunneling time (RTT) is of the order of several femtoseconds.
Theoretical Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural,electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3. It includes our calculations based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, The spin polarized electronic band structures and densities of states as well as the integer value of the magnetic moment of the unit cell (6 μB) illustrate that PrMnO3 is half-metallic ferromagnetic. The study prove that the compound is half-metallic ferromagnetic however the results obtained, make the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.
Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces
Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.
Electronic and Optical Properties of Li₂S Antifluorite Material
In this paper, we investigate with ab initio calculations some structural and optoelectronic properties of Li₂S compound. The structural and electronic properties of the Li₂S antifluorite structure have been studied by first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT), whereas the optical properties have been obtained using empirical relationships such as the modified Moss relation. Our calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The electronic band structures and density of states were obtained. The anti-fluorite Li₂S present an indirect band gap of 3.388 eV at equilibrium. The top of the valence bands reflects the p electronic character for both structures. The calculated energy gaps and optical constants are in good agreement with experimental measurements.
Problems concerning Formation of Institutional Framework for Electronic Democracy in Georgia
Open public service and accountability towards citizens is an important feature of democratic state based on rule of law. Effective use of electronic resources simplifies bureaucratic procedures, makes direct communications, helps exchange information, ensures government’s openness and in general helps develop electronic/digital democracy. Development of electronic democracy should be a strategic dimension of Georgian governance. Formation of electronic democracy, its functional improvement should become an important dimension of the state’s information policy. Electronic democracy is based on electronic governance and implies modern information and communication systems, their adaptation to universal standards. E-democracy needs involvement of governments, voters, political parties and social groups in an electronic form. In the last years the process of interaction between the citizen and the state becomes simpler. This process is achieved by the use of modern technological systems which gives to a citizen a possibility to use different public services online. For example, the website makes interaction between the citizen, business and the state more simple, comfortable and secure. A higher standard of accountability and interaction is being established. Electronic democracy brings new forms of interactions between the state and the citizen: e-engagement – participation of society in state politics via electronic systems; e-consultation – electronic interaction among public officials, citizens and interested groups; e-controllership – electronic rule and control of public expenses and service. Public transparency is one of the milestones of electronic democracy as well as representative democracy as only on mutual trust and accountability can democracy be established. In Georgia, institutional changes concerning establishment and development of electronic democracy are not enough. Effective planning and implementation of a comprehensive and multi component e-democracy program (central, regional, local levels) requires telecommunication systems, institutional (public service, competencies, logical system) and informational (relevant conditions for public involvement) support. Therefore, a systematic project of formation of electronic governance should be developed which will include central, regional, municipal levels and certain aspects of development of instrumental basis for electronic governance.
Electronic Tongue as an Innovative Non-Destructive Tool for the Quality Monitoring of Fruits
Taste is an important sensory property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. The advent of artificial sensorial systems as non-destructive tools able to mimic chemical senses such as those known as electronic tongue (ET) has open a variety of practical applications and new possibilities in many fields where the presence of taste is the phenomenon under control. In recent years, electronic tongue technology opened the possibility to exploit information on taste attributes of fruits providing real time information about quality and ripeness. Electronic tongue systems have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the last two decade because of numerous applications in diverse fields of applied sciences. This paper deals with some facets of this technology in the quality monitoring of fruits along with more recent its applications.
Nurse's Use of Power to Standardize Nursing Terminology in Electronic Health Record
Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ potential use of power levels to influence the standardization of nursing terminology (SNT) in electronic health records. Also, to examine the relationship between nurses’ use of power levels and variables such as position, communication and the potential goal of achieving SNT in electronic health records. Background: In an era of evidence-based nursing care, with an emphasis on nursing’s ability to measure the care rendered and improve outcomes of care, little is known about the nurse’s potential use of their power to SNT in electronic health records and lack of use of an SNT in electronic health records. Method: This descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional study was conducted using survey methodology to assess the nurse’s use of power to influence the SNT in electronic health records. The Theory of Group Power within Organizations (TGPO) provided the conceptual framework for this study. A total of (n=232) nurses responded to the survey, posted on three nursing organizations’ websites. Results revealed the mean Cronbach’s alpha of the subscales was .94, suggesting high internal consistency. The mean power capability score was moderately high, at 134.22 (SD = 18.49). Power Capacity was significantly correlated with Power Capability (r = .96, p < .001). Power Capacity subscales were significantly correlated with Power Capacity and Power Capability. Conclusion: The mean Cronbach’s alpha of the subscales was .94 suggestive of reliability of the instrument. Nurses could potentially use power to achieve their goals, such as the implementation of SNT in electronic health records.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Electronic Response Systems in Technology-Oriented Classes
Electronic Response Systems such as Kahoot, Poll Everywhere, and Google Classroom are gaining a lot of popularity when surveying audience in events , meetings, and classroom. The reason is mainly because of the ease of use and the convenience these tools bring since they provide mobile applications with a simple user interface. In this paper we present a case study on the effectiveness of using Electronic Response Systems on students participation and learning experience in a classroom. We use a polling application for class exercises in two different technology-oriented classes. We evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of the polling applications through statistical analysis of the students performance in these two classes and compare them to the performances of students who took the same classes without using the polling application for class participation. Our results show an increase in the performances of the students who used the Electronic Response System when compared to those who did not by an average of 11%.
Using Electronic Books to Enhance the Museum Visitors' Experience
Museums are important sites of informal, often semi-structured and self-paced learning. Challenged by digital alternatives and increased expectations from their visitors, museums have to adapt to the digital age by enriching their collection and educational content with additional options for interactivity. One such option lies in the concept of the electronic book, which can be used either on dedicated devices or downloaded by visitors before entering the exhibition area. These electronic books serve as an alternative or supplement to the classic audio guide and provide visitors with information about artifacts as well as background stories and factoids about the subjects of the exhibition. Bringing such interactive elements into the museum experience has been shown to increase information retention and enjoyment among young aged visitors and adults. This article aims to bring together both theoretical frameworks and practical examples of how interactive media in the form of electronic books can be used to enhance the experience of the museum visitor.
Two Layer Photo-Thermal Deflection Model to Investigate the Electronic Properties in BGaAs/GaAs Alloys
Photo-thermal deflection technique (PTD) is used to study the nonradiative recombination process in BGaAs/GaAs alloy with boron composition of 3% and 8% grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A two layer theoretical model has been developed taking into account both thermal and electronic contribution in the photothermal signal allowing to extract the electronic parameters namely electronic diffusivity, surface and interface recombination. It is found that the increase of boron composition alters the BGaAs epilayers transport properties.
Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions
Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.
Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions
Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.
Electronic Commerce in Georgia: Problems and Development Perspectives
In parallel to the development of the digital economy in the world, electronic commerce is also widely developing. Internet and ICT (information and communication technology) have created new business models as well as promoted to market consolidation, sustainability of the business environment, creation of digital economy, facilitation of business and trade, business dynamism, higher competitiveness, etc. Electronic commerce involves internet technology which is sold via the internet. Nowadays electronic commerce is a field of business which is used by leading world brands very effectively. After the research of internet market in Georgia, it was found out that quality of internet is high in Tbilisi and is low in the regions. The internet market of Tbilisi can be evaluated as high-speed internet service, competitive and cost effective internet market. Development of electronic commerce in Georgia is connected with organizational and methodological as well as legal problems. First of all, a legal framework should be developed which will regulate responsibilities of organizations. The Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development will play a crucial role in creating legal framework. Ministry of Justice will also be involved in this process as well as agency for data exchange. Measures should be taken in order to make electronic commerce in Georgia easier. Business companies may be offered some model to get low-cost and complex service. A service centre should be created which will provide all kinds of online-shopping. This will be a rather interesting innovation which will facilitate online-shopping in Georgia. Development of electronic business in Georgia requires modernized infrastructure of telecommunications (especially in the regions) as well as solution of institutional and socio-economic problems. Issues concerning internet availability and computer skills are also important.
Utilising an Online Data Collection Platform for the Development of a Community Engagement Database: A Case Study on Building Inter-Institutional Partnerships at UWC
The community engagement unit at the University of the Western Cape was tasked with establishing a community engagement database. The database would store information of all community engagement projects related to the university. The wealth of knowledge obtained from the various disciplines would be used to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration within the university, as well as facilitating community university partnership opportunities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore electronic data collection through the development of a database. Two types of electronic data collection platforms were used, namely online questionnaire and email. The semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data related to community engagement projects from different faculties and departments at the university. There are many benefits for using an electronic data collection platform, such as reduction of costs and time, ease in reaching large numbers of potential respondents, and the possibility of providing anonymity to participants. Despite all the advantages of using the electronic platform, there were as many challenges, as depicted in our findings. The findings suggest that certain barriers existed by using an electronic platform for data collection, even though it was in an academic environment, where knowledge and resources were in abundance. One of the challenges experienced in this process was the lack of dissemination of information via email to staff within faculties. The actual online software used for the questionnaire had its own limitations, such as only being able to access the questionnaire from the same electronic device. In a few cases, academics only completed the questionnaire after a telephonic prompt or face to face meeting about "Is higher education in South Africa ready to embrace electronic platform in data collection?"
Opto-Electronic Properties of Novel Structures: Sila-Fulleranes
Density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the geometry and electronic properties H-terminated Si-fullerene (Si-fullerane). Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms sp3 hybridization nature of Si-Si bonds in Si-fulleranes. Quantum confinement effect (QCE) does not affect band gap (BG) so strongly in the size between 1 to 1.7 nm. In contrast, the geometry and symmetry of the cage have significant influence on BG. In contrast to their carbon analogues, pentagon rings increase the stability of the cages. Functionalized Si-cages are stable and can be chemically very active. The electronic properties are highly sensitive to the surface chemistry via functionalization with different chemical groups. As a result, BGs and chemical activities of these cages can be drastically tuned through the chemistry of the surface.
Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System
The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.
Electronic, Structure and Magnetic Properties of KXF3(X= Fe, Co, Mn, V) from Ab Initio Calculations
We have performed first-principle calculations of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of KFeF3, KCoF3, KMnF3, KVF3, using full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) scheme within GGA. Features such as the lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are reported. Also, we have presented our results of the band structure and the density of states. The magnetic moments of KFeF3, KCoF3, KMnF3, KVF3 compounds are in most came from the exchange-splitting of X-3d orbital.
Bridging the Digital Divide in India: Issus and Challenges
The cope the rapid change of technology and to control the ephemeral rate of information generation, librarians along with their professional colleagues need to equip themselves as per the requirement of the electronic information society. E-learning is purely based on computer and communication technologies. The terminologies like computer based learning. It is the delivery of content via all electronic media through internet, internet, Extranets television broadcast, CD-Rom documents, etc. E-learning poses lot of issues in the transformation of literature or knowledge from the conventional medium to ICT based format and web based services.
Electronic Nose for Monitoring Fungal Deterioration of Stored Rapeseed
Investigations were performed to examine the possibility of using an electronic nose to monitor the development of fungal microflora during the first eighteen days of rapeseed storage. The Cyranose 320 device with polymer-composite sensors was used. Each sample of infected material was divided into three parts, and the degree of spoilage was measured in three ways: analysis of colony forming units (CFU), determination of ergosterol content (ERG), and measurement with the eNose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the generated patterns of signals, and six groups of different spoilage levels were isolated. The electronic nose with polymer-composite sensors under laboratory conditions distinguished between species of spoiled and unspoiled seeds with 100% accuracy. Despite some minor differences in the CFU and ergosterol content, the electronic nose provided responses correctly corresponding to the level of spoilage with 85% accuracy. Therefore, the main conclusion from the study is that the electronic nose is a promising tool for quick and non-destructive detection of the level of oil seed spoilage. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Development of Electronic Services in Georgia: Analysis of Current Situation
Public online services in Georgia are concentrated on main target segments: public administration, business, population, non-governmental and other interested organizations. Therefore, the strategy of digital Georgia is focused on providing G2C, G2B/B2G, G2NGO and G2G services. In G2C framework sophisticated and high-technological online services have been developed in order to provide passports, identity cards, documentations concerning residence and civil acts (birth, marriage, divorce, child adoption, change of name and surname, death, etc) as well as other services. Websites like and have distance services like electronic application, processing and decision making. In line with international standards automatic services like electronic tenders, product catalogues, invoices and payment have been developed. This creates better investment climate for foreign companies in Georgia in the framework of G2B politics. The website creates better conditions for local business. Among electronic services is e-NRMS (electronic system for national resource management) which was introduced by the Ministry of Finance of Georgia. The system was created in order to ensure management of national resources by state and business organizations. It is integrated with bank services and provides G2C, G2B and B2G representatives with electronic services. Also a portal was created which gives electronic services concerning air, geological, environmental and pollution issues. Also should be mentioned which is an electronic hub of information management for employers and employees. The information portal of labor market will facilitate receipt of information, its analysis and delivery to interested people like employers and employees. However, nowadays it’s been two years that only employees portal is activated. Therefore, awareness about the portal, its competitiveness and success is undermined.
Surveying the Effect of Cybernetics on Knowledge Management from Users' Viewpoint Who Are Members of Electronic Discussion Groups (ALA, ALIA)
Nowadays, the aim of the organizations is to gain sustainable competitive. So, developing their intellectual capital, encouraging innovation, increasing suitable performance can be done by knowledge management. Knowledge turns into science if knowledge is used to improve decision making, decision quality and make effective decisions. The current research intends to investigate the relationship between cybernetics and knowledge management from the perspective of users who are members of electronic discussion groups (ALA, ALIA). The research methodology is survey method, and it is a type of correlation research. Cybernetics and knowledge management questionnaires used for collecting data. The questionnaire that was designed in electronic format, distributed among two electronic discussion groups during 30 days and completed by 100 members of each electronic discussion groups. The finding of this research showed that although cybernetics has an impact on knowledge management, there is no significant difference between the ALA and ALIA user's view regard to effect of cybernetics on knowledge management. The results also indicated that this conceptual model is consistent with the data collected from the sample.
Interfacing and Replication of Electronic Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK
This paper introduces interfacing and replication of electronic tools based on the MATLAB/ SIMULINK mock-up package. Mock-up components contain dc-dc converters, power issue rectifiers, motivation machines, dc gear, synchronous gear, and more entire systems. Power issue rectifier model includes solid state device models. The tools are the clear-cut structure and mock-up of complex energetic systems connecting with power electronic machines.
Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene
Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on de-wrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has a significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the de-wrinkling of graphene.
Development of Electronic Governance as an Element of Reforming State Governance According to the Adjarian Example
Establishment of electronic governance in the region is facing serious problems. Organizational, technical, social and methodological problems have been identified after the research. These problems currently create serious barriers and prevent the development of effective e-governance. Lack of human resources, difference in program targets of the centre and the region, lack of citizens’ awareness about the project of electronic governance are other issues that should be mentioned. In spite of positive changes the overall situation concerning development of modern information-communication technologies in Adjara is not satisfactory. The information systems in the region can be described as transforming in a democratic way which needs serious reforms. Current situation shows that unsystematic, uncoordinated actions were made which overall represents more chaotic rather than coordinated systematic process. Therefore, a strategic document ‘Adjarian Electronic Government’ should be created which will ensure systematic development of electronic governance in the region. The implementation of the strategy of ‘Adjarian Electronic Government’ should be based on not only conceptual and instrumental but also legal basics. A legal normative basis should be created which will include formation of electronic government’s instrumental basis as well as creation of united regional system of electronic document management. Meanwhile types of documents which would be used in inter institutional relations should be defined under a legal norm. Creation of regional united system of e-filing will regulate regional public institutions, relations between local self-government and public organizations as well as it will ensure coordinated work of all regional public institutions.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Structure and Transport of Graphyne and Graphdiyne
Graphene has attracted a tremendous interest in the field of nanoelectronics and spintronics due to its exceptional electronic properties. However, pristine graphene has no band gap, a feature needed in building some of the electronic elements. Recently, a growing attention has been given to a class of carbon allotropes of graphene with honeycomb structures, in particular to graphyne and graphdiyne. They are characterized with a single and double acetylene bonding chains respectively, connecting the nearest-neighbor hexagonal rings. With an electron density comparable to that of graphene and a prominent gap in electronic band structures they appear as promising materials for nanoelectronic components. We studied the electronic structure and transport of infinite sheets of graphyne and graphdiyne and compared them with graphene. The method based on the non-equilibrium Green functions and density functional theory has been used in order to obtain a full ab initio self-consistent description of the transport current with different electrochemical bias potentials. The current/voltage (I/V) characteristics show a semi-conducting behavior with prominent nonlinearities at higher voltages. The calculated band gaps are 0.52V and 0.59V, respectively, and the effective masses are considerably smaller compared to typical semiconductors. We analyzed the results in terms of transmission eigenchannels and showed that the difference in conductance is directly related to the difference of the internal structure of the allotropes.
Evaluating Electronic Service Quality in Banking Iran
With the rapid growth of the Internet and the globalization of the market, most enterprises are trying to attract and win customers in the highly competitive electronic market. Better e-service quality will enhance the relationship with customers and their satisfaction. So the measurement of eservice quality is very important but it is a complex process due to the complex nature of services. Literature predicts that there is a lack of universal definition of e-service quality. The e-service quality measures in banking have great importance in achieving high customer base. This paper proposes a conceptual model for measuring e-service quality in Iranian Banking Iran. Nine dimensions reliability, ease of use, personalization, security and trust, website aesthetic, responsiveness, contact and speed of delivery had been identified. The results of this paper may help to develop a proper scale to measure the e-service quality in Iranian Banking Industry, which may assist to maintain and improve the performance and effectiveness of e-service quality to retain customers.
Electronic Nose Based on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk
The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyse spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts showed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20 hours and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.
Full-Potential Investigation of the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of CdCoTe and CdMnTe Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
We investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc blende phase with 25% of Co and Mn. The calculations are performed by the recent ab initio full potential augmented plane waves (FP_L/APW) method within the spin polarized density-functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation GGA. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations and we found that these compounds are stable in the ferromagnetic phase. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and total magnetic moments. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the half-metallic of CdCoTe and CdMnTe.
The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Electoral Procedures: Comments on Electronic Voting Security
The expansion of telecommunication and progress of electronic media constitute important elements of our times. The recent worldwide convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT) and dynamic development of the mass media is leading to noticeable changes in the functioning of contemporary states and societies. Currently, modern technologies play more and more important roles and filter down to almost every field of contemporary human life. It results in the growth of online interactions that can be observed by the inconceivable increase in the number of people with home PCs and Internet access. The proof of it is undoubtedly the emergence and use of concepts such as e-society, e-banking, e-services, e-government, e-government, e-participation and e-democracy. The newly coined word e-democracy evidences that modern technologies have also been widely used in politics. Without any doubt in most countries all actors of political market (politicians, political parties, servants in political/public sector, media) use modern forms of communication with the society. Most of these modern technologies progress the processes of getting and sending information to the citizens, communication with the electorate, and also &ndash; which seems to be the biggest advantage &ndash; electoral procedures. Thanks to implementation of ICT the interaction between politicians and electorate are improved. The main goal of this text is to analyze electronic voting (e-voting) as one of the important forms of electronic democracy in terms of security aspects. The author of this paper aimed at answering the questions of security of electronic voting as an additional form of participation in elections and referenda.
Structural and Electronic Properties of Cd0.75V0.25S Alloy
The first principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in order to investigate the structural and electronic properties of Cd1-xVxS alloy at x = 0.25 in zincblende structure. For the structural properties, we have calculated the equilibrium lattice parameters, such as lattice constant, bulk modulus and first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulus. From the electronic structure, we obtain that Cd0.75V0.25S alloy is nearly half-metallic. The analysis of the density of states (DOS) curves allow to evaluate the spin-exchange splitting energies Δx(d) and Δx(pd) that are generated by V-3d states, where the effective potential for spin-down case is attractive than for spin-up case. Calculations of the exchange constants N0α (valence band) and N0β (conduction band) are served to describe the magnetic behavior of the compounds.
Efficient Management through Predicting of Use E-Management within Higher Educational Institutions
This study discusses the probability of using electronic management in higher education institutions in Libya. This could be as sampled by creating an electronic gate at the faculties of Engineering and Computing "Information Technology" at Zaytuna University or any other university in Libya. As we all know, the competitive advantage amongst universities is based on their ability to use information technology efficiently and broadly. Universities today value information technology as part of the quality control and assurance and a ranking criterion for a range of services including e-learning and e-Registration. This could be done by developing email systems, electronic or virtual libraries, electronic cards, and other services provided to all students, faculty or staff. This paper discusses a range of important topics that explain how to apply the gate "E" with the faculties at Zaytuna University, Bani Walid colleges in Libya.
Transforming Health Information from Manual to Digital (Electronic) World: A Reference and Guide
Introduction: To update ourselves and understand the concept of latest electronic formats available for Health care providers and how it could be used and developed as per standards. The idea is to correlate between the patients Manual Medical Records keeping and maintaining patients Electronic Information in a Health care setup in this world. Furthermore this stands with adapting to the right technology depending upon the organization and improve our quality and quantity of Healthcare providing skills. Objective: The concept and theory is to explain the terms of Electronic Medical Record (EMR), Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) and selecting the best technical among the available Electronic sources and software before implementing. It is to guide and make sure the technology used by the end users without any doubts and difficulties. The idea is to evaluate is to admire the uses and barriers of EMR-EHR-PHR. Aim and Scope: The target is to achieve the health care providers like Physicians, Nurses, Therapists, Medical Bill reimbursements, Insurances and Government to assess the patient’s information on easy and systematic manner without diluting the confidentiality of patient’s information. Method: Health Information Technology can be implemented with the help of Organisations providing with legal guidelines and help to stand by the health care provider. The main objective is to select the correct embedded and affordable database management software and generating large-scale data. The parallel need is to know how the latest software available in the market. Conclusion: The question lies here is implementing the Electronic information system with healthcare providers and organisation. The clinicians are the main users of the technology and manage us to ‘go paperless’. The fact is that day today changing technologically is very sound and up to date. Basically the idea is to tell how to store the data electronically safe and secure. All three exemplifies the fact that an electronic format has its own benefit as well as barriers.
Usability and Biometric Authentication of Electronic Voting System
In this paper, a new voting system is developed and its usability is evaluated. The main feature of this system is the biometric verification of the voter and then a few easy steps to cast a vote. As compared to existing systems available, e.g dual vote, the new system requires no training in advance. The security is achieved via multiple key concept (another part of this project). More than 100 student voters were participated in the election from University of Malakanad, Chakdara, PK. To achieve the reliability, the voters cast their votes in two ways, i.e. paper based and electronic based voting using our new system. The results of paper based and electronic voting system are compared and it is concluded that the voters cast their votes for the intended candidates on the electronic voting system. The voters were requested to fill a questionnaire and the results of the questionnaire are carefully analyzed. The results show that the new system proposed in this paper is more secure and usable than other systems.
Determination of International Jurisdiction of Courts over Disputes Arising from Electronic Consumer Contracts
As a result of the rapid development of information communication technology, especially the internet, consumers have become an active party in commerce and in law. Consequently, the protection of consumers in cross-border contracts has become increasingly important. This paper is confined to the international jurisdiction of courts over disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts according to the ‘5718 Turkish Act on Private International Law and Civil Procedure’ and the ‘1215/2012 Council Regulation On Jurisdiction and The Recognition and Enforcement Of Judgments In Civil and Commercial Matters’ (Hereafter ‘Brussels I Regulation’). The international jurisdiction of courts for consumer contracts is recognized under both acts above-mentioned; however, there exist some differences between the said legal regulations. Firstly, while there is a specific provision for electronic consumer contracts in Brussels I Regulation, there is no specific provision in the Turkish Act. Secondly, under the Turkish Act, habitual residence, domicile, and workplace of the other party who is not a consumer are all accepted as jurisdiction elements; while domicile is the only jurisdiction element in Brussels I Regulation. Thirdly, the ability to make jurisdiction agreements in disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts is a controversial issue under the Turkish Act while it is explicitly regulated under Brussels I Regulation that such jurisdiction agreements can be concluded by complying with certain conditions.
Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi
The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.
Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing
FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.
Electronic Equipment Failure due to Corrosion
There are many reasons which are involved in electronic equipment failure i.e. temperature, humidity, dust, smoke etc. Corrosive gases are also one of the factor which may involve in failure of equipment. Sensitivity of electronic equipment increased when “lead-free” regulation enforced on manufacturers. In data center, equipment like hard disk, servers, printed circuit boards etc. have been exposed to gaseous contamination due to increase in sensitivity. There is a worldwide standard to protect electronic industrial electronic from corrosive gases. It is well known as “ANSI/ISA S71.04 – 1985 - Environmental Conditions for Control Systems: Airborne Contaminants. ASHRAE Technical Committee (TC) 9.9 members also recommended ISA standard in their whitepaper on Gaseous and Particulate Contamination Guideline for data centers. TC 9.9 members represented some of the major IT equipment manufacturers e.g. IBM, HP, Cisco etc. As per standard practices, first step is to monitor air quality in data center. If contamination level shows more than G1, it means that gas-phase air filtration is required other than dust/smoke air filtration. It is important that outside fresh air entering in data center should have pressurization/re-circulated process in order to absorb corrosive gases and to maintain level within specified limit. It is also important that air quality monitoring should be conducted once in a year. Temperature and humidity should also be monitored as per standard practices to maintain level within specified limit.
Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor
A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.
An Exploration on Competency-Based Curricula in Integrated Circuit Design
In this paper, the relationships between professional competences and school curricula in IC design industry are explored. The semi-structured questionnaire survey and focus group interview is the research method. Study participants are graduates of microelectronics engineering professional departments who are currently employed in the IC industry. The IC industries are defined as the electronic component manufacturing industry and optical-electronic component manufacturing industry in the semiconductor industry and optical-electronic material devices, respectively. Study participants selected from IC design industry include IC engineering and electronic & semiconductor engineering. The human training with IC design professional competence in microelectronics engineering professional departments is explored in this research. IC professional competences of human resources in the IC design industry include general intelligence and professional intelligence.
Adoption and Use of an Electronic Voting System in Ghana
The manual system of voting has been the most widely used system of electing representatives around the globe, particularly in Africa. Due to the known numerous problems and challenges associated with the manual system of voting, many countries are migrating to the electronic voting system as a suitable and credible means of electing representatives over the manual paper-based system. This research paper therefore investigated the factors influencing adoption and use of an electronic voting system in Ghana. A total of 400 Questionnaire Instruments (QI) were administered to potential respondents in Ghana, of which 387 responded representing a response rate of 96.75%. The Technology Acceptance Model was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The research model was tested using a simple linear regression analysis with SPSS. A little of over 71.1% of the respondents recommended the Electoral Commission (EC) of Ghana to adopt an electronic voting system in the conduct of public elections in Ghana. The results indicated that all the six predictors such as perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived free and fair elections (PFFF), perceived credible elections (PCE), perceived system integrity (PSI) and citizens trust in the election management body (CTEM) were all positively significant in predicting the readiness of citizens to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. However, jointly, the hypotheses tested revealed that apart from Perceived Free and Fair Elections and Perceived Credible and Transparent Elections, all the other factors such as PU, Perceived System Integrity and Security and Citizen Trust in the Election Management Body were found to be significant predictors of the Willingness of Ghanaians to use an electronic voting system. All the six factors considered in this study jointly account for about 53.1% of the reasons determining the readiness to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. The implications of this research finding on elections in Ghana are discussed.
Robust Half-Metallicity and Magnetic Properties of Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural,electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3. It includes our calculations based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, The spin polarized electronic band structures and densities of states aswellas the integer value of the magnetic moment of the unit cell (6 μB) illustrate that PrMnO3 is half-metallic ferromagnetic. The study shows that the robust half-metallicity makes the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.
Full Potential Calculation of Structural and Electronic Properties of Perovskite BiAlO3 and BiGaO3
The first principles within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method were applied to study the structural and electronic properties of cubic perovskite-type compounds BiAlO3 and BiGaO3. The lattice constant, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, band structure and density of states were obtained. The results show that BiGaO3 should exhibit higher hardness and stiffness than BiAlO3. The Al–O or Ga–O bonds are typically covalent with a strong hybridization as well as Bi–O ones that have a significant ionic character. Both materials are weakly ionic and exhibit wide and indirect band gaps, which are typical of insulators.
Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Signal Detection and Analysis Using Choi-Williams Distribution
In the modern electronic warfare, the signal scenario is changing at a rapid pace with the introduction of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars. In the modern battlefield, radar system faces serious threats from passive intercept receivers such as Electronic Attack (EA) and Anti-Radiation Missiles (ARMs). To perform necessary target detection and tracking and simultaneously hide themselves from enemy attack, radar systems should be LPI. These LPI radars use a variety of complex signal modulation schemes together with pulse compression with the aid of advancement in signal processing capabilities of the radar such that the radar performs target detection and tracking while simultaneously hiding enemy from attack such as EA etc., thus posing a major challenge to the ES/ELINT receivers. Today an increasing number of LPI radars are being introduced into the modern platforms and weapon systems so these LPI radars created a requirement for the armed forces to develop new techniques, strategies and equipment to counter them. This paper presents various modulation techniques used in generation of LPI signals and development of Time Frequency Algorithms to analyse those signals.
The Obstacles of Applying Electronic Administration at the University of Tabuk from Its Academic Leaders' Perspectives
The study aimed at recognizing the obstacles of applying of Electronic Administration (e-administration), which refers to any of a number of mechanisms which convert what in a traditional office are paper processes into electronic processes, with the goal being to create a paperless office and improve productivity and performance at the University of Tabuk from its Academic Leaders' Perspectives. The sample of the study consisted of (98) members from deans, vice deans and head of departments from different specialization, gender and position. For achieving the aim of the study, a questionnaire was developed including (45) items distributed into three domains (administrative, human and technical obstacles) . By using appropriate statistical methods to analyze the information, the results indicated that the administrative obstacles domain came in the first rank with a high degree, and the human and technical obstacles came at the second rank with a moderate degree. The study also showed that there were no statistically significant differences attributed to the variables of the members (specialization, gender and position).
The Use of Electronic Shelf Labels in the Retail Food Sector
The use of QR (Quick Response Codes) codes for customer scanning with mobile phones is a rapidly growing trend. The QR code can provide the consumer with product information, user guides, product use, competitive pricing, etc. One sector for QR use has been in retail, through the use of Electronic Shelf Labeling (henceforth, ESL). In Europe, the use of ESL for pricing has been in practice for a number of years but continues to lag in acceptance in North America. Stated concerns include costs as a key constraint, but there is also evidence that consumer acceptance represents a limitation as well. The purpose of this study is to present the findings of a consumer based study to gage the impact on their use in the retail food sector.
Failure Analysis and Verification Using an Integrated Method for Automotive Electric/Electronic Systems
Failures of automotive electric/electronic systems, which are universally considered to be safety-critical and software-intensive, may cause catastrophic accidents. Analysis and verification of failures in these kinds of systems is a big challenge with increasing system complexity. Model-checking is often employed to allow formal verification by ensuring that the system model conforms to specified safety properties. The system-level effects of failures are established, and the effects on system behavior are observed through the formal verification. A hazard analysis technique, called Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis, is capable of identifying design flaws which may cause potential failure hazardous, including software and system design errors and unsafe interactions among multiple system components. This paper provides a concept on how to use model-checking integrated with Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis to perform failure analysis and verification of automotive electric/electronic systems. As a result, safety requirements are optimized, and failure propagation paths are found. Finally, an automotive electric/electronic system case study is used to verify the effectiveness and practicability of the method.
Android – Based Wireless Electronic Stethoscope
Using electronic stethoscope for detecting heartbeat sound, and breath sounds, are the effective way to investigate cardiovascular diseases. On the other side, technology is growing towards mobile. Almost everyone has a smartphone. Smartphone has many platforms. Creating mobile applications also became easier. We also can use HTML5 technology to creating mobile apps. Android is the most widely used type. This is the reason for us to make a wireless electronic stethoscope based on Android mobile. Android based Wireless Electronic Stethoscope designed by a simple system, uses sound sensors mounted membrane, then connected with Bluetooth module which will send the heart auscultation voice input data by Bluetooth signal to an android platform. On the software side, android will read the voice input then it will translate to beautiful visualization and release the voice output which can be regulated about how much of it is going to be released. We can change the heart beat sound into BPM data, and heart beat analysis, like normal beat, bradycardia or tachycardia.
Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn-Doped CdTe in Zinc-Blende Phase
Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Co and Mn-doped CdTe have been studied by employing the full potential linear augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) method within the spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange–correlation (XC) potential. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, spin-polarized band structures, and total and local densities of states. The value of calculated magnetic moment per Co and Mn impurity atoms is found to be 2.21 µB for CdCoTe and 3.20 µB for CdMnTe. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the half-metallic of Co and Mn-doped CdTe.
Recovery of Au and Other Metals from Old Electronic Components by Leaching and Liquid Extraction Process
Old electronic components can be easily found nowadays. Significant quantities of valuable metals such as gold, silver or copper are used for the production of advanced electronic devices. Old useless electronic device slowly became a new source of precious metals, very often more efficient than natural. For example, it is possible to recover more gold from 1-ton personal computers than seventeen tons of gold ore. It makes urban mining industry very profitable and necessary for sustainable development. For the recovery of metals from waste of electronic equipment, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. In this group hydrometallurgy processes with their relatively low capital cost, low environmental impact, potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, are very promising options. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology has great experience in hydrometallurgy processes especially focused on recovery metals from industrial and agricultural wastes. At the moment, urban mining project is carried out. The method of effective recovery of valuable metals from central processing units (CPU) components has been developed. The principal processes such as acidic leaching and solvent extraction were used for precious metals recovery from old processors and graphic cards. Electronic components were treated by acidic solution at various conditions. Optimal acid concentration, time of the process and temperature were selected. Precious metals have been extracted to the aqueous phase. At the next step, metals were selectively extracted by organic solvents such as oximes or tributyl phosphate (TBP) etc. Multistage mixer-settler equipment was used. The process was optimized.
Theoretical Investigation of the Singlet and Triplet Electronic States of ⁹⁰ZrS Molecules
The electronic structure of 90ZrS has been investigated using Ab-initio methods based on Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field and Multi-reference Configuration Interaction (CASSCF/MRCI). The number of predicted states has been extended to 14 singlet and 12 triplet lowest-lying states situated below 36000cm-1. The equilibrium energies of these 26 lowest-lying electronic states have been calculated in the 2S+1Λ(±) representation. The potential energy curves have been plotted in function of the inter-nuclear distances in a range of 1.5 to 4.5Å. Spectroscopic constants, permanent electric dipole moments and transition dipole moments between the different electronic states have also been determined. A discrepancy error of utmost 5% for the majority of values shows a good agreement with available experimental data. The ground state is found to be of symmetry X1Σ+ with an equilibrium inter-nuclear distance Re= 2.16Å. However, the (1)3Δ is the closest state to X1Σ+ and is situated at 514 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling has been investigated for all the predicted states of ZrS. 52 electronic components in the Ω(±) representation have been predicted. The energies of these components, the spectroscopic constants ωe, ωeχe, βe and the equilibrium inter-nuclear distances have been also obtained. The percentage composition of the Ω state wave-functions in terms of S-Λ states was calculated to identify their corresponding main parents. These (SOC) calculations have determined the shift between (1)3Δ1 and X1Σ+ states and confirmed the ground state type being 1Σ+.
Roasting Degree of Cocoa Beans by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Electronic Nose System and Gas Chromatography (GC)
Roasting is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special favors are developed, moisture content is decreased, and better processing properties are developed. Therefore, determination of roasting degree of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products, and it also decides the commercial value of cocoa beans collected from cocoa farmers. The roasting degree of cocoa beans currently relies on human specialists, who sometimes are biased, and chemical analysis, which take long time and are inaccessible to many manufacturers and farmers. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was used to detecting the gas generated by cocoa beans with a different roasting degree (0min, 20min, 30min, and 40min) and the signals collected by gas sensors were used to train a three-layers ANN. Chemical analysis of the graded beans was operated by traditional GC-MS system and the contents of volatile chemical compounds were used to train another ANN as a reference to electronic nosed signals trained ANN. Both trained ANN were used to predict cocoa beans with a different roasting degree for validation. The best accuracy of grading achieved by electronic nose signals trained ANN (using signals from TGS 813 826 820 880 830 2620 2602 2610) turned out to be 96.7%, however, the GC trained ANN got the accuracy of 83.8%.
Characterization of Nickel Based Metallic Superconducting Materials
Density functional theory is used to investigate the.the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the cubic anti-perovskites InNNi3 and ZnNNi3. The structure of antiperovskite also called (perovskite-inverse) identical to the perovskite structure of the general formula ABX3, where A is a main group (III–V) element or a metallic element, B is carbon or nitrogen, and X is a transition metal, displays a wide range of interesting physical properties, such as giant magnetoresistance. Elastic and electronic properties were determined using generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and local spin density approximation (LSDA) approaches, ), as implemented in the Wien2k computer package. The results show that the two compounds are strong ductile and satisfy the Born-Huang criteria, so they are mechanically stable at normal conditions. Electronic properties show that the two compounds studied are metallic and non-magnetic. The studies of these compounds have confirmed the effectiveness of the two approximations and the ground-state properties are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical results available.
Citizens’ Readiness to Adopt and Use Electronic Voting System in Ghana
The adoption and application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in government administration through e-government is expected to permeate all sectors of state/ public institutions as well as democratic institutions. One of such public institutions is the Electoral Commission of Ghana mandated by the 1992 Constitution to hold all public elections including presidential and parliamentary elections. As Ghana holds its 7th General Elections since 1992, on 7th November 2016, there are demands from key stakeholders for the Election Management Body, which is the Electoral Commission (EC) of Ghana to adopt and implement an electronic voting system. This case study, therefore, attempts to contribute significantly to the debate by examining influencing factors that would impact on citizen’s readiness to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as a theoretical framework for this study, out of which a research model and hypotheses were developed. Importantly, the outcome of this research finding would form a basis for appropriate policy recommendation for consideration of Government and EC of Ghana.
Electronic Spectral Function of Double Quantum Dots–Superconductors Nanoscopic Junction
We study the Electronic spectral density of a double coupled quantum dots sandwich between superconducting leads, where one of the superconducting leads (QD1) are connected with left superconductor lead and (QD1) also connected right superconductor lead. (QD1) and (QD2) are coupling to each other. The electronic spectral density through a quantum dots between superconducting leads having s-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Such junction is called superconducting –quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction. For this purpose, we have considered a renormalized Anderson model that includes the double coupled of the superconducting leads with the quantum dots level and an attractive BCS-type effective interaction in superconducting leads. We employed the Green’s function technique to obtain superconducting order parameter with the BCS framework and Ambegaoker-Baratoff formalism to analyze the electronic spectral density through such (S-QD-S) junction. It has been pointed out that electronic spectral density through such a junction is dominated by the attractive the paring interaction in the leads, energy of the level on the dot with respect to Fermi energy and also on the coupling parameter of the two in an essential way. On the basis of numerical analysis we have compared the theoretical results of electronic spectral density with the recent transport existing theoretical analysis. QDs is the charging energy that may give rise to effects based on the interplay of Coulomb repulsion and superconducting correlations. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask how the discrete level spectrum and the charging energy affect the DC and AC Josephson transport between two superconductors coupled via a QD. In the absence of a bias voltage, a finite DC current can be sustained in such an S-QD-S by the DC Josephson effect.
First Principle Calculations of Magnetic and Electronic Properties of Double Perovskite Ba2MnMoO6
The electronic and magnetic structures of double perovskite Ba2MnMoO6 are systematically investigated using the first principle method of the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Waves Plus the Local Orbitals (FP-LAPW+LO) within the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction, we included the Hubbard correlation terms: LSDA+U and GGA+U approaches. Whereas half-metallic ferromagnetic character is observed due to dominant Mn spin-up and Mo spin-down contributions insulating ground state is obtained. The LSDA+U and GGA+U calculations yield better agreement with the theoretical and the experimental results than LSDA and GGA do.
Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field
One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.
Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor
In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.
Electronic Libraries and the Emergence of New Technology Paradigms
Library management facing favorable conditions and unexpected challenges in the century of information technology. They were having been under pressure to meet their duties to meet the information needs of customers. An information technology has brought big changes to the traditional methods of library work. Libraries need to evaluate, measuring effect information technology to them. This would equip them with the knowledge to make effective information technology to enhance their services. Recognizing the importance of development an electronic library, this research investigated their willingness to change from the traditional library based on the level of automation for the digital library initiatives, review both of the problems associated with digital library and public and terms to be considered for future growth. The main components have been inspected, such as grip library, demographic automations and digitization projects, digital library related to budgetary problems, the thought leader in the electronic library practices library, and the situation viewed for future growth. Libraries have run several digitization projects, at the level of institutions and countries but still needs more efforts in order to bring it to higher levels.
Regional Problems of Electronic Governance in Autonomous Republic of Adjara
Research has shown that public institutions in Autonomous Republic of Ajara try their best to make their official electronic data (web-pages, social websites) more informative and improve them. Part of public institutions offer interesting electronic services and initiatives to the public although they are seldom used in communication process. The statistical analysis of the use of web-pages and social websites of public institutions for example their facebook page show lack of activity. The reason could be the fact that public institutions give people less possibility of interaction in official web-pages. Second reason could be the fact that these web-pages are less known to the public and the third reason could be the fact that heads of these institutions lack awareness about the necessity of strengthening citizens’ involvement. In order to increase people’s involvement in this process it is necessary to have at least 23 e-services in one web-page. The research has shown that 11 of the 16 public institutions have only 5 services which are contact, social networks and hotline. Besides introducing innovative services government institutions should evaluate them and make them popular and easily accessible for the public. It would be easy to solve this problem if public institutions had concrete strategic plan of public relations which involved matters connected with maximum usage of electronic services while interaction with citizens. For this moment only one governmental body has a functioning action plan of public relations. As a result of the research organizational, social, methodological and technical problems have been revealed. It should be considered that there are many feedback possibilities like forum, RSS, blogs, wiki, twitter, social networks, etc. usage of only one or three of such instruments indicate that there is no strategy of regional electronic governance. It is necessary to develop more mechanisms of feedback which will increase electronic interaction, discussions and it is necessary to introduce the service of online petitions. It is important to reduce the so-called “digital inequality” and increase internet access for the public. State actions should decrease such problems. In the end if such shortcomings will be improved the role of electronic interactions in democratic processes will increase.
The Importance of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Health Care Economics
This paper investigates potential health and financial settlement of health information technology, this paper evaluates health care with the use of IT and other associated industries. It assesses prospective savings and costs of extensive acceptance of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS), models significant to health as well as safety remuneration, and conclude that efficient EMRS execution and networking could ultimately save more than US $55 billion annually through recuperating health care effectiveness and that Health Information Technology -enabled prevention and administration of chronic disease could eventually double those savings while rising health and other social remuneration. On the contrary, this is improbable to be realized without related to significant modifications to the health care system.
Introduction of Electronic Health Records to Improve Data Quality in Emergency Department Operations
In its simplest form, data quality can be defined as 'fitness for use' and it is a concept with multi-dimensions. Emergency Departments(ED) require information to treat patients and on the other hand it is the primary source of information regarding accidents, injuries, emergencies etc. Also, it is the starting point of various patient registries, databases and surveillance systems. This interventional study was carried out to improve data quality at the ED of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) by introducing an e health solution to improve data quality. The NHSL is the premier trauma care centre in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of three components. A research study was conducted to assess the quality of data in relation to selected five dimensions of data quality namely accuracy, completeness, timeliness, legibility and reliability. The intervention was to develop and deploy an electronic emergency department information system (eEDIS). Post assessment of the intervention confirmed that all five dimensions of data quality had improved. The most significant improvements are noticed in accuracy and timeliness dimensions.
Implementation of ISO 26262: Issues and Challenges
Functional safety is about electrical, electronics, and programmable electronic safety-related system focuses on the potential risk of malfunction which may have a significant impact on the safety of humans and/or the environment based on IEC 61508. In November 2011, the automotive industry has been introduced to automotive functional safety ISO 26262 which addresses the complete safety installation from sensor to actuator with its technical as well as management issues. Nowadays, most of the modern automobiles are equipped with embedded electronic systems which include many Electronic Controller Units (ECUs), electronic sensors, signals, bus systems and coding. Due to upcoming more sophisticated systems installed in automobiles, the need to carry out detailed safety is very crucial. Assimilation of existing practices with this new standard is a major challenge for the automotive industry in reducing redundancy, time and resources. Therefore, this paper will analyze the research trends on pre and post introduction of ISO 26262 through publications as well as to take a glimpse in the activities for implementing this standard by the automotive manufacturers around the world. It is going to highlight issues and challenges which have been discussed among the experts in this field. Even though it will take some time for this standard to be fully implemented, the benefits from this implementation will raise the competitiveness in the global automotive market.
Impact of Electronic Guest Relationship Management (e-GRM) on Brand Loyalty: The Case of Croatian Hotels
Quick adoption of e-business and emerging influence of “Electronic Word of Mouth e-WOM” communication on guests made leading hotel brands successful examples of electronic guest relationship management. Main reasons behind such success are well established procedures in collection, analysis and usage of highly valuable data available on the Internet, generated through some form of e-GRM programme. E-GRM is more than just a technology solution. It’s a system which balance respective guest demands, hotel technological capabilities and organizational culture of employees, discharging the universal approach in guest relations “same for all”. The purpose of this research derives from the necessity of determining the importance of monitoring and applying e-WOM communication as one of the methods used in managing guest relations. This paper analyses and compares different hotelier’s opinions on e-WOM communication.
The Outsourcing System and Competitiveness Enhancement in the Thai Electricity and Electronic Industries
This paper aims to find out level of influences of factors that affected core competency and competitiveness of Thai electricity and electronics, and to indentify factors that affected core competency and competitiveness of Thai electricity and electronics. Using systematic random sampling technique, the samples of this study were 400 employees in the selected 10 medium enterprises in the electricity and electronic industries of Thailand that applied an outsourcing system. All selected companies were located in Bangkok and the eastern part of Thailand. Interviews were also utilized with managing directors. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were both applied. Questionnaires were employed in data collection, whereas in-depth interviews and focus groups were used with key informants in management. The findings unveiled a high level of influence of the outsourcing system on labor flexibility, manpower management efficiency, capability of business processes, cost reduction, business risk elimination and core competency. These factors were found to have a relationship with business core competency for competitiveness in the Thai electricity and electronic industry. Suggestions of this paper were also presented.
Exchanging Radiology Reporting System with Electronic Health Record: Designing a Conceptual Model
Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study, provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The student community was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also, Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, provide the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate.
The Bioaccumulation of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Chromium (Cr) in Relation to Personal and Social Habits in Electronic Repair Technicians in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria: A Pilot Study
The presence and bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in blood, urine, nail, and hair samples of electronic repair technicians in Kaduna-Nigeria were assessed using Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. 10 electronic repair technicians from within Kaduna Metropolis volunteered for the pilot study. The mean blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in the subjects were 29.33 ± 4.80, 7.78 ± 10.57, and 24.78 ± 21.77 µg/dL, respectively. The mean urine concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were 24.18 ± 2.98, 6.81 ± 10.05, and 14.78 ± 14.20 µg/dL, respectively. Mean nail metal values of 37.13 ± 4.08, 1.00 ± 1.21, and 18.49 ± 12.71 µg/g were obtained for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively while mean hair metal values of 39.41 ± 5.63, 1.09 ± 1.14, and 19.13 ± 11.61 µg/g for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively. Positive Pearson correlation coefficients were observed between Pb/Cd, Pb/Cr, and Cd/Cr in all samples and they indicate the metals are likely from the same pollution source. The mean concentrations of the metals in all samples were higher than the WHO, ILO, and ACGIH standards, implying the repairers are likely occupationally exposed and are subject to serious health concerns. Social habits like smoking were found to significantly affect the concentrations of these metals. The level of education, use of safety devices, period of exposure, the nature of electronics and the age of the repairers were also found to remarkably affect the concentrations of the metals.
Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Intermetallic Dy2Ni2Pb from Computational Study
We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ternary plumbides (rare earth-transition metal-Plumb) Dy2Ni2Pb crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure of the Mn2AlB2 type (space group Cmmm), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, total densities of states and magnetic properties. The calculated total magnetic moment is found to be equal to 9.52 μB.
The Influence of Brands in E-Sports Spectators
Electronic sports, or just e-sports, boast an exponential growth in the interest of the public and large investors. The e-sports teams are equal to classic sports teams, like football, since in their structure they have, besides the athletes, administrators, coaches and even doctors. The concept of team games arises with a very strong social interaction, as it is perceived that users interact with real peers rather than competing with intelligent software. In this sense, electronic games are established as a sociocultural phenomenon and as multidimensional media. Thus, the research aims to identify the profile of users and the importance of brands in the Brazilian electronic sports scene, as well as the relationship of consumers (called fans) with the products and services that occupy the media spaces of the transmissions of sports championships. The research used descriptive quantitative methodology, applied in different e-sports communities, with 160 respondents. The data collection instrument was a survey containing seven questions, which addressed the profile of the participants and their perception on the proposed theme in research. Regarding the profile, the age ranged from 17 to 31 years, of which 93.3% were male and 6.7% female. It was found that 93.3% of the participants had contact with the Brazilian electronic sports scene for at least 2 years, of which 26.7% played between 6 and 12 hours a week and 46.7% played more than 12 hours a week. In addition, it was noticed that income was not a deciding factor to enjoy electronic sports games, because the percentage distribution of participants ranged from 1 to 3 minimum wages (33.3%) and greater than 6 salaries (46.7 %). Regarding the brands, 85.6% emphasized that brands should support the scenario through sponsorship and publicity and 28.6% are attracted to consume brands that advertise in e-sports championships.
An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students
The current study presents an electronic test to measure teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared to evaluate university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem solving; moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1,100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children.
Electronic Stability Control for a 7 DOF Vehicle Model Using Flex Ray and Neuro Fuzzy Techniques
Any high performance car has the tendency to over steer and Understeer under slippery conditions, An Electronic Stability Control System is needed under these conditions to regulate the steering of the car. It uses Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control and Wheel Speed Sensor, Steering Angle Sensor, Rotational Speed Sensors to correct the problems. The focus of this paper is to improve the driving dynamics and safety by controlling the forces applied on each wheel. ESC Control the Yaw Stability, traction controls the Roll Stability, where actually the vehicle slip rate and lateral acceleration is controlled. ESC uses differential braking on all four brakes independently to control the vehicle’s motion. A mathematical model is developed in Simulink for the FlexRay based Electronic Stability Control. Vehicle steering is developed using Neuro Fuzzy Logic Controller. 7 Degrees of Freedom Vehicle Model is used as a Plant Model using dSpace autobox. The Performance of the system is assessed using two different road Scenarios, Vehicle Control under standard maneuvering conditions. The entire system is set using Dspace Control Desk. Results are provided by comparison of how a Vehicle with and without Electronic Stability Control which shows an improved performance in control.
1,8-Naphthalimide Substituted 4,4-Difluoroboradiaza-S-Indacene Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Live-Cell Imaging
Three 1,8-naphthalimide (NPI) substituted 4,4-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyads were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of ethynyl substituted NPI with the meso-, β- and α-halogenated BODIPYs, respectively. The photophysical and electrochemical data reveals considerable electronic communication between the BODIPY and NPI moieties. The electronic absorption spectrum reveals that the substitution of NPI at α position of BODIPY exhibit better electronic communication between the NPI and the BODIPY units. The electronic structures of all the dyads exhibit planar geometries which are in a good correlation with the structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the dyads exhibit interesting supramolecular interactions. The dyads show good cytocompatibility with the potential of multicolor live-cell imaging; making them excellent candidates for biological applications. The work provides an important strategy of screening the substitution pattern at different position of BODIPYs which will be useful for the design of BODIPY based organic molecules for various optoelectronic applications as well as bio-imaging.
Marketing and Commercial Activities Offered on Websites of European Union Banks
This paper deals with various questions related to functionality and providing banking services in the European union on the Internet. Due to the fact that we live in the information technologies era, the Internet become a new space for doing economic and business activities in all areas, and especially important in banking. Accepting the busy tempo of life, in the past several years electronic banking has become necessity and a must for most users of banking services. On a sample of 300 web sites of the banks operating in European union (EU) we conduct the research on the functionality of e-banking services offered through banks web sites with the key objective to reveal to what extent the information technologies are used in their business operations. Characteristics of EU banks websites will be examined and compared to the basic groups of business activities on the web. Also some recommendations for the successful bank web sites will be provided.
Electronic-Word of Mouth(e-WoM): Preliminary Study of Malaysian Undergrad Students Smartphone Online Review
Consequently, electronic word-of-mouth (e-WoM) becomes one of the resources in the decision making process and considered a valuable marketing channel for consumers and organizations. Admittedly, there is increasing concern on the accuracy and genuine of e-WoM content because consumers prefer to look out product or service information available online. Thus, the focus of this study is to propose a model and guidelines how to select trusted online review content according to domain chosen –undergrad students smartphone online review. Undeniable, mobile devices like smartphone has now become a necessity in today are daily life to complete our daily chores. The model and guideline focused on product competency review and the message integrity. In other words, this study aims to enable consumers to identify trusted online review content, which helps them in buying decisions.
On the Design of Electronic Control Unitsfor the Safety-Critical Vehicle Applications
This paper suggests a design methodology for the hardware and software of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of safety-critical vehicle applications such as braking and steering. The architecture of the hardware is a high integrity system such that it incorporates a high performance 32-bit CPU and a separate Peripheral Control-Processor (PCP) together with an external watchdog CPU. Communication between the main CPU and the PCP is executed via a common area of RAM and events on either processor which are invoked by interrupts. Safety-related software is also implemented to provide a reliable, self-testing computing environment for safety critical and high integrity applications. The validity of the design approach is shown by using the Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS) for Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems which consists of the EPS mechanism, the designed ECU, and monitoring tools.
A Multi-Agent Smart E-Market Design at Work for Shariah Compliant Islamic Banking
Though quite fast on growth, Islamic financing at large, and its diverse instruments, is a controversial matter among scholars. This is evident from the ongoing debates on its Shariah compliance. Arguments, however, are inciting doubts and concerns among clients about its credibility, which is harming this lucrative sector. The work here investigates, particularly, some issues related to the Tawarruq instrument. The work examines the issues of linking Murabaha and Wakala contracts, the reselling of commodities to same traders, and the transfer of ownerships. The work affirms that a multi-agent smart electronic market design would facilitate Shariah compliance. The smart market exploits the rational decision-making capabilities of autonomous proxy agents that enable the clients, traders, brokers, and the bank buy and sell commodities, and manage transactions and cash flow. The smart electronic market design delivers desirable qualities that terminate the need for Wakala contracts and the reselling of commodities to the same traders. It also resolves the ownership transfer issues by allowing stakeholders to trade independently. The bank administers the smart electronic market and assures reliability of trades, transactions and cash flow. A multi-agent simulation is presented to validate the concept and processes. We anticipate that the multi-agent smart electronic market design would deliver Shariah compliance of personal financing to the aspiration of scholars, banks, traders and potential clients.
The Development of Electronic Health Record Adoption in Indonesian Hospitals: 2008-2015
Countries are moving forward to develop databases from electronic health records for monitoring and research. Since the issuance of Information and Electonic Transaction Constitution No. 11 of 2008 as well as Minister Regulation No. 269 of 2008, there has been a gradual progress of Indonesian hospitals adopting Electonic Health Record (EHR) in its systems. This paper is the result of a literature study about the progress that has been made in Indonesia to develop national health information infrastructure through EHR within the hospitals. The purpose of this study was to describe trends in adoption of EHR systems among hospitals in Indonesia from 2008 to 2015 as well as to assess the preparedness of Indonesian national health information infrastructure facing ASEAN Economic Community.
Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of YNi₄Si-Type GdNi₅: A Coulomb Corrected Local-Spin Density Approximation Study
In this work, we report the calculations on the electronic and optical properties of YNi₄Si-type GdNi₅ compound. Calculations are performed using the full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Spin polarised calculations of band structure show that several bands cross the Fermi level (EF) reflect the metallic character. Analysis of density of states (DOS) demonstrates that spin up Gd-f states lie around 7.5 eV below EF and spin down Gd-f lie around 4.5 eV above EF. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to DOS from -5.0 eV to the EF. Our calculated results of optical conductivity agree well with the experimental data.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in the Supply Chain: Impact on Customer Satisfaction
Electronic data interchange EDI is the computer-to-computer exchange of structured business information. This information typically takes the form of standardized electronic business documents, such as invoices, purchase orders, bills of lading, and so on. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact EDI might have on supply chain and typically on customer satisfaction keeping in mind the constraints the organization might face. This study included 139 subject matter experts (SMEs) who participated by responding to a survey that was distributed. 85% responded that they are extremely for the implementation while 10% were neutral and 5% were against the implementation. From the quality assurance department, we have got 75% from the clients agreed to move on with the change whereas 10% stayed neutral and finally 15% were against the change. From the legal department where 80% of the answers were for the implementation and 10% of the participants stayed neutral whereas the last 10% were against it. The survey consisted of 40% male and 60% female (sex-ratio (F/M=1,5), who had chosen to participate. Our survey also contained 3 categories in terms of technical background where 80% are from technical background and 15% were from nontechnical background and 5% had some average technical background. This study examines the impact of EDI on customer satisfaction which is the primary hypothesis and justifies the importance of the implementation which enhances the customer satisfaction.
Study of Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CeFeO3
Using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory and generalize gradient approximation, we predict electronic and magnetic properties of CeFeO3 orthorhombic perovskite. The calculated densities of states presented in this study identify the metallic behavior CeFeO3 when we use the GGA scheme, whereas when we use the GGA+U, we see that its exhibits half-metallic character with an integer magnetic moment of 24μB per formula unit at its equilibrium volume which makes this compound promising candidate for applications in spintronics.
Smart Monitoring and Control of Tap Changer Using Intelligent Electronic Device
In this paper, monitoring and control of tap changer mechanism of a transformer implementation in an intelligent electronic device (IED) is discussed. Its been a custom for decades to provide a separate panel for on load tap changer control for monitoring the tap position. However this facility cannot either record or transfer the information to remote control centers. As there is a technology shift towards the smart grid protection and control standards, the need for implementing remote control and monitoring has necessitated the implementation of this feature in numerical relays. This paper deals with the programming, settings and logic implementation which is applicable to both IEC 61850 compatible and non-compatible IEDs thereby eliminating the need for separate tap changer control equipment. The monitoring mechanism has been implemented in a 28MVA, 110 /6.9kV transformer with 16 tap position with GE make T60 IED at Ultratech cement limited Gulbarga, Karnataka and is in successful service.
Overview of E-government Adoption and Implementation in Ghana
E-government has been adopted and used by many governments/countries around the world including Ghana to provide citizens and businesses with more accurate, real-time, and high quality services and information. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the Government of Ghana’s (GoG) adoption and implement of e-government and its usage by the Ministries, Departments and its agencies (MDAs) as well as other public sector institutions to deliver efficient public service to the general public i.e. citizens, business etc. Government implementation of e-government focused on facilitating effective delivery of government service to the public and ultimately to provide efficient government-wide electronic means of sharing information and knowledge through a network infrastructure developed to connect all major towns and cities, Ministries, Departments and Agencies and other public sector organizations in Ghana. One aim for the Government of Ghana use of ICT in public administration is to improve productivity in government administration and service by facilitating the exchange of information to enable better interaction and coordination of work among MDAs, citizens and private businesses. The study was prepared using secondary sources of data from government policy documents, national and international published reports, journal articles, and web sources. This study indicates that through the e-government initiative, currently citizens and businesses can access and pay for services such as renewal of driving license, business registration, payment of taxes, acquisition of marriage and birth certificates as well as application for passport through the GoG electronic service (eservice) and electronic payment (epay) portal. Further, this study shows that there is an enormous commitment from GoG to adopt and implement e-government as a tool not only to transform the business of government but also to bring efficiency in public services delivered by the MDAs. To ascertain this, a further study need to be carried out to determine if the use of e-government has brought about the anticipated improvements and efficiency in service delivery of MDAs and other state institutions in Ghana.
Evidence of Half-Metallicity in Cubic PrMnO3 Perovskite
The electronic and magnetic properties of the cubic praseodymium oxides perovskites PrMnO3 were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U approaches, where U is on-site Coulomb interaction correction. The results show a half-metallic ferromagnetic ground state for PrMnO3 in GGA+U approached, while semi-metallic ferromagnetic character is observed in GGA. The results obtained, make the cubic PrMnO3 a promising candidate for application in spintronics.
Application of Optical Method for Calcul of Deformed Object Samples
The electronic speckle interferometry technique used to measure the deformations of scatterers process is based on the subtraction of interference patterns. A speckle image is first recorded before deformation of the object in the RAM of a computer, after a second deflection. The square of the difference between two images showing correlation fringes observable in real time directly on monitor. The interpretation these fringes to determine the deformation. In this paper, we present experimental results of deformation out of the plane of two samples in aluminum, electronic boards and stainless steel.
An Improved OCR Algorithm on Appearance Recognition of Electronic Components Based on Self-adaptation of Multifont Template
The recognition method of Optical Character Recognition has been expensively utilized, while it is rare to be employed specifically in recognition of electronic components. This paper suggests a high-effective algorithm on appearance identification of integrated circuit components based on the existing methods of character recognition, and analyze the pros and cons.
Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges
This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.
Development and Validation of an Electronic Module in Linear Motion for First Year College Students of Iloilo City
This study aimed to develop and validate an electronic module in physics for first-year college students of Iloilo and find out if there would be a significant difference in the performance of students before and after using the electronic module. The e-module was composed of one topic with two sub-lessons in linear motion (kinematics). The participants of the study were classified into three groups: the subject matter experts who are physics instructors who suggested the content, physical appearance, and limitations of the e-module; the IT experts who are active both in teaching and developing computer programs; and 28 students divided into two groups, 15 in the pilot group and 13 in the final test group. A researcher created 30 items checklist form (difficulty of a sample problem, comprehension, application, and definition of terms) was prepared and validated by the experts in subject matter for gathering data. To test the difference in student performance in physics, the researcher prepared an achievement test containing 25 items, multiple choices. The findings revealed that there was an increase in the performance of students in the pretest and post-test. T-test results revealed that there was a significant difference in the test scores of the students before and after using the module which can be used as a future reference for linear motion as an additional teaching tool in physics.
Prediction Study of the Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of the Parent and Martensitic Phases of Nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf Pure Metals
We present calculations of the structural, elastic and electronic properties of nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf pure metals in both parent and martensite phases in bcc and hcp structures respectively. They are based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the density functional theory (DFT). The shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for Ti, Zr, and Hf metals have were calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental values. Using elastic constants obtained from calculations GGA, the bulk modulus along the crystallographic axes of single crystals was calculated. This is in good agreement with experiment for Ti and Zr, whereas the hcp structure for Hf is a prediction. At zero temperature and zero pressure, the bcc crystal structure is found to be mechanically unstable for Ti, Zr, and Hf. In our calculations the hcp structures is correctly found to be stable at the equilibrium volume. In the electronic density of states (DOS), the smaller n(EF) is, the more stable the compound is. Therefore, in agreement with the results obtained from the total energy minimum.
E-Pharmacy: An e-Commerce Approach for Buying Medicine Online in Saudi Arabia
The incredible accomplishment achieved by e-commerce in consumer durable area encouraged us to implement the online e-commerce model to tap the business benefits of electronic pharmacy in Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is famous for traditional herbal medicine. The rich heritage of traditional medicine has helped the mushrooming of regional pharmaceutical industries manufacturing drugs and other therapeutic against various diseases. However, the implementation of e-commerce in pharmacy has not been employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The electronic pharmacy (E-Pharm) is an important sector that is flourishing across the globe and providing benefits of E-Pharm to the customers and suppliers all around the world. In this context, our web-based application of electronic pharmacy is the one of its kind in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Surveys and personal interviews were used to identify key objectives of the proposed web-based portal. As per the findings of the surveys and personal interviews, following key objectives were identified: (a) The online platform will be used for ordering of prescription based medications for consumers. (b) The e-portal will provide space for pharmaceutical retailers who do not have an electronic platform to upload and sell their therapeutic products in an organized way. (c) The web portal will provide a tracking system to track the customer’s behavior like choice, offer, order, shipment, payment, etc. The web-based e-pharmacy portal will be developed using MySQL and PHP. The development of e-pharmacy web portal and e-prescription practices will not only improve the growth of electronic pharmacy but would also decrease the possibility of prescription alteration thus providing safety and improving the quality of service provided to the patient or consumers.
Electronic Marketing Applied to Tourism Case Study
In this paper, a case study is conducted to analyze the effectiveness of web pages designed in Barbados for the tourism and hospitality industry. The assessment is made from two perspectives: to understand how the Barbados’ tourism industry is using the web, and to identify the effect of information technology on economic issues. In return, this is used: (a) to provide interested parties with accurate information and marketing insight necessary for decision making for electronic commerce/e-commerce, and (b) to demonstrate pragmatic difficulties in searching and designing web pages.
Facts of Near Field Communication
Near Field Communication (NFC) is one of the latest wireless communication technologies. NFC enables electronic devices to communicate in short range using the radio waves. NFC offers safe yet simple communication between electronic devices. This technology provides the fastest way to communicate two device with in a fraction of second. With NFC technology, communication occurs when an NFC-compatible device is brought within a few centimeters of another NFC device. NFC is an open-platform technology that is being standardized in the NFC Forum. NFC is based on and extends on RFID. It operates on 13.56 MHz frequency.
Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with 100% Spin- Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain
By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain.
Thermal Performance of Plate-Fin Heat Sink with Lateral Perforation
Over the past several decades, the development of electronic devices has led to higher performance. Therefore, an electronic cooling system is important for the electronic device. A heat sink which is a part of the electronic cooling system is continuously studied in the research field to enhance the heat transfer. To author’s best knowledge, there have been only a few articles which reported the thermal performance of plate-fin heat sink with perforation. This research aims to study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the solid-fin heat sink (SFHS) and laterally perforated plate-fin heat sink (LAP-PFHS). The SFHS and LAP-PFHSs are investigated on the same fin dimensions. The LAP-PFHSs are performed with a 27 perforation number and two different diameters of circular perforation (3 mm and 5 mm). The experimental study is conducted under various Reynolds numbers from 900 to 2,000 and the heat input of 50W. The experimental results show that the LAP-PFHS with perforation diameter of 5 mm gives the minimum thermal resistance about 25% lower than SFHS. The thermal performance factor which takes into account the ratio of the Nusselt number and ratio of friction factor is used to find the suitable design parameters. The experimental results show that the LAP-PFHS with the perforation diameter of 3 mm provides the thermal performance of 15% greater than SFHS. In addition, the simulation study is presented to investigate the effect of the air flow behavior inside the perforation on the thermal performance of LAP-PFHS.
Ab Initio Study of Structural, Elastic, Electronic and Thermal Properties of Full Heusler
A theoretical study of structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Fe2VX, (with X = Al and Ga), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method. For exchange and correlation potential we used both generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). Our calculated ground state properties like as lattice constants, bulk modulus and elastic constants appear more accurate when we employed the GGA rather than the LDA approximation, and these results agree very well with the available experimental and theoretical data. Further, prediction of the thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2VGa are given in this paper using the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account. We have obtained successfully the variations of the primitive cell volume, volume expansion coefficient, heat capacities and Debye temperature with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0–40 GPa and 0–1500 K.
Study on Disaster Prevention Plan for an Electronic Industry in Thailand
In this article, a study of employee&rsquo;s opinion to the factors that affect to the flood preventive and the corrective action plan in an electronic industry at the Sharp Manufacturing (Thailand) Co., Ltd. has been investigated. The surveys data of 175 workers and supervisors have, however, been selected for data analysis. The results is shown that the employees emphasize about the needs in a subsidy at the time of disaster at high levels of 77.8%, as the plan focusing on flood prevention of the rehabilitation equipment is valued at the intermediate level, which is 79.8%. Demonstration of the hypothesis has found that the different education levels has thus been affected to the needs factor at the flood disaster time. Moreover, most respondents give priority to flood disaster risk management factor. Consequently, we found that the flood prevention plan is valued at high level, especially on information monitoring, which is 93.4% for the supervisor item. The respondents largely assume that the flood will have impacts on the industry, up to 80%, thus to focus on flood management plans is enormous.
Pathway Linking Early Use of Electronic Device and Psychosocial Wellbeing in Early Childhood
Electronic devices have become an essential part of our lives. Various reports have highlighted the alarming usage of electronic devices at early ages and its long-term developmental consequences. More sedentary screen time was associated with increased adiposity, worse cognitive and motor development, and psychosocial health. Apart from the problems caused by children’s own screen time, parents today are often paying less attention to their children due to hand-held device. Some anecdotes suggest that distracted parenting has negative impact on parent-child relationship. This study examined whether distracted parenting detrimentally affected parent-child activities which may, in turn, impair children’s psychosocial health. In 2018/19, we recruited a cohort of preschoolers from 32 local kindergartens in Tin Shui Wai and Sham Shui Po for a 5-year programme aiming to build stronger foundations for children from disadvantaged backgrounds through an integrated support model involving medical, education and social service sectors. A comprehensive set of questionnaires were used to survey parents on their frequency of being distracted while parenting and their frequency of learning and recreational activities with children. Furthermore, they were asked to report children’s screen time amount and their psychosocial problems. Mediation analyses were performed to test the direct and indirect effects of electronic device-distracted parenting on children’s psychosocial problems. This study recruited 873 children (448 females and 425 males, average age: 3.42±0.35). Longer screen time was associated with more psychosocial difficulties (Adjusted B=0.37, 95%CI: 0.12 to 0.62, p=0.004). Children’s screen time positively correlated with electronic device-distracted parenting (r=0.369, p < 01). We also found that electronic device-distracted parenting was associated with more hyperactive/inattentive problems (Adjusted B=0.66, p < 0.01), fewer prosocial behavior (Adjusted B=-0.74, p < 0.01), and more emotional symptoms (Adjusted B=0.61, p < 0.001) in children. Further analyses showed that electronic device-distracted parenting exerted influences both directly and indirectly through parent-child interactions but to different extent depending upon the outcome under investigation (38.8% for hyperactivity/inattention, 31.3% for prosocial behavior, and 15.6% for emotional symptoms). We found that parents’ use of devices and children’s own screen time both have negative effects on children’s psychosocial health. It is important for parents to set “device-free times” each day so as to ensure enough relaxed downtime for connecting with children and responding to their needs.
Design of an Air and Land Multi-Element Expression Pattern of Navigation Electronic Map for Ground Vehicles under United Navigation Mechanism
At present, there is much research on the application of centralized management and cross-integration application of basic geographic information. However, the idea of information integration and sharing between land, sea, and air navigation targets is not deeply applied into the research of navigation information service, especially in the information expression. Targeting at this problem, the paper carries out works about the expression pattern of navigation electronic map for ground vehicles under air and land united navigation mechanism. At first, with the support from multi-source information fusion of GIS vector data, RS data, GPS data, etc., an air and land united information expression pattern is designed aiming at specific navigation task of emergency rescue in the earthquake. And then, the characteristics and specifications of the united expression of air and land navigation information under the constraints of map load are summarized and transferred into expression rules in the rule bank. At last, the related navigation experiment is implemented to evaluate the effect of the expression pattern. The experiment selects evaluation factors of the navigation task accomplishment time and the navigation error rate as the main index, and make comparisons with the traditional single information expression pattern. To sum up, the research improved the theory of navigation electronic map and laid a certain foundation for the design and realization of united navigation system in the aspect of real-time navigation information delivery.
Spectroscopic Constant Calculation of the BeF Molecule
Ab-initio calculations have been performed to investigate the spectroscopic constants for the diatomic compound BeF. Values of the internuclear distance Re, the harmonic frequency ωe, the rotational constants Be, the electronic transition energy with respect to the ground state Te, the eignvalues Ev, the abscissas of the turning points Rmin, Rmax, the rotational constants Bv and the centrifugal distortion constants Dv have been calculated for the molecule’s ground and excited electronic states. Results are in agreement with experimental data.
Reference Model for the Implementation of an E-Commerce Solution in Peruvian SMEs in the Retail Sector
E-commerce is a business model that allows companies to optimize the processes of buying, selling, transferring goods and exchanging services through computer networks or the Internet. In Peru, the electronic commerce is used infrequently. This situation is due, in part to the fact that there is no model that allows companies to implement an e-commerce solution, which means that most SMEs do not have adequate knowledge to adapt to electronic commerce. In this work, a reference model is proposed for the implementation of an e-commerce solution in Peruvian SMEs in the retail sector. It consists of five phases: Business Analysis, Business Modeling, Implementation, Post Implementation and Results. The present model was validated in a SME of the Peruvian retail sector through the implementation of an electronic commerce platform, through which the company increased its sales through the delivery channel by 10% in the first month of deployment. This result showed that the model is easy to implement, is economical and agile. In addition, it allowed the company to increase its business offer, adapt to e-commerce and improve customer loyalty.
The Role of Electronic Banking Technology in the Modernization of Algerian Banking System
In the last decade Algeria has investigated in a scale of economic reforms including different areas, among these; reforms in the banking system. This was mainly through the implementation of some regulations that facilitate the shift to market economy and guarantee integration into global economy. The most important new ideas that have emerged in this area are perhaps to find a possibility of integrating the so called e-banking. Based on what has already been stated, we will try in this study to highlight the significant role of electronic banking services as novel trends in the modernization and development of Algerian banks.
Evaluation of Medication Errors in Outpatient Pharmacies: Electronic Prescription System vs. Paper System
Background: Medication errors are among the most common medical errors. Their occurrences result in patient’s mortality, morbidity, and additional healthcare costs. Continuous monitoring and detection is required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare medication errors in outpatient’s prescriptions in two different hospitals (paper system vs. electronic system). Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in two major hospitals; King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) and Princess Bassma Teaching Hospital (PBTH) over three months period. Data collection was conducted by two trained pharmacists at each site. During the study period, medication prescriptions and dispensing procedures were screened for medication errors in both participating centers by two trained pharmacist. Results: In the electronic prescription hospital, 2500 prescriptions were screened in which 631 medication errors were detected. Prescription errors were 231 (36.6%), and dispensing errors were 400 (63.4%) of all errors. On the other side, analysis of 2500 prescriptions in paper-based hospital revealed 3714 medication errors, of which 288 (7.8%) were prescription errors, and 3426 (92.2%) were dispensing errors. A significant number of 2496 (67.2%) were inadequately and/or inappropriately labeled. Conclusion: This study provides insight for healthcare policy makers, professionals, and administrators to invest in advanced technology systems, education, and epidemiological surveillance programs to minimize medication errors.
First Principle Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of YNi₄Si-Type HoNi₄Si Compound
We investigate theoretically the electronic and optical properties of YNi₄Si-type HoNi₄Si compound from first principle calculations. Calculations are performed using full-potential augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method in the frame work of density functional theory (DFT). The Coulomb corrected local-spin density approximation (LSDA+U) in the self-interaction correction (SIC) has been used for exchange-correlation potential. Analysis of the calculated band structure of HoNi₄Si compound demonstrates their metallic character. We found Ni-3d states mainly contribute to density of states from -5.0 eV to the Fermi level while the Ho-f states peak stands tall in comparison to the small contributions made by the Ni-d and Ho-d states above Fermi level, which is consistent with experiment, in HoNi4Si compound. Our calculated optical conductivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.
'Low Electronic Noise' Detector Technology in Computed Tomography
Image noise in computed tomography, is mainly caused by the statistical noise, system noise reconstruction algorithm filters. Since last few years, low dose x-ray imaging became more and more desired and looked as a technical differentiating technology among CT manufacturers. In order to achieve this goal, several technologies and techniques are being investigated, including both hardware (integrated electronics and photon counting) and software (artificial intelligence and machine learning) based solutions. From a hardware point of view, electronic noise could indeed be a potential driver for low and ultra-low dose imaging. We demonstrated that the reduction or elimination of this term could lead to a reduction of dose without affecting image quality. Also, in this study, we will show that we can achieve this goal using conventional electronics (low cost and affordable technology), designed carefully and optimized for maximum detective quantum efficiency. We have conducted the tests using large imaging objects such as 30 cm water and 43 cm polyethylene phantoms. We compared the image quality with conventional imaging protocols with radiation as low as 10 mAs (
First Principle Calculations of the Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Cubic Perovskite CsSrF3
We have investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a compound perovskite CsSrF3 using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT). In this approach, both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for exchange-correlation potential calculation. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative were calculated and the results are compared whit experimental and theoretical data. Electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structure, density of states and electron charge density, where the fundamental energy gap is direct under ambient conditions. The contribution of the different bands was analyzed from the total and partial density of states curves. The optical properties (namely: the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function ε(ω), the refractive index n(ω) and the extinction coefficient k(ω)) were calculated for radiation up to 35.0 eV. This is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the optical properties for the investigated compound and still awaits experimental confirmations.
Simulation of 1D Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon Mixtures
This work aims at modeling electric discharges in gas mixtures. The mathematical model mimics the ignition process in a commercial spark-plug when a high voltage is applied to the plug terminals. A longitudinal unidimensional Cartesian domain is chosen for the simulation region. Energy and mass transfer are considered for a macroscopic fluid representation, while energy transfer in molecular collisions and chemical reactions are contemplated at microscopic level. The macroscopic model is represented by a set of uncoupled partial differential equations. Microscopic effects are studied within a discrete model for electronic and molecular collisions in the frame of ZDPlasKin, a plasma modeling numerical tool. The BOLSIG+ solver is employed in solving the electronic Boltzmann equation. An operator splitting technique is used to separate microscopic and macroscopic models. The simulation gas is a mixture of atomic Argon neutral, excited and ionized. Spatial and temporal evolution of such species and temperature are presented and discussed.
An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete
Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.
Structural and Electronic Properties of the Rock-salt BaxSr1−xS Alloys
Structural and electronic properties of the rock-salt BaxSr1−xS are calculated using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the local density approximation (LDA) and the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA). The calculated lattice parameters at equilibrium volume for x=0 and x=1 are in good agreement with the literature data. The BaxSr1−xS alloys are found to be an indirect band gap semiconductor. Moreoever, for the composition (x) ranging between [0-1], we think that our results are well discussed and well predicted.
Impacts of Electronic Dance Music towards Social Harmony: The Malaysian Perspective
Electronic Dance Music (EDM), a musical event that so sought-after amongst the youth, is getting prevailed around the world. The emergence of this à la mode event has magnetized lots of attentions from the media as well as the public due to its high probabilities in creating social problems and menacing social harmony of one destination, for instance, two death cases occurred during the EDM events in Malaysia caused a feeling of consternation of the society. The arguments over the impacts of such events towards the society are endless. This paper focuses on the study of the impacts of EDM towards social harmony in Klang Valley area, Malaysia by scrutinizing the contradiction of statements from several experts and the local communities. This study sampled 15-20 people that represent different social background with face-to-face and online interview through snowball sampling method. This study helps to understand the social context as a whole based on the impacts of EDM events that take place in Malaysia. It also provides valuable information to EDMs’ organizer as well as local authorities for a proper event management to minimize EDM impacts towards society as part of the sustainable growth of the event industry.
Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes
In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.
Accounting Information Systems of Kuwaiti Companies: Obstacles and Barriers
The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the obstacles to the ability of the accounting information systems of Kuwaiti companies to deal with electronic commerce, and then to propose appropriate solutions to overcome the barriers. The study revealed a remarkable decrease in external auditors who have professional certification. The results also showed an agreement regarding the accounting systems and the ability to deal with e-commerce, with a different degree of importance, despite the presence of obstacles to the ability of accounting systems in dealing with different companies.
Enhancing Transit Trade, Facilitation System and Supply Chain Security for Local, Regional and an International Corridor
Recently, and due to Arab spring and terrorism around the globe, pushing and driving most governments potentially to harmonize their border measures particularly the regional and an international transit trade within and among Customs Unions. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and provide an insight for monitoring and controlling the trade supply chain within and among different countries by using technological advancement (i.e. an electronic tracking system, etc.); furthermore, facilitate the local and intra-regional trade among countries through reviewing the recent trends and practical implementation of an electronic transit traffic and cargo that related to customs measures by introducing and supporting some case studies of several international and landlocked transit trade countries. The research methodology employed in this study was described as qualitative by conducting few interviews with managers, transit truck drivers, and traders and reviewing the related literature to collect qualitative data from secondary sources such as statistical reports, previous studies, etc. The results in this study show that Jordan and other countries around the globe that used an electronic tracking system for monitoring transit trade has led to a significant reduction in cost, effort and time in physical movement of goods internally and crossing through other countries. Therefore, there is no need to escort transit trucks by customs staff; hence, the rate of escort transit trucks is reduced by more than ninety percent, except the bulky and high duty goods. Electronic transit traffic has been increased; the average transit time journey has been reduced by more than seventy percent and has led to decrease in rates of smuggling up to fifty percent. The researcher recommends considering Jordan as regional and international office for tracking electronically and monitoring the transit trade for many considerations.
Spin Resolved Electronic Behavior of Zno Nanoribbons
The aim of this study is to understand the spin-resolved properties of ZnO armchair and zigzag nanoribbons. The spin polarization can be induced by either geometry of the nanoribbons or ferromagnetic electrodes. Hence, spin-dependent behavior is revealed in these nanostructures in the absence of external magnetic field. Both electronic structure and magnetic properties of the nanoribbons are analyzed, employing first-principles calculations through Density Functional Theory. The relevant properties using the spin-dependent band structure, conductance, transmission, density of states and magnetic moment are elucidated. These results can be utilized to describe the nanoscale structures and stimulate the experimental works.
Half-Metallicity in a BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 Superlattice: A First-Principles Study
We present first principles results for the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of the BiFeO3 /La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 heterostructure as obtained by spin polarized calculations using density functional theory. The electronic states of the heterostructure are compared to those of the bulk compounds. Structural relaxation turns out to have only a minor impact on the chemical bonding, even though the oxygen octahedra in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 develop some distortions due to the interface strain. While a small charge transfer affects the heterointerfaces, our results demonstrate that the half-metallic character of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 is fully maintained.
Thiazolo [5,4-d] Thiazole Based Polymers and Investigation of Optical Properties for Electronic Applications
Electron donor or acceptor capability to participate in electron conjugation is the requirement for an electroactive material. Conjugated molecules and polymers bearing heterocyclic units have potential as optically electroactive materials. Thiazolo thiazole based compounds have attention for last two decades, because they have attractive electronic and optical properties, these compounds are useful for electronic application areas such as dye sentisized solar cells (DSSCs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole is bicyclic aromatic structure contains N and S atoms which act as electron donor. A new electron accepting or donating group bound to thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole fused ring can change the electronic, spectroscopic, stability and dyeing properties of the new material. Polyphenylene(thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole) (p-PhTT) compound was synthesized via condensation reaction of terephthalaldehyde with dithiooxamide. The chemical structure was determined with solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Optical properties (i.e. absorbance and band gap) was determined via solid UV-vis spectroscopy. The insoluble polymer was quarternized with 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC). Colorless VBC changed into a yellow liquid. AgNO3 complex were prepared and optical properties were investigated with UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were examined in this research. This structure exhibits good absorbance and fluorescence in UV-vis region. Synthesis scheme of PyTT and preparation of metal complexes are given. PyTT has absorbance at ~360 nm and fluorescence at ~420 nm.
InP Nanocrystals Core and Surface Electronic Structure from Ab Initio Calculations
The ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method is used to simulate the electronic structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanocrystals (NCs) (216-738 atoms) with sizes ranging up to about 2.5 nm in diameter. The calculations are divided into two parts, surface, and core. The oxygenated (001)-(1×1) facet that expands with larger sizes of nanocrystals is investigated to determine the rule of the surface in nanocrystals electronic structure. Results show that lattice constant and ionicity of the core part show decreasing order as nanocrystals grow up in size. The smallest investigated nanocrystal is 1.6% larger in lattice constant and 131.05% larger in ionicity than the converged value of largest investigated nanocrystal. Increasing nanocrystals size also resulted in an increase of core cohesive energy (absolute value), increase of core energy gap, and increase of core valence. The surface states are found mostly non-degenerated because of the effect of surface discontinuity and oxygen atoms. Valence bandwidth is wider on the surface due to splitting and oxygen atoms. The method also shows fluctuations in the converged energy gap, valence bandwidth and cohesive energy of core part of nanocrystals duo to shape variation. The present work suggests the addition of ionicity and lattice constant to the quantities that are affected by quantum confinement phenomenon. The method of the present model has threefold results; it can be used to approach the electronic structure of crystals bulk, surface, and nanocrystals.
Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems
A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22° and 10°, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal "long-and-narrow" characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.
Evaluation of the Efficiency of Intelligent Systems in Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets
Traffic congestion pricing as one of the demand management strategies constrains expenditure to network users so that it helps reduction in traffic congestion and environment pollution like air pollution. Despite the development of congestion pricing schemes for traffic in our country, the matters of traditional toll collection, drivers’ waste of time and delay in traffic are still widespread. Electronic toll collection as a part of the intelligent transportation system provides the possibility of collecting tolls without car-stop and traffic disruption. Unlike the satisfying outcomes of using intelligent systems in congestion pricing schemes, implementation costs and technological problems are the barriers in these schemes. In this research first, a variety of electronic pay toll systems and their components are introduced then their functional usage is discussed. In the following, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations and advantages, the selection criteria of intelligent systems are described and the results show that the choice of the best technology depends on the various parameters which, by examining them, it is concluded that in a long-term run and by providing the necessary conditions, DSRC technology as the main system in the schemes and ANPR as a major backup system of the main one can be employed.
Information Seekers vs. Information Providers: New Vistas and New Challenges for the Libraries Today; A Case Study of the Panjab University Library, Chandigarh, India
This article presents the results of a case study designed to analyze and deduce Information seekers and the Information Providers in today’s context, wherein we come across a sea of change in the provision of Information services due to the changing electronic environment. The Panjab University Library is one of the biggest libraries of India and was inaugurated in 1963 by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India. The library always thrives to assimilate new technology for the provision of Information services. As we know that the Information seekers today are a whole lot different, they are tech savvy, like to be on their electronic gadgets most of the time, and their Information seeking patterns are also different, the challenge that lies before the libraries is to be always ready for these day to day challenges. The study explores the current status of the Information Services being provided by the Panjab University Library (the Information Providers) vs. the evaluation of these Information services by the users of Library (the Information Seekers). The present study aimed at finding out whether Panjab University Library is able to achieve its mission to be an innovative and user-oriented library by exploring all the new vistas and reach up to the expectations of the information seekers by taking up all the challenges being posed by the ever changing technological scenario.
Analysis of Organizational Factors Effect on Performing Electronic Commerce Strategy: A Case Study of the Namakin Food Industry
Quick growth of electronic commerce in developed countries means that developing nations must change in their commerce strategies fundamentally. Most organizations are aware of the impact of the Internet and e-Commerce on the future of their firm, and thus, they have to focus on organizational factors that have an effect on the deployment of an e-Commerce strategy. In this situation, it is essential to identify organizational factors such as the organizational culture, human resources, size, structure and product/service that impact an e-commerce strategy. Accordingly, this research specifies the effects of organizational factors on applying an e-commerce strategy in the Namakin food industry. The statistical population of this research is 95 managers and employees. Cochran&#39;s formula is used for determination of the sample size that is 77 of the statistical population. Also, SPSS and Smart PLS software were utilized for analyzing the collected data. The results of hypothesis testing show that organizational factors have positive and significant effects of applying an e-Commerce strategy. On the other hand, sub-hypothesizes show that effectiveness of the organizational culture and size criteria were rejected and other sub-hypothesis were accepted.
Harmonic Distortion Analysis in Low Voltage Grid with Grid-Connected Photovoltaic
Power electronic converters are being introduced in low voltage (LV) grids at an increasingly rapid rate due to the growing adoption of power electronic-based home appliances in residential grid. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered one of the potential installed renewable energy sources in distribution power systems. This trend has led to high distortion in the supply voltage which consequently produces harmonic currents in the network and causes an inherent voltage unbalance. In order to investigate the effect of harmonic distortions, a case study of a typical LV grid configuration with high penetration of 3-phase and 1-phase rooftop mounted PV from southern Germany was first considered. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulations were then carried out under the MATLAB/Simulink environment which contain detailed models for power electronic-based loads, ohmic-based loads as well as 1- and 3-phase PV. Note that, the switching patterns of the power electronic circuits were considered in this study. Measurements were eventually performed to analyze the distortion levels when PV operating under different solar irradiance. The characteristics of the load-side harmonic impedances were analyzed, and their harmonic contributions were evaluated for different distortion levels. The effect of the high penetration of PV on the harmonic distortion of both positive and negative sequences was also investigated. The simulation results are presented based on case studies. The current distortion levels are in agreement with relevant standards, otherwise the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) increases under low PV power generation due to its inverse relation with the fundamental current.
Health Monitoring and Failure Detection of Electronic and Structural Components in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Fully autonomous small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in many commercial applications. Although a lot of research has been done to develop safe, reliable and durable UAVs, accidents due to electronic and structural failures are not uncommon and pose a huge safety risk to the UAV operators and the public. Hence there is a strong need for an automated health monitoring system for UAVs with a view to minimizing mission failures thereby increasing safety. This paper describes our approach to monitoring the electronic and structural components in a small UAV without the need for additional sensors to do the monitoring. Our system monitors data from four sources; sensors, navigation algorithms, control inputs from the operator and flight controller outputs. It then does statistical analysis on the data and applies a rule based engine to detect failures. This information can then be fed back into the UAV and a decision to continue or abort the mission can be taken automatically by the UAV and independent of the operator. Our system has been verified using data obtained from real flights over the past year from UAVs of various sizes that have been designed and deployed by us for various applications.
Opto-Electronic Properties and Structural Phase Transition of Filled-Tetrahedral NaZnAs
We predict structural, phase transition as well as opto-electronic properties of the filled-tetrahedral (Nowotny-Juza) NaZnAs compound in this study. Calculations are carried out by employing the full potential (FP) linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) plus local orbitals (lo) scheme developed within the structure of density functional theory (DFT). Exchange-correlation energy/potential (EXC/VXC) functional is treated using Perdew-Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterization for generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In addition to Trans-Blaha (TB) modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is incorporated to get better precision for optoelectronic properties. Geometry optimization is carried out to obtain the reliable results of the total energy as well as other structural parameters for each phase of NaZnAs compound. Order of the structural transitions as a function of pressure is found as: Cu2Sb type → β → α phase in our study. Our calculated electronic energy band structures for all structural phases at the level of PBE-GGA as well as mBJ potential point out; NaZnAs compound is a direct (Γ–Γ) band gap semiconductor material. However, as compared to PBE-GGA, mBJ potential approximation reproduces higher values of fundamental band gap. Regarding the optical properties, calculations of real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity coefficient, absorption coefficient and energy loss-function spectra are performed over a photon energy ranging from 0.0 to 30.0 eV by polarizing incident radiation in parallel to both [100] and [001] crystalline directions.
Calculated Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg and Bi
The present study shows the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of magnesium (Mg) and bismuth (Bi) in a supercell (1X1X5). For both materials were studied in five crystalline structures: rock salt (NaCl), cesium chloride (CsCl), zinc-blende (ZB), wurtzite (WZ), and nickel arsenide (NiAs), using the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), and the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. By means of fitting the Murnaghan's state equation we determine the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and it's derived with the pressure. Also we calculated the density of states (DOS) and the band structure.
Logistics Information Systems in the Distribution of Flour in Nigeria
This study investigated logistics information systems in the distribution of flour in Nigeria. A case study design was used and 50 staff of Honeywell Flour Mill was sampled for the study. Data generated through a questionnaire were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that logistic information systems such as e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange positively correlated with the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill. Finding also deduced that e-commerce, interactive telephone systems and electronic data interchange jointly and positively contribute to the distribution of flour in Honeywell Flour Mill in Nigeria (R = .935; Adj. R2 = .642; F (3,47) = 14.739; p < .05). The study therefore recommended that Honeywell Flour Mill should upgrade their logistic information systems to computer-to-computer communication of business transactions and documents, as well adopt new technology such as, tracking-and-tracing systems (barcode scanning for packages and palettes), tracking vehicles with Global Positioning System (GPS), measuring vehicle performance with ‘black boxes’ (containing logistic data), and Automatic Equipment Identification (AEI) into their systems.
Digital Antimicrobial Thermometer for Axilliary Usage: A New Device for Measuring the Temperature of the Body for the Reduction of Cross-Infections
Aim: The aim of this prospective comparative study is to evaluate the reduction of microbial flora on the surface of an axillary digital thermometer, made of antimicrobial copper, in relation with a common digital thermometer. Material – Methods: A brand new digital electronic thermometer implemented with antimicrobial copper (Cu 70% - Nic 30%, low lead) on the two edges of the device (top and bottom: World Patent Number WO2013064847 and Register Number by the Hellenic Copper Development Institute No 11/2012) was manufactured and a comparative study with common digital electronic thermometer was conducted on 18 ICU (Intensive Care Unit) patients of three different hospitals. The thermometry was performed in accordance with the projected International Nursing Protocols for body temperature measurement. A total of 216 microbiological samples were taken from the axillary area of the patients, using both of the investigated body temperature devises. Simultaneously the “Halo” phenomenon (phenomenon “Stefanis”) was studied at the non-antimicrobial copper-implemented parts of the antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer. Results: In all samples collected from the surface of the antimicrobial electronic digital thermometer, the reduction of microbial flora (Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, Candida spp, Pneudomonas spp) was progressively reduced to 99% in two hours after the thermometry. The above flora was found in the axillary cavity remained the same in common thermometer. The statistical analysis (SPSS 21) showed a statistically significant reduction of the microbial load (N = 216, < 0.05). Conclusions: The hospital-acquired infections are linked to the transfer of pathogens due to the multi-usage of medical devices from both health professionals and patients, such as axillary thermometers. The use of antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer minimizes microbes' transportation between patients and health professionals while having all the conditions of reliability, proper functioning, security, ease of use and reduced cost.
Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition Metals Doped Zinc Selenide
The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of some transition metals doped ZnSe. Calculations are carried out by varying the doped atoms. Four 3D transition elements were used as a dopant: Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in order to induce spin polarization. Our results show that, Mn and Cu-doped ZnSe could be used in spintronic devices only if additional dopants are introduced, on the contrary, transition elements showing delocalized quality such as Cr, and Co doped ZnSe might be promising candidates for application in spintronic.
Blended Learning and English Language Teaching: Instructors' Perceptions and Aspirations
Blended learning has become an innovative model that combines face-to-face with e-learning approaches. The Saudi Electronic University (SEU) has adopted blended learning as a flexible approach that provides instructors and learners with a motivating learning environment to stimulate the teaching and learning process. This study investigates the perceptions of English language instructors, teaching the four English language skills at Saudi Electronic University. Four main domains were examined in this study; challenges that the instructors encounter while implementing the blended learning approach, enhancing student-instructor interaction, flexibility in teaching, and the lack of technical skills. Furthermore, the study identifies and represents the instructors’ aspirations and plans to utilize this approach in enhancing the teaching and learning experience. Main findings indicate that instructors at Saudi Electronic University experience some challenges while teaching the four language skills. However, they find the blended learning approach motivating and flexible for them and their students. This study offers some important understandings into how instructors are applying the blended learning approach and how this process can be enriched.
Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Co and Mn Doped CDTE
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition metal Co and Mn doped zinc-blende semiconductor CdTe were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) with both generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states. We find that the Co and Mn doped zinc blende CdTe show half-metallic behavior with a total magnetic moment of 6.0 and 10.0 µB, respectively.The results obtained, make the Co and Mn doped CdTe a promising candidate for application in spintronics.
A Quantitative Study about Assessing the Effectiveness of Electronic Customer Relationship Management: A Case of Two Hotels in Mauritius
Worldwide, improving tourism competitiveness has been on the agendas of many stakeholders of the hotel sector, and they seem to have agreed that one of the best ways to compete is via the implementation of electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM). In so doing, the organizations enjoy strategic positioning on the competitive market by managing better not only the customers but, other business components including knowledge and employee management. Over the recent years, the tourism industry in Mauritius has witnessed a drastic economic boom at international and national levels; providing a new outlook to boost business performance through existing and potential customers. E-CRM has been one of the management tools used to achieving this position. Thus, this insightful context- Mauritius- was opted for the study. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of e-CRM as a strategic tool in the hotel sector in Mauritius through the implementation of business strategy to create competitive advantage and impact on the business performance. To achieve the objectives of the study, a quantitative research methodology was adopted and the research revealed that e-CRM is indeed an effective strategic tool in the hotel industry in Mauritius that can provide a competitive advantage and impact positively on the organization&rsquo;s performance.
The Effectiveness of Electronic Local Financial Management Information System (ELFMIS) in Mempawah Regency, West Borneo Province, Indonesia
Electronic Local Finance Management Information System (ELFMIS) is integrated application that was used as a tool for local governments to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of the various areas of financial management regulations. Appropriate With Exceptions Opinion (WDP) of Indonesia Audit Agency (BPK) for local governments Mempawah is a financial management problem that must be improved to avoid mistakes in decision-making. The use of Electronic Local Finance Management Information System (ELFMIS) by Mempawah authority has not yet performed maximally. These problems became the basis for research in measuring the effectiveness LFMIS in Mempawah regency. This research uses an indicator variable for measuring information systems effectiveness proposed by Bodnar. This research made use descriptive with inductive approach. Data collection techniques were mixed from qualitative and quantitative techniques, used questionnaires, interviews and documentation. The obstacles in Local Finance Board (LFB) for the application of ELFMIS such as connection, the quality and quantity of human resources, realization of financial resources, absence of maintenance and another facilities of ELFMIS and verification for financial information.
Photovoltaic Cells Characteristics Measurement Systems
Power provided by the photovoltaic array varies with solar radiation and temperature, since these parameters influence the electrical characteristic (Ipv-Vpv) of solar cells. In Scientific research, there are different methods to obtain these characteristics. In this paper, we present three methods. A simulation one using Matlab/Simulink. The second one is the standard experimental voltage method and the third one is by using LabVIEW software. This latter is based on an electronic circuit to test PV modules. All details of this electronic schemes are presented and obtained results of the three methods with a comparison and under different meteorological conditions are presented. The proposed method is simple and very efficiency for testing and measurements of electrical characteristic curves of photovoltaic panels.
A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units
Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to international standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States military standard MIL-STD-810G. Then, test sequences were proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.
Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed
Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Design of Functional Safe Motor Control Systems in Automotive Applications
This paper presents a design methodology for the motor driven automotive subsystems with the consideration of the functional safety. There are many such modules in vehicles which use DC/AC motors for an electronic throttle control system, a motor driven power steering, a motor driven seat belt systems and for HVAC systems. The functional safety for the automotive electrical and electronic parts are standardized as ISO 26262, but the development procedure is very complex to be followed. We focus on the functional safe motor controller design process and show the designed motor controller hardware satisfies the required safety integrity level by using metric calculations with the safety mechanism.
The Development of Competency with a Training Curriculum via Electronic Media for Condominium Managers
The purposes of this research were 1) to study the competency of condominium managers, 2) to create the training curriculum via electronic media for condominium managers, and 3) to evaluate the training curriculum for condominium managers. The research methods included document analysis, interview, questionnaire, and a try-out. A total of 20 experts were selected to collect data by using Delphi technique. The designed curriculum was tried out with 30 condominium managers. The important steps of conducting this research included analyzing and synthesizing, creating interview questions, conducting factor analysis and developing the training curriculum, editing by experts, and trying out with sample groups. The findings revealed that there were five core competencies: leadership, human resources management, management, communication, and self-development. The training curriculum was designed and all the learning materials were put into a CD. The evaluation of the training curriculum was performed by five experts and the training curriculum was found to be cohesive and suitable for use in the real world. Moreover, the findings also revealed three important issues: 1) the competencies of the respondents after the experiment were higher than before the experiment and this had a level of significance of 0.01, 2) the competencies remained with the respondents at least 12 weeks and this also had a level of significance of 0.01, and 3) the overall level of satisfaction from the respondents were 'the highest level'.
DFT Study of Secondary Phase of Cu2ZnSnS4 in Solar Cell: Cu2SnS3
In CZTS films solar cell, the preferable reaction between Cu and sulfur vapor was likely to be induced by out diffusion of the bottom Cu component to the surface; this would lead to inhomogeneous distribution of the Cu component to form the Cu2SnS3 secondary phase and formation of many voids and crevices in the resulting CZTS film; which is also the cause of the decline in performance. In this work we study the electronic and optical properties of Cu2SnS3. For this purpose we used the Wien2k code based on the theory of density functional theory (DFT) with the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential mBJ and the Hubbard potential individually or combined. We have found an energy gap 0.92 eV. The results are in good agreement with experimental results.
First Principle study of Electronic Structure of Silicene Doped with Galium
Gallium with three outer electrons commonly are used as dopants of silicon to make it P type and N type semiconductor respectively. Silicene, one-atom-thick silicon layer is one of emerging two dimension materials after the success of graphene. The effects of Gallium doping on electronic structure of silicine are investigated by using first principle calculation based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation and norm conserving pseudopotential method implemented in ABINIT code. Bandstructure of Pristine silicene is similar to that of graphene. Effect of Ga doping on bandstructure of silicene depend on the position of Ga adatom on silicene
Investigating the Impact Range of Southern Taiwan Science Park by Using Electronic Toll Collection Data
Big Data has been used in many studies in recent years, and ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is currently the development priorities of the world. Taiwan's Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) has collected a large amount of traffic data from the detectors between interchanges since 2014. This paper will combine ETC data and urban planning to investigate the impact range of Southern Taiwan Science Park. The impact range has two parts: First one is the extent of the interchanges affected by specified construction, it could be far from one of the interchanges from the south to the north. The second is how much traffic volume each affected interchange has. And then we visualized the impact result while building the database. According to the specific time of different categories, we compared to the spatial distribution of differences. The study interval is the weekday commuting time in the morning, and the study object is about passenger car. It is hoped that this study will provide a reference for Taiwanese construction sites in the future. And this study is not only more persuasive through the real data, but also establish a set of ETC data analysis process. At the same time, we can help to build the database of impact range of other important constructions and visualize them as the basis for long-term observation, and trying to combine ETC data and urban planning by this study to make effective suggestions.
First-Principles Investigation of the Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg1-xBixO
We investigated the structure and electronic properties of the compound Mg1-xBixO with varying concentrations of 0, ¼, ½, and ¾ x bismuth in the the NaCl (rock-salt) and WZ (wurtzite) phases. The calculations were performed using the first-principles pseudo-potential method within the framework of spin density functional theory (DFT). Our calculations predict that for Bi concentrations greater than ~70%, the WZ structure is more favorable than the NaCl one and that for x = 0 (pure MgO), x = 0.25 and x = 0.50 of Bi concentration the NaCl structure is more favorable than the WZ one. For x = 0.75 of Bi, a transition from wurtzite towards NaCl is possible, when the pressure is about 22 GPa. Also It has been observed the crystal lattice constant closely follows Vegard’s law, that the bulk modulus and the cohesion energy decrease with the concentration x of Bi.
Theoretical Investigation of Electronic, Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) Surface
The electronic, structural and thermoelectric properties of Mg₂SiSn (110) surface are investigated within the framework of first principle density functional theory and semi classical Boltzmann approach. In particular, directional dependent thermoelectric properties such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit are explored. The (110)-oriented Mg₂SiSn surface exhibits narrow indirect band gap of ~0.17 eV. The thermoelectric properties are found to be significant along the y-axis at 300 K and along x-axis at 500 K. The figure of merit (ZT) for hole carrier concentration is found to be significantly large having magnitude 0.83 (along x-axis) at 500 K and 0.26 (y-axis) at 300 K. Our results suggest that Mg₂SiSn (110) surface is promising for various thermoelectric applications due to its overall good thermoelectric properties.
Structural Alteration of MoS₂ by Incorporating Fe, Co Composite for an Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Developing efficient non-noble metal catalysts that are cheap and durable for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a great challenge. Moreover, altering the electronic structure of the catalyst and structural engineering of the materials provide a new direction for enhancing the OER. Herein, we have successfully synthesized Fe and Co incorporated MoS₂ catalysts, which show improved catalytic activity for OER when compared with MoS₂, Fe-MoS₂, and Co-MoS₂. It was found that at an optimal ratio of Fe and Co, the electronic and structural modification of MoS₂ occurs, which leads to change in orientation and thereby enhances the active catalytic sites on the edges, which are more exposed for OER. The nanocomposites have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Elemental Mapping, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) analysis. Among all, a particular ratio of FeCo-MoS₂ exhibits a much smaller onset with better catalytic current density. The remarkable catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the synergistic effect from the Fe and Co. Most importantly, our work provides an essential insight in altering the electronic structure of MoS₂ based materials by incorporating promoters such as Co and Fe in an optimal amount, which enhances OER activity.
Electronic and Computer-Assisted Refreshable Braille Display Developed for Visually Impaired Individuals
Braille alphabet is an important tool that enables visually impaired individuals to have a comfortable life like those who have normal vision. For this reason, new applications related to the Braille alphabet are being developed. In this study, a new Refreshable Braille Display was developed to help visually impaired individuals learn the Braille alphabet easier. By means of this system, any text downloaded on a computer can be read by the visually impaired individual at that moment by feeling it by his/her hands. Through this electronic device, it was aimed to make learning the Braille alphabet easier for visually impaired individuals with whom the necessary tests were conducted.
First Principle Studies on the Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Some BaMn-Based Double Perovskites
Perovskite materials which include magnetic elements have relevance due to the technological perspectives in the spintronics industry. In this work, we have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba2MnXO6 with X= Mo and W by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) [1, 2] as implemented in the WIEN2K [3] code. The interchange-correlation potential was included through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) [4] as well as taking into account the on-site coulomb repulsive interaction in (GGA+U) approach. We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states. The results show that the materials crystallize in the 225 space group (Fm-3m) and have a lattice parameter of about 7.97 Å and 7.95 Å for Ba2MnMoO6 and Ba2MnWO6, respectively. The band structures reveal a metallic ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in Ba2MnMoO6 and half-metallic (HM) ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in the Ba2MnWO6 compound, with total magnetic moment equal 2.9951μB (Ba2MnMoO6 ) and 4.0001μB (Ba2MnWO6 ). The GGA+U calculations predict an energy gap in the spin-up bands in Ba2MnWO6. So we estimate that this material with HM-FM nature implies a promising application in spin-electronics technology.
Electric Differential System to Improve the Electric Vehicle Lateral Stability
This paper proposes a new electronic differential system, were a master-slave based on direct torque control strategy is applied directly in a new bi-machine single-inverter system composed of two permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) operating in parallel, fed by a single power inverter, which is the case of the right half or the left half of the electric vehicle (EV) studied. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the new electronic differential system. This proposed system, which will offer the best lateral stability of the electric vehicle in the curved road, is extensively used in an electric vehicle application.
Electric Differential System to Improve the Electric Vehicle Lateral Stability
This paper proposes a new electronic differential system, were a master-slave based on direct torque control strategy is applied directly in a new bi-machine single-inverter system composed of two permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) operating in parallel, fed by a single power inverter, which is the case of the right half or the left half of the electric vehicle (EV) studied. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the new electronic differential system. This proposed system, which will offer the best lateral stability of the electric vehicle in the curved road, is extensively used in an electric vehicle application.
Electric Differential System to Improve the Electric Vehicle Lateral Stability
This paper proposes a new electronic differential system, were a master-slave based on direct torque control strategy is applied directly in a new bi-machine single-inverter system composed of two permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) operating in parallel, fed by a single power inverter, which is the case of the right half or the left half of the electric vehicle (EV) studied. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the new electronic differential system. This proposed system, which will offer the best lateral stability of the electric vehicle in the curved road, is extensively used in an electric vehicle application.
Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review
During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.
Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure
The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.
Theoretical Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of Matlockite CaFX (X = I and Br) Compounds
The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW)method within density functional theory is applied to study, for the first time, the structural and electronic properties of CaFI and to compare them with CaFCl and CaFBr, all compounds belonging to the tetragonal PbFCl structure group with space group P4/nmm. We used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) based on exchange–correlation energy optimization to calculate the total energy and also the Engel– Vosko GGA formalism, which optimizes the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. Ground state properties such as the lattice parameters, c/a ratio, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus and cohesive energy are calculated, as well as the optimized internal parameters, by relaxing the atomic position in the force directions. The variations of the calculated interatomic distances and angles between different atomic bonds are discussed. CaFCl was found to have a direct band gap at whereas CaFBr and BaFI have indirect band gaps. From these computed bands, all three materials are found to be insulators having band gaps of 6.28, 5.46, and 4.50 eV, respectively. We also calculated the valence charge density and the total density of states at equilibrium volume for each compound. The results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.
Authentication and Legal Admissibility of 'Computer Evidence from Electronic Voting Machines' in Electoral Litigation: A Qualitative Legal Analysis of Judicial Opinions of Appellate Courts in the USA
Several studies have established that electronic voting machines are prone to multi-faceted challenges. One of which is their capacity to lose votes after the ballots might have been cast. Therefore, the international consensus appears to favour the use of electronic voting machines that are accompanied with verifiable audit paper audit trail (VVPAT). At present, there is no known study that has evaluated the impacts (or otherwise) of this verification and auditing on the authentication, admissibility and evidential weight of electronically-obtained electoral data. This legal inquiry is important as elections are sometimes won or lost in courts and on the basis of such data. This gap will be filled by the present research work. Using the United States of America as a case study, this paper employed a qualitative legal analysis of several of its appellate courts’ judicial opinions. This analysis equally unearths the necessary statutory rules and regulations that are important to the research problem. The objective of the research is to highlight the roles played by VVPAT on electoral evidence- as seen from the eyes of the court. The preliminary outcome of this qualitative analysis shows that the admissibility and weight attached to ‘Computer Evidence from e-voting machines (CEEM)’ are often treated with general standards applied to other computer-stored evidence. These standards sometimes fail to embrace the peculiar challenges faced by CEEM, particularly with respect to their tabulation and transmission. This paper, therefore, argues that CEEM should be accorded unique consideration by courts. It proposes the development of a legal standard which recognises verification and auditing as ‘weight enhancers’ for electronically-obtained electoral data.
Ab Initio Study of Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB Full Heusler Compounds
Using the first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of some Co2- based full Heusler alloys, namely Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB. The calculations show that these compounds are to be half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs) with a total magnetic moment of 2.000 µB per formula unit, well consistent with the Slater-Pauling rule. Our calculations show indirect band gaps of 0.58 eV and 0.47 eV in the minority spin channel of density of states (DOS) for Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB, respectively. Analysis of the DOS and magnetic moments indicates that their magnetism is mainly related to the d-d hybridization between the Co and Zr (or Nb) atoms. The half metallicity is found to be robust against volume changes and the two alloys kept a 100% of spin polarization at the Fermi level. In addition, an atom inside molecule AIM formalism and an electron localization function ELF were also adopted to study the bonding properties of these compounds, building a bridge between their electronic and bonding behavior. As they have a good crystallographic compatibility with the lattice of semiconductors used industrially and negative calculated cohesive energies with considerable absolute values these two alloys could be promising magnetic materials in the spintronics field.
Electronic Patient Record (EPR) System in South Africa: Results of a Pilot Study
Patient health records contain sensitive information for which an electronic patient record (EPR) system can safely secure and transmit amongst clinicians for use in improving health delivery. Clinician’s use of the behaviour of these systems is under scrutiny to assess their attributes towards health technology. South Africa (SA) clinicians responded to a pilot study survey to assess their understanding of EPR, what attributes are important towards technology use and more importantly streamlining the survey for a larger study. Descriptive statistics using mean scores was used because of the small sample size of 11 clinicians who completed the survey. Nine (9) constructs comprising 62 items were used and a Cronbach alpha score of 0.883 was obtained. Limitations and discussions conclude the study.
Calculation of Electronic Structures of Nickel in Interaction with Hydrogen by Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) Method
Hydrogen-Materials interaction and mechanisms can be modeled at nano scale by quantum methods. In this work, the effect of hydrogen on the electronic properties of a cluster material model «nickel» has been studied by using of density functional theoretical (DFT) method. Two types of clusters are optimized: Nickel and hydrogen-nickel system. In the case of nickel clusters (n = 1-6) without presence of hydrogen, three types of electronic structures (neutral, cationic and anionic), have been optimized according to three basis sets calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZ, PW91PW91/DGDZVP2, PBE/DGDZVP2). The comparison of binding energies and bond lengths of the three structures of nickel clusters (neutral, cationic and anionic) obtained by those basis sets, shows that the results of neutral and anionic nickel clusters are in good agreement with the experimental results. In the case of neutral and anionic nickel clusters, comparing energies and bond lengths obtained by the three bases, shows that the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2 is most suitable to experimental results. In the case of anionic nickel clusters (n = 1-6) with presence of hydrogen, the optimization of the hydrogen-nickel (anionic) structures by using of the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2, shows that the binding energies and bond lengths increase compared to those obtained in the case of anionic nickel clusters without the presence of hydrogen, that reveals the armor effect exerted by hydrogen on the electronic structure of nickel, which due to the storing of hydrogen energy within nickel clusters structures. The comparison between the bond lengths for both clusters shows the expansion effect of clusters geometry which due to hydrogen presence.
Role of Interlayer Coupling for the Power Factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2
The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.
Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere
With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.
Theoretical Prediction of the Structural, Elastic, Electronic, Optical, and Thermal Properties of Cubic Perovskites CsXF3 (X = Ca, Sr, and Hg) under Pressure Effect
Some physical properties of the cubic perovskites CsXF3 (X = Sr, Ca, and Hg) have been investigated using pseudopotential plane–wave (PP-PW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated lattice constants within GGA (PBE) and LDA (CA-PZ) agree reasonably with the available experiment data. The elastic constants and their pressure derivatives are predicted using the static finite strain technique. We derived the bulk and shear moduli, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Lamé’s constants for ideal polycrystalline aggregates. The analysis of B/G ratio indicates that CsXF3 (X = Ca, Sr, and Hg) are ductile materials. The thermal effect on the volume, bulk modulus, heat capacities CV, CP, and Debye temperature was predicted.
Electronic Structure Studies of Mn Doped La₀.₈Bi₀.₂FeO₃ Multiferroic Thin Film Using Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure
Multiferroic materials are vital for new application and memory devices, not only because of the presence of multiple types of domains but also as a result of cross correlation between coexisting forms of magnetic and electrical orders. In spite of wide studies done on multiferroic bulk ceramic materials their realization in thin film form is yet limited due to some crucial problems. During the last few years, special attention has been devoted to synthesis of thin films like of BiFeO₃. As they allow direct integration of the material into the device technology. Therefore owing to the process of exploration of new multiferroic thin films, preparation, and characterization of La₀.₈Bi₀.₂Fe₀.₇Mn₀.₃O₃ (LBFMO3) thin film on LaAlO₃ (LAO) substrate with LaNiO₃ (LNO) being the buffer layer has been done. The fact that all the electrical and magnetic properties are closely related to the electronic structure makes it inevitable to study the electronic structure of system under study. Without the knowledge of this, one may never be sure about the mechanism responsible for different properties exhibited by the thin film. Literature review reveals that studies on change in atomic and the hybridization state in multiferroic samples are still insufficient except few. The technique of x-ray absorption (XAS) has made great strides towards the goal of providing such information. It turns out to be a unique signature to a given material. In this milieu, it is time honoured to have the electronic structure study of the elements present in the LBFMO₃ multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with buffer layer of LNO synthesized by RF sputtering technique. We report the electronic structure studies of well characterized LBFMO3 multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with LNO as buffer layer using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Present exploration has been performed to find out the valence state and crystal field symmetry of ions present in the system. NEXAFS data of O K- edge spectra reveals a slight shift in peak position along with growth in intensities of low energy feature. Studies of Mn L₃,₂- edge spectra indicates the presence of Mn³⁺/Mn⁴⁺ network apart from very small contribution from Mn²⁺ ions in the system that substantiates the magnetic properties exhibited by the thin film. Fe L₃,₂- edge spectra along with spectra of reference compound reveals that Fe ions are present in +3 state. Electronic structure and valence state are found to be in accordance with the magnetic properties exhibited by LBFMO/LNO/LAO thin film.
Assessment Methodology of E-government Projects for the Regions of Georgia
Drastic development of information and communication technologies in Georgia has led to the necessity of launching conceptually new, effective, flexible, transparent and society oriented form of government that is e-government. Through applying information technologies, the electronic system enables to raise the efficacy of state governance and increase citizens’ participation in the process. Focusing on the topic of e-government allows us to analyze success stories, attributed benefits and, at the same time, observes challenges hampering the government development process. There are number of methodologies elaborated to study the conditions in the field of electronic governance. They enable us to find out if the government is ready to apply broad opportunities of information and communication technologies and if the government is apt to improve the accessibility and quality of delivering mainly social services. This article seeks to provide comparative analysis of widely spread methodologies used for Electronic government projects’ assessment. It has been concluded that applying current methods of assessment in Georgia is related to difficulties due to inaccessible data and the necessity of involving number of experts. The article presents new indicators for e-government development assessment that reflect efficacy of e-government conception realization in the regions of Georgia and enables to provide quantitative evaluation of regional e-government projects including all significant aspects of development.
Partner Selection in International Strategic Alliances: The Case of the Information Industry
This study analyzes international strategic alliances in the information industry. The purpose of this study is to clarify the strategic intention of an international alliance. Secondly, it investigates the influence of differences in the target markets of partner companies on alliances. Using an international strategy theory approach to analyze the global strategies of global companies, the study compares a database business and an electronic publishing business. In particular, these cases emphasized factors attributable to &quot;people&quot; and &quot;learning&quot;, reliability and communication between organizations and the evolution of the IT infrastructure. The theory evolved in this study validates the effectiveness of these strategies.
Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller
In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).
New Approach to Interactional Dynamics of E-mail Correspondence
The paper demonstrates a research about theoretical understanding of writing in the electronic environment as dynamic, interactive, dialogical, and distributed activity aimed at “other-orientation” and consensual domain creation. The purpose is to analyze the personal e-mail correspondence in the academic environment from this perspective. The focus is made on the dynamics of interaction between the correspondents such as contact setting, orientation and co-functions; and the text of an e-letter is regarded as indices of the write’s state or affordances in terms of ecological linguistics. The establishment of consensual domain of interaction brings about a new stage of cognition emergence which may lead to distributed learning. The research can play an important part in the series of works dedicated to writing in the electronic environment.
Formal Development of Electronic Identity Card System Using Event-B
The goal of this paper is to explore the use of formal methods for Electronic Identity Card System. Nowadays, one of the core research directions in a constantly growing distributed environment is the improvement of the communication process. The responsibility for proper verification becomes crucial. Formal methods can play an essential role in the development and testing of systems. The thesis presents two different methodologies for assessing correctness. Our first approach employs abstract interpretation techniques for creating a trace based model for Electronic Identity Card System. The model was used for building a semi decidable procedure for verifying the system model. We also developed the code for the eID System and can cover three parts login to system sending of Acknowledgment from user side, receiving of all information from server side and log out from system. The new concepts of impasse and spawned sessions that we introduced led our research to original statements about the intruder’s knowledge and eID system coding with respect to secrecy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is a bound on the number of sessions needed for the analysis of System.Electronic identity (eID) cards promise to supply a universal, nation-wide mechanism for user authentication. Most European countries have started to deploy eID for government and private sector applications. Are government-issued electronic ID cards the proper way to authenticate users of online services? We use the eID project as a showcase to discuss eID from an application perspective. The new eID card has interesting design features, it is contact-less, it aims to protect people’s privacy to the extent possible, and it supports cryptographically strong mutual authentication between users and services. Privacy features include support for pseudonymous authentication and per service controlled access to individual data items. The article discusses key concepts, the eID infrastructure, observed and expected problems, and open questions. The core technology seems ready for prime time and government projects deploy it to the masses. But application issues may hamper eID adoption for online applications.
Role of Power Electronics in Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Systems
Advanced power electronic systems are deemed to be an integral part of renewable, green, and efficient energy systems. Wind energy is one of the renewable means of electricity generation that is now the world’s fastest growing energy source can bring new challenges when it is connected to the power grid due to the fluctuation nature of the wind and the comparatively new types of its generators. The wind energy is part of the worldwide discussion on the future of energy generation and use and consequent effects on the environment. However, this paper will introduce some of the requirements and aspects of the power electronic involved with modern wind generation systems, including modern power electronics and converters, and the issues of integrating wind turbines into power systems.
Design and Control Algorithms for Power Electronic Converters for EV Applications
The power electronic components within Electric Vehicles (EV) need to operate in several important modes. Some modes directly influence safety, while others influence vehicle performance. Given the variety of functions and operational modes required of the power electronics, it needs to meet efficiency requirements to minimize power losses. Another challenge in the control and construction of such systems is the ability to support bidirectional power flow. This paper considers the construction, operation, and feasibility of available converters for electric vehicles with feasible configurations of electrical buses and loads. This paper describes logic and control signals for the converters for different operations conditions based on the efficiency and energy usage bases.
Describing the Fine Electronic Structure and Predicting Properties of Materials with ATOMIC MATTERS Computation System
We present the concept and scientific methods and algorithms of our computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS. This is the first presentation of the new computer package, that allows its user to describe physical properties of atomic localized electron systems subject to electromagnetic interactions. Our solution applies to situations where an unclosed electron 2p/3p/3d/4d/5d/4f/5f subshell interacts with an electrostatic potential of definable symmetry and external magnetic field. Our methods are based on Crystal Electric Field (CEF) approach, which takes into consideration the electrostatic ligands field as well as the magnetic Zeeman effect. The application allowed us to predict macroscopic properties of materials such as: Magnetic, spectral and calorimetric as a result of physical properties of their fine electronic structure. We emphasize the importance of symmetry of charge surroundings of atom/ion, spin-orbit interactions (spin-orbit coupling) and the use of complex number matrices in the definition of the Hamiltonian. Calculation methods, algorithms and convention recalculation tools collected in ATOMIC MATTERS were chosen to permit the prediction of magnetic and spectral properties of materials in isostructural series.
Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics
Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.
Character and Evolution of Electronic Waste: A Technologically Developing Country's Experience
The discourse of this paper is the examination of the generation, accumulation and growth of e-waste in a developing country. Images and other data about computer e-waste were collected using a digital camera, 290 copies of questionnaire and three structured interviews using Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria environment as a case study. The numerical data were analysed using R data analysis and process tool. Automata-based techniques and Petri net modeling tool were used to design and simulate a computational model for the recovery of saleable materials from e-waste. The R analysis showed that at a 95 percent confidence level, the computer equipment that will be disposed by 2020 will be 417 units. Compared to the 800 units in circulation in 2014, 50 percent of personal computer components will become e-waste. This indicates that personal computer components were in high demand due to their low costs and will be disposed more rapidly when replaced by new computer equipment Also, 57 percent of the respondents discarded their computer e-waste by throwing it into the garbage bin or by dumping it. The simulated model using Coloured Petri net modelling tool for the process showed that the e-waste dynamics is a forward sequential process in the form of a pipeline meaning that an e-waste recovery of saleable materials process occurs in identifiable discrete stages indicating that e-waste will continue to accumulate and grow in volume with time.
Measuring Service Recovery Quality of Electronic Shopping Customers: A Study of Select Cities in India
Indian organized retail sector is growing at a faster pace and gaining popularity. Indian Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) reveals that the current market size of Indian retail industry is about US$ 520 billion with for growth rate 14 to 15 percent annually by 2018 the Indian retail sector is likely to grow at a CAGR of 13% to reach a size of US$ 950 billion. Developments in Information Technology have enabled online Retail sector that empowers customers to order products, conduct transactions without the need to interact physically with the retailers. In recent years, the online shopping industry has gained popularity to the point where certain categories of customers would consider buying electronic products online rather than visiting the stores. Conventionally the physical location of a store is seen as a source of competitive advantage. Online Retailing service sites provide virtual shopping space to the customers. Online Retail services are gaining momentum in India, with internet penetration improving in the country and smartphones becoming affordable along with changing lifestyles and preferences of customers. Although online shoppers prefer the convenience and choice available in online shopping, certain issues raised due to the occurrence of service failure. The proposed study attempts to measure the service recovery and failure process of electronic goods in Indian retail channels.
An Ab Initio Study of Delafossite Transparent Conductive Oxides Cu(In, Ga)O2 and Absorbers Films Cu(In, Ga)S2 in Solar-Cell
Thin film chalcopyrite technology is thus nowadays a solid candidate for photovoltaic cells. The currently used window layer for the solar cell Cu(In,Ga)S2 is our interest point in this work. For this purpose, we have performed a first-principles study of structural, electronic and optical properties for both delafossite transparent conductive oxides Cu (In, Ga)O2 and absorbers films Cu(In,Ga)S2. The calculations have been carried out within the local density functional (LDA) and generalized gradient approximations (GGA) combined with the hubbard potential using norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis with ABINIT code. We have found the energy gap is :1.6, 2.53, 3.6, 3.8 eV for CuInS2, CuGaS2, CuInO2 and CuGaO2 respectively. The results are in good agreement with experimental results.
A Deep Learning Approach to Subsection Identification in Electronic Health Records
Subsection identification, in the context of Electronic Health Records (EHRs), is identifying the important sections for down-stream tasks like auto-coding. In this work, we classify the text present in EHRs according to their information, using machine learning and deep learning techniques. We initially describe briefly about the problem and formulate it as a text classification problem. Then, we discuss upon the methods from the literature. We try two approaches - traditional feature extraction based machine learning methods and deep learning methods. Through experiments on a private dataset, we establish that the deep learning methods perform better than the feature extraction based Machine Learning Models.
Investigating Online Literacy among Undergraduates in Malaysia
Today we live in a scenario in which letters share space with images on screens that vary in size, shape, and style. The popularization of television, then the computer and now the e-readers, tablets, and smartphones made the electronic assume the role that previously was restricted to printed materials. Since the extensive use of new technologies to produce, disseminate, collect and access electronic publications began, the changes to reading has been intensified. To be able to read online, it involves more than just utilizing specific skills, strategies, and practices, but also in negotiating multiple information sources. In this study, different perspectives of digital reading are being explored in order to define the key aspects of the term. The focus is to explore how new technologies affect how undergraduates’ reading behavior, which in turn, gives readers different reading levels and engagement with the text and other support materials in the same media. There is also the importance of the relationship between reading platforms, reading levels and formats of electronic publications. The study looks at the online reading practices of about 100 undergraduates from a local university. The data collected using the survey and interviews with the respondents are analyzed thematically. Findings from this study found that both digital and traditional reading are interrelated, and should not be viewed as separate, but complementary to each other. However, reading online complicates some of the skills required by traditional reading. Consequently, in order to successfully read and comprehend multiple sources of information online, undergraduates need regular opportunities to practice and develop their skills as part of their natural reading practices.
Securing the Electronic Commerce - The Way Forward: A Comparative Ananlysis
There’s no doubt about the convenience of making commercial and business transactions over the Internet under the new business model known as the e-Commerce. The term 'Electronic commerce' or e-Commerce refers to the use of an electronic medium to carry out commercial transactions. E-Commerce is one of the parts of Information Science framework and its uses are gradually becoming popular. Thus, the threat of security issues in Information Science has now become an important subject of discussion amongst the concerned users. These two issues i.e. security and privacy are required to be looked into through social, organizational, technical and economic perspectives. The current paper analyses the effect of these two issues in the arena of e-commerce. Here, no specification has been discussed rather an attempt has been made to provide a general overview. Further, attempts have been made to discuss the security and privacy issues in relation to the E-Commerce financial transactions. We shall also discuss in particular different steps required to be taken before online shopping and also shall discuss the purpose of security and privacy in E-Commerce and why it has currently become the need of the present hour. Lastly, an attempt has been made to discuss the plausible future course of development of this practice and its impact upon the global economy and if any changes should be bought about to ensure a smooth evolution of the practice. This paper has adopted a descriptive methodology to undertake its major area of study, wherein the major source of information has been via the secondary resources. Also, the study is of a comparative nature wherein the position of the various national regimes have compared with regards to the research question.
Evaluation of Impact on Traffic Conditions Due to Electronic Toll Collection System Design in Thailand
This research explored behaviors of toll way users that impact their decision to use the Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC). It also went on to explore and evaluated the efficiency of toll plaza in terms of number of ETC booths in toll plaza and its lane location. The two main parameters selected for the scenarios analyzed were (1) the varying ration of ETC enabled users (2) the varying locations of the dedicated ETC lane. There were a total of 42 scenarios analyzed. Researched data indicated that in A.D.2013, the percentage of ETC user from the total toll user is 22%. It was found that the delay at the payment booth was reduced by increasing the ETC booth by 1 more lane under the condition that the volume of ETC users passing through the plaza less than 1,200 vehicles/hour. Meanwhile, increasing the ETC lanes by 2 lanes can accommodate an increased traffic volume to around 1,200 to 1,800 vehicles/hour. Other than that, in terms of the location of ETC lane, it was found that if for one ETC lane-plazas, installing the ETC lane at the far right are the best alternative. For toll plazas with 2 ETC lanes, the best layout is to have 1 lane in the middle and 1 lane at the far right. This layout shows the least delay when compared to other layouts. Furthermore, the results from this research showed that micro-simulator traffic models have potential for further applications and use in designing toll plaza lanes. Other than that, the results can also be used to analyze the system of the nearby area with similar traffic volume and can be used for further design improvements.
Computational Quantum Mechanics Study of Oxygen as Substitutional Atom in Diamond
Relatively few chemical species can be incorporated into diamond during CVD growth, and until recently the uptake of oxygen was thought to be low perhaps as a consequence of a short surface residence time. Within the literature, there is speculation regarding spectroscopic evidence for O in diamond, but no direct evidence. For example, the N3 and OK1 EPR centres have been tentatively assigned models made up from complexes of substitutional N and substitutional oxygen. In this study, we report density-functional calculations regarding the stability, electronic structures, geometry and hyperfine interaction of substitutional oxygen in diamond and show that the C2v, S=1 configuration very slightly lower in energy than the other configurations (C3v, Td, and C2v with S=0). The electronic structure of O in diamond generally gives rise to two defect-related energy states in the band gap one a non-degenerate a1 state lying near the middle of the energy gap and the other a threefold-degenerate t2 state located close to the conduction band edges. The anti-bonding a1 and t2 states will be occupied by one to three electrons for O+, O and O− respectively.
Curriculum System Optimization under Outstanding Engineers Training Mode of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering
Teaching program of `A plan for educating and training outstanding engineers' is divided into intramural teaching program and enterprise practice teaching program. Based on analyzing the basic principles of teaching plans which teaching plan follows for undergraduate mechanical and electrical engineering, major contents of specialty teaching project are studied amply. The study contents include the system optimization and reform of common curriculum, specialty curriculum and practice curriculum. The practice indicated that under outstanding engineers training mode, the optimized curriculum system have practicability, and achieve the training objectives.
First-Principles Study of Xnmg3 (X=P, As, Sb, Bi) Antiperovskite Compounds
In this work, we present a study of the structural, elastic and electronic properties of the cubic antiperovskites XNMg3 (X=P, As, Sb and Bi) using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) within the Generalized Gradient Approximation based on PBEsol, Perdew 2008 functional. We determined the lattice parameters, the bulk modulus B and their pressure derivative B'. In addition, the elastic properties such as elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), the shear modulus G, the Young modulus E, the Poisson's ratio ν and the B/G ratio are also given. For the band structure, density of states and charge density the exchange and correlation effects were treated by the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential to prevent the shortcoming of the underestimation of the energy gaps in both LDA and GGA approximations. The obtained results are compared to available experimental data and to other theoretical calculations.
Linac Quality Controls Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device
Monthly quality control checks for a Radiation Therapy Linac may be performed is a simple and efficient way once they have been standardized and protocolized. On the other hand this checks, in spite of being imperatives, require a not negligible execution times in terms of machine time and operators time. Besides it must be taken into account the amount of disposable material which may be needed together with the use of commercial software for their performing. With the aim of optimizing and standardizing mechanical-geometric checks and multi leaves collimator checks, we decided to implement a protocol which makes use of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) available on our Linacs. The user is step by step guided by the software during the whole procedure. Acquired images are automatically analyzed by our programs all of them written using only free software.
The Effects of Negative Electronic Word-of-Mouth and Webcare on Thai Online Consumer Behavior
Due to the emergence of the Internet, it has extended the traditional Word-of-Mouth (WOM) to a new form called "Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM)." Unlike traditional WOM, eWOM is able to present information in various ways by applying different components. Each eWOM component generates different effects on online consumer behavior. This research investigates the effects of Webcare (responding message) from product/ service providers on negative eWOM by applying two types of products (search and experience). The proposed conceptual model was developed based on the combination of the stages in consumer decision-making process, theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the information integration theory and the elaboration likelihood model. The methodology techniques used in this study included multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. The results suggest that Webcare does slightly increase Thai online consumer&rsquo;s perceptions on perceived eWOM trustworthiness, information diagnosticity and quality. For negative eWOM, we also found that perceived eWOM Trustworthiness, perceived eWOM diagnosticity and quality have a positive relationship with eWOM influence whereas perceived valence has a negative relationship with eWOM influence in Thai online consumers.
Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in CdCoTe and CdMnTe: Ab-Initio Study
Using the first-principles method, we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc blende phase with 12.5% of Cr. The calculations are performed by a developed full potential augmented plane wave (FP-L/APW) method within the spin density functional theory (DFT). As exchange–correlation potential, we used the new generalized gradient approximation GGA. Structural properties are determined from the total energy calculations and we found that these compounds are stable in the ferromagnetic phase. We discuss the electronic structures, total and partial densities of states and local moments. Finally, CdCoTe and CdMnTe in the zinc-blend phase show the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature and are expected to be potential materials for spintronic devices.
Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages
Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.
Electronic Government Services Adoption from Multi-Nationalities Perspectives
Electronic government is the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by the government to improve public service delivery to citizens and businesses. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the adoption and use of e-government services from different nationalities perspectives. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) will be used as the theoretical framework for the study. A questionnaire would be developed and administered to 500 potential respondents who are students from different nationalities in China. Predictors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy, trust in both the internet and government, social influence and perceived service quality would be examined with regard to their impact on the intention to use e-government services. This research is currently at the design and implementation stage. The completion of this study will provide useful insights into understanding factors impacting the decision to use e-government services from a cross and multi nationalities perspectives.
The Effect of Electronic Platform Service Usage on Customer Satisfaction and WOM
—In this study, using Chunghwa Telecom as a case. The company accounted for the highest proportion of the telecommunications company in Taiwan. First, this paper would like to understand the effect of convenience performance on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Further, the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) are adopted as the factors on the company's brand perception. Afterward, the brand perception influence on customer satisfaction, and finally whether producing a good reputation and recommendation are tested. The study participants are people who have used electronic platform service of Chunghwa Telecom. A total of 478 valid questionnaires were used and AMOS 20.0 statistical software programs were adopted to analyze.
Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant
In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It is found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout.