Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66741

200
35129
A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies
Abstract:
This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.
199
43587
Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management.
198
31352
Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs
Abstract:
Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.
197
11785
Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence
Abstract:
The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.
196
92373
A Challenge of the 3ʳᵈ Millenium: The Emotional Intelligence Development
Abstract:
The analysis of the positive and negative effects of technology use and abuse in Generation Z comes as a necessity in order to understand their ever-changing emotional development needs. The article quantitatively analyzes the findings of a sociological questionnaire on a group of students in social sciences. It aimed to identify the changes generated by the use of digital resources in the emotional intelligence development. Among the outcomes of our study we include a predilection for IT related activities – be they social, learning, entertainment, etc. which undermines the manifestation of emotional intelligence, especially the reluctance to face-to-face interaction. In this context, the issue of emotional intelligence development comes into focus as a solution to compensate for the undesirable effects that contact with technology has on this generation.
195
48079
The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities
Abstract:
The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards.
194
90204
Reimagining Writing as a Healing Art: A Case Study on Emotional Intelligence
Abstract:
Emotional intelligence as an essential job skill is growing in popularity among human resource professionals and hiring managers. Companies value those who have high emotional intelligence because of their personal competences (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation) and social competences (empathy, social skills). In implementing any training system to teach emotional intelligence, the best methodologies for acquiring and/or improving these competences should be taken into consideration. This study focuses on how students perceived the art of writing as a tool for self-improvement. During this session, participants will engage in a brief activity designed to help students develop emotional intelligence. As a part of the discussion, participants will learn the results of a junior-level literary seminar conducted to better understand students’ thoughts and views about the effectiveness of writing as a tool for emotional healing. An analysis of qualitative textual data is presented. The outcomes indicated that students found using writing as a tool for emotional intelligence development as highly effective. The findings also revealed that students have positive perceptions of using writing as a self-healing art that leads to increased emotional intelligence and believe that writing courses of this nature enhance students’ appreciation of the value of the liberal arts.
193
66671
Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms of Emotional Contagion
Abstract:
Emotional contagion is characterized as an automatic tendency to synchronize behaviors that facilitate emotional convergence among humans. It might thus play a pivotal role to understand the dynamics of key social interactions. However, a few research has investigated its potential mechanisms. We suggest two complementary but independent processes that may underlie emotional contagion. The efficient contagion hypothesis, based on fast and implicit bottom-up processes, modulated by familiarity and spread of activation in the emotional associative networks of memory. Secondly, the emotional contrast hypothesis, based on slow and explicit top-down processes guided by deliberated appraisal and hypothesis-testing. In order to assess these two hypotheses, an experiment with 39 participants was conducted. In the first phase, participants were induced (between-groups) to an emotional state (positive, neutral or negative) using a standardized video taken from the FilmStim database. In the second phase, participants classified and rated (within-subject) the emotional state of 15 faces (5 for each emotional state) taken from the POFA database. In the third phase, all participants were returned to a baseline emotional state using the same neutral video used in the first phase. In a fourth phase, participants classified and rated a new set of 15 faces. The accuracy in the identification and rating of emotions was partially explained by the efficient contagion hypothesis, but the speed with which these judgments were made was partially explained by the emotional contrast hypothesis. However, results are ambiguous, so a follow-up experiment is proposed in which emotional expressions and activation of the sympathetic system will be measured using EMG and EDA respectively.
192
20696
The Role of Context in Interpreting Emotional Body Language in Robots
Abstract:
In the emerging world of human-robot interaction, people and robots will interact socially in real-world situations. This paper presents the results of an experimental study probing the interaction between situational context and emotional body language in robots. 34 people rated video clips of robots performing expressive behaviours in different situational contexts both for emotional expressivity on Valence-Arousal-Dominance dimensions and by selecting a specific emotional term from a list of suggestions. Results showed that a contextual information enhanced a recognition of emotional body language of a robot, although it did not override emotional signals provided by robot expressions. Results are discussed in terms of design guidelines on how an emotional body language of a robot can be used by roboticists developing social robots.
191
104018
Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence
Abstract:
This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.
190
4102
A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress among First and Second Year Medical Students in South India
Authors:
Abstract:
Objectives: This study was done to assess emotional intelligence levels and to find out its association with socio demographic variables and perceived stress among medical students. Material and Methods: This study was done among first and second year medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Emotional intelligence scores was found to significantly increase with age of the participants (F=2.377, P < 0.05). Perceived stress was found to be significantly more among first year (t=1.997, P=0.05). Perceived stress was found to significantly decrease with increasing emotional intelligence scores (r = – 0.226, P < 0.001). Conclusion: First year students were found to be more vulnerable to stress than their seniors probably due to lesser emotional intelligence. As both these parameters are related, ample measures to improve emotional intelligence needs to be supported in the training curriculum of beginners so as to make them more stress free during early student life.
189
37605
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Performance
Authors:
Abstract:
The current study was aimed to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and leader's performance. Data were collected from 260 senior managers from UAE. The results showed that there are significant relationships between emotional intelligence and leadership performance as measured by the annual internal evaluations of each participant (r = .42, p < .01). Data from regression analysis revealed that both variables namely emotional intelligence (beta = .31, p < .01), and cognitive ability (beta = .29, p < .01), predicted leadership competencies, and together explained 26% of its variance. Data suggests that EI and cognitive ability are significantly correlated with leadership performance. In depth implications of the present findings for human resource development theory and practice are discussed.
188
113453
Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustment of Fresh Students in Kwara State University Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The study examined gender differences in emotional adjustment of fresh students in Kwara State University, Malete. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, and 300 fresh students were randomly selected across the six colleges in the University. An adapted Questionnaire from Nadia (2012) was used to collect data from respondents on emotional adjustment. One research question was answered with a descriptive statistic of frequency count and percentage, and one hypothesis was tested with t-test statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment, and male students were found to have more emotional adjustment than female. Based on these findings, the researcher, therefore, concluded that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended among others that emotional adjustment skills should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum to give students the opportunity to learn about these skills before they are being admitted into University.
187
5669
Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Young Doctors of Pakistan
Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment at workplace in the doctors; age ranging from 25 to 32 years. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been considered as important issue in terms of high quality services and superior performance. This paper presents a field survey conducted in 9 different public sector hospitals which operate in Punjab, Pakistan. 250 questionnaires were distributed out of which 180 returned back were showing 72% response rate, confirming the significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and organizational commitment.
186
26999
Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence in a Middle Eastern Population
Abstract:
This study examines gender differences in emotional intelligence levels in the Sultanate of Oman, an Arabic country in the Middle East. As a collective culture, the Omani culture rears children differently based on the Islamic beliefs and the Arabic culture. Gender differences across the different dimensions of emotional intelligence are possible within this collective culture. Emotional intelligences reflect the ability to understand and act upon one’s and others’ emotions. The sample of the study consisted of 338 (50.6% were females) adults from different regions in Oman. The participants completed a 25-item emotional intelligence scale, using 5-point Likert type responses. The results showed that the total scores of the scale as well as the scores from the five dimensions (self management, self motivation, social skills, empathy, and self-awareness) all have good reliability coefficients. Using independent sample t-tests, the findings show that female adults scored higher than male adults. The differences were all statistically significant across the five dimensions of emotional intelligence. The findings are discussed from a cultural perspective and applications for the development of emotional intelligence skills are outlined.
185
29579
Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Academic Success among Third Year College Students of PIT
Abstract:
College students are expected to engage in an on-the-job training or internship for completion of a course requirement prior to graduation. In this scenario, they are exposed to the real world of work outside their training institution. To find out their readiness both emotionally and academically, this study has been conducted. A descriptive-correlational research design was employed and random sampling technique method was utilized among 265 randomly selected third year college students of PIT, SY 2014-15. A questionnaire on Emotional Intelligence (bearing the four components namely; emotional literacy, emotional quotient competence, values and beliefs and emotional quotient outcomes) was fielded to the respondents and GWA was extracted from the school automate. Data collected were statistically treated using percentage, weighted mean and Pearson-r for correlation. Results revealed that respondents’ emotional intelligence level is moderately high while their academic performance is good. A high significant relationship was found between the EI component; Emotional Literacy and their academic performance while only significant relationship was found between Emotional Quotient Outcomes and their academic performance. Therefore, if EI influences academic performance significantly when correlated, a possibility that their OJT performance can also be affected either positively or negatively. Thus, EI can be considered predictor of their academic and academic-related performance. Based on the result, it is then recommended that the institution would try to look deeply into the consideration of embedding emotional intelligence as part of the (especially on Emotional Literacy and Emotional Quotient Outcomes of the students) college curriculum. It can be done if the school shall have an effective Emotional Intelligence framework or program manned by qualified and competent teachers, guidance counselors in different colleges in its implementation.
184
32975
Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances in News Reporters Covering Traumatic Events
Abstract:
The present study was conducted to identify the emotional and behavioral disturbances among the News Reporters covering Traumatic events. In the present study, a sample of 50 News Reporters belonging to the national and the local news agencies were selected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad who had covered any traumatic event in the past one year. Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) and Impact of Event Scale interpretations were used to assess a variety of emotional and behavioral patterns of News Reporters. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional and behavioral reactions exhibited by individuals like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression, hyperarousal and avoidance behavior whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that there is no significant gender difference in the News Reporters in manifestations of behavioral and emotional disturbances. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the News Reporters who cover traumatic events. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions/disturbances after trauma, which can be helpful for identifying problematic areas for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these News Reporters.
183
60787
The Developmental Model of Self-Efficacy Emotional Intelligence and Social Maturity among High School Boys and Girls
Abstract:
The present study examined the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of High school boys and girls. Furthermore, study aimed at to foster the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students. The study was conducted on 100 high school students, out of which 50 boys and 50 girls were selected through simple random sampling method from the Sangli city of Maharashtra state, India. The age range of the sample is 14 to 16 years. Self-efficacy scale developed by Jesusalem Schwarzer, Emotional intelligence scale developed by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar and social maturity scale developed by Rao were administered to the sample. Data was analyzed using mean, SD and ‘t’ test further Karl Pearson’s product moment, correlation of coefficient was used to know the correlation between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and social maturity. Results revealed that boys and girls did not differ significantly in their self-efficacy and social maturity. Further, the analysis revealed that girls are having high emotional intelligence compared to boys, which is significant at 0.01 level. It is also found that there is a significant and positive correlation between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and social maturity and emotional intelligence and social maturity. Some developmental strategies to strengthen the self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and social maturity of high school students are suggested in the study.
182
98327
Emotional Analysis for Text Search Queries on Internet
Abstract:
The goal of this study is to analyze if search queries carried out in search engines such as Google, can offer emotional information about the user that performs them. Knowing the emotional state in which the Internet user is located can be a key to achieve the maximum personalization of content and the detection of worrying behaviors. For this, two studies were carried out using tools with advanced natural language processing techniques. The first study determines if a query can be classified as positive, negative or neutral, while the second study extracts emotional content from words and applies the categorical and dimensional models for the representation of emotions. In addition, we use search queries in Spanish and English to establish similarities and differences between two languages. The results revealed that text search queries performed by users on the Internet can be classified emotionally. This allows us to better understand the emotional state of the user at the time of the search, which could involve adapting the technology and personalizing the responses to different emotional states.
181
43363
Teachers’ Personal and Professional Characteristics: How They Relate to Teacher-Student Relationships and Students’ Behavior
Authors:
Abstract:
The study investigated how teachers’ self-rated Emotional Intelligence (EI), competence in implementing Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills and teaching efficacy relate to teacher-student relationships and students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 98 elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece. They completed the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS), the Teacher SEL Beliefs Scale, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), the Student-Teacher Relationships Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for 617 of their students, aged 6-11 years old. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an exploratory model of the variables. It was demonstrated that teachers’ emotional intelligence, SEL beliefs and teaching efficacy were significantly related to teacher-student relationships, but they were not related to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Rather, teachers’ perceptions of teacher-students relationships were significantly related to these difficulties. These findings and their implications for research and practice are discussed.
180
11378
Emotional Intelligence: Key to Job Satisfaction - A Case Study
Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence is conceptualized as a confluence of learned abilities resulting in wise behavior, high achievement and mental health. This case study is done on IT Sector employees of CAREERNET consultancy at Bangalore. Thus the present study intends to find out the difference in different dimensions of El and Js Scales among male and female employees and the existing relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction for the beginner age group of employees (25 yrs - 40 yrs) in order to enhance the employees productivity level in the present scenario of recession in employment. It is observed that all promotions and increment are achieved at these 25 yrs - 40 yrs age group employees. Therefore, the sample is selected randomly and grouped. Survey method with the administration of Emotional Intelligence Scale and opinionScedule is used. The findings of the study has revealed that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance excellence. The study is concluded with a remark that the relevance of this study should be followed by the administrative body of IT sectors to motivate them and to get more productive work from their employees
179
93595
Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: From Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings
Abstract:
Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score.
178
93594
Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: From Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings
Abstract:
Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score.
177
14905
Investigating the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teachers in Ilam Province
Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers in Ilam province. The research method is descriptive correlational. The study participants were of 170 physical education teachers (90 males, 80 females) with an age range of 20 to 50 years, who were selected randomly. The instruments for data collection were Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Bar-on (1997) to assess the Emotional Intelligence teachers and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire to measure their Self-Efficacy. The questionnaires used in the interior are reliable and valid. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and inferential tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression) at a significance level of P < 0/ 05 were used. The Results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between totall emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of teachers, so the more emotional intelligence of physical education teachers the better the extent of Self-Efficacy. Also, the results arising from regression analysis gradually showed that among components of emotional intelligence, three components, the General Mood, Adaptability, and Interpersonal Communication to Self-Efficacy are of a significant positive relationship and are able to predict the Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers. It seems the application of this study ҆s results can help to education authorities to promote the level of teachers’ emotional intelligence and therefore the improvement of their Self-Efficacy and success in learners’ teaching and training.
176
80983
Career Decision-Making Difficulty and Emotional Quotient: Basis for a Career Guidance Intervention for City College of Angeles
Abstract:
This research presents the career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of one hundred fifty (150) college students of City College of Angeles, Academic Year 2016-2017. Independent sample T-test and Pearson r correlation were done to shifter and non-shifter in terms of their career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. A significant positive correlation revealed (r=.302) on career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient. Also, a significant negative correlation revealed (r=-.329) on career decision making difficulty and a moderating variable which is age. The finding significantly shows that emotional quotient was associated and adds a significant incremental variance with career decision making difficulty. Moreover, age shows a moderating effect on career decision making difficulty by having a significant decline and increment on variables. Furthermore, categorization of career decision making difficulty and emotional quotient of said participants are described in this study. In addition, career guidance interventions were suggested based on the results of this study.
175
31387
The Association between Facebook Emotional Dependency with Psychological Well-Being in Eudaimonic Approach among Adolescents 13-16 Years Old
Abstract:
In most of the countries, Facebook allocated high rank of usage among other social network sites. Several studies have examined the effect of Facebook intensity on individuals’ psychological well-being. However, few studies have investigated its effect on eudaimonic well-being. The current study explored how emotional dependency to Facebook relates to psychological well-being in terms of eudaimonic well-being. The number of 402 adolescents 13-16 years old who studied in upper secondary school in Malaysia participated in this study. It was expected to find out a negative association between emotional dependency to Facebook and time spent on Facebook and psychological well-being. It also was examined the moderation effects of self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The results by Structural Equation Modeling revealed that emotional dependency to Facebook has a negative effect on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Surprisingly self-efficacy did not have moderation effect on the relationship between emotional dependency to Facebook and psychological well-being. Lastly, the emotional dependency to Facebook and not the time spent on Facebook lessen adolescents’ psychological well-being, suggesting the value of investigating Facebook usage among college students in future studies.
174
32583
English Language Performance and Emotional Intelligence of Senior High School Students of Pit-Laboratory High School
Abstract:
English as a second language is widely spoken in the Philippines. In fact, it is used as a medium of instruction in school. However, Filipino students, in general, are still not proficient in the use of the language. Since it plays a very crucial role in the learning and comprehension of some subjects in the school where important key concepts and in English, it is imperative to look into other factors that may affect such concern. This study may post an answer to the said concern because it aimed to investigate the association between a psychological construct, known as emotional intelligence, and the English language performance of the 55 senior high school students. The study utilized a descriptive correlational method to determine the significant relationship of variables with preliminary data, like GPA in English subject as baseline information of their performance. Results revealed that the respondents had an average GPA in the English subject; however, improving from their first-year high school level to the fourth year. Their English performance resulted to an above average level with a notable higher performance in the speaking test than in the written. Further, a strong correlation between English performance and emotional intelligence was manifested. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that students with higher emotional intelligence their English language performance is expected to be the same. It can be said further that when students’ emotional intelligence (EI components) is facilitated well through various classroom activities, a better English performance would just be spontaneous among them.
173
24950
Supervisory Emotional Display Affects Employee’s Well-Being
Abstract:
Despite a large number of studies linking emotional labor and its detrimental impact for laborer, research on how emotional labor would influence the receiver is still in its infancy. Especially under the call for “people management”, supervisors inside the organization are more inclined to display happy mood to support their employees, thus endorsing emotional labor. The present study focuses on the employees in the service industry as emotional labor recipients and investigates how they respond to their supervisors’ emotional display, given their sensitivity to emotional cues. Targeted at a sample of 250 survey data from a wide range of customer service professions, this ongoing study examines how perceived supervisory emotional labor would moderate the relationship between employees surface acting and their well-being. Our major hypotheses are that employees’ surface acting predicts well-being level, and that perceived supervisory emotional labor to moderate the surface acting—outcome links. Preliminary findings have provided some support to the hypothesized model. Specifically, supervisors who are perceived to be high in surface acting are also regarded as fake and pseudo, hence the enhancing the detrimental effect of employees’ surface acting is attenuated, resulting in lower job satisfaction, higher physical stress and burnout; whereas perceived high supervisor’s deep acting, as associated with genuine and authenticity, buffers the negative impact and leads to higher job satisfaction, lower physical stress and burnout. This study first confirms the negative impacts of the surface acting on well-being for service industry employees as laborer and then extends the emotional labor studies by considering them as recipients of supervisory emotional labor. The findings provide insights for leaders by pointing out the importance of authentic emotional expression in workplace.
172
28174
One Plus One is More than Two: Why Nurse Recruiters Need to Use Various Multivariate Techniques to Understand the Limitations of the Concept of Emotional Intelligence
Abstract:
Aim: To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Background: Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Design: Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to TEIQue-SF using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Method: First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.
171
55443
Work-Home Interference and Emotional Exhaustion: The Role of Psychological Detachment, Relaxation and Technology-Assisted Supplemental Work
Abstract:
The study examines the role of work-home interference, on enhancing emotional exhaustion in the branch officers of private MFIs in India. Additionally, the moderating role of recovery experiences and technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) were studied. With the increasing expectations to perform job related tasks at home, technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) was hypothesized to positively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Further, it was expected that recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation will help to recover and unwind from work and negatively moderate the relationship between work-home interference and emotional exhaustion. Results of SEM-analyses largely offered support for the hypotheses. These findings increase our insight in the processes leading to increased emotional exhaustion and suggest that employees can protect themselves from emotional exhaustion by keeping a tab on technology-assisted supplemental work and facilitating recovery experiences.
170
63026
The Moderating Effect of Organizational Commitment in the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Work Outcomes
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine the moderating of effect of organizational commitment in the relationship between emotional intelligence and work outcomes. The study presents a new model to explain the mechanism through which emotional intelligence influences work outcomes. The model includes emotional intelligence as an independent variable, organizational commitment as a moderating variable, and work performance, job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to leave as dependent variables. A sample of 208 employees working in eight Kuwaiti business organizations (from industrial, banking, service, and financial sectors) were surveyed, and data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that emotional intelligence is positively associated with organizational commitment and that the positive effect of emotional intelligence on job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior is moderated by organizational commitment. The results of the current study are discussed and are compared to the results of previous studies in this area. Finally, the directions for future research are suggested.
169
19104
The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology
Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration.
168
20851
Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation to the Stressors of Life among King Saud University Students
Abstract:
The aim of current study is to identify more life stressors, and the dimensions of emotional intelligence prevalent from the point of view of male and female students at King Saud University. Also, it comes to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and the nature of life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. The Study tries to identify the differences in emotional intelligence and life stressors for students of King Saud University, which attributed to sex, age, grade point average, and the type of study scientific, literary The study sample consisted of 426 male and female students at King Saud University. The results shows that there are significant differences between emotional intelligence and life stressors faced by students at King Saud University. It turns out that there are differences in emotional intelligence between males and females in favor of females; While there are no differences in both the type of study and age. Finally, the study shows that there are differences of stressors in a lifetime for the age group between 19-25; While there are no differences in both type the type of study.
167
79255
The Psychological Effect of Emotional Demands and Discrimination, and the Role of Job Resources among Asian Immigrant Microbusiness Owners
Abstract:
Many members of immigrant minorities choose to operate microbusinesses that involve emotionally taxing interactions with customers and discriminatory exposures in the workplace. This study investigated the psychological risks of emotional demands and discrimination as well as the buffering roles of two types of job resources (job autonomy and job security) among immigrant microbusiness owners (MBOs). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 550 Korean immigrant MBOs, aged 30 to 70, living in Toronto and its surrounding areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between March and November 2013. Results showed that emotional suppression and discrimination were positively associated with depressive symptoms. However, the direct effect of positive emotional demands was insignificant. For job resources, the beneficial effect of job security on depressive symptom was apparent, but the effect of job autonomy was trivial. Regarding the moderating effect, job security buffered the psychological harm of both emotional suppression and workplace discrimination. Although job autonomy buffered the link between discrimination and depressive symptoms, the buffering effect of job autonomy on the emotional suppression-depression link was insignificant. This study’s finding implies that emotional demands and workplace discrimination seem to be important factors in contributing to occupational psychological problems, but the psychological impact can differ according to the types of emotional demands and job resources among immigrant MBOs.
166
46558
General Mood and Emotional Regulation as Predictors of Bullying Behaviors among Adolescent Males: Basis for a Proposed Bullying Intervention Program
Abstract:
Bullying cases are a proliferating issue that schools need to address. This calls for a challenge in providing effective measures to reduce bullying. The study aimed to determine which among the socio-emotional aspects of adolescent males could predict bullying. The respondents of the study were the grades 10 and 11 level and the selection of the respondents was based on the names listed by the teachers and guidance counselors through the Student Nomination Questionnaire. The Bullying Survey Questionnaire Checklist was answered by the respondents to be able to identify their most observed bullying behavior. On the other hand, the level of their mental ability was measured through the use of Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, while their socio-emotional aspects was is classified into 2 contexts: emotional intelligence and personality traits which were determined with the use of Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-i:YV) and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory-Children (FFPI-C). Results indicated that majority of the respondents have average level of mental ability and socio-emotional aspects. However, many students have low to markedly low level interpersonal scale. Furthermore, general mood and emotional regulation were found as predictors of bullying behaviors. These findings became the basis for a proposed bullying intervention program.
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11374
The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students
Abstract:
The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.
164
77198
Moving on or Deciding to Let Go: The Effects of Emotional and Decisional Forgiveness on Intentional Forgetting
Abstract:
Different types of forgiveness (emotional and decisional) have been shown to have differential effects on incidental forgetting of information related to a prior transgression. The present study explored the extent to which emotional and decisional forgiveness also influenced intentional forgetting; that is, the extent to which forgetting occurs following an explicit instruction to forget. Using the List-Method Directed Forgetting (LMDF) paradigm, 236 participants were presented with a hypothetical transgression and then assigned to an emotional forgiveness, a decisional forgiveness, or a no-forgiveness manipulation. Participants were then presented with two-word lists each comprising transgression-relevant and transgression-irrelevant words. Following the presentation of the first list, participants were told to either remember or forget the previously learned list of words. Participants in the emotional forgiveness condition were found to remember fewer relevant and more irrelevant transgression-related words, while the opposite was true for both decisional forgiveness and no-forgiveness conditions. Furthermore, when directed to forget words in List 1, participants in the decisional and no-forgiveness conditions were less able to forget relevant transgression-related words in comparison to participants in the emotional forgiveness condition. This study suggests that emotional forgiveness plays a pivotal role in the intentional forgetting of transgression-related information. The potential implications of these findings for coping with unpleasant incidents will be considered.
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1396
Peculiarities of Comprehending the Subjective Well-Being by Student with High and Low Level of Emotional Intelligent
Abstract:
Actuality of the present study is defined first of all the role of subjective well-being problem in modern psychology and the comprehending of subjective well-being by current students. Purpose of this research is to educe peculiarities of comprehending of subjective well-being by students with various levels of emotional intelligent. Methods of research are adapted Russian-Language questionnaire of K. Riff 'The scales of psychological well-being'; emotional intelligent questionnaire of D. V. Lusin. The research involved 72 student from different universities and disciplines aged between 18 and 24. Analyzing the results of the studies, it can be concluded that the understanding of happiness in different groups of students with high and low levels of overall emotional intelligence is different, as well as differentiated by gender. Students with higher level of happiness possess more capacity and higher need to control their emotions, to cause and maintain the desired emotions and control something undesirable.
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89504
Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: from Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings
Abstract:
The piano sonatas of Beethoven represent part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The aims of this research were to further explore this intangibility by placing emphasis on defining emotional normative ratings for the "Waldstein" (Op. 53) and "Tempest" (Op. 31) Sonatas of Beethoven. To this end, a musicological analysis was conducted on these particular sonatas and referential patterns in these works of Beethoven were defined. Appropriate interactive questionnaires were designed in order to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts. Based on these ratings, it is possible for emotional annotations for these same referential patterns to be created and integrated into the music score.
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72488
Important Factors for Successful Solution of Emotional Situations: Empirical Study on Young People
Abstract:
Attempts to split the construct of emotional intelligence (EI) into separate components &ndash; ability to understand own and others&rsquo; emotions and ability to control own and others&rsquo; emotions may be meaningful more theoretically than practically. In real life, a personality encounters various emotional situations that require exhibition of complex EI to solve them. Emotional situation solution tests enable measurement of such undivided EI. The object of the present study is to determine sociodemographic and other factors that are important for emotional situation solutions. The study involved 1,430 participants from various regions of Lithuania. The age of participants varied from 17 years to 27 years. Emotional social and interpersonal situation scale EI-DARL-V2 was used. Each situation had two mandatory answering formats: The first format contained assignments associated with hypothetical theoretical knowledge of how the situation should be solved, while the second format included the question of how the participant would personally resolve the given situation in reality. A questionnaire that contained various sociodemographic data of subjects was also presented. Factors, statistically significant for emotional situation solution, have been determined: gender, family structure, the subject&rsquo;s relation with his or her mother, mother&rsquo;s occupation, subjectively assessed financial situation of the family, level of education of the subjects and his or her parents, academic achievement, etc. The best solvers of emotional situations are women with high academic achievements. According to their chosen study profile/acquired profession, they are related to the fields in social sciences and humanities. The worst solvers of emotional situations are men raised in foster homes. They are/were bad students and mostly choose blue-collar professions.
160
52190
The Effect of Relationship Marketing on Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction without Service Providers' Emotional Intelligence: The Case of the Insurance Industry in Ghana
Abstract:
This paper assesses the effect of relationship marketing on service quality and customer satisfaction from the perspective of the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the insurance industry in Ghana. A descriptive quantitative research technique was employed. A random sample of 384 each of customers and service providers in 3 insurance firms in Accra were used as the source of data. According to findings, emotional intelligence makes a strong positive effect on relationship marketing at 5% significance level, r (283) = .817, p = .000. Though relationship marketing makes a strong positive effect on service quality (r = .767, p < .05) and customer satisfaction (r = .647, p < .05), this effect becomes insignificant (p > .05) when the effect of emotional intelligence on relationship marketing is controlled for. It is therefore recommended that insurance firms give priority to equipping their relationship employees with emotional intelligence to maximise service quality and customer satisfaction.
159
90463
News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks
Abstract:
The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.
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75505
[Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies
Authors:
Abstract:
Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients.
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41504
Relationship Between Family Factors and Tendency to Addiction
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to addiction in high school female students in Ahwaz. The sample consisted of 250 students who were selected by cluster random sampling from among all high school female students in Ahvaz. Measuring tools were Iranian tendency towards addiction (IAPS), responsibility California Psychological Inventory (CPI), emotional family atmosphere (AFC) and religious beliefs. The simple correlation coefficient at α=0/05 showed that there is a significant negative relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to abuse female students. The regression analysis showed that the variables of the emotional atmosphere of the family and religious beliefs as predictors of female students have a tendency to addiction.
156
93065
Preliminary Analysis of Inherited Knowledge from the Composer: The Paradigm of Beethoven's Sonatas as Cultural Heritage
Abstract:
Within this research, significant effort has been done for the definition of emotional normative ratings for the Sonatas 'Waldstein' and 'The Tempest' of Beethoven. For this purpose, a musicological analysis is done on these Sonatas, and referential patterns of Beethoven have been defined. Then appropriate interactive questionnaires have been designed to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts which constitute an intangible cultural heritage. Based on these ratings, emotional annotations for the same referential patterns will be created and integrated into the music score.
155
47310
Emotional Intelligence and General Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Career Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria
Abstract:
Career commitment among employees is crucial to the success of any organization. However, career commitment has been reported to be very low among teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examined the contributions of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy to career commitment of among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted for the study. It made use of stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting two hundred and fifty (250) secondary schools teachers for the study. Three standardized instruments namely: The Big Five Inventory (BFI), Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Career Commitment Scale (CCS) were adopted for the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed through Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the predicting capacity of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy on career commitment of secondary school teachers. The results showed that the variables when taken as a whole significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers. The relative contribution of each variable revealed that emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. The researcher recommended that secondary school teachers should be exposed to emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training to enhance their career commitment.
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98536
Examining the Relations among Autobiographical Memory Recall Types, Quality of Descriptions, and Emotional Arousal in Psychotherapy for Depression
Abstract:
Three types of autobiographical memory recall -specific, episodic, and generic- were examined in relation to the quality of descriptions and in-session levels of emotional arousal. Correlational analyses and general estimating equation were conducted to test the relationships between 1) quality of descriptions and type of memory, 2) type of memory and emotional arousal, and 3) quality of descriptions and emotional arousal. The data was transcripts drawn from an archival randomized-control study comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and emotion-focused therapy in a 16-week treatment for depression. Autobiographical memory recall segments were identified and sorted into three categories: specific, episodic, and generic. Quality of descriptions of these segments was then operationalized and measured using the Referential Activity Scale, and each memory segment was rated on four dimensions: concreteness, specificity, clarity, and overall imagery. Clients’ level of emotional arousal for each recall was measured using the Client’s Expression Emotion Scale. Contrary to the predictions, generic memories are associated with higher emotional arousal ratings and descriptive language ratings compared to specific memories. However, a positive relationship emerged between the quality of descriptions and expressed emotional arousal, indicating that the quality of descriptions in which memories are described in sessions is more important than the type of memory recalled in predicting clients’ level of emotional arousal. The results from this study provide a clearer understanding of the role of memory recall types and use of language in activating emotional arousal in psychotherapy sessions in a depressed sample.
153
104122
Assessment of the Validity of Sentiment Analysis as a Tool to Analyze the Emotional Content of Text
Abstract:
Sentiment analysis is a recent field of study that computationally assesses the emotional nature of a body of text. To assess its test-validity, sentiment analysis was carried out on the emotional corpus of text from a personal 15-day mood diary. Self-reported mood scores varied more or less accurately with daily mood evaluation score given by the software. On further assessment, it was found that while sentiment analysis was good at assessing &lsquo;global&rsquo; mood, it was not able to &lsquo;locally&rsquo; identify and differentially score synonyms of various emotional words. It is further critiqued for treating the intensity of an emotion as universal across cultures. Finally, the software is shown not to account for emotional complexity in sentences by treating emotions as strictly positive or negative. Hence, it is posited that a better output could be two (positive and negative) affect scores for the same body of text.
152
31083
A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Non-Task Behavior
Abstract:
This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. In addition, in existing studies, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to a positive outcome variable and a negative outcome variable, respectively. It was confirmed that for employees performing emotional labor, deep acting and surface acting are highly related to OCB and CWB, respectively. While positive emotion that employees come to experience during job performance process can easily trigger a positive non-task behavior such as OCB, negative emotion that employees experience through excessive workload or unfair treatment can easily induce a negative behavior like CWB. The two management behaviors of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting, can have either a positive or negative effect on non-task behavior of employees, depending on which one they would choose. Thus, the purpose of this review paper is to clarify the relationship between emotional labor and non-task behavior more specifically.
151
25477
Emotional Intelligence and Sports Coaches
Abstract:
There has been a shift in the role of sports from being a form of entertainment and relaxation to becoming a huge business concern and high money spinning venture. This shift has placed a greater demand on sport coaches as regards expectations for high performance from investors as well as other stake holders. The responsibility of sports coaches in ensuring high performance of sports men and women has become increasingly more demanding from both spectators and sports organisers. Coaches are leaders who should possess soft skills such as emotional intelligence aside from employing skills and drills to ensure high performance of athletes. This study is, therefore, designed to determine the emotional intelligence of sports coaches in South Africa. An assessment of the emotional intelligence of sports coaches would enable the researchers to identify those who have low emotional intelligence and to design an intervention program that could improve their emotional intelligence. This study will adopt the pragmatic world view of research using the mixed methods research design of the quantitative and qualitative approach. The non-probability sampling technique will be used to select fifty sports coaches for the quantitative study while fifteen sports coaches will be purposively selected for the qualitative study. One research question which seeks to ascertain the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches will be raised to guide this study. In addition, two research hypotheses stating that there will be no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence of sports coaches on the basis of gender and type of sports will be formulated and statistically analysed at 0.05 level of significance. For the quantitative study, an emotional intelligence test will be used to measure the emotional intelligence of sport coaches. Focus group interviews and open ended questions will be used to obtain the qualitative data. Quantitative data obtained will be statistically analysed using the SPSS version 22.0 while the qualitative data will be analysed using atlas ti. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations will be made.
150
42123
Emotional Labour and Employee Performance Appraisal: The Missing Link in Some Hotels in South East Nigeria
Abstract:
The main objective of this study was to determine if emotional labour has become a criterion in performance appraisal, job description, selection, and training schemes in the hotel industry in Nigeria. Our main assumption was that majority of hotel organizations have not built emotional labour into their human resources management schemes. Data were gathered by the use of structured questionnaires designed in Likert format, and interviews. The focus group was managers of the selected hotels. Analyses revealed that majority of the hotels have not built emotional labour into their human resources schemes particularly in the 1, 2, and 3-star hotels. It was observed that service employees of 1, 2, and 3-star hotels have not been adequately trained to perform emotional labour; a critical factor in quality service delivery. Managers of 1, 2, and 3-star hotels have not given serious thought to emotional labour as a critical factor in quality service delivery. The study revealed that suitability of an individual’s characteristics is not being considered as a criterion for selection and performance appraisal for service employees. The implication of this is that, person-job-fit is not seriously considered. It was observed that there has been a disconnect between required emotional competency, its recognition, evaluation, and training. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that selection, training, job description and performance appraisal instruments in use in hotels in Nigeria are inadequate. Human resource implications of the findings in this study are presented. It is recommended that hotel organizations should re-design and plan the emotional content and context of their human resources practices to reflect the emotional demands of front line jobs in the hotel industry and the crucial role emotional labour plays during service encounters.
149
23879
Investigating the Impact of Job-Related and Organisational Factors on Employee Engagement: An Emotionally Relevant Approach Based on Psychological Climate and Organisational Emotional Intelligence (OEI)
Abstract:
Factors on employee engagement: In particular, although theorists have described the critical role of emotional cognition of the workplace environment as antecedents to employee engagement, empirical research on the impact of emotional cognition on employee engagement is limited. However, previous researchers have typically provided evidence of the link between emotional cognition of the workplace environment and workplace attitudes such as job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This study therefore aims to investigate the impact of emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains of the work environment – as represented by measures of psychological climate and organizational emotional intelligence (OEI) - on employee engagement. The research is based on a quantitative cross-sectional survey of employees in a UK charity organization (n=174). The research instruments applied include the psychological climate scale, the organisational emotional intelligence questionnaire (OEIQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The data were analysed using hierarchical regression and partial least squares (PLS) analytical techniques. The results of the study show that both psychological climate and OEI, which represent emotional cognition of job, role, leader and organisation domains in the workplace are significant drivers of employee engagement. In particular, the study found that a sense of contribution and challenge at work are the strongest drivers of vigour, dedication and absorption and highlights the importance of emotionally relevant approaches in furthering our understanding of workplace engagement.
148
76079
Emotional Awareness and Working Memory as Predictive Factors for the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal among Adolescents
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: Cognitive reappraisal refers to an emotion regulation strategy in which one changes the interpretation of emotion-eliciting events. Numerous studies show that cognitive reappraisal is associated with mental health and better social functioning. However the examination of the predictive factors of adaptive emotion regulation remains as an issue. The present study examined the factors contributing to the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal, with a focus on emotional awareness and working memory. Methods: Data was collected from 30 junior high school students, using a Japanese version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale for Children (LEAS-C), and N-back task. Results: A positive correlation between emotional awareness and cognitive reappraisal was observed in the high-working-memory group (r = .54, p < .05), whereas no significant relationship was found in the low-working-memory group. In addition, the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between emotional awareness and working memory capacity (F(1, 26) = 7.74, p < .05). Subsequent analysis of simple main effects confirmed that high working memory capacity significantly increases the use of cognitive reappraisal for high-emotional-awareness subjects, and significantly decreases the use of cognitive reappraisal for low-emotional-awareness subjects. Discussion: These results indicate that under the condition when one has an adequate ability for simultaneous processing of information, explicit understanding of emotion would contribute to adaptive cognitive emotion regulation. The findings are discussed along with neuroscientific claims.
147
85368
The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women
Abstract:
In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05).
146
112165
Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan
Abstract:
Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.
145
70634
Subjective Well-Being, Emotional Regulation and Motivational Orientation of Competition Athletes
Abstract:
Behavior directed toward high levels of sports performance and excellence implies task-focused processes, processes of cognitive and emotional regulation. This research aims to understand if subjective well-being, emotional regulation, and motivational orientation influence the performance of competitive athletes. The sample of this study is a non-probabilistic convenience sample, consisting of 50 male athletes, aged 14 to 15 years, who belong to training teams integrated in the pedagogical department of a sports club in the North of Portugal. In terms of performance, the distinction between team A and team B is due to the championships in which the respective athletes participate. Team A participates in national championships where the levels of demand and challenge are more pronounced and the team B only participates in championships at the district level. Was verified the internal consistency of the subjective happiness scale, the emotional regulation scale, and the motivational orientation questionnaire. SPSS, version 22.0, was used in the data treatment. When comparing the dimensions of emotional regulation with performance, it can be seen that athletes with lower sports scores have higher levels of emotional control and emotional self-awareness. As far as situational responsiveness is concerned, only the emotional self-control dimension and the emotional self-awareness dimension show an influence on the income, although, contrary to what would be expected, they appear to be associated with lower incomes. When comparing the motivational orientation with the athletic performance, it is verified that the athletes with the highest performance present an ego-oriented motivation, evidencing the athletes with a lower performance athletic tendency towards the task orientation. Only the ego-oriented dimension seems to be associated with high sport performance. The motivational orientation for the ego and the dimensions emotional control and emotional self-awareness are presented in this study as having influence on sports performance. Following these studies that have shown concern with the characterization of the best athletes and the promotion of higher sports performances, this work contributes to the signaling of psychological variables associated with high sports income.
144
120833
The Effect of Emotion Self-Confidence and Perceived Social Support on Hong Kong Higher-Education Students' Suicide-Related Emotional Experiences
Authors:
Abstract:
There is growing public concern over the increasing prevalence of student suicide in Hong Kong. Some identify the problem with insufficient social support, while some attribute it to the vast fluctuations in emotional experience and the hindrances to emotion-regulation, both typical of adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study is thus designed to explore the respective effect of perceived social support and emotion self-confidence, on positive emotions and negative emotions. Fifty-seven Hong Kong higher-education students (17 males, 40 females) aged between 18 and 25 (M = 21.78) responded to an online questionnaire consisted of self-reported measures of perceived social support, emotional self-confidence, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that emotional self-confidence positively associated with positive emotions and negatively with negative emotions, while perceived social support positively associated with positive emotions but was not related to negative emotions. Perceived social support and emotional self-confidence both predicted positive emotions, but did not interact to predict any emotional outcome. It is concluded that students’ positive and negative emotional experiences are closely related to their emotion-regulation process. But for social support, its effect is merely protective, meaning that although perceived social support generally promotes positive emotions, it alone does not suffice to alleviate students’ negative emotions. These conclusions carry profound implications to suicide prevention practices, including that most existing suicide prevention campaigns should advance from merely fostering mutual support to directly promoting adaptive coping of emotional negativity.
143
100878
The Exploration of Preschool Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Socio-Emotional Development in School Readiness
Abstract:
Socio-emotional development is considered to be an essential prerequisite for school readiness. To our best knowledge, research on socio-emotional development specifically from the views of teachers in the South African context is limited. This study explored preschool teachers’ understanding of the role that socio-emotional development plays in preparing the child for school. Using the social learning theory, a qualitative approach with an exploratory design was used for the study. A total of 12 preschool teachers from both community-based and school-based preschools were purposively recruited. Upon receiving ethics clearance from the University of the Western Cape and the Western Cape Education Department, semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed by utilizing Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis. Participants’ rights, anonymity, and confidentiality were upheld throughout the research process. Findings reveal that preschool teachers emphasise the importance of holistic development for school readiness. Teachers deemed socio-emotional development as absolutely crucial for preparing children for school as it eases the transition to formal schooling and adaptation to the classroom environment.
142
135783
An Investigation into Kenyan Teachers’ Views of Children’s Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
Authors:
Abstract:
A great number of children in mainstream schools across Kenya are currently living with emotional, behavioural difficulties. This study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of children’s emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) and their attributions of the causes of EBD. The relevance of this area of study to current educational practice is illustrated in the fact that primary school teachers in Kenya find classroom behaviour problems one of the major difficulties they face. The information presented in this study was gathered from 182 teachers that responded back to the survey, of whom 27 teachers were later interviewed. In general, teachers’ perceptions of EBD reflect personal experience, training, and attitudes. Teachers appear from this study to use words such as indifferent, frightened, withdrawn, aggressive, disobedient, hyperactive, less ambitious, lacking concentration, and academically weak to describe pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). The implications of this study are envisaged as being extremely important to support teachers addressing children’s EBD and shed light on the contributing factors to EBD for a successful teaching-learning process in Libyan primary schools.
141
130935
An Investigation into Libyan Teachers’ Views of Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties
Abstract:
A great number of children in mainstream schools across Libya are currently living with emotional, behavioral difficulties. This study aims to explore teachers’ perceptions of children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) and their attributions of the causes of EBD. The relevance of this area of study to current educational practice is illustrated in the fact that primary school teachers in Libya find classroom behavior problems one of the major difficulties they face. The information presented in this study was gathered from 182 teachers that responded back to the survey, of whom 27 teachers were later interviewed. In general, teachers’ perceptions of EBD reflect personal experience, training, and attitudes. Teachers appear from this study to use words such as indifferent, frightened, withdrawn, aggressive, disobedient, hyperactive, less ambitious, lacking concentration, and academically weak to describe pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD). The implications of this study are envisaged as being extremely important to support teachers addressing children’s EBD and shed light on the contributing factors to EBD for a successful teaching-learning process in Libyan primary schools.
140
90955
Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes
Abstract:
Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total, 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.
139
100919
Emotional Skills and Musical Performance in the Elementary Music Education in Conservatoires: An Exploratory Study
Abstract:
Music students have to face the challenges of musical practice -such as discipline in study, competitiveness, or performance anxiety- that require good emotional management to enable successful performance. However, few rigorous implementations focused on studying the influence of emotional skills in student's musical performance. Responding to this gap in the literature, this study aims to explore the relationship between emotional skills and musical performance in the context of elementary music education in conservatoires. Given the individual nature of the instrumental studies and the difficult availability of teachers to be trained in emotional education, it was decided to conduct a multiple case study in a Spanish music conservatoire. Author 1 carried out the implementation of the research with three 10-year-old students who were selected from her piano class. All of them attended the third year of their piano studies. The research processes consisted of the implementation of a set of specific and cross-sectional activities designed 'ad hoc' to be articulated in the subjects of individual instrument -piano- and ensemble in parallel to the contents of musical nature. The CE-360º questionnaire was used to measure different aspects of the students' emotional skills from a multi-angle perspective, each of the questionnaires being responded by oneself, three teachers and three peers, before and after the implementation. The data from the questionnaire were compared with the grades that the students obtained during the first and last quarter of the school year in the attended subjects. Acknowledging the complexity of emotional development, the results indicate possible relations between emotional skills and musical performance in music education in conservatoires. The results show that for the cases explored; there exists a relationship between emotional skills and musical performance. Although generalizations cannot be made, this study reinforces the need to further explore emotional development in instrumental teaching and suggest the importance of inviting teachers to reflect on the pedagogical practices extended in the conservatoires and to develop and implement those that promote the work of the students' emotions.
138
18703
A Study on Measuring Emotional Labor and Burnout Levels of Shopping Mall Employess: The Case of the Province of Konya
Abstract:
As a result of globalization and changing consumer preferences, the number of shopping malls has increased significantly in recent years. Consumers prefer shopping malls to both do comfortable shopping in a short time and benefit from the social facilities there. Employees, who are obliged to behave to the consumers in the way the company wants them to do, often spend intensive emotional effort because companies buy the emotions the employees must display to customers in order to ensure customer satisfaction. The emotions the employees constantly try to contain may lead to the phenomenon of burn-out in time. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between the emotional labor and burn-out levels of shopping mall employees, who work in shopping malls and are supposed to reflect the corporate culture.
137
85381
Role of Emotional Support and Work Motivation for Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women
Abstract:
Today the career of Balinese working women has been highly developed where able to work with loyalty and high professionalism. Career for a woman is one conscious choice and a call of conscience, which provides financial support for her family. Career for women can develop their own potencies, intellectually, and socially, so women feel that their role is meaningful and beneficial for herself and others. Emotional support becomes important to understand certainly for women who have multirole like Balinese working women to meet the demands of their role and also enhancing their work motivation and the quality of work life. This research used quantitative research method with questionnaires dissemination to 120 respondents and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The purpose of this study was to see the role of emotional support for work motivation and quality of work life in working Balinese women. The results of this study showed that emotional support and work motivation give a significant role in the quality of work life on Balinese working women.
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105771
The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Skills on Innovative Start-Ups Coaching: A Neuro-Management Approach
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to identify the most influential predictors of emotional intelligence skills, in the case of 20 business innovation coaches, on the co-creation of knowledge through coaching services delivered to innovative start-ups from Europe, funded through Horizon 2020 – SME Instrument. We considered the emotional intelligence skills (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) as antecedent conditions of the outcome: the quality of coaching services, perceived by the entrepreneurs who received funding within SME instrument, using fuzzy-sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach. The findings reveal that emotional intelligence skills, trained with neuro-management techniques, were associated with increased goal-focused business coaching skills.
135
107790
The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Skills on Innovative Start-Ups Coaching: A Neuro-Management Approach
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to identify the most influential predictors of emotional intelligence skills, in the case of 20 business innovation coaches, on the co-creation of knowledge through coaching services delivered to innovative start-ups from Europe, funded through Horizon 2020 – SME Instrument. We considered the emotional intelligence skills (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) as antecedent conditions of the outcome: the quality of coaching services, perceived by the entrepreneurs who received funding within SME instrument, using fuzzy-sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach. The findings reveal that emotional intelligence skills, trained with neuro-management techniques, were associated with increased goal-focused business coaching skills.
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67366
Characteristics of the Labor Intensity of Secondary School Teachers
Abstract:
In this paper, there were analyzed the intensity of teachers of secondary schools of Astana. The analysis is based on the account of the whole complex of factors of production, creating the preconditions for the emergence of adverse neuro-emotional states (surge). All the factors of the labor process in the qualitative or quantitative terms were grouped into types of loads: intellectual, sensory, emotional, monotone, regime. The results showed that teachers' work activity is more intense in terms of sensory, intellectual, emotional work schedule loads and characterized class working conditions for tensions as '1st degree of harmful stressful work' and by a combined indicator refers to the category of high labor intensity.
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124425
The Effects of Emotional Working Memory Training on Trait Anxiety
Abstract:
Trait anxiety is a pervasive tendency to attend to and experience fears and worries to a disproportionate degree, across various situations. This study sought to determine if participants who undergo emotional working memory training will have significantly lower scores on the trait anxiety scales post-intervention. The study also sought to determine if emotional regulation mediated the relationship between working memory training and trait anxiety. Forty-nine participants underwent 20 days of computerized emotional working memory training called Emotional Dual n-back, which involves viewing a continuous stream of emotional content on a grid, and then remembering the location and color of items presented on the grid. Participants of the treatment group had significantly lower trait anxiety compared to controls post-intervention. Mediation analysis determined that working memory training had no significant relationship to anxiety as measured by the Beck’s Anxiety Inventory-Trait (BAIT), but was significantly related to anxiety as measured by form Y2 of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2). Emotion regulation, as measured by the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), was found not to mediate between working memory training and trait anxiety reduction. Results suggest that working memory training may be useful in reducing psychoemotional symptoms rather than somatic symptoms of trait anxiety. Moreover, it proposes for future research to further look into the mediating role of emotion regulation via neuroimaging and the development of more comprehensive measures of emotion regulation.
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105616
A Longitudinal Study of Academic Achievement: Parental Warm Support and Moderating Role of Teacher’s Emotional Support and Mediating Role of Self Control on Academic Achievement
Abstract:
The current 2-wave longitudinal study attempts to illuminate the well-established association between parental warm support and academic achievement through the mediating role of self-control while taking into account the moderating role of teacher emotional support. The present research has assessed 2569 Chinese students (aged 10-18 years, M = 13.27, SD = 0.67). They were recruited from the three public middle schools in Xi’an, a middle-sized city in the central part of China. Meditation analysis revealed that self-control mediated the relationship between parental warm support and academic achievement. Additionally, it was found the direct effect of parental warm support was not significant after controlling for the age and gender. Furthermore, moderation analysis revealed high parental warm support and higher teacher emotional support was related to increased self-control compared to lower teacher emotion support. The findings highlighted the importance of parental warm support, teacher emotional support, and self-control on academic achievement.
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5746
Investigation of Emotional Indicators of Schizophrenia Patients on Draw a Person Test in Pakistan
Abstract:
The present study was aimed to investigate and compare the emotional indicators of patients with schizophrenia on Draw a Person test in Pakistan. Draw a Person test was administered on a sample of 400 (Schizophrenia patients=200, Normal=200) age ranged from 20 to 50 years. The data was collected from two provinces of Pakistan (Punjab and Khyber Pakhtun Khwa). The sample was selected by the age levels. According to the Koppitz method of scoring a list of 40 Emotional indicators was selected that were derived from the literature review. It was found that 26 out of 40 emotional indicators (EIs) on Draw a Person test significantly differentiated between patients with schizophrenia and normal (healthy) population. Chi square analysis of the study indicated that 23 EIs were found significant at (p=.001) level, while three EIs were found significant at (P=.05) levels. It was also found that 9 exclusive and 4 frequent EIs on Human Figure Drawings may be significant diagnostic emotional indicators for schizophrenia. It was found that DAP test can be used as a diagnostic tool with the battery of psychological tests such as MCMI-III, MMPI, MSE, HTP for schizophrenia in Pakistan.
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54576
Perceived Power and Conflict Management in Spousal Relationships
Abstract:
The perception of relative power within a couple relies on the resources (emotional-social, materialistic) each partner perceives to have. The present study examines a model in which the perceived power of the couple predicts the spouses’ conflict management. In addition, we examined whether this relationship is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. It was found that the perception of social-emotional power predicts cooperative conflict management styles of the couple. It was also found that this correlation is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. Contrary to the hypothesis, perception of social-emotional power did not predict the use of non-cooperative conflict management styles.
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115971
Family Dynamics on Attitude Towards Peace: The Mediating Role of Emotional Regulation Strategies
Abstract:
Untold numbers of children and adolescents around the world are exposed increasingly to the war on a daily basis. These experiences shape how they will view themselves, others, and the world. A wealth of studies have shown the role of family dynamics in the development of children’s attitudes, particularly their social behaviors. This specific study, however, contends that family dynamics influence peace and conflict resolution attitude and further asserts that it is brought about by the degree of emotional regulation strategies they use. Utilising purposive sampling, adolescent participant-respondents were from different schools in Southern Philipines, specifically of the cities of Marawi and Iligan, where exposure to warring clans, internal struggle between the Philippine Military and insurgencies, and the recent Marawi Seige caused by Al-Qaeda and ISIS-spawned terrorism. Results showed emotional regulation strategies mediate the relationship between family dynamics, particularly on family cohesion, and attitude towards peace. Thus implying the association between family cohesion and attitude towards peace strengthens with the use of emotional regulation strategies.
128
96940
Creating Emotional Brand Attachment through Immersive Worlds in Brick-and-Mortar Stores
Abstract:
This paper is an analysis of the store Tarina Tarantino through an exploration of different perspectives of play. It is based on Yelp reviews where customers disclose a very positive emotional reaction toward the store. The paper proposes some general principles for designing immersive stores based on ‘possible world’ theory. The aim is to disclose essential condition for customer engagement is an overall cohesiveness in all elements in a store. The most significant contribution in this paper is that products become props for role-playing in a store, hence making them central for maintaining that role outside the store.
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40729
Investigating the relationship between Emotional Intelligence of principals in high schools(secondary school principals) and Teachers Conflict Management: A Case Study on secondary schools, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to empathize, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others in a way that earns friends and success. These abilities allow an individual to recognize and regulate emotion, develop self-control, set goals, develop empathy, resolve conflicts, and develop skills needed for leadership and effective group participation. Due to the increasing complexity of organizations and different ways of thinking, attitudes and beliefs of individuals, conflict as an important part of organizational life has been examined frequently. The main point is that the conflict is not necessarily in organization, unnecessary; but it can be more creative (increase creativity), to promote innovation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between principals emotional intelligence as one of the factors affecting conflict management among teachers. This relation was analyzed through cluster sampling with a sample size consisting of 120 individuals. The results of the study showed that at the 95% level of confidence, the two secondary hypotheses (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals and use of competition and cooperation strategies of conflict management among teachers) were confirmed, but the other three secondary hypotheses (i.e. the relation between emotional intelligence of managers and use of avoidance, adaptation and adaptability strategies of conflict management among teachers) were rejected. The primary hypothesis (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals with conflict management among teachers) is supported.
126
17950
The Effects of Online Video Gaming on Creativity
Abstract:
Effects of videogame play on players cognitive abilities is a growing research field in the recent decades, however, little is known about how ‘out-of-school’ use of videogame influences creativity. This interdisciplinary research explores the cognitive and emotional effects of two different types of online videogames (an action videogame and a non-action videogame) on subsequent creativity performances using a within-participant design study with 36 participants. Results showed that after playing the action game participants performed higher originality, elaboration and flexibility than after playing the causal game. The results explored effects of emotional states elicited during playing the games suggesting that arousal may be a significant emotional factor which influence subsequent creativity performance. The cognitive and emotional effects of videogame were discussed followed with implications for emotion-creativity-videogame play research, game designers, educational practitioners and parents.
125
44190
Impact of Emotional Intelligence of Principals in High Schools on Teachers Conflict Management: A Case Study on Secondary Schools, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to empathize, persevere, control impulses, communicate clearly, make thoughtful decisions, solve problems, and work with others in a way that earns friends and success. These abilities allow an individual to recognize and regulate emotion, develop self-control, set goals, develop empathy, resolve conflicts, and develop skills needed for leadership and effective group participation. Due to the increasing complexity of organizations and different ways of thinking, attitudes and beliefs of individuals, Conflict as an important part of organizational life has been examined frequently. The main point is that the conflict is not necessarily in organization, unnecessary; But it can be more creative (increase creativity), to promote innovation, or may avoid wasting energy and resources of the organization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between principals emotional intelligence as one of the factors affecting conflict management among teachers. This relation was analyzed through cluster sampling with a sample size consisting of 120 individuals. The results of the study showed that, at the 95% level of confidence, the two secondary hypotheses (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals and use of competition and cooperation strategies of conflict management among teachers)were confirmed, but the other three secondary hypotheses (i.e. the relation between emotional intelligence of managers and use of avoidance, adaptation and adaptability strategies of conflict management among teachers) were rejected. The primary hypothesis (i.e. relation between emotional intelligence of principals with conflict management among teachers) is supported.
124
33082
Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances and Perceived Coping Strategies of Earthquake Survived Children
Abstract:
The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among earthquake survived children and the perceived coping strategies of affected children. In the present study, a sample of 50 children (6-16 years) belonging to badly affected areas (earthquake) was selected from different camps in Islamabad. Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns, and Child Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC) was used to assess the perceived coping strategies of affected children. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by children like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression and attention seeking behavior. Whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that female children showed more internalizing behavioral patterns (withdrawn, somatic complaints) as compared to male children who exhibited more externalizing emotions (aggression, delinquent behavior).Coping strategies in which male children tried to adopt Positive Cognitive Restructuring and for distracting attention they used distraction strategies of coping. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the earthquake affected children. Male children adopt coping strategies more as compared to female children. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying the problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these children.
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74548
Socio-Emotional Skills of Children with Learning Disability, Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement
Abstract:
The present research aimed to study the level of socio-emotional skills and perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability. The study further investigated the relationship between the levels of socio-emotional skills, perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement of children with learning disability. The sample comprised of 40 children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai. Purposive or Judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability. A self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale and Child’s Social and Emotional Skills Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy and their level of social and emotional skill respectively. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into a percentage. The data was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. Spearman rho or Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to ascertain the multiple relationships between child’s perceived self-efficacy, child’s social and emotional skills and child’s academic achievement. The findings revealed majority (27) of the children with learning disability perceived themselves having above average level of social and emotional skills while 13 out of 40 perceived their level of social and emotional skills at an average level. Domain wise analyses revealed that, in the domain of self- management (26) and relationship skills (22) more number of the children perceived themselves as having average or below average level of social and emotional skills indicating that they perceived themselves as having average or below average skills in regulating their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations, establishing and maintaining healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse groups and individuals. With regard to perceived self-efficacy, the majority of the children with learning disability perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Looking at the data domain wise it was found that, in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy, 50% of the children perceived themselves at average or below average level, indicating that they perceived themselves as average on competencies like organizing academic activities, structuring environment to make it conducive for learning, expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner. Further, the correlations were computed, and significant positive correlations were found between children’s social and emotional skills and academic achievement (r=.378, p < .01), and between children’s social and emotional skills and child’s perceived self-efficacy (r = .724, p < .01) and a positive significant correlation was also found between children’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Results of the study emphasize on planning intervention for children with learning disability focusing on improving self-management and relationship skills, self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy.
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31150
Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.
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106871
The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-Being in 12th Grade Students in Tehran City
Abstract:
Investigate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-being in 12th grade students in Tehran city is the aim of present study. The research method is semi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of the study includes all 12th grade students of the 12th district of Tehran city in the academic year of 2017 to 2018. From the mentioned population, 60 students had earned low scores in three dimensions of Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire of Keyes and Magyar-Moe (2003) by using random sampling method and they were selected and randomly assigned into 2 experimental and control groups. Then experimental groups were received a Mindfulness protocol in 8 sessions during 2 hours. After completion of the sessions, all subjects were re-evaluated. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of covariance. The findings of this study showed that in the emotional well-being aspect with the components of positive emotional affection (P < 0.025, F = 17/80) and negative emotions (P < 0.025, F = 5/41), in the psychological well-being of the components Self-esteem (P < 0.008, F = 25.26), life goal (P < 0.008, F = 38.19), environmental domination (P < 0.008, F=82.82), relationships with others (P < 0.008, F = 19.12), personal development with (P < 0.008, F = 87.38), and in the social well-being aspect, the correlation coefficients with (P< 0.01, F=12/21), admission and acceptability with (P < 0.01, F =18.09) and realism with (P < 0.01, F = 11.30), there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups and it can be said that the education of mindfulness affects the improvement of components of psychological, social and emotional well-being in students.
120
115974
Induced Affectivity and Impact on Creativity: Personal Growth and Perceived Adjustment when Narrating an Intense Emotional Experience
Abstract:
We examine the causal role of positive affect on creativity, the association of creativity or innovation in the ideation phase with functional emotional regulation, successful adjustment to stress and dispositional emotional creativity, as well as the predictive role of creativity for positive emotions and social adjustment. The study examines the effects of modification of positive affect on creativity. Participants write three poems, narrate an infatuation episode, answer a scale of personal growth after this episode and perform a creativity task, answer a flow scale after creativity task and fill a dispositional emotional creativity scale. High and low positive effect was induced by asking subjects to write three poems about high and low positive connotation stimuli. In a neutral condition, tasks were performed without previous affect induction. Subjects on the condition of high positive affect report more positive and less negative emotions, more personal growth (effect size r = .24) and their last poem was rated as more original by judges (effect size r = .33). Mediational analysis showed that positive emotions explain the influence of the manipulation on personal growth - positive affect correlates r = .33 to personal growth. The emotional creativity scale correlated to creativity scores of the creative task (r = .14), to the creativity of the narration of the infatuation episode (r = .21). Emotional creativity was also associated, during performing the creativity task, with flow (r = .27) and with affect balance (r = .26). The mediational analysis showed that emotional creativity predicts flow through positive affect. Results suggest that innovation in the phase of ideation is associated with a positive affect balance and satisfactory performance, as well as dispositional emotional creativity is adaptive.
119
107133
Parental Negative Emotional States, Parenting Style and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Australia-Indonesia Cross-Cultural Study
Abstract:
This cross-cultural study aims to compare the level of parental depression and stress, parenting style use, and child emotional and behavioural problems between parents in Australia as an example of a Western country and parents in Indonesia as an example of Asian culture. A series of hierarchical regressions were undertaken to determine two models examining the factors that predict child problems residing in Australia (Model 1) and in Indonesia (Model 2). The online survey was completed by 179 parents in Australia and 448 parents in Indonesia. Results indicated that Australian parents reported higher levels of depression, authoritative parenting and higher levels of child misbehaviours compared to Indonesian parents. In comparison, Indonesian parents reported higher authoritarian parenting. Analyses performed to examine Model 1 and 2 revealed that parental negative emotional states and parenting style predicted child emotional and behavioural problems in both countries.
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32034
Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Decision-Making Styles: A Study of Iranian Managers at Different Organizational Levels
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence as conceptualized in Goleman’s competency model, and decision making styles in levels of management. To conduct this study, different level managers in Iran Broadcasting Organization completed a questionnaire on emotional intelligence and decision making styles. Researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics to describe data and analyze the two variables relationship in managers of three levels. Results revealed significant relationships for rational, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous styles. No significant relationship was found for intuitive style. Yet the results indicate that avoidant style has negative relation to EI. Furthermore, EI has direct and strong relation to rational style.
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137249
The Effectiveness of Spouses' Communication Skills Training on Reducing Emotional Harassment and Adjusting Marital Expectations: Married Iranian Women
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Minnesota Spouses Communication Skills Program on reducing emotional harassment and adjusting the marital expectations of married women. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with waiting list group and follow-up period. The statistical population of the study consisted of married women referring to counseling and psychology centers in Mashhad, from which 30 people were selected as a sample by examining the entry criteria and questionnaire scores, and randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 people) and the waiting list group (15 people) were replaced. The experimental group was given 8 sessions of communication skills program of spouses. The emotional harassment and marital expectations questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the waiting list group, so that the communication skills training of the spouses reduced emotional harassment and adjusted marital expectations, and these effects continued in the follow-up period. Therefore, we can conclude that teaching the husband's communication skills program in the Minnesota method reduces emotional harassment and modifies women's marital expectations.
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128589
Relationships among Parentification, Self-Differentiation, and Ambivalence over Emotional Expression for Children of Migratory Families
Abstract:
Due to cultural factors, expressing emotions may not be encouraged in collectivist cultures, which emphasize the needs of the group over the needs of the individual. This phenomenon is more prominent for children of migratory families. Due to the absence of one parent, children were often parentified by adults, which then impacted on their self-differentiation process. It made them more difficult to express their needs and emotions freely and openly. This study aimed to investigate the meditation effect of self-differentiation between parentification, and ambivalence over emotional expression for children of migratory families in Taiwan. Participants included 460 (326 females, 134 males) Taiwanese adults (age 18-25 years). The data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The questionnaire included informed consent form, 'Filial Responsibility Scale-Adult', 'Chinese version of the Differentiation of Self Inventory', 'Ambivalence over Emotion Expressiveness Questionnaire', and the demographic sheet. Results indicated that self-differentiation mediated the relationship between parentified experience and ambivalence over emotional expression. In other words, parentified experience itself does not have the power to affect ambivalence over emotional expression. Only by affecting self-differentiation can it make an actual difference. The results were as expected and confirmed the hypothesis. Implications for clinical practice, research, and training were discussed.
115
92462
An Analysis of Socio-Demographics, Living Conditions, and Physical and Emotional Child Abuse Patterns in the Context of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake
Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study is to i) investigate the socio-demographics and living conditions of households in Haiti pre- and post 2010 earthquake, ii) determine the household prevalence of emotional and physical abuse in children (aged 2-14) after the earthquake, and iii) explore the association between earthquake-related loss and experience of emotional and physical child abuse in the household while considering potential confounding variables and the interactive effects of a number of social, economic, and demographic factors. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Haitian households from the 2005/6 and 2012 phases of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) was used. Descriptive analysis was summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendency. Chi-squared and independent t-tests were used to compare data that was available pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. The association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse was assessed using log-binomial regression models. Results: Comparing pre-post-earthquake, noteworthy improvements were observed in the educational attainment of the household head (9.1% decrease in “no education” category) and in possession of the following household items: electricity, television, mobile-phone, and radio post-earthquake. Approximately 77.0% of children aged 2-14 experienced at least one form of physical abuse and 78.5% of children experienced at least one form of emotional abuse one month prior to the 2012 survey period. Analysis regarding the third objective (association between experiences of earthquake-related loss and emotional and physical child abuse) is in progress. Conclusions: The extremely high prevalence of emotional and physical child abuse in Haiti indicates an immediate need for improvements in the enforcement of existing policies and interventions aimed at decreasing child abuse in the household.
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80255
Six Failure Points Innovators and Entrepreneurs Risk Falling into: An Exploratory Study of Underlying Emotions and Behaviors of Self- Perceived Failure
Abstract:
Many technology startups fail to achieve a worthwhile return on investment for their funders, founders, and employees. Failures in product development, to-market strategy, sales, and delivery are commonly recognized. Founder failures are not as obvious and harder to identify. This paper explores six critical failure points that entrepreneurs and innovators are susceptible to and aims to link their emotional intelligence and behavioral profile to the points at which they experienced self-perceived failure. A model of six failure points from the perspective of the technology entrepreneur ranging from pre-startup to maturity is provided. By analyzing emotional and behavioral profile data from entrepreneurs and recording in-person accounts, certain key emotional and behavioral clusters contributing to each failure point are determined, and several underlying factors are defined and discussed. Recommendations that support entrepreneurs and innovators stalling at each failure point are given. This work can enable stakeholders to evaluate founder emotional and behavioral profiles and to take risk-mitigating action, either through coaching or through more robust team creation, to avoid founder-related company failure. The paper will be of interest to investors funding startups, executives leading them and mentors supporting them.
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135378
The Role of Parents on Fear Acquisition of Children in COVID-19 Pandemic
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the role of parents' emotional and behavioral reactions on fears of children in the COVID-19 pandemic considering Rachman’s Three Pathways Theory. For this purpose, a phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Thirteen participants living with their children were utilized through criterion and snowball sampling. In semi-structured interviews parents were asked about their own and their children’s beahavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic, and they were expected to give detailed information about fears of their children before and in pandemic. Firstly, parents were asked about their behavioral and emotional reactions in the COVID-19 pandemic. As behavioral reactions, precautions taken by parents to protect the rest of the family from negative physical and emotional impact of the pandemic were mentioned, while emotional reactions were defined as acquisition of negative emotions like fear, anxiety, and worry. Secondly, parents were asked about their children’s behavioral and emotional reactions. Some of the parents talked about positive behavioral changes such as gaining self-control, while some others explained negative behavioral changes like increased time spent with technological tools. In the emotional changes section, all of the parents explained at least one negative emotion. All of the parents stated that their children had COVID-19 related fears. According to parents’ expressions, fears of children in pandemic were examined in two dimensions. Fears directly related to COVID-19 were fear of virus/microbes, illness or death of someone in family and death and fears. Fears indirectly related to COVID-19 were fear of going out, sleep alone at night, separation, touching stuff outside the home, and cold. Considering existing literature and based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children’s modelling experiences have impact on acquisition of negative emotions, especially fear, therefore, preventive interventions involving caregivers should be provided by mental health professionals working with children.
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21084
Emotional Intelligence: A Panacea in the Management and Marketing of Hospitality and Tourism Good and Services
Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence constitutes powerful psychological forces that can strongly influence performance in behaviour, interaction and relationship management. Surprisingly how emotions are interpreted and employed in marketing of hospitality experience have had limited comprehension. Marketing of hospitality experiences have important emotional dimensions which the traditional marketing techniques tend to underplay. Guest and host relationship are challenged by mutual hospitableness obligations; suggesting that the commercial practice of delivering satisfactory guest experience has much to gain from traditional understanding of hospitality. By understanding the emotion-based hospitality transaction between guests and hosts, customers’ experiences can be delivered over and against competitor pressure. In this paper, marketing strategies and tactics in hospitality and tourism are principally concerned with adjusting each of the 6P & T elements (i.e. product, place, price and promotion; and adding people, processes and Time in service contexts), to provide a competitive offer (experience) to customers.
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43566
Inspiring Woman: The Emotional Intelligence Leadership of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid
Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine various components of applied emotional intelligence as demonstrated in the leadership style of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid in pre and post-Islamic society. Methodology: The research used a qualitative research method, specifically historical and ethnographic techniques. Data collection included both primary and secondary sources. Data from sources were analyzed to document the use of emotional intelligent leadership behaviors throughout Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid leadership experience from 596 A.D. to 621 A.D. Findings: Demonstration of four cornerstones of emotional intelligence which are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. Apply them on khadejah Bint Khuwaylid leadership style reveal that she possess main behavioral competences in the form of emotionally self-aware, self-.confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence. Conclusions: Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid serves as a historical model of effective leadership that included the use of emotional intelligence in her leadership behavior. The inclusion of the effective portion of the brain created a successful leadership style that can be learned by present day and future leadership. The recommendations for future leaders are to include the use of emotionally self-aware and self-confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence as components of leadership. This will then demonstrate in a leadership a basic knowledge and understanding of feelings, the keenness to be emotionally open with others, the ability to prototype beliefs and values, and the use of emotions in future communications, vision and progress.
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119662
Job Characteristics, Emotion Regulation and University Teachers' Well-Being: A Job Demands-Resources Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
Teaching is widely known to be an emotional endeavor, and teachers’ ability to regulate their emotions is important for their well-being and the effectiveness of their classroom management. Considering that teachers’ emotion regulation is an underexplored issue in the field of educational research, some studies have attempted to explore the role of emotion regulation in teachers’ work and to explore the links between teachers’ emotion regulation, job characteristics, and well-being, based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. However, those studies targeted primary or secondary teachers. So far, very little is known about the relationships between university teachers’ emotion regulation and its antecedents and effects on teacher well-being. Based on the job demands-resources model and emotion regulation theory, this study examined the relationships between job characteristics of university teaching (i.e., emotional job demands and teaching support), emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression), and university teachers’ well-being. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 643 university teachers in China were analysed. The results indicated that (1) both emotional job demands and teaching support had desirable effects on university teachers’ well-being; (2) both emotional job demands and teaching support facilitated university teachers’ use of reappraisal strategies; and (3) reappraisal was beneficial to university teachers’ well-being, whereas suppression was harmful. These findings support the applicability of the job demands-resources model to the contexts of higher education and highlight the mediating role of emotion regulation.
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75384
Gratitude, Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction in Dating College Students: A Parallel Multiple Mediator Model
Abstract:
Gratitude is one individual strength that not only facilitates the mental health, but also fosters the relationship satisfaction in the romantic relationship. In terms of moral effect theory and stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, present study not only investigated the association between grateful disposition and relationship satisfaction, but also explored the mechanism by comprehensively examining the potential mediating roles of three profiles of forgiveness (trait forgivingness, decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness), another character strength that highly related to the gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct the multiple mediator model with a sample of 103 Chinese college students in dating relationship (39 male students and 64 female students, Mage = 19.41, SD = 1.34). Findings displayed that both gratitude and relationship satisfaction positively correlated with decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Emotional forgiveness was the only mediator, and it completely mediated the relationship between gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Gratitude was helpful in enhancing individuals’ perception of satisfaction in romantic relationship through replacing negative emotions toward partners with positive ones after transgression in daily life. It highlighted the function of emotional forgiveness in personal healing and peaceful state, which is important to the perception of satisfaction in relationship. Findings not only suggested gratitude could provide a stability for forgiveness, but also the mechanism of prosocial responses or positive psychological processes on relationship satisfaction. The significant roles of gratitude and emotional forgiveness could be emphasized in the intervention working on the romantic relationship development or reconciliation.
108
63002
The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being among Tour Guides
Abstract:
The concept of self-efficacy refers to people&rsquo;s beliefs in their ability to perform certain behaviors and cope with environmental demands. As such, self-efficacy plays a key role in linking ability to performance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), and well-being among tour guides, who act as intermediaries between tourists and an unfamiliar environment and significantly influence tourists&rsquo; impressions of a destination. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to identify the relationships between these factors. The results found that self-efficacy is positively associated with EI and well-being, and a positive link was seen between EI and well-being. This study has practical implications, as the results can facilitate the development of interventions for enhancing tour guides&rsquo; EI and self-efficacy competencies, which will benefit them in terms of both enhanced achievements and improved psychological happiness and well-being.
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56615
The Emotional Implication of the Phraseological Fund Applied in Cognitive Business Negotiation
Abstract:
The paper equally centers on both the structural and cognitive linguistics in light of phraseologism and its emotional implication. Accordingly, the methods elaborated within the framework of both the systematic-structural and linguo-cognitive theories are identically relevant to the research of mine. In other words, through studying the negotiation process, our attention is drawn upon defining negotiations’ peculiarities, emotion, style and specifics of cognition, motives, aims, contextual characterizations and the quality of cultural context and integration. Besides, the totality of the concepts and methods is also referred to, which is connected with the stage of the development of the emotional linguistic thinking. The latter contextually correlates with the dominance of anthropocentric–communicative paradigm. The synthesis of structuralistic and cognitive perspectives has turned out to be relevant to our research, carried out in the form of intellectual action, that is, on the one hand, the adequacy of the research purpose to the expected results. On the other hand, the validity of methodology for formulating the objective conclusions needed for emotional connotation beyond phraseologism. The mechanism mentioned does not make a claim about a discovery of a new truth. Though, it gives the possibility of a novel interpretation of the content in existence.
106
89701
Lifelong Multiple Victimization among Native and Immigrant Women in Portugal: Prevalence and Emotional (Dis)Adjustment
Abstract:
Despite the scientific attention that it has received, the research on the victimization of women continues to neglect some factors that may enhance the risk of women to victimization. This study sought to identify the prevalence and the lifelong trajectories of multiply victimized women (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), the co-occurrence of different types of victimization, the contexts of occurrence and emotional adjustment and resilience. We used a convenience sample of 120 women multiply victimized, including 35 Portuguese natives and 85 immigrant women (e.g., Brazilian, African) who were recruited from support institutions and shelters. The results documented the similarities and differences concerning victimization between these groups and the intersectional factors that may elucidate vulnerability to victimization. There was a high co-occurrence of types of victimization, particularly in adulthood. The victimization reported occurred frequently in different contexts: familiar, workplace and helping institutions. A higher number of victimization experiences was related with more emotional symptomatology, less familiar cohesion and less social resources. The implications of the results are discussed.
105
22452
Emotional Intelligence and Age in Open Distance Learning
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Abstract:
Emotional Intelligence (EI) concept is not new yet unique and interesting. EI is a person’s ability to be aware of his/her own emotions and to manage, handle and communicate emotions with others effectively. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and age of graduate level students at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Population consisted of Allama Iqbal Open University students (B.Ed 3rd Semester, Autumn 2007) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions. Total number of sample consisted of 469 participants was randomly drawn out by using table of random numbers. Bar-On EQ-i was administered on the participants through personal contact. The instrument was also validated through pilot study on a random sample of 50 participants (B.Ed students Spring 2006), who had completed their B.Ed degree successfully. Data was analyzed and tabulated in percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and scatter gram in SPSS (version 16.0 for windows). The results revealed that students with higher age group had scored low on the scale (Bar-On EQ-i). Moreover, the students in low age groups exhibited higher levels of EI as compared with old age students.
104
65035
An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms
Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neurons systems (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of MNS was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person&rsquo;s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated.
103
122620
The Impact of Animal-Assisted Learning on Emotional Wellbeing and Engagement with Reading
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Introduction: Animal-assisted learning (AAL) interventions are increasing exponentially, yet a paucity of quality research in the field exists. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the promotion of emotional wellbeing, through AAL, in this case, a dog, may support children’s engagement with reading in a Primary 1 classroom. Research indicates that dogs can provide emotional support to children; by forming a trusting attachment with a non-critical ‘friend’ who confers unconditional positive regard on the child, confidence may be boosted and anxiety reduced. By promoting emotional wellbeing through interactions with the dog, it is hoped that children begin to associate reading with feelings of wellbeing, which then results in increased engagement with reading. Methodology: A review of the literature was conducted. The relationship between emotional wellbeing and learning was explored, followed by an examination of the literature relating to Animal-Assisted Therapy and AAL. Scottish educational policy and legislation were analysed to establish the extent to which AAL might be suitable for the Scottish pedagogical context. An empirical study was conducted in a mainstream Primary 1 classroom over a four-week period. An inclusive approach was adopted whereby all children that wanted to interact with the dog were given the opportunity to do so, and all 25 children subsequently chose to participate. Children were not withdrawn from the classroom. Primary methods included interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Three focus children were selected for closer study. Main Results: Results were remarkably close to previous research and literature. Children’s emotional wellbeing was boosted, and engagement in reading improved. Principal Conclusions and Implications for Field: It was concluded that AAL could support emotional wellbeing and, in turn, promote children’s engagement with reading. The main limitation of the study was its short-term nature, and a longer randomised controlled trial with a larger sample, currently being undertaken by the author, would provide a fuller answer to the research question. Barriers to AAL include health and safety concerns and steps to ensure the welfare of the dog.
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62810
Personal Factors and Career Adaptability in a Call Centre Work Environment: The Mediating Effects of Professional Efficacy
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Abstract:
The study discussed in this article sought to assess whether a sense of professional efficacy mediates the relationship between personal factors and career adaptability. A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed. A non&ndash;probability sample of (N = 409) of which predominantly early career and permanently employed black females in call centres in Africa participated in this study. In order to assess personal factors, the participants completed sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence measures. Measures of professional efficacy and career adaptability were also completed. The results of the mediational analysis revealed that professional efficacy significantly mediates the meaningfulness (sense of coherence) and career adaptability relationship, but not the emotional intelligence&ndash;career adaptability relationship. Call centre agents with professional efficacy are likely to be more work engaged as a result of their sense of meaningfulness and emotional intelligence.
101
109471
Impact of Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence on Radio Presenter's Performance in All India Radio, Kolkata, India
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Abstract:
This research paper aims at investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance in the All India Radio, Kolkata (India’s public service broadcaster). The ancient concept of productivity is the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. But, father of modern management Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005) defined productivity of knowledge work and knowledge workers in a new form. In the other hand, the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) originated back in 1920’s when Thorndike (1920) for the first time proposed the emotional intelligence into three dimensions, i.e., abstract intelligence, mechanical intelligence, and social intelligence. The contribution of Salovey and Mayer (1990) is substantive, as they proposed a model for emotional intelligence by defining EI as part of the social intelligence, which takes measures the ability of an individual to regulate his/her personal and other’s emotions and feeling. Cognitive intelligence illustrates the specialization of general intelligence in the domain of cognition in ways that possess experience and learning about cognitive processes such as memory. The outcomes of past research on emotional intelligence show that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on social- mental factors of human resource; positive effects of emotional intelligence on leaders and followers in terms of performance, results, work, satisfaction; emotional intelligence has a positive and significant relationship with the teachers' job performance. In this paper, we made a conceptual framework based on theories of emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990) and a compensatory model of emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance proposed by Stephen Cote and Christopher T. H. Miners (2006). For investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance, sample size consists 59 radio presenters (considering gender, academic qualification, instructional mood, age group, etc.) from All India Radio, Kolkata station. Questionnaires prepared based on cognitive (henceforth called C based and represented by C1, C2,.., C5) as well as emotional intelligence (henceforth called E based and represented by E1, E2,., E20). These were sent to around 59 respondents (Presenters) for getting their responses. Performance score was collected from the report of program executive of All India Radio, Kolkata. The linear regression has been carried out using all the E-based and C-based variables as the predictor variables. The possible problem of autocorrelation has been tested by having the Durbinson-Watson (DW) Statistic. Values of this statistic, almost within the range of 1.80-2.20, indicate the absence of any significant problem of autocorrelation. The possible problem of multicollinearity has been tested by having the Variable Inflation Factor (VIF) value. Values of this statistic, around within 2, indicates the absence of any significant problem of multicollinearity. It is inferred that the performance scores can be statistically regressed linearly on the E-based and C-based scores, which can explain 74.50% of the variations in the performance.
100
72213
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Profiles among Students’ Representative Council of Malaysian Public Universities
Abstract:
This quantitative research is aimed to identify the level of leadership quality and emotional intelligence for members of Students&#39; Representatives Council (SRC) of Malaysian Public Universities (MPU). The variables include the leadership quality and emotional quotient (EQ). 238 SRC members in MPU were selected as subjects of the study. Data were collected using two instruments i.e. Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (MEQI) and Ayu-Noriah Leadership Audit Trail Inventory (Ayu-Noriah, LATI). Data were analyzed using descriptive (mean and percentage). Research findings showed that the subjects scored highly in four out of five EQ domains (Self-Regulations, Self-Motivation, Empathy and Social Skills). However, the subjects scored medium to low in Self-Awareness. Analysis on the sub domains (a total of 28 sub domains) showed that the subjects scored high in 17 sub domains for EQ, whilst another 11 were at medium level. The overall analysis indicates that the subjects have high level of EQ. Findings on their leadership qualities showed that they obtained high scores in all seven factors that were measured i.e. Strategy and Leadership Model, Recruit, Review Performance and Honor, Deploy Strategically, Developing, Engage and Retain and Built HR Capabilities/Line Ownership. The overall score for leadership qualities was found to be high.
99
42455
A Study of Customer Aggression towards Frontline Employees in Some Hotels in Imo State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The main purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of customer’s aggression towards hotel workers and make contributions on the prevalence and rationale behind customer’s aggression. Data for the study were gathered with a four-point Likert type rating scale. Samples were drawn from frontline hotel employees, managers and customers of twelve (12) hotels selected from three zones of Imo State. Data analyses were conducted using simple percentage, descriptive statistics; and Z-test statistical technique was used to test hypotheses. Among other factors, service failure and verbal abuse by service providers and poor quality product compared to price were identified by customers as the three major factors that can lead to customer aggression. Frontline employees indentified verbal abuse as the most common mode of aggression and that customer aggression causes emotional disturbance in them. The study also revealed that customer aggression is more prevalent in the 1&2 star hotels than it is in 3-5 star hotels. Most of the hotels have not institutionalized systematic approaches needed to effectively face the challenges of customer aggression, thus, customer aggression has become a common feature in the industry. Frontline jobs demand high emotional input. Therefore, we recommend that frontline employees should be given emotional support by their managers and also trained on how to cope with emotional disturbance.
98
112144
Exploration of the Possible Link Between Emotional Problems and Cholesterol Levels Among Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Abstract:
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Evidence shows that ADHD and mood problems such as depression and anxiety often co-occur and yet not everyone with ADHD reported elevated emotional problems. Given that cholesterol is essential for healthy brain development including the regions governing emotion regulation, reports found lower cholesterol levels in patients with major depressive disorder and those with suicide attempt behavior compared to healthy subjects. This study explored whether ADHD adolescents experienced more emotional problems and whether emotional problems correlated with cholesterol levels in these adolescents. This study used a portion of data from the longitudinal cohort study which was designed to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, parents of 300 adolescents (average age: 12.57+/-0.49 years) were asked to rate their children’s emotional problems and report whether their children had doctor-diagnosed psychiatric diseases. We further collected blood samples from 263 children to study their lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol). Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Among 300 children, 27 (9%) had ADHD diagnosis. Analysis based on overall sample found no association between ADHD and emotional problems, but when investigating the relationship by gender, there was a significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on emotional problems (p=0.037), with ADHD males displaying more emotional problems than ADHD females. Further analyses based on 263 children (21 with ADHD diagnosis) found significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on total cholesterol (p=0.038) and low LDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.013) after adjusting for the child’s physical disease history. Specifically, ADHD males had significantly lower total cholesterol and low lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than ADHD females. In ADHD males, more emotional problems were associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels (B = -4.26, 95%CI (-7.46, -1.07), p=0.013). We found preliminary support for the association between more emotional problems and lower cholesterol levels in ADHD children, especially among males. Although larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate these claims, the evidence highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle to keep cholesterol levels in normal range which can have positive effects on physical and mental health.
97
118803
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Performance
Abstract:
Within companies, emotions have been forgotten as key elements of successful management systems. Seen as factors which disturb judgment, make reckless acts or affect negatively decision-making. Since management systems were influenced by the Taylorist worker image, that made the work regular and plain, and considered employees as executing machines. However, recently, in globalized economy characterized by a variety of uncertainties, emotions are proved as useful elements, even necessary, to attend high-level management. The work of Elton Mayo and Kurt Lewin reveals the importance of emotions. Since then emotions start to attract considerable attention. These studies have shown that emotions influence, directly or indirectly, many organization processes. For example, the quality of interpersonal relationships, job satisfaction, absenteeism, stress, leadership, performance and team commitment. Emotions became fundamental and indispensable to individual yield and so on to management efficiency. The idea that a person potential is associated to Intellectual Intelligence, measured by the IQ as the main factor of social, professional and even sentimental success, was the main problematic that need to be questioned. The literature on emotional intelligence has made clear that success at work does not only depend on intellectual intelligence but also other factors. Several researches investigating emotional intelligence impact on performance showed that emotionally intelligent managers perform more, attain remarkable results, able to achieve organizational objectives, impact the mood of their subordinates and create a friendly work environment. An improvement in the emotional intelligence of managers is therefore linked to the professional development of the organization and not only to the personal development of the manager. In this context, it would be interesting to question the importance of emotional intelligence. Does it impact organizational performance? What is the importance of emotional intelligence and how it impacts organizational performance? The literature highlighted that measurement and conceptualization of emotional intelligence are difficult to define. Efforts to measure emotional intelligence have identified three models that are more prominent: the mixed model, the ability model, and the trait model. The first is considered as cognitive skill, the second relates to the mixing of emotional skills with personality-related aspects and the latter is intertwined with personality traits. But, despite strong claims about the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace, few studies have empirically examined the impact of emotional intelligence on organizational performance, because even though the concept of performance is at the heart of all evaluation processes of companies and organizations, we observe that performance remains a multidimensional concept and many authors insist about the vagueness that surrounds the concept. Given the above, this article provides an overview of the researches related to emotional intelligence, particularly focusing on studies that investigated the impact of emotional intelligence on organizational performance to contribute to the emotional intelligence literature and highlight its importance and show how it impacts companies’ performance.
96
2092
The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion
Abstract:
Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.
95
17876
The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients
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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p< 0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences.
94
30868
Exploring RQ-EQ Relatons among Psychology Majors
Abstract:
The illustrious estimation that psychology majors, psychologists and allied psychology practitioners as expert behavior analysts, if not, “life enthusiasts” spurred two essentially linked endeavors. First, the reconsideration of the time-honored ingenuity and expectations from psychologists such as the ability to perceive ways to undertake a range of difficulties, the ability to apply psychology in order to self-regulate and to display personal integrity, and among others. Second, is to ascertain solid support to uphold aforesaid expectations. This study achieved its goals by having explored how two burgeoning constructs- RQ and EQ play parts in the lives of psychology people. Having involved the total population of psychology majors in Cagayan State University along with the use of Emotional Quotient Test and Resilience Assessment Questionnaire, the study provides a précis of how perceived “champions” of psychological well-being respond emotionally to different situations and deal effectively with and even thrive on the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances. Significant findings about how the major variables correlated with the population’s demographic profile (e.g. age, sex, and year level) were also accounted. To realize a more academic concept with the present study, significant connections between RQ (self-assurance, personal vision, flexible and adaptable, organized, problem solver, interpersonal competence, socially connected, and active) and EQ (e.g. emotional maturity, emotional sensitivity, and emotional competency) dimensions were uncovered.
93
68314
Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Educational Supervision and Leadership Style in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
An Educational Supervisor assists teachers to develop their competence and skills in teaching, solving educational problems, and to improve the teaching methods to suit the educational process. They evaluate their teachers and write reports based on their assessments. In 1957, the Saudi Ministry of Education instituted Educational Supervision to facilitate effective management of schools, however, there have been concerns that the Educational Supervision has not been effective in executing its mandate. Studies depicted that Educational supervision has not been effective because it has been marred by poor and autocratic leadership practices such as stringent inspection, commanding and judging. Therefore, there is need to consider some of the ways in which school outcomes can be enhanced through the improvement of Educational supervision practices. Emotional intelligence is a relatively new concept that can be integrated into the Saudi education system that is yet to be examined in-depth and embraced particularly in the realm of educational leadership. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices among Educational supervisors. This study employed a qualitative interpretive approach that will focus on decoding, describing and interpreting the connection between emotional intelligence and leadership. The study also took into account the social constructions that include consciousness, language and shared meanings. The data collection took place in the Office of Educational Supervisors in Riyadh and involved 4 Educational supervisors and 20 teachers from both genders- male and female. The data collection process encompasses three methods namely; qualitative emotional intelligence self-assessment questionnaires, reflective semi-structured interviews, and open workshops. The questionnaires would explore whether the Educational supervisors understand the meaning of emotional intelligence and its significance in enhancing the quality of education system in Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, reflective semi-structured interviews were carried out with the Educational supervisors to explore the connection between their leadership styles and the way they conceptualise their emotionality. The open workshops will include discussions on emotional aspects of Educational supervisors’ practices and how Educational supervisors make use of the emotional intelligence discourse in their leadership and supervisory relationships.
92
34052
Subjective Well-Being through Coaching Process
Authors:
Abstract:
Well-being is a good or satisfactory condition of existence; a state characterized by health, happiness, and prosperity. Well-being of people is correlated with, the cognitive, social, emotional, and physical aspect of their personality. Subjective well-being, people’s emotional and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately in this period of time people are under the pressure of financial, social problems, and other stress factors which made them vulnerable, and their well-being is threatened. Personal Coaching as a holistic orientation and novel approach is ideal for the present century which help people, to find balance, enjoyment and meaning in their lives as well as improving performance, skills and effectiveness. The aim of the present article besides introducing the personal coaching is determining how personal coaching can positively effects on subjective well-being, under this aim we tend to describe how coaching impact on the cognitive and emotional reconstruction. Present qualitative research is descriptive analytic study, which data gathered by manual library research and search within authentic article through internet; analyzed personal coaching which integrated different views into an operational one helps people promote self-awareness as well as evaluate, emotional and cognitive aspect of their personality and provide appropriate subjective well-being.
91
91644
The Impact of Teacher's Emotional Intelligence on Students' Motivation to Learn
Abstract:
The purpose of this qualitative study is to showcase graduated high school students’ to voice on the impact past teachers had on their motivation to learn, and if this impact has affected their post-high-school lives. Through a focus group strategy, 21 graduated high school alumni participated in three separate focus groups. Participants discussed their former teacher’s emotional intelligence skills, which influenced their motivation to learn or not. A focused review of the literature revealed that teachers are a major factor in a student’s motivation to learn. This research was guided by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and constructs related to learning and motivation from Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Views of Personality, and from Brain-Based Learning perspectives with a major focus on the area of Emotional Intelligence. Findings revealed that the majority of participants identified teachers who most motivated them to learn and demonstrated skills associated with emotional intelligence. An important and disturbing finding relates to the saliency of negative experiences. Further work is recommended to expand this line of study in Higher Education, perform a long-term study to better gain insight into long-term benefits attributable to experiencing positive teachers, study the negative impact teachers have on students’ motivation to learn, specifically focusing on student anxiety and acquired helplessness.
90
81811
Emotional Characteristics of Preschoolers Due to Parameters of Family Interaction
Abstract:
The emotional sphere is one of the most important aspects of the child's development and significant factor in his psychological well-being. Present research aims to identify the relationships between emotional characteristics of preschoolers and parameters of family interaction: emotional interaction, parental styles, family adaptation, and cohesion. The study involved 40 people from Saint-Petersburg: 20 children (10 boys and 10 girls) from 5 to 6 years, Mage = 5 years 4 months and 20 mothers. Methods used were: Test 'Emotional identification' by E.Izotova, Empathy test by T. Gavrilova, Children's fears test by A. Zakharov, M. Panfilova, 'Parent-child emotional interaction questionnaire' by E. Zakharova, 'Analysis of family relationships questionnaire by E. Eidemiller and V. Yustitskis, Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III) by D. X. Olson, J. Portner, I. Lavi. Сorrelation analysis revealed that the higher index of underdevelopment of parental feelings, the lower the child’s ability to identify emotions (p < 0,05), but at the same time, the higher ability to understand emotional states (p < 0,01), as in the case of hypoprotection (p < 0,05). Two last correlations can be explained by compensatory mechanism. This is also confirmed by negative correlations between maternal educational uncertainty and child’s ability to understand emotional states and between indulgence and child’s ability to perceive emotional states (p < 0,05). The more pronounced the phobia of a child's loss, the higher egocentric nature of child’s empathy (p < 0,05). The child’s fears have the greatest number of relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The more pronounced mother’s positive feelings in interaction, emotional support, acceptance of himself as a parent, desire for physical contact with child and the more adaptive the family system, the less the total number of child’s fears (p < 0,05). The more the mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, emotional support (p < 0,01), unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent and the desire for physical contact (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s spatial fears. Socially-mediated fears are associated with less pronounced mother's positive feelings in interaction, less emotional support and deficiency of demands, obligations (p < 0,05). Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters positively correlated with the excessive demands, obligations and excessive sanctions (p < 0,05). The more emotional support (p < 0,01), mother's ability to perceive the child's state, positive feelings in interaction, unconditional acceptance of the child, acceptance of himself as a parent (p < 0,05), the less the amount child’s fears of nightmares. This kind of fears is positively correlated with excessive demands, prohibitions (p < 0,05). The more adaptive the family system (p < 0,01), the higher family cohesion, mother's acceptance of himself as a parent and preference to childish traits (p < 0,05), the less fear of death. Thus, the children's fears have the closest relationships with the characteristics of family interaction. The severity of fears, especially spatial, is connected, first of all, with the emotional side of the mother-parent interaction. Fears of animals and fairy-tale characters are associated with some characteristics of the parental styles, connected with the rigor of mothers. Correlations of the emotional identification are contradictory and require further clarification. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
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83420
The Benefits of Full Day Kindergarten versus Half Day Kindergarten: Review of Literature
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of full-day vs. half-day kindergarten. Research suggests that there is a common trend among full-day kindergarten programs. Academic, social, and emotional benefits are evident, as well as preferential trends among the parents and teachers. The review began by identifying 20 references of literature on full-day kindergarten published in the last two decades (1997-2017). Of these, 20 passed an initial screening designed to identify research reports that examined academic, social, and emotional outcomes of full-day kindergarten programs as compared with half-day programs. Studies indicated that children who attend full-day kindergarten are positively related to high performance through their schools. There is much evidence to support a full-day program for children. Results indicated that full-day programs have obvious benefits for children; however, they may not be the best program for all children.
88
104316
Emotional Disclosure as Mediator Between Marital Satisfaction and Mental Health Problems in Women with Infertility
Authors:
Abstract:
Infertility is a global health concern that may have a long-lasting effect on the psychosocial functioning of an individual. Rich research evidence has shown that women with infertility are at greater risk of adverse psychological experiences than men. The culture plays a risk factor when it comes to infertility. Family is considered as a central focus of a collectivistic culture like Pakistan and having children is the key factor that determines the quality of a marital relationship, individual well-being and overall standing in the society. In this collectivistic cultural context, women usually get the blame and experience more psychological distress and social isolation. A total sample of 121 (M 28.17, SD 4.73) women with primary infertility selected through purposive sampling were tested using Emotional Disclosure Questionnaire, Couple Satisfaction Index and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. The results indicate that negative emotional disclosure positively mediates the relationship between marital satisfaction and mental health problems (p < .001) in women with primary infertility. The results are discussed in terms of psychosocial counseling and family psychoeducation in Pakistani collectivistic cultural context.
87
60620
Medical Student's Responses to Emotional Content in Doctor-Patient Communication: To Explore Differences in Communication Training of Medical Students and Its Impact on Doctor-Patient Communication
Abstract:
Background: This study aims to investigate into communication between trainee doctors and patients, especially how doctor’s reaction to patient’s emotional issues expressed in the consultation affect patient’s satisfaction. Objectives: Thus, there are three aims in this study, 1.) how do trainee doctors react to patients emotional cues in OSCE station? 2.) Any differences in the respond type to emotional cues between first year students and third year students? 3.) Is response type (reducing space) related to OSCE outcome (patient satisfaction and expert rating)? Methods: Fifteen OSCE stations was videotaped, in which 9 were stations with first-year students and 6 were with third-year students. OSCE outcomes were measured by Communication Assessment Tool and Examiners Checklist. Analyses: All patient’s cues/concerns and student’s reaction were coded by Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Descriptive data was gathered from Observer XT and logistic regression (two-level) was carried out to see if occurrence of reducing space response can be predicted by OSCE outcomes. Results: Reducing space responses from all students were slightly less than a half in total responses to patient’s cues. The mean percentage of reducing space behaviours was lower among first year students when compared to third year students. Patient’s satisfaction significantly (p< 0.05) and negatively predicted reducing space behaviours. Conclusions: Most of the medical students, to some extent, did not provide adequate responses for patient’s emotional cues. But first year students did provide more space for patients to talk about their emotional issues when compared to third year students. Lastly, patients would feel less satisfied if trainee doctors use more reducing space responses in reaction to patient’s expressed emotional cues/concerns. Practical implications: Firstly, medical training programme can be tailored on teaching students how to detect and respond appropriately to emotional cues in order to improve underperformed student’s communication skills in healthcare setting. Furthermore, trainee doctor’s relationship with patients in clinical practice can also be improved by reacting appropriately to patient’s emotive cues in consultations (such as limit the use of reducing space behaviours).
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91883
The Role of Arousal in Time Perception: Implications for Emotional Driving
Authors:
Abstract:
Emotional stress is an important risk factor in the rate and severity of traffic accidents. Moreover, incorrect time perception is implicated in the increase of traffic violations, such as running red lights or collisions. While the role of emotional arousal on perceived time is well-established, the role of physiological arousal in time perception remains unexamined. Specific emotions can be, however, associated with distinct physiological responses. In the current research, two studies examined the role of physiological arousal in time perception. In the first experiment, 41 participants engaged in a cold pressor task and had their time perception measured throughout the experiment. In the second study, 138 participants engaged in either isometric or deep breathing exercises. These activities were designed to simulate the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, respectively. Participants completed a bisection task to measure time perception in both studies, as well as a physiological response via an Electrocardiography (ECG). Results found that activation of the parasympathetic nervous system is associated with greater time perception. These findings are discussed with reference to models of time perception, as well as implications for emotional driving and misperceptions of speed. It is important to consider the role of physiology in the misperception of time, as these factors can lead to increases in driving accidents.
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49983
Effects of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Gender on Academic and Personal-Emotional Adjustment in First Year University Students in Spain
Abstract:
The first year at university is a critical period for personal-emotional and academic adjustment in emerging adults. Moreover, some studies show that alcohol consumption increases in young adults on transition to university. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption and gender on adjustment to university, understood as a multidimensional construct involving an array of demands. A sample of 300 first year students in Spain completed the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Examination of the data by analysis of variance revealed that adjustment to university was lower in the students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption than in the other students. Surprisingly, the personal-emotional adjustment of students with hazardous alcohol consumption was not lower than in the other students. Analysis of the gender effect revealed that levels of personal-emotional adjustment were higher in males than in females. This is our first study examining the influence of alcohol consumption on university adjustment. Future research should examine this relationship more closely, with the aim of designing public health strategies focused on limiting abusive consumption of alcohol in university students.
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9312
The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Performance and Motivation of Staff: A Case Study of East Azerbaijan Red Crescent
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of emotional intelligence on the motivation and performance of East Azarbaijan the Red Crescent staff. In this study, EI is determined as the independent variable component of self awareness, self management, social awareness, and relations management, motivation and performance as dependent variables. The research method is descriptive-survey. In this study, simple random sampling method is used and research sample consists of 130 East Azarbaijan the Red Crescent staff that uses Cochran's formula 100 of them were selected and questionnaires were filled by them. Three types of questionnaires were used in this study for emotional intelligence, consisting of the Bradbury Travis and Jane Greaves standard questionnaire; and for motivation and performance a questionnaire is regulated by the researcher with help of professionals and experts in this field that consists of 33 questions about the motivation and 15 questions about performance and content validity were used to obtain the necessary credit. Reliability by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient /948 was approved. Also, in this study to test the hypothesis of the Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regressions and determine fitness of variables' of structural equation modeling is used. The results show that emotional intelligence with coefficient /865, motivation and performance of in East Azerbaijan the Red Crescent employees has a positive effect. Based on Friedman Test ranking the most influence in motivation and performance of staff in respondents' opinion is in order of self-awareness, relations management, social awareness and self-management.
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76050
Validation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) among Adolescents in Vietnam
Abstract:
Trait Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes an individual has about their own and other people’s emotions. It is believed that trait emotional intelligence is a component of personality. Petrides’ Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is well regarded and well-established, with validation data about its functioning among adults from many countries. However, there is little data yet about its use among Asian populations, including adolescents. The aims were to translate and culturally verify the Trait Emotional Intelligence Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) and investigate content validity, construct validity, and reliability among adolescents attending high schools in Vietnam. Content of the TEIQue-ASF was translated (English to Vietnamese) and back-translated (Vietnamese to English) in consultation with bilingual and bicultural health researchers and pilot tested among 51 potential respondents. Phraseology and wording were then adjusted and the final version is named the VN-TEIQue-ASF. The VN-TEIQue-ASF’s properties were investigated in a cross-sectional elf-report survey among high school students in Central Vietnam. In total 1,546 / 1,573 (98.3%) eligible students from nine high schools in rural, urban, and coastline areas completed the survey. Explanatory Factor Analysis yielded a four-factor solution, including some with facets that loaded differently compared to the original version: Well-being, Emotion in Relationships, Emotion Self-management, and Emotion Sensitivity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the global score for the VN-TEIQue-ASF was .77. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is comprehensible and has good content and construct validity and reliability among adolescents in Vietnam. The factor structure is only partly replicated the original version. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is recommended for use in school or community surveys and professional study in education, psychology, and public health to investigate the trait emotional intelligence of adolescents in Vietnam.
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71230
Chat-Based Online Counseling for Enhancing Wellness of Undergraduates with Emotional Crisis Tendency
Abstract:
During the past two decades, there have been the increasing numbers of studies on online counseling, especially among adolescents who are familiar with the online world. This can be explained by the fact that via this channel enables easier access to the young, who may not be ready for face-to-face service, possibly due to uneasiness to reveal their personal problems with a stranger, the feeling that their problems are to be shamed, or the need to protect their images. Especially, the group of teenagers prone to suicide or despair, who tend to keep things to or isolate from the society to themselves, usually prefer types of services that require no face-to-face encounter and allow their anonymity, such as online services. This study aimed to examine effectiveness of chat-based online counseling for enhancing wellness of undergraduates with emotional crisis tendency. Experimental with pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Participants were 47 undergraduates (10 males and 37 females) with high emotional crisis tendency. They were randomly assigned to experimental group (24 students) and control group (23 students). Participants in the experimental group received a 60-minute, 4-sessions of individual chat-based online counseling led by counselor. Those in control group received no counseling session. Instruments were the Emotional Crisis Scale and Wellness Scales. Two-way mixed-design multivariate analysis of variance was used for data analysis. Finding revealed that the posttest scores on wellness of those in the experimental group were higher than the scores of those in the control group. The posttest scores on emotional crisis tendency of those in the experimental group were lower than the scores of those in the control group. Hence, this study suggests chat-based online counseling services can become a helping source that increasing more adolescents would recognize and turn to in the future and that will receive more attention.
81
86653
An Animation-Based Resource for Screening Emotional and Behavioural Distress in Children Aged 6 to 12
Abstract:
There are several factors that compromise the utility and wide-spread use of existing emotional and behavioural distress screening instruments. Some of these factors include lengthy administration times, high costs, feasibility issues, and a lack of self-report options for children under 12 years of age. This animation-based resource was developed to overcome as many of these factors as possible. Developed for educators and medical and mental health professionals, this resource offers children a self-guided mechanism for reporting any current emotional and behavioural distress. An avatar assistant, selected by the child, accompanies them through each stage of the screening process, offering further instruction if prompted. Children enter their age and gender before viewing comparative animations conveying common childhood emotional and behavioural difficulties. The child then selects the most relatable animations, along with the frequency with which they experience the depicted emotions. From a perspective of intellectual development, an engaging, animated format means that outcomes will not be constrained by children’s reading, writing, cognitive, or verbal expression abilities. Having been user-tested with children aged 6 to 12, this resource shows promising results as a self-guided screening instrument.
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68091
Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor
Abstract:
Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.
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81810
Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes
Abstract:
The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.
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62317
Impact of Expressive Writing on Creativity
Abstract:
Negative emotions are rather seen as creativity inhibitor. On the other hand, it is worth noting that negative emotions may be good for our functioning. Negative emotions enhance cognitive resources and improve evaluative processes. Moreover maintaining a negative emotional state allow for cognitive reinterpretation of the emotional stimuli, what is good for our creativity, especially cognitive flexibility. Writing a diary or writing about difficult emotional experiences in general can be the way to not only improve psychical health, but also – enhance creative behaviors. Thanks to translating difficult emotions to the verbal level and giving them ‘a name’ or ‘a label’, we can get easier access to both emotional content of an experience and to the semantic content, without the need of speaking out loud. Expressive writing improves academic results and the efficiency of working memory. The classical method of writing about emotions consists in a long-term process of describing negative experiences. Present research demonstrate the efficiency of this process over a shorter period of time - one writing session, on school children sample. Participants performed writing task. Writing task had two different topics: emotions connected with their negative emotions (expressive writing) and content not connected with negative emotional state (writing about one’s typical day). Creativity was measured by Guilford’s Alternative Uses Task. Results have shown that writing about negative emotions results in the higher level of divergent thinking in all three parameters: fluency, flexibility and originality. After the writing task mood of expressive writing participants remained negative more than the mood of the controls. Taking an expressive action after a difficult emotional experience can support functioning, which can be observed in enhancement of divergent thinking. Writing about emotions connected with negative experience makes one more creative, than writing about something unrelated with difficult emotional moments. Research has shown that young people should not demonize negative emotions. Sometimes, properly applied, negative emotions can be the basis of creation. Preparation was supported by a The Young Scientist University grant titled ‘Dynamics of emotions in the creative process’ from The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
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133617
Level of Grief, Emotional Impact and Coping Strategies of Internal Medicine Residents in Response to a Patient’s Death
Abstract:
Physicians develop emotional and psychological distress after facing a patient’s death. This can result in stress or burnout. Coping mechanisms in dealing with these deaths may be maladaptive. Determining grief, emotional impact, and coping strategies in physicians is necessary to identify those needing intervention. This can be done by employing validated assessment tools such as the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) scale, Impact of Events Scale (IES), and BriefCOPE tool, respectively. This prospective, observational study was done in a private hospital in Cebu City. Fifty-five internal medicine residents were included and tasked to answer a survey based on their most memorable patient death encounter. The TRIG, IES, and BriefCOPE scores were determined. Participants were divided into severe grief and non-severe grief based on TRIG scores, low-impact, moderate-impact, and high-impact based on IES, and low-use, moderate-use, and high-use based on the BriefCOPE. The differences in the groups’ characteristics were statistically determined, and a p-value of < 0.05 was significant. The participants’ average age was 28.45 years. Most were female and single. Most belonged to the non-severe group based on TRIG, a moderate-impact group based on the IES, and high-use group based on the BriefCOPE. However, 21.8% reported severe grief, 27.3% reported high-impact, and 10.9% had low use of coping strategies. The proportion of residents who encountered CPR prior to the patient’s death was greater in the severe group. Proportions of both high-impact and non-high impact groups were comparable. The proportion of female residents was higher in the high-use group. There were a number of residents who reported severe grief, high emotional impact, and low coping strategies. This highlights the need for interventions such as debriefing after CPR or formal training in residency programs in dealing with emotional burden to counteract maladaptive coping behaviors and prevent negative outcomes.
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96043
A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Adjustment of Senior Secondary School Students in District Karnal, Haryana, India
Authors:
Abstract:
The education is really important for the improvement of physical and mental well-being of the school students. It is used to express inner potential, acquire knowledge, develop skills, shape habits, attitudes, values, belief, etc. along with providing strengths and resilience to people to changing situations and allowing them to develop all those capacities which will enable individual to control surrounding environment. Education has a significant effect on the behavior of individuals which helps us in the new situations of everyday life. Educating the child is directing the child’s capacities, attitudes interest, urges, and needs into the most desirable channels. We are the part of 21st century and now a day emotional intelligence is considered more important than intelligence in the success of a person. Success depends on several intelligences and on the control of emotions too. Emotional Intelligence, like general intelligence is the product of one’s heredity and its interaction with his environmental forces. There are certain methods evolved in modern researches. Keeping in view the nature and purpose of the study, the descriptive survey method is preferred. This method is one of the important methods in education research because it describes the current position of the phenomenon under study. The term descriptive survey is generally used for the type of research which proposes to condition of practices of the present time. In the present study, a systematically random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. 50 students were selected from 2 schools. Out of 50 students, 25 were boys and 25 were girls. In the study, a) it has been found a significant difference in the level of adjustment between male and female students; b) it has been found a non-significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence between male and female students; c) it has been found a non-significant relationship between adjustment and emotional intelligence among male students; d) it has been found a significant relationship between adjustment and emotional intelligence among male students. The results of the study indicated that amongst the students those who possess high scores on emotional intelligence tests are high in level of adjustment. Measures should be adopted to improve and sustain the emotional intelligence level of students throughout their studies. Adolescent students are prone to many problems like physical, social and psychological. They need a congenial home atmosphere so that they grow into full-fledged citizens of our country. After understanding these, it helps in the development of personality which leads to a better learning situation and better thinking capacities, in turn, enhances adjustment and achievement along with a better perception of self.
75
108338
Impact of Teacher’s Behavior in Class Room on Socialization and Mental Health of School Children: A Student’s Perspective
Abstract:
The present study examined the perspective of school students regarding teacher’s behavioral pattern during a teaching in classroom and its influence on the students’ socialization particularly forming peer relationships with the development of emotional, behavioral problems in school children. To study these dimension of teacher-student classroom relationship, 210 school children (105 girls and 105 boys) within the age range of 14 to 18 years were taken from the government, private schools. The cross-sectional research design was used in which stratified random sampling was done. Teacher-student interaction scale was used to assess the teacher-student relationship in the classroom, which had two factors such as positive and negative interaction. Peer relationship scale was administered to investigate the socialization of students, and School Children Problem Scale was also given to the participants to explore their emotional, behavioral issues. The analysis of Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant positive relationship between negative teacher-student interaction and student’s emotional-behavioral as well as social problems. Another analysis of t-test revealed that boys perceived more positive interaction with teachers than girls (p < 0.01). Girls showed more emotional behavioral problems than boys (p < 0.001) Linear regression explained that age, gender, negative teacher’s interaction with students and victimization in social gathering predicts mental health problems in school children. This study suggests and highlights the need for the school counselors for the better mental health of students and teachers.
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63140
Relationship between Relational Energy, Emotional Labour and Cognitive Flexibility of Cabin Crew
Authors:
Abstract:
The aviation industry is one such sectors whose primary aim is to work for the safety and comfort of their clients and customers. The crew members in the aviation industry include pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers, baggage personnel and maintenance personnel. This study will concentrate on the frontline employees of the aviation industry, the flight attendants. Flight attendants belong to the niche group of population who are paid to smile. Although the profession seems to be very glamorous, it is physically and psychologically very taxing. Energy at workplace is a fairly new concept and is an organizational resource which helps employee attain their goals. Therefore, the researcher will aim to establish the relationship between relational energy and the major issue of emotional labor and cognitive flexibility among flight attendants. The researcher will hypothesize that there will be a negative relationship between relational energy and emotional labour, and a positive relationship between relational energy and cognitive flexibility. Also, a positive relationship will be expected between cognitive flexibility and emotional labour of cabin crew. A quantitative research design will be used to study the relationship among 50 flight attendants in India. The findings of the research will not only help the aviation sector but will be a major contribution to the existing literature of aviation psychology in India which is scanty. The relationships can also provide scope to develop a model using the same. From crew resource management and aviation psychology perspectives, relationships among the study variables will not only provide scope for helping the aviation employees in particular but also develop the performance and safety of aviation sector at large.
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52264
The Effect of the Andalus Knowledge Phases and Times Model of Learning on the Development of Students’ Academic Performance and Emotional Quotient
Abstract:
This study aimed at investigating the effect of Andalus Knowledge Phases and Times (ANPT) model of learning and the effect of &#39;Intel Education Contribution in ANPT&#39; on the development of students&rsquo; academic performance and emotional quotient. The society of the study composed of Andalus Private Schools, elementary school students (N=700), while the sample of the study composed of four randomly assigned groups (N=80) with one experimental group and one control group to study &quot;ANPT&quot; effect and the &quot;Intel Contribution in ANPT&quot; effect respectively. The study followed the quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting and analyzing data to answer the study questions. Results of the study revealed that there were significant statistical differences between students&rsquo; academic performances and emotional quotients for the favor of the experimental groups. The study recommended applying this model on different educational variables and on other age groups to generate more data leading to more educational results for the favor of students&rsquo; learning outcomes.
72
133282
Induced Emotional Empathy and Contextual Factors like Presence of Others Reduce the Negative Stereotypes Towards Persons with Disabilities through Stronger Prosociality
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on how contextual factors like the physical presence of other perceivers and then developed induced emotional empathy towards a person with disabilities may reduce the automatic negative stereotypes and then response towards that person. We demonstrated in study 1 that negative attitude based on negative stereotypes assessed on ATDP-test questionnaires on five points Linkert-scale are significantly less negative when participants were tested with a group of perceivers and then tested alone separately by applying 3 (positive, indifferent, and negative attitude levels) X 2 (physical presence condition and alone) factorial design of ANOVA test. In the second study, we demonstrate, by applying regression analysis, in the presence of other perceivers, whether in a small group, participants showed more induced emotional empathy through stronger prosociality towards a high distress target like a person with disabilities in comparison of that of other stigmatized persons such as racial biased or gender-biased people. Thus results show that automatic affective response in the form of induced emotional empathy in perceiver and contextual factors like the presence of other perceivers automatically activate stronger prosocial norms and egalitarian goals towards physically challenged persons in comparison to other stigmatized persons like racial or gender-biased people. This leads to less negative attitudes and behaviour towards a person with disabilities.
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115650
Effects of the Visual and Auditory Stimuli with Emotional Content on Eyewitness Testimony
Abstract:
Eyewitness testimony is one of the most frequently used methods in criminal cases for the determination of crime and perpetrator. In the literature, the number of studies about the reliability of eyewitness testimony is increasing. The study aims to reveal the factors that affect the short-term and long-term visual memory performance of the participants in the event of an accident. In this context, the effect of the emotional content of the accident and the sounds during the accident on visual memory performance was investigated with eye-tracking. According to the results, the presence of visual and auditory stimuli with emotional content during the accident decreases the participants' both short-term and long-term recall performance. Moreover, the data obtained from the eye monitoring device showed that the participants had difficulty in answering even the questions they focused on at the time of the accident.
70
77142
Investor’s Psychology in Investment Decision Making in Context of Behavioural Finance
Abstract:
Worldwide, the financial markets are influenced by several factors such as the changes in economic and political processes that occur in the country and the globe, information diffusion and approachability and so on. Yet, the foremost important factor is the investor’s reaction and perception. For an individual investor, decision-making process can be perceived as a continuous process that has significant impact of their psychology while making investment decisions. Behavioral finance relies on research of human and social recognition and emotional tolerance studies to identify and understand the investment decisions. This article aims to report the research of individual investor’s financial behavior in a historical perspective. This article uncovers the investor’s psychology in investment decision making focusing on the investor’s rationality with an explanation of psychological and emotional factors that affect investing. The results of the study are revealed by means of Graphical visualization.
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55914
Effects of Major and Minor Modes to Emotional Perceptions of 'Happy' and 'Sad' in Piano Music among Students Aged 9-17
Abstract:
This quantitative study investigates the effects of major and minor modes, and contributing musical parameter of tempo, to the emotional perceptions of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ in piano music among subjects aged 9-17 years old. The study was conducted in two phases; survey-questionnaire, and listening activity. Subjects (N=31) were sampled from piano music students’ population in Bangi, Selangor. In the survey-questionnaire, subjects answered 20 questions on demographic characteristics, music listening and preference, and understanding of emotional perception in music. In the listening activity, subjects listened to 20 untitled piano music excerpts and rated the emotion perceived for each excerpt, whether ‘happy’ or ‘sad’. Results from survey-questionnaire show that most percentage of subjects are 11 years old, in Grade 1, of 3 years of learning piano, prefer classical music, always listen to music, prefer both major and minor modes’ music, and find it easy to understand emotion in music, as well as major and minor modes. Results from listening activity show that 60 % of major mode music are perceived as ‘major-happy’, while 60 % too, of minor mode music are perceived as ‘minor-sad’. However, Chi-square test of independence statistical analysis indicates that there are no association and significant relationship between modes (major and minor) and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 0.80, p = 0.371), at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Contrastingly, there are association and significant relationship between tempo (fast and slow), and ‘happy’, as well as ‘sad’ perceptions (x2 (1, N = 20) = 9.899, p = 0.005). Therefore, it is concluded that tempo plays an important role in effects of major and minor mode to ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ emotional perceptions in piano music among subjects aged 9 to 17 in this study.
68
82627
Applying Personel Resilence and Emotional Agitation in Occupational, Health and Safety Education and Training
Authors:
Abstract:
Continual professional development is an important concept for safety professionals to strengthen the knowledge base and to achieve the required qualifications or international memberships in a given time. But the main problems which have observed among most of the safety aspirants are as follows: lack of focus, inferiority complex, superiority complex, lack of interest and lethargy, family and off job stress, health issues, usage of drugs and alcohol, and absenteeism. A HSE trainer should be an expert in soft skills and other stress, emotional handling techniques, so as to manage the above aspirants during training. To do this practice, a trainer has to brainstorm himself of few of the soft skills like personnel resilience, mnemonic techniques, mind healing, and subconscious suggestion techniques by integrating with an emotional intelligence quotient of the aspirants. By adopting these techniques, a trainer can successfully deliver the course and influence the different types of audience to achieve success in training.
67
26504
Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria
Abstract:
Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability.
66
7647
The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Creativity, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy
Abstract:
The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' creativity (CR), emotional intelligence (EI), and self-efficacy (SE). To this end, a group of 120 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 35 studying BA in English Translation and MA in Teaching English at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were selected using convenient sampling and were given three questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-I questionnaire by Bar-On (1997), the General Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire (SGSES) by Sherer et al. (1982), and a questionnaire of creativity (CR) by O'Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). Analysis of the results through Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient showed that there was not a significant relationship between students’ CR and EI, and EI and SE. In addition, CR and SE were correlated significantly but negatively. Multiple regressions revealed that CR could significantly predict SE. Regarding the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, materials developers, and educational policy makers to possess a broader perspective and heightened degree knowledge toward the TEFL practice and to take practical steps toward the attainments of the desired objectives of the profession.
65
23555
Aggression Related Trauma and Coping among University Students, Exploring Emotional Intelligence Applications on Coping with Aggression Related Trauma
Abstract:
This Study tries to figure out the role of emotional Intelligence for developing coping strategies among adolescents who face traumatic events. Late adolescence students who have enrolled into the University education (Bachelor students/first-year students) would be selected as the sample. University education is an important stage of students’ academic life. Therefore, all students need to develop their competencies to attain the goal of passing examinations and also to developing their wisdom related to the scientific knowledge they gathered through their academic life. Study to be conducted in a cross-cultural manner and it will be taking place in Germany and Sri Lanka. The sample will be consisting of 200 students from each country. Late adolescence is a critical period of the human being as it is foot step in their life which acquiring the emotional and social qualities in their social life. There are many adolescents who have affected by aggression related traumatic events during their lifespan but have not been identified or treated. More specifically, there are numerous burning issues within the first year of the university students namely, ragging done by seniors to juniors, bulling, invalidation and issues raise based on attitudes changes and orientation issues. Those factors can be traumatic for both their academic and day to day lifestyle. Identifying the students who are with emotional damages and their resiliency afterward the aggression related traumas and effective rehabilitation from the traumatic events is immensely needed in order to facilitate university students for their academic achievements and social life within the University education. Research findings in Germany show that students shows more interpersonal traumas, life-threatening illnesses and death of someone related are common in German sample.
64
104785
Influence of Perceived Organizational Support and Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Cynicism among Millennials
Abstract:
A cynic is someone upset about the future prematurely. In today’s highly competitive workplace, cynicism has become a prominent concern. It is a controversial issue that brings about psychological disengagement and antagonism towards the management. In organizational sciences, scientific investigation of this negative work behavior is lacking, and so there is no universal definition so far. But most commonly, Organizational Cynicism (OC) has been characterized as an unfavorable attitude towards the organization, encompassing a belief that the organization has low integrity, negative affect, and depreciative behavioral tendencies. Given its prevalence, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on OC. This research examines the predictability of OC from two factors- Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) among millennials in India as well as identify contradictions in today’s scenario. Standardized Organizational Cynicism Scale comprising of three components, Perceived Organizational Support Questionnaire and Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Test are used on a convenient sample of 104 corporate sector employees in the age range 22-35 years. Correlation test elucidated the relationships, and regression analysis revealed the level of influence of the above variables on OC. Surprisingly, Emotional-Social Awareness had stronger relationships with all dimensions of OC in males as compared to females. It was also seen that EI and POS, together with predicted OC, but separately, only POS accounted for variability in OC, and this impact was much stronger for males, implying that there are other important factors that make females cynical at work. Thus, the over-emphasis on EI training for the millennial generation has also been challenged in this study. It can be said that there are avertible preconditions to the negative attitude- OC. This research has important managerial implications in areas of recruitment, training, and organizational environment.
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88334
Prevalence of Emotional Problems among Adolescent Students of Corporation Schools in Chennai
Abstract:
Emotional problems were found to be the predominant cause of suicide and second leading cause of death among adolescents in India. Emotional problems seem to be the underlying cause for various other severe psycho-social problems experienced in adolescence and also in later years of life. The Corporation schools in Chennai city are named as Chennai High School or Chennai Higher Secondary School run by the Corporation of Chennai. These schools fulfill the educational needs of students who hail from lower socio-economic status living in slums of the Chennai city. Adolescent students of Chennai schools tend to lack basic needs like food, clothes, shelter, etc. Some of the other significant problems faced by them are broken family, lack of parental support, frequent quarrel between parents, alcoholic parents, drug abuse and substance abuse among parents and neighbors, extended family, illiterate parents, deprivation of love and care, and lack of sense of belongingness. This prevailing condition may affect them emotionally and could lead to maladaptive behaviour, aggressiveness, poor interpersonal relationship with others, school refusal behaviour, school drop-out, suicide, etc. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the emotional problems faced by the adolescent students studying in Chennai schools, Chennai. A cross-sectional survey design was used to find the prevalence of emotional problems among adolescent students. Cluster sampling technique was used to select the schools for the present study considering the school as a cluster. In total, there are 15 zones, under the control of Chennai Corporation, of which only 7 zones have Corporation Schools in Chennai city, comprising of 32 Chennai Higher Secondary Schools and 38 Chennai High Schools. Out of these 70 schools, 29 schools comprising of 17 high schools and 12 higher secondary schools were selected randomly using lottery method. A sample of 2594 adolescent students from 9th standard and 11th standard was chosen for the study. Percentage analysis was done to find out the prevalence rate of emotional problems among adolescents students studying in Chennai Schools. Results of the study revealed that, out of 2594 students surveyed, 21.04% adolescent students were found to have academic problems (n = 546), 15.99% adolescent students had social problems (n = 415), behaviour problems was found to be prevalent among 12.87% adolescent students (n = 334), depression was prevalent among 15.88% adolescent students (n = 412) and anxiety was prevalent among 14.42% adolescent students (n = 374). Prevalence of emotional problems among male and female revealed that academic problems were more prevalent compared to other problems. Behaviour problems were least prevalent among boys and anxiety was least prevalent among girls than other problems. The overall prevalence rate of emotional problems was found to be on an increasing trend among adolescent students of low socio-economic status in Chennai city. The findings indicated the need for intervention to prevent and rehabilitate these adolescent students.
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62118
Neuro-Fuzzy Based Model for Phrase Level Emotion Understanding
Abstract:
The present approach deals with the identification of Emotions and classification of Emotional patterns at Phrase-level with respect to Positive and Negative Orientation. The proposed approach considers emotion triggered terms, its co-occurrence terms and also associated sentences for recognizing emotions. The proposed approach uses Part of Speech Tagging and Emotion Actifiers for classification. Here sentence patterns are broken into phrases and Neuro-Fuzzy model is used to classify which results in 16 patterns of emotional phrases. Suitable intensities are assigned for capturing the degree of emotion contents that exist in semantics of patterns. These emotional phrases are assigned weights which supports in deciding the Positive and Negative Orientation of emotions. The approach uses web documents for experimental purpose and the proposed classification approach performs well and achieves good F-Scores.
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91209
Multimodal Database of Emotional Speech, Video and Gestures
Abstract:
People express emotions through different modalities. Integration of verbal and non-verbal communication channels creates a system in which the message is easier to understand. Expanding the focus to several expression forms can facilitate research on emotion recognition as well as human-machine interaction. In this article, the authors present a Polish emotional database composed of three modalities: facial expressions, body movement and gestures, and speech. The corpora contains recordings registered in studio conditions, acted out by 16 professional actors (8 male and 8 female). The data is labeled with six basic emotions categories, according to Ekman&rsquo;s emotion categories. To check the quality of performance, all recordings are evaluated by experts and volunteers. The database is available to academic community and might be useful in the study on audio-visual emotion recognition.
60
108464
The Effect of Emotional Stimuli Related to Body Imbalance in Postural Control and the Phenomenological Experience of Young Healthy Adults
Abstract:
Background: Recent theories in the field of emotions have taken the relevance of motor control beyond a system related to personal autonomy (walking, running, grooming), and integrate it into the emotional dimension. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies that specifically investigate how emotional stimuli related to motor control modify emotional states in terms of postural control and phenomenological experience. Objective: The main aim of this work is to investigate the emotions produced by stimuli of bodily imbalance (neutral, pleasant and unpleasant) in the postural control and the phenomenological experience of young, healthy adults. Methodology: 46 healthy young people are shown emotional videos (neutral, pleasant, motor unpleasant, and non-motor unpleasant) related to the body imbalance. During the period of stimulation of each of the videos (60 seconds) the participant is standing on a force platform to collect temporal and spatial data of postural control. In addition, the electrophysiological activity of the heart and electrodermal activity is recorded. In relation to the two unpleasant conditions (motor versus non-motor), a phenomenological interview is carried out to collect the subjective experience of emotion and body perception. Results: Pleasant and unpleasant emotional videos have significant changes with respect to the neutral condition in terms of greater area, higher mean velocity, and greater mean frequency power on the anterior-posterior axis. The results obtained with respect to the electrodermal response was that the pleasurable and unpleasant conditions produced a significant increase in the phasic component with respect to the neutral condition. Regarding the electrophysiology of the heart, no significant change was found in any condition. Phenomenological experiences in the two unpleasant conditions differ in body perception and the emotional meaning of the experience. Conclusion: Emotional stimuli related to bodily imbalance produce changes in postural control, electrodermal activity, and phenomenological experience. This experimental setting could be relevant to be implemented in people with motor disorders (Parkinson, Stroke, TBI) to know how emotions affect motor control.
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92704
Hospital Workers’ Psychological Resilience after 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak
Abstract:
During a pandemic, hospital workers should protect not only their vulnerable patients but also themselves from the consequences of rapidly spreading infection. However, the evidence on the psychological impact of an outbreak on hospital workers is limited. In this study, we aim to assess hospital workers’ psychological well-being and function at the workplace after an outbreak, by focusing on ‘psychological resilience’. Specifically, the effects of risk appraisal, emotional experience, and coping ability on resilience indicated by the likelihood of post-traumatic syndrome disorder and willingness to work were investigated. Such role and position of each factor were analyzed using a path model, and the result was compared between the healthcare worker and non-healthcare worker groups. In the investigation, 280 hospital workers who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in South Korea have participated. The result presented, in both groups, the role of the appraisal of risk and coping ability appeared consistent with a previous research, that was, the former interrupted resilience while the latter facilitated it. In addition, the role of emotional experience was highlighted as, in both groups, emotional disruption not only directly associated with low resilience but mediated the effect of perceived risk on resilience. The differences between the groups were also identified, which were, the role of emotional experience and coping ability was more prominent in the non-HCW group in explaining resilience. From the results, implications on how to support hospital personnel during an outbreak in a way to facilitate their resilience after the outbreak were drawn.
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106020
Efficacy of a Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum for Kindergarten and First Grade Students to Improve Social Adjustment within the School Culture
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Researchers emphasize the role that motivation, self-esteem, and self-regulation play in children’s early adjustment to the school culture, including skills such as identifying their own feelings and understanding the feelings of others. As social-emotional growth, academic learning, and successful integration within culture and society are inextricably connected, the Social-Emotional Learning Foundations (SELF) curriculum was designed to integrate social-emotional learning (SEL) instruction within early literacy instruction (specifically, reading) for Kindergarten and first-grade students at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. Storybook reading is a typically occurring activity in the primary grades; thus SELF provides an intervention that is both theoretically and practically sound. Methodology: The researchers will report on findings from the first two years of a three-year study funded by the US Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences to evaluate the effects of the SELF curriculum versus “business as usual” (BAU). SELF promotes the development of self-regulation by incorporating instructional strategies that support children’s use of SEL related vocabulary, self-talk, and critical thinking. The curriculum consists of a carefully coordinated set of materials and pedagogy designed specifically for primary grade children at early risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. SELF lessons (approximately 50 at each grade level) are organized around 17 SEL topics within five critical competencies. SELF combines whole-group (the first in each topic) and small-group lessons (the 2nd and 3rd in each topic) to maximize opportunities for teacher modeling and language interactions. The researchers hypothesize that SELF offers a feasible and substantial opportunity within the classroom setting to provide a small-group social-emotional learning intervention integrated with K-1 literacy-related instruction. Participating target students (N = 876) were identified by their teachers as potentially at risk for emotional or behavioral issues. These students were selected from 122 Kindergarten and 100 first grade classrooms across diverse school districts in a southern state in the US. To measure the effectiveness of the SELF intervention, the researchers asked teachers to complete assessments related to social-emotional learning and adjustment to the school culture. A social-emotional learning related vocabulary assessment was administered directly to target students receiving small-group instruction. Data were analyzed using a 3-level MANOVA model with full information maximum likelihood to estimate coefficients and test hypotheses. Major Findings: SELF had significant positive effects on vocabulary, knowledge, and skills associated with social-emotional competencies, as evidenced by results from the measures administered. Effect sizes ranged from 0.41 for group (SELF vs. BAU) differences in vocabulary development to 0.68 for group differences in SEL related knowledge. Conclusion: Findings from two years of data collection indicate that SELF improved outcomes related to social-emotional learning and adjustment to the school culture. This study thus supports the integration of SEL with literacy instruction as a feasible and effective strategy to improve outcomes for K-1 students at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties.
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72486
The Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control: Empirical Study on Lithuanian Youth
Abstract:
The qualitative methodology based study is designed to reveal a connection between emotional intelligence (EI) and locus of control (LC) within the population of Lithuanian youth. In the context of emotional problems, the locus of control reflects how one estimates the causes of his/her emotions: internals (internal locus of control) associate their emotions with their manner of thinking, whereas externals (external locus of control) consider emotions to be evoked by external circumstances. On the other hand, there is little empirical data about this connection, and the results in disposition are often contradictory. In the conducted study 1430 young people, aged 17 to 27, from various regions of Lithuania were surveyed. The subjects were selected by quota sampling, maintaining natural proportions of the general Lithuanian youth population. To assess emotional intelligence the EI-DARL test (i.e. self-report questionnaire consisting of 75 items) was implemented. The emotional intelligence test, created applying exploratory factor analysis, reveals four main dimensions of EI: understanding of one’s own emotions, regulation of one’s own emotions, understanding other’s emotions, and regulation of other’s emotions (subscale reliability coefficients fluctuate between 0,84 and 0,91). An original 16-item internality/externality scale was used to examine the locus of control (internal consistency of the Externality subscale - 0,75; Internality subscale - 0,65). The study has determined that the youth understands and regulates other people’s emotions better than their own. Using the K-mean cluster analysis method, it was established that there are three groups of subjects according to their EI level – people with low, medium and high EI. After comparing means of subjects’ favorability of statements on the Internality/Externality scale, a predominance of internal locus of control in the young population was established. The multiple regression models has shown that a rather strong statistically significant correlation exists between total EI, EI subscales and LC. People who tend to attribute responsibility for the outcome of their actions to their own abilities and efforts have higher EI and, conversely, the tendency to attribute responsibility to external forces is related more with lower EI. While pursuing their goals, young people with high internality have a predisposition to analyze perceived emotions and, therefore, gain emotional experience: they learn to control their natural reactions and to act adequately in a situation at hand. Thus the study unfolds, that a person’s locus of control and emotional intelligence are related phenomena and allows us to draw a conclusion, that a person’s internality/externality is a reliable predictor of total EI and its components.
56
86043
Supporting Regulation and Shared Attention to Facilitate the Foundations for Development of Children and Adolescents with Complex Individual Profiles
Abstract:
This presentation demonstrates the effectiveness of music therapy in co-treatment with speech pathology and occupational therapy as an innovative way when working with children and adolescents with complex individual differences to facilitate communication, emotional, motor and social skills development. Each child with special needs and their carer has an individual profile which encompasses their visual-spatial, auditory, language, learning, mental health, family dynamic, sensory-motor, motor planning and sequencing profiles. The most common issues among children with special needs, especially those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, are in the areas of regulation, communication, and social-emotional development. The ability of children living with challenges to communicate and use language and understand verbal and non-verbal information, as well as move their bodies to explore and interact with their environments in social situations, depends on the children being regulated both internally and externally and trusting their communication partners and understanding what is happening in the moment. For carers, it is about understanding the tempo, rhythm, pacing, and timing of their own individual profile, as well as the profile of the child they are interacting with, and how these can sync together. In this study, music therapy is used in co-treatment sessions with a speech pathologist and/or an occupational therapist using the DIRFloortime approach to facilitate the regulation, attention, engagement, reciprocity and social-emotional capacities of children presenting with complex individual differences. Documented changes in 10 domains of children’s development over a 12-month period using the Individual Music Therapy Assessment Profile (IMTAP) were observed. Children were assessed biannually, and results show significant improvements in the social-emotional, musicality and receptive language domains indicating that co-treatment with a music therapist using the DIRFloortime framework is highly effective. This presentation will highlight strategies that facilitate regulation, social-emotional and communication development for children and adolescents with complex individual profiles.
55
33925
Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives
Abstract:
Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.
54
127732
Gender and Seniority Differences among Service Organizations' Employees: Motivation, Commitment, and Burnout
Abstract:
Objectives: It is well established that employees are the essence of the organization. Employees' personal characteristics and emotional state may decrease or increase organizational performance. Therefore, organizations should enhance employees' well-being. The present study examined gender and seniority differences in three factors of employees' well-being: motivation, commitment, and burnout. Methods: Participants in this quantitative cross-sectional study were 400 service organization employees aged 19-71 (Mean=29.94; SD=10.25). Regarding gender, 59.7% were women, and regarding seniority, 66.9% were less than two years in the organization. All participants completed questionnaires evaluating motivation, sense of organizational commitment (affective, continuance), and level of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment). Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS (version 25) through independent-sample t-tests. Results: Women were less motivated and felt less affective commitment toward the organization than men. They also felt more burnout than men in terms of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Additionally, employees in lower seniority levels felt less affective commitment toward the organization than employees in higher seniority levels. They also felt more burnout than employees in higher seniority levels in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Conclusions: The findings suggest that women and employees in lower seniority levels experience more vulnerable emotions in service organizations. Therefore, strategies for enhancing their well-being are recommended.
53
82209
Relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
The Saudi Arabian educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill are needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts: the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities, and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if emotional intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership. The third section looks at emotions and emotional intelligence, gender roles, and contributions by emotional intelligence in the education system. The education system of Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformation. To fully understand the current climate of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to review this process of transformation in terms of the historical, cultural, political and social positions and transformations. Over the years, the education system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant metamorphosis. The Saudi government has instituted a wide range of reforms in an attempt to improve education standards and outcomes, facilitate improvements and ensure that high standards of education standards are upheld to keep pace with the global environment and knowledge economy. Leadership itself has become an increasingly prominent aspect of educational reform worldwide. Emotional intelligence is often considered a significant aspect of leadership, but it is in its early stages in Saudi Arabia. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices, particularly among educational supervisors and contribute to national and international understandings of leadership in Saudi Arabia. Studying leadership in the Saudi Arabian context is imperative as the new generation of leaders need to cultivate pertinent skills that will allow them to become fundamentally and positively involved in the regions’ decision making processes in order to impact the progression of the Saudi Arabian education system. Understanding leadership in the education context will allow for suitable inculcation of leadership skills. These skills include goal-setting, sound decision-making as well as problem-solving within the education system of Saudi Arabia.
52
118907
Stressful Life Events and Their Influence on Childhood Obesity and Emotional Well-Being: Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract:
There is an association between an early accumulation of Stressful Life Events (SLE) during childhood and various physical and psychological health complications. However, there are only a few studies on this topic in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The general aim of the study was to evaluate the accumulation and type of SLE in 200 children from 8 to 12 years old and analyze the relationship with their emotional well-being and weight status (obesity, overweight and normal weight). The children and their families completed an interview. The evaluated variables that are included in this study are sociodemographic measures, medical/psychological history, anthropometric measures (BMI, z-BMI), and psychological variables (children's clinical interview K-SADS-PL(Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version) and battery of questionnaires). Results: Children with overweight and obesity accumulate more stressful events from an early age and have a significantly higher percentage of psychiatric diagnoses, compared to their peers with normal weight. Presenting a child psychiatric disorder is related to greater z-BMI and the total number of SLE (p < 0.001). A higher z-BMI is also related to a greater number of stressful events during childhood. There is also a positive and significant relationship between the total number of SLE and worse emotional well-being (higher levels of anxious and depressive symptoms and low self-esteem of children) (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Children with overweight and obesity grow up in a family, school, and social context where more stressors are accumulated. This is also directly associated with worse emotional well-being. It is necessary to implement multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies in different changes (school, family, and health). This study is included in a project funded by the Ministry of Innovation and Science (PSI2011-23127).
51
128382
A Longitudinal Study to Develop an Emotional Design Framework for Physical Activity Interventions
Abstract:
Multidisciplinary by nature, design research brings together varying research fields to answer globally significant questions. Emotional design, a field which helps us create products that influence people’s behaviour, and sports psychology, containing a growing field of recent research which focuses on understanding the emotions experienced through sport and the effects this has on our health and wellbeing, are two research fields that can be combined through design research to tackle global physical inactivity. The combination of these research fields presents an opportunity to build new tools and methods that could help designers create new interventions to promote positive behaviour change in the form of physical activity uptake, ultimately improving people’s health and wellbeing. This paper proposes a framework that can be used to develop new products and services that focus on not only improving the uptake and upkeep of physical activity but also helping people have a healthy emotional relationship with exercise. To develop this framework, a set of comprehensive maps exploring the relationship between human emotions and physical activity across a range of factors was created. These maps were then further evolved through in-depth interviews, which analysed the reasons behind the emotions felt, how physical activity fits into the daily routine and how important regular exercise is to people. Finally, to progress these findings into a design framework, a longitudinal study was carried out to explore further the emotional relationship people of varying sporting abilities have overtime with physical activity. This framework can be used to design more successful interventions that help people to not only become more active initially but implement long term changes to ensure they stay active.
50
74251
Holistic Development of Children through Performing Classical Art Forms: A Study in Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract:
An overall social, emotional, and cultural development in a child is what a parent expects. There is no point in comparing the generations of 70’s or 80’s with that of the children of today as the trends are changing drastically. Technology has enabled them to become smart as well as over smart in one way or the other. Children today are quite ignorant of today’s values or ethics and are imbibing different cultures around them and ultimately confused on what to follow. The researcher has gained experience in transmitting or imparting the traditional culture through performing arts. It is understood that the children undergo a transformation from what they knew to what the truth is, through learning and experience. Through performing arts, the child develops an emotional, quick learning, abundant creativity, and ultimately self-realisation on what is right and wrong. The child also gains good organising skills, good decision making skills, therefore summing up to a holistic development. The sample study is 50, and a random sampling technique is adopted to differentiate between a normal child and a child learning an art. The study is conducted in Tamil Nadu, in India.
49
81143
Understanding the Communication Practices of Special Educators with Parents of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Abstract:
High school students’ with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools. Using a multiple case study methodology, interviews were conducted to examine current practices and perceptions of the communication practices of teachers working with high school students with EBD. These interviews involved questions about general communication instances which occurred each week, communication strategies used each week, and how progress was being made on forming relationships with parents. Results confirm previous researchers’ hypotheses regarding methods, purposes, and regularity of positive communication incidences. Communication that met the positive goals of nurturing and maintaining relationships was open and frequent, reciprocal, and informal. Limitations are discussed as well as issues of trustworthiness. The case study concludes with a discussion and suggestions for high school special educators of students with EBD.
48
103809
Holistic Approach for Natural Results in Facial Aesthetics
Authors:
Abstract:
Nowadays, aesthetic and psychological researches in some countries show that the aesthetic ideal for women is built by the same pattern of big volumes – lips, cheek, facial disproportions. They all look like made of a matrix. And they lose their unique and emotional aspects of beauty. How to escape this matrix and find the balance? The secret to being a unique injector is good assessment, creating a treatment plan and flawless injection strategy. The newest concepts in this new injection era which meet the requirements of a modern society and deliver balanced and natural looking results are based on the concept of injecting not the consequence, but the reason. Three case studies are presented with full face assessment, treatment plan and before/after pictures. Using different approaches and techniques of the MD codes concept, lights and shadows concept in order to preserve the emotional beauty and identity of the women. In conclusion, the cases demonstrate that beauty exists even beyond the matrix and it is the injector’s mission and responsibility is to preserve and highlight the natural beauty and unique identity of every different patient.
47
107739
Emotional Intelligence Training: Helping Non-Native Pre-Service EFL Teachers to Overcome Speaking Anxiety: The Case of Pre-Service Teachers of English, Algeria
Abstract:
Many EFL students with high capacities are hidden because they suffer from speaking anxiety (SA). Most of them find public speaking much demanding. They feel unable to communicate, they fear to make mistakes and they fear negative evaluation or being called on. With the growing number of the learners who suffer from foreign language speaking anxiety (FLSA), it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore its harmful outcomes on their performance and success, especially during their first contact with the pupils, as they will be teaching in the near future. Different researchers suggested different ways to minimize the negative effects of FLSA. The present study sheds light on emotional intelligence skills training as an effective strategy not only to influence public speaking success but also to help pre-service EFL teachers lessen their speaking anxiety and eventually to prepare them for their professional career. A quasi-experiment was used in order to examine the research hypothesis. We worked with two groups of third-year EFL students at Oum El Bouaghi University. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to collect data about the participants’ FLSA and EI levels. The analysis of the data has yielded that the assumption that there is a negative correlation between EI and FLSA was statistically validated by the Pearson Correlation Test, concluding that, the more emotionally intelligent the individual is the less anxious s/he will be. In addition, the lack of amelioration in the results of the control group and the noteworthy improvement in the experimental group results led us to conclude that EI skills training was an effective strategy in minimizing the FLSA level and therefore, we confirmed our research hypothesis.
46
67651
Color-Based Emotion Regulation Model: An Affective E-Learning Environment
Abstract:
Emotions are considered as a vital factor affecting the process of information handling, level of attention, memory capacity and decision making. Latest e-Learning systems are therefore taking into consideration the effective state of learners to make the learning process more effective and enjoyable. One such use of user’s affective information is in the systems that tend to regulate users’ emotions to a state optimally desirable for learning. So for, this objective has been tried to be achieved with the help of teaching strategies, background music, guided imagery, video clips and odors. Nevertheless, we know that colors can affect human emotions. Relationship between color and emotions has a strong influence on how we perceive our environment. Similarly, the colors of the interface can also affect the user positively as well as negatively. This affective behavior of color and its use as emotion regulation agent is not yet exploited. Therefore, this research proposes a Color-based Emotion Regulation Model (CERM), a new framework that can automatically adapt its colors according to user’s emotional state and her personality type and can help in producing a desirable emotional effect, aiming at providing an unobtrusive emotional support to the users of e-learning environment. The evaluation of CERM is carried out by comparing it with classical non-adaptive, static colored learning management system. Results indicate that colors of the interface, when carefully selected has significant positive impact on learner’s emotions.
45
98488
The Emotional Education in the Development of Intercultural Competences
Abstract:
The development of a critical, open and plural citizenship constitutes one of the main challenges of the school institution in the present multicultural societies. Didactics in Social Sciences has conducted important contributions to the development of active methodologies to promote the development of the intercultural competencies of the student body. Research in intercultural education has demonstrated the efficiency of the cooperative learning techniques to improve the intercultural relations in the classroom. Our study proposes to check the effect that, concerning the development of intercultural competencies of the student body, the emotional education can have in the context of the use of active methodologies such as the learning by projects and the cooperative learning. To that purpose, a programme of intervention based on activities focussed on controversial issues related to cultural diversity has been implemented in several secondary schools. Through a methodology which combines intercultural competence scales with interviews and also with the analysis of the school body’s productions, the persistence of stereotypes against immigration and the efficacy of the introduction of emotional education elements in the development of intercultural competencies have both been observed.
44
7820
A Comparative Study of Burnout and Coping Strategies between HIV Counselors: Face to Face and Online Counseling Services in Addis Ababa
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to compare burnout and coping strategies between HIV counselors in face to face and online counseling settings in Addis Ababa. The study was mixed approach design that was quantitative and qualitative. For the quantitative data the participants involved in this study included 64 face to face and 47 online HIV counselors in both counseling settings. In addition, 23 participants were involved to offer qualitative data from both counseling settings. For the purpose of gathering the quantitative data, the instruments, namely, demographic questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the COPE questionnaire, were used to gather quantitative data. Qualitative data was also gathered in the FGD Guide and Interview Guide. Thus, this study revealed that HIV counselors in online counseling settings scored high on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low in personal accomplishment dimensions of burnout as compared to HIV counselors in face to face setting and the difference was statistically significant in emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, but there was no a significant difference on depersonalization dimension of burnout between the two groups. In addition, the present study revealed a statistically significant difference on problem focused coping strategy between the two groups and yet for on the emotion focused coping strategy the difference was not statistically significant. Statistically negative correlation was observed between some demographic variables such as age with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions of burnout; years of experiences and personal accomplishment dimension of burnout. A statistically positive correlation was also observed between average number of clients served per day and emotional exhaustion. Sex was having a statistically positive correlation with coping strategy. Lastly, a significant positive correlation was also observed in the emotional exhaustion dimension of the burnout and the emotional focused coping strategy. Generally, this study has shown that HIV counselors suffer from moderate to high level of burnout. Based on the findings, conclusions were made and recommendations were forwarded.
43
40391
The Impact of Stress and Coping Style on Educational Involvement among Fathers to Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Education
Abstract:
Recently, has increased the research interest in modern fatherhood especially, the increasing involvement of fathers in the family. However, there is a little research evidence on fathers to children with special needs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stress and coping style on involvement in school among fathers to children with special needs in inclusive education. We compared the fathers to children with special needs (N=72) with fathers to non-special needs children (N = 75), and found that higher stress levels, greater educational involvement and greater use of social support coping style, were found among fathers of children with special needs. In addition, mission coping style and emotional coping style predict involvement in the school and emotional coping style predicts high levels of stress. The above findings contribute to the investigation of changes in the perception of the role of fathers and their involvement in their children's lives especially, among fathers to children with special needs. From the applied aspect, the findings may increase the understanding of the role of fathers and their unique contribution to the social, emotional, and academic development of their children.
42
28220
Effects of Work Load and Surface Acting on Emotional Exhaustion and Work Satisfaction of Social Worker Students: Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Trait as Moderator
Abstract:
The study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuon' the adjustment of social worker students during their practicum. Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized by collective-oriented Chinese society for thousand years. Based on interview and literature review, we operationalized the concept as four factors, including ‘harmonious interaction’, ‘understanding and tolerance’, ‘empathetic communication’ and ‘rule abiding’. We administer the scale to 96 social worker senior students before their summer practicums begins and collect their response on emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work load, work satisfaction. We also ask their supervisors rated their performance on empathy, interpersonal relationships, performance on practicum and their Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results indicated that self-ratings of students on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are correlated with rating from their supervisors. Students who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku have better adjustment and higher ratings from their supervisor. Ren-qing Shi-ku also moderate effects of surface acting labor and work load on emotional exhaustion and work satisfaction. However, Ren-qing Shi-ku seems more beneficial under low work load situations. The finding of this study suggested traditional social skill training might be very effective for social service providers in a collective-oriented culture.
41
104987
The Role of Social Civil Competencies in Organizational Performance
Abstract:
The European Union supports social and civil competencies as being a core element to develop sustainability of organizations, people and regions. These competencies are fundamental for the well-being of the community because they include interpersonal, intrapersonal as well as their civil, active and democratic participation in organizations. The combination of these competencies reveals the organizational socio-emotional maturity and allows relevant levels of performance. It also allows the development of various capitals, namely, human, structural, relational and social, with direct influence on performance. But along this path, the emotional aspect has not been valued as a capital, given that contemporary society is based on knowledge capital and is flooded with information viewed as a capital. The present study, based on the importance of these socio-emotional capitals, aims to show that the competencies of cooperation, interpersonal understanding, empathy, kindness, ability to listen, and tolerance, to mention a few, are strategic in consolidating knowledge within organizations. This implies that the humanizing processes, both inside and outside the organizations, are revitalized. The question is how to go about doing this and its implementation; as well as, where to begin and which guidelines to take on. These are the foci that guide the present study, bearing in mind the directions of the knowledge economy.
40
88567
Context-Aware Recommender Systems Using User's Emotional State
Abstract:
The product recommendation is a field of research that has received much attention in the recent information overload phenomenon. The proliferation of the mobile environment and social media cannot help but affect the results of the recommendation depending on how the factors of the user's situation are reflected in the recommendation process. Recently, research has been spreading attention to the context-aware recommender system which is to reflect user's contextual information in the recommendation process. However, until now, most of the context-aware recommender system researches have been limited in that they reflect the passive context of users. It is expected that the user will be able to express his/her contextual information through his/her active behavior and the importance of the context-aware recommender system reflecting this information can be increased. The purpose of this study is to propose a context-aware recommender system that can reflect the user's emotional state as an active context information to recommendation process. The context-aware recommender system is a recommender system that can make more sophisticated recommendations by utilizing the user's contextual information and has an advantage that the user's emotional factor can be considered as compared with the existing recommender systems. In this study, we propose a method to infer the user's emotional state, which is one of the user's context information, by using the user's facial expression data and to reflect it on the recommendation process. This study collects the facial expression data of a user who is looking at a specific product and the user's product preference score. Then, we classify the facial expression data into several categories according to the previous research and construct a model that can predict them. Next, the predicted results are applied to existing collaborative filtering with contextual information. As a result of the study, it was shown that the recommended results of the context-aware recommender system including facial expression information show improved results in terms of recommendation performance. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that future research will be conducted on recommender system reflecting various contextual information.
39
60156
The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Manager's Psychophysiological Activity during a Performance-Review Discussion
Abstract:
Emotional intelligence (EI) consists of skills for monitoring own emotions and emotions of others, skills for discriminating different emotions, and skills for using this information in thinking and actions. EI enhances, for example, work outcomes and organizational climate. We suggest that the role and manifestations of EI should also be studied in real leadership situations, especially during the emotional, social interaction. Leadership is essentially a process to influence others for reaching a certain goal. This influencing happens by managerial processes and computer-mediated communication (e.g. e-mail) but also by face-to-face, where facial expressions have a significant role in conveying emotional information. Persons with high EI are typically perceived more positively, and they have better social skills. We hypothesize, that during social interaction high EI enhances the ability to detect other’s emotional state and controlling own emotional expressions. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leader’s experience less stress during social leadership situations, since they have better skills in dealing with the related emotional work. Thus the high-EI leaders would be more able to enjoy these situations, but also be more efficient in choosing appropriate expressions for building constructive dialogue. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leaders show more positive emotional expressions than low-EI leaders. To study these hypotheses we observed performance review discussions of 40 leaders (24 female) with 78 (45 female) of their followers. Each leader held a discussion with two followers. Psychophysiological methods were chosen because they provide objective and continuous data from the whole duration of the discussions. We recorded sweating of the hands (electrodermal activation) by electrodes placed to the fingers of the non-dominant hand to assess the stress-related physiological arousal of the leaders. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded from cheek (zygomaticus major, activated during e.g. smiling) and periocular (orbicularis oculi, activated during smiling) muscles using electrode pairs placed on the left side of the face. Leader’s trait EI was measured with a 360 questionnaire, filled by each leader’s followers, peers, managers and by themselves. High-EI leaders had less sweating of the hands (p = .007) than the low-EI leaders. It is thus suggested that the high-EI leaders experienced less physiological stress during the discussions. Also, high scores in the factor “Using of emotions” were related to more facial muscle activation indicating positive emotional expressions (cheek muscle: p = .048; periocular muscle: p = .076, almost statistically significant). The results imply that emotionally intelligent managers are positively relaxed during s social leadership situations such as a performance review discussion. The current study also highlights the importance of EI in face-to-face social interaction, given the central role facial expressions have in interaction situations. The study also offers new insight to the biological basis of trait EI. It is suggested that the identification, forming, and intelligently using of facial expressions are skills that could be trained during leadership development courses.
38
44889
A Study on the Effect of the Work-Family Conflict on Work Engagement: A Mediated Moderation Model of Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Psychology Capital
Abstract:
Work-Family Conflict has been an active research area for the past decades. Work-Family Conflict harms individuals and organizations, it is ultimately expected to bring the cost of losses to the company in the long run. WFC has mainly focused on effects of organizational effectiveness and job attitude such as Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention variables. This study is different from consequence variable with previous research. For this purpose, we selected the positive job attitude 'Work Engagement' as a consequence of WFC. This research has its primary research purpose in identifying the negative effects of the Work-Family Conflict, and started out from the recognition of the problem that the research on the direct relationship on the influence of the WFC on Work Engagement is lacking. Based on the COR(Conservation of resource theory) and JD-R(Job Demand- Resource model), the empirical study model to examine the negative effects of WFC with Emotional Exhaustion as the link between WFC and Work Engagement was suggested and validated. Also, it was analyzed how much Positive Psychological Capital may buffer the negative effects arising from WFC within this relationship, and the Mediated Moderation model controlling the indirect effect influencing the Work Engagement by the Positive Psychological Capital mediated by the WFC and Emotional Exhaustion was verified. Data was collected by using questionnaires distributed to 500 employees engaged manufacturing, services, finance, IT industry, education services, and other sectors, of which 389 were used in the statistical analysis. The data are analyzed by statistical package, SPSS 21.0, SPSS macro and AMOS 21.0. The hierarchical regression analysis, SPSS PROCESS macro and Bootstrapping method for hypothesis testing were conducted. Results showed that all hypotheses are supported. First, WFC showed a negative effect on Work Engagement. Specifically, WIF appeared to be on more negative effects than FIW. Second, Emotional exhaustion found to mediate the relationship between WFC and Work Engagement. Third, Positive Psychological Capital showed to moderate the relationship between WFC and Emotional Exhaustion. Fourth, the effect of mediated moderation through the integration verification, Positive Psychological Capital demonstrated to buffer the relationship among WFC, Emotional Exhastion, and Work Engagement. Also, WIF showed a more negative effects than FIW through verification of all hypotheses. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications on research and management of the WFC, and proposed limitations and future research directions of research.
37
113375
The Effect of Symmetry on the Perception of Happiness and Boredom in Design Products
Abstract:
The present research investigates the effect of symmetry on the perception of happiness and boredom in design products. Three experiments were carried out in order to verify the degree of the visual expressive value on different models of bookcases, wall clocks, and chairs. 60 participants directly indicated the degree of happiness and boredom using 7-point rating scales. The findings show that the participants acknowledged a different value of expressive quality in the different product models. Results show also that symmetry is not a significant constraint for an emotional design project.
36
134090
A Mixed Method Study Investigating Dyslexia and Students Experiences of Anxiety and Coping
Abstract:
Adult students with dyslexia can receive support for cognitive needs but may also experience anxiety, which is less understood. This study aims to test the hypothesis that dyslexic learners in higher education have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers and explores wider emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the ways that adults with dyslexia cope cognitively and emotionally. A mixed-method approach was used in two stages. Stage one compared survey responses from students with dyslexia (N = 102) and students without dyslexia (N = 72) after completion of an anxiety inventory. Stage two explored the emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the types of coping strategies used through semi-structured interviews with 20 dyslexic students. Results revealed a statistically significant effect for academic anxiety but not for social anxiety. Findings for stage two showed that: (1) students’ emotional consequences were characterised by a mixture of negative and positive responses, yet negative responses were more frequent in response to questions about academic tasks than positive responses; (2) participants had less to say on coping emotionally, than coping cognitively.
35
95998
A Comparative Study of Resilience in Third Culture Kids and Non Third Culture Kids
Abstract:
We live in the ‘age of migration’ where global migration and repatriation is the stark reality of human lives in the contemporary world. With increasing number of people migrating and repatriating for education, work, or crisis situations, there is an ever-growing need for active research into the effects of repatriation and migration on the psychological well-being of the migrants and expatriates. Moving across borders has resulted in individual developing a third culture and hence such individual are known as Third Culture Kids (TCKs). The aim of the study was to understand the difference in the resilience between Third Culture Kids and Non- Third Culture Kids and gain an insight into how resilience is shaped by migratory experience. The sample comprised of 200 participants that included 100 TCKs and 100 Non-TCKs. The participants were in the age range group of 17-26 years and were pursuing their college education in various parts of the world. The variable of Resilience was measured using the Resilience scale developed and standardized on TCK population which included subtests; Emotional Regulation, Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Self Efficacy, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. The data was obtained from in-person sessions and over Skype. The data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between TCKs and Non-TCKs on Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. However, no significant difference was found on the sub-variables of Self Efficacy and Emotional Regulation.
34
50052
The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies
Abstract:
This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has &quot;always&quot; used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.
33
44841
Self-Care and Risk Behaviors in Primary Caregiver of Cancer Patients
Abstract:
Introduction: Primary caregivers of cancer patients have health problems related to their lack of time, stress, and fiscal strain. Their health problems could affect their patients’ health and also increase the expenses in public health. Aim: To describe self-care and risk behaviors in a sample of Mexican primary caregiver and the relation of these behaviors with emotional distress (caregiver burden, anxiety and depression symptoms), coping and sociodemographic variables. Method: Participated in this study 173 caregivers of a third level reference medical facility (age: M=49.4, SD=13.5) females 78%, males 22%, 57.5% were caregivers of patients with terminal cancer (CPTC), and 40.5% were caregivers of patients on oncology treatment (CPOT). Results: The 75.7% of caregivers reported to have had health problem in last six months as well as several symptoms which were related to emotional distress, these symptoms were more frequently between CPTC and female caregivers. A half (47.3%) of sample reported have had difficulties in caring their health; these difficulties were related to emotional distress and lower coping, more affected caregivers were who attend male patients and CPTC. The 76.8% of caregivers had health problems in last six months, but 26.5% of them waited to search medical care until they were very sick, and 11% didn't do it. Also, more than a half of sample (56.1%) admitted to have risk behaviors as drink alcohol, smoke or overeating for feeling well, these caregivers showed high emotional distress and lower coping. About caregivers healthy behaviors, 80% of them had a hobby; 27.2% do exercise usually and between 12% to 60% did medical checkups (glucose tests, blood pressure and cholesterol tests, eye exams and watched their weight), these caregivers had lower emotional distress and high coping, some variables related health behaviors were: care only one patient or a female patient and be a CPOT, social support, high educational level and experience as a caregiver in past. The half of caregivers were worrying to develop cancer in the future; this idea was 2.5 times more frequent in caregiver with problems to care their health. Conclusions: The results showed a big proportion of caregivers with medical problems. High emotional distress and low coping were related to physical symptoms, risk behaviors, and low self-care; poor self-care was frequently even in caregiver who have chronic illness.
32
99617
Effects of Music Training on Social-Emotional Development and Basic Musical Skills: Findings from a Longitudinal Study with German and Migrant Children
Abstract:
Long-term music interventions could enhance both musical and nonmusical skills. The present study was designed to explore cognitive, socio-emotional, and musical development in a longitudinal setting. Third-graders (N = 184: 87 male, 97 female; mean age = 8.61 years; 115 native German and 69 migrant children) were randomly assigned to two intervention groups (music and maths) and a control group over a period of one school-year. At baseline, children in these groups were similar in basic cognitive skills, with a trend of advantage in the control group. Dependent measures included the culture fair intelligence test CFT 20-R; the questionnaire of emotional and social school experience for grade 3 and 4 (FEESS 3-4), the test of resources in childhood and adolescence (FRKJ 8-16), the test of language proficiency for German native and non-native primary school children (SFD 3), the reading comprehension test (ELFE 1-6), the German math test (DEMAT 3+) and the intermediate measures of music audiation (IMMA). Data were collected two times at the beginning (T1) and at the end of the school year (T2). A third measurement (T3) followed after a six months retention period. Data from baseline and post-intervention measurements are currently being analyzed. Preliminary results of all three measurements will be presented at the conference.
31
101666
A Weighted Group EI Incorporating Role Information for More Representative Group EI Measurement
Abstract:
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a well-established personal characteristic. It has been viewed as a critical factor which can influence an individual&#39;s academic achievement, ability to work and potential to succeed. When working in a group, EI is fundamentally connected to the group members&#39; interaction and ability to work as a team. The ability of a group member to intelligently perceive and understand own emotions (Intrapersonal EI), to intelligently perceive and understand other members&#39; emotions (Interpersonal EI), and to intelligently perceive and understand emotions between different groups (Cross-boundary EI) can be considered as Group emotional intelligence (Group EI). In this research, a more representative Group EI measurement approach, which incorporates the information of the composition of a group and an individual&rsquo;s role in that group, is proposed. To demonstrate the claim of being more representative Group EI measurement approach, this study adopts a multi-method research design, involving a combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques to establish a metric of Group EI. From the results, it can be concluded that by introducing the weight coefficient of each group member on group work into the measurement of Group EI, Group EI will be more representative and more capable of understanding what happens during teamwork than previous approaches.
30
50111
Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Professional Burnout, Emotional Intelligence and Health Level in Teachers University of Guayaquil
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in a sample of 600 professors at the University of Guayaquil (Ecuador) using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.). In addition, assessment was made of the effects on health from professional burnout using the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q.-28), and the influence of Emotional Intelligence on prevention of its symptoms using the Spanish version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (T.M.M.S.-24). After confirmation of the underlying factor structure, the three measurement tools showed high levels of internal consistency, and specific cut-off points were proposed for the group of Latin American academics in the M.B.I. Statistical analysis showed the syndrome is present extensively, particularly on medium levels, with notably low scores given for Professional Self-Esteem. The application of Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that low levels of self-esteem are related to depression, with a lack of personal resources related to anxiety and insomnia, whereas the ability to perceive and control emotions and feelings improves perceptions of professional effectiveness and performance.
29
65548
Assessing Environmental Psychology and Health Awareness in Delhi: A Fundamental Query for Sustainable Urban Living
Authors:
Abstract:
Environmental psychology explains that the person is a social agent that seeks to extract meaning from their built and natural environment to behave in a particular manner. It also shows the attachment or detachment of people to their environment. Assessing environmental psychology of people is imperative for planners and policy makers for urban planning. The paper investigates the environmental psychology of people living in nine districts of Delhi by calculating and assessing their Environmental Emotional Quotient (EEQ). Emotional Quotient deals with the ability to sense, understand, attach and respond according to the power of emotions. An Environmental Emotional Quotient has been formulated based upon the inventory administered to them. The respondents were asked questions related to their view and emotions about the green spaces, water resource conservation, air and environmental quality. An effort has been made to assess the feeling of belongingness among the residents. Their views were assessed on green spaces, reuse, and recycling of resources and their participation level. They were also been assessed upon health awareness level by considering both preventive and curative segments of health care. It was found that only 12 percent of the people is emotionally attached to their surroundings in the city. The emotional attachment reduces as we move away from the house to housing complex to neighbouring areas and rest of the city. In fact, the emotional quotient goes lower to lowest from house to other ends of the city. It falls abruptly after the radius of 1 km from the residence. The result also shows that nearly 54% respondents accept that there is environment pollution in their area. Around 47.8% respondents in the survey consider that diseases occur because of green cover depiction in their area. Major diseases are to airborne diseases like asthma and bronchitis. Seasonal disease prevalent, which specially occurred from last 3-4 years are malaria, dengue and chikengunya. Survey also shows that only 31 % of respondents visit government hospitals while 69% respondents visit private hospitals or small clinics for healthcare services. The paper suggests the need for environmental sensitive policies and need for green insurance in mega cities like Delhi.
28
110444
Relationship between Perceived Level of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Role Stress of Fire Fighters in Mumbai
Abstract:
The research aimed to study the level of emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational role stress (ORS) of fire-fighters and the relationship between the two variables. Hundred and twenty fire-fighters were selected from different fire stations of Mumbai by purposive sampling. The firefighters who had the basic training, a minimum experience of 2 years and had been on the field during a crisis situation were selected for the study. The firefighters selected ranged from 23-58 years of age, and the number of years of experience ranged from 2 to 33 years. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the firefighters perceived themselves to be at an above average (57) and high (58) level of EI (M=429.35, SD=38.712). Domain-wise analysis disclosed that compared to self-awareness (92) and relationship management (93), more number of participants perceived themselves in the high category in the domains of self-management (108) and social management (106). Further, examination of the subdomain scores conveyed that a large number of participants rated themselves in the average level of these skills of accurate self-assessment (50), emotional self-control (50), adaptability (56) initiative (41), influence (66), change catalyst (53), and conflict management (50). With relation to the stress variable, it was found that almost half the number of the participants (59) rated themselves as having an average level of stress (M=137.44, SD=28.800). In most of the domains, majority of the participants perceived themselves as having an average level of stress, while in the domain of role isolation, self-role distance, and role ambiguity, majority of the firefighters rated themselves as having a low level of stress. A strong negative correlation (r=-.360**, p=.000) was found between EI and ORS. This study is a contribution to the literature and has implications for fire-fighters at the personal level, for the policymakers, and the fire department.
27
42395
Innovative Food Related Modification of the Day-Night Task Demonstrates Impaired Inhibitory Control among Patients with Binge-Purge Eating Disorder
Abstract:
Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are common psychopathologies which involve distorted body image and eating disturbances. Binge-purge eating disorders (B/P ED) are characterized by repetitive events of binge eating followed by purges. Patients with B/P ED behavior may be seen as impulsive especially when relate to food stimulation and affective conditions. The current study included innovative modification of the day-night task targeted to assess inhibitory control among patients with B/P ED. Methods: This prospective study included 50 patients with B/P ED during acute phase of illness (T1) upon their admission to specialized ED department in tertiary center. 34 patients repeated the study towards discharge to ambulatory care (T2). Treatment effect was evaluated by BMI and emotional questionnaires regarding depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Control group included 36 healthy controls with matched demographic parameters who performed both T1 and T2 assessments. The current modification is based on the emotional day-night task (EDNT) which involves five emotional stimulation added to the sun and moon pictures presented to participants. In the current study, we designed the food-emotional modification day night task (F-EDNT) food stimulations of egg and banana which resemble the sun and moon, respectively, in five emotional states (angry, sad, happy, scrambled and neutral). During this computerized task, participants were instructed to push on “day” bottom in response to moon and banana stimulations and on “night” bottom when sun and egg were presented. Accuracy (A) and reaction time (RT) were evaluated and compared between EDNT and F-EDNT as a reflection of participants’ inhibitory control. Results: Patients with B/P ED had significantly improved BMI, depression and anxiety scores on T2 compared to T1 (all p< 0.001). Task performance was similar among patients and controls in the EDNT without significant A or RT differences in both T1 and T2. On F-EDNT during T1, B/P ED patients had significantly reduced accuracy in 4/5 emotional stimulation compared to controls: angry (73±25% vs. 84±15%, respectively), sad (69±25% vs. 80±18%, respectively), happy (73±24% vs. 82±18%, respectively) and scrambled (74±24% vs. 84±13%, respectively, all p< 0.05). Additionally, patients’ RT to food stimuli was significantly faster compared to neutral ones, in both cry and neutral emotional stimulations (356±146 vs. 400±141 and 378±124 vs. 412±116 msec, respectively, p< 0.05). These significant differences between groups as a function of stimulus type were diminished on T2. Conclusion: Having to process food related content, in particular in emotional context seems to be impaired in patients with B/P ED during the acute phase of their illness and elicits greater impulsivity. Innovative modification using such procedures seem to be sensitive to patients’ illness phase and thus may be implemented during screening and follow up through the clinical management of these patients.
26
11339
Decision Making, Reward Processing and Response Selection
Abstract:
The appropriate integration of reward processing and decision making provided by the environment is vital for behavioural success and individuals’ well being in everyday life. Functional neurological investigation has already provided an inclusive image on affective and emotional (motivational) processing in the healthy human brain and has recently focused its interest also on the assessment of brain function in anxious and depressed individuals. This article offers an overview on the theoretical approaches that relate emotion and decision-making, and spotlights investigation with anxious or depressed individuals to reveal how emotions can interfere with decision-making. This research aims at incorporating the emotional structure based on response and stimulation with a Bayesian approach to decision-making in terms of probability and value processing. It seeks to show how studies of individuals with emotional dysfunctions bear out that alterations of decision-making can be considered in terms of altered probability and value subtraction. The utmost objective is to critically determine if the probabilistic representation of belief affords could be a critical approach to scrutinize alterations in probability and value representation in subjective with anxiety and depression, and draw round the general implications of this approach.
25
77867
Differences in Parental Acceptance, Rejection, and Attachment and Associations with Adolescent Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction
Abstract:
Research and theory suggest that parenting and parent-child attachment influence emotional development and well-being. Studies indicate that adolescents often describe differences in relationships with each parent and may form different types of attachment to mothers and fathers. During adolescence and young adulthood, romantic partners may also become attachment figures, influencing well being, and providing a relational context for emotion skill development. Mothers, however, tend to be remain the primary attachment figure; fathers and romantic partners are more likely to be secondary attachment figures. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) participants would rate mothers as more accepting and less rejecting than fathers, 2) participants would rate secure attachment to mothers higher and insecure attachment lower compared to father and romantic partner, 3) parental rejection and insecure attachment would be negatively related to life satisfaction and emotional intelligence, and 4) secure attachment and parental acceptance would be positively related life satisfaction and emotional intelligence. After IRB and informed consent, one hundred fifty adolescents and young adults (ages 11-28, M = 19.64; 71% female) completed an online survey. Measures included parental acceptance, rejection, attachment (i.e., secure, dismissing, and preoccupied), emotional intelligence (i.e., seeking and providing comfort, use, and understanding of self emotions, expressing warmth, understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs), and well-being (i.e., self-confidence and life satisfaction). As hypothesized, compared to fathers’, mothers’ acceptance was significantly higher t (190) = 3.98, p = .000 and rejection significantly lower t (190) = - 4.40, p = .000. Group differences in secure attachment were significant, f (2, 389) = 40.24, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers and between mothers and romantic partners; mothers had the highest mean score. Group differences in preoccupied attachment were significant, f (2, 388) = 13.37, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and romantic partners, and between fathers and romantic partners; mothers have the lowest mean score. However, group differences in dismissing attachment were not significant, f (2, 389) = 1.21, p = .30; scores for mothers and romantic partners were similar; father means score was highest. For hypotheses 3 and 4 significant negative correlations were found between life satisfaction and dismissing parent, and romantic attachment, preoccupied father and romantic attachment, and mother and father rejection variables; secure attachment variables and parental acceptance were positively correlated with life satisfaction. Self-confidence was correlated only with mother acceptance. For emotional intelligence, seeking and providing comfort were negatively correlated with parent dismissing and mother rejection; secure mother and romantic attachment and mother acceptance were positively correlated with these variables. Use and understanding of self-emotions were negatively correlated with parent and partner dismissing attachment, and parent rejection; romantic secure attachment and parent acceptance were positively correlated. Expressing warmth was negatively correlated with dismissing attachment variables, romantic preoccupied attachment, and parent rejection; whereas attachment secure variables were positively associated. Understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs were correlated with parent dismissing and preoccupied attachment variables and mother rejection; only secure father attachment was positively correlated.
24
45687
Designing Program for Developing Self-Esteem of Gifted Children
Abstract:
Self-esteem implies a person’s overall self-worth, self-respect, and self-value. It helps a person to maintain good mental health, personality, and achievement. Gifted students face some emotional problems, sometimes, which cause decreases in their self-esteem. Such emotional problems include loneliness, anxiety, and depression as examples. For this reason, designing a counseling program is necessary for gifted students who need a high level of self-esteem. The available counseling programs focused on developmental aspect only to the best of the writer’s knowledge. While the proposed program focuses on both clinical and developmental counseling by applying psychoanalytic play therapy. The proposed program consists of; Theoretical background such as; Behavior, and RET. It also consists of counseling procedures and therapeutic interventions.
23
98560
Data Collection Techniques for Robotics to Identify the Facial Expressions of Traumatic Brain Injured Patients
Abstract:
This paper presents the investigation of data collection procedures, associated with robots when placed with traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients for rehabilitation purposes through facial expression and mood analysis. Rehabilitation after TBI is very crucial due to nature of injury and variation in recovery time. It is advantageous to analyze these emotional signals in a contactless manner, due to the non-supportive behavior of patients, limited muscle movements and increase in negative emotional expressions. This work aims at the development of framework where robots can recognize TBI emotions through facial expressions to perform rehabilitation tasks by physical, cognitive or interactive activities. The result of these studies shows that with customized data collection strategies, proposed framework identify facial and emotional expressions more accurately that can be utilized in enhancing recovery treatment and social interaction in robotic context.
22
91269
Neural Network Based Control Algorithm for Inhabitable Spaces Applying Emotional Domotics
Abstract:
In recent years, Mexico’s population has seen a rise of different physiological and mental negative states. Two main consequences of this problematic are deficient work performance and high levels of stress generating and important impact on a person’s physical, mental and emotional health. Several approaches, such as the use of audiovisual stimulus to induce emotions and modify a person’s emotional state, can be applied in an effort to decreases these negative effects. With the use of different non-invasive physiological sensors such as EEG, luminosity and face recognition we gather information of the subject’s current emotional state. In a controlled environment, a subject is shown a series of selected images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) in order to induce a specific set of emotions and obtain information from the sensors. The raw data obtained is statistically analyzed in order to filter only the specific groups of information that relate to a subject’s emotions and current values of the physical variables in the controlled environment such as, luminosity, RGB light color, temperature, oxygen level and noise. Finally, a neural network based control algorithm is given the data obtained in order to feedback the system and automate the modification of the environment variables and audiovisual content shown in an effort that these changes can positively alter the subject’s emotional state. During the research, it was found that the light color was directly related to the type of impact generated by the audiovisual content on the subject’s emotional state. Red illumination increased the impact of violent images and green illumination along with relaxing images decreased the subject’s levels of anxiety. Specific differences between men and women were found as to which type of images generated a greater impact in either gender. The population sample was mainly constituted by college students whose data analysis showed a decreased sensibility to violence towards humans. Despite the early stage of the control algorithm, the results obtained from the population sample give us a better insight into the possibilities of emotional domotics and the applications that can be created towards the improvement of performance in people’s lives. The objective of this research is to create a positive impact with the application of technology to everyday activities; nonetheless, an ethical problem arises since this can also be applied to control a person’s emotions and shift their decision making.
21
83828
An Examination of Some Determinates of Work Performance in Kuwaiti Business Organizations
Authors:
Abstract:
The study investigates the effect of some determinates of work performance in Kuwaiti business organizations. The study postulates that employee attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction), behaviors (organizational citizenship behavior, job involvement), and emotional intelligence will have positive effects on work performance. Survey data were collected from 204 employees working in eight Kuwaiti work organizations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the study hypotheses; employee attitudes of organizational commitment and job satisfaction was found to have a significant positive effect on work performance. Organizational citizenship behavior and job involvement were also found to have positive effect on work performance. Findings also revealed that an in increase in emotional intelligent will cause performance to increase. Results of the current study were compared and contrasted to findings of previous studies. The theoretical and empirical application of the findings were explained. Limitation of the current study was discussed and topics for future research were proposed.
20
110726
The Dark Side of Tourism's Implications: A Structural Equation Modeling Study of the 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy
Abstract:
Despite the fact that growing academic attention on dark tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, among the various reasons for travelling death-related ones, are very ancient. Furthermore, the darker side of human nature has always been fascinated and curious regarding death, or at least, man has always tried to learn lessons from death. This study proposes to describe the phenomenon of dark tourism related to the 2016 earthquake in Central Italy, deadly for 302 people and highly destructive for the rural areas of Lazio, Marche, and Umbria Regions. The primary objective is to examine the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism site, using the structural equation model, applied for the first time to a dark tourism research in 2016, in a study conducted after the Beichuan earthquake. The findings of the current study are derived from the calculations conducted on primary data compiled from 350 tourists in the areas mostly affected by the 2016 earthquake, including the town of Amatrice, near the epicenter, Castelluccio, Norcia, Ussita and Visso, through conducting a Likert scale survey. Furthermore, we use the structural equation model to examine the motivation behind dark travel and how this experience can influence the motivation and emotional reaction of tourists. Expected findings are in line with the previous study mentioned above, indicating that: not all tourists visit the thanatourism sites for dark tourism purpose, tourists’ emotional reactions influence more heavily the emotional tourist experience than cognitive experiences do, and curious visitors are likely to engage cognitively by learning about the incident or related issues.
19
114310
The Dark Side of Tourism's Implications: A Structural Equation Modeling Study of the 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy
Abstract:
Despite the fact that growing academic attention on dark tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, among the various reasons for travelling death-related ones, are very ancient. Furthermore, the darker side of human nature has always been fascinated and curious regarding death, or at least, man has always tried to learn lessons from death. This study proposes to describe the phenomenon of dark tourism related to the 2016 earthquake in Central Italy, deadly for 302 people and highly destructive for the rural areas of Lazio, Marche, and Umbria Regions. The primary objective is to examine the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism site, using the structural equation model, applied for the first time to a dark tourism research in 2016, in a study conducted after the Beichuan earthquake. The findings of the current study are derived from the calculations conducted on primary data compiled from 350 tourists in the areas mostly affected by the 2016 earthquake, including the town of Amatrice, near the epicenter, Castelluccio, Norcia, Ussita and Visso, through conducting a Likert scale survey. Furthermore, we use the structural equation model to examine the motivation behind dark travel and how this experience can influence the motivation and emotional reaction of tourists. Expected findings are in line with the previous study mentioned above, indicating that: not all tourists visit the thanatourism sites for dark tourism purpose, tourists’ emotional reactions influence more heavily the emotional tourist experience than cognitive experiences do, and curious visitors are likely to engage cognitively by learning about the incident or related issues.
18
82385
The Effect of Realizing Emotional Synchrony with Teachers or Peers on Children’s Linguistic Proficiency: The Case Study of Uji Elementary School
Abstract:
This paper reports on a joint research project in which a researcher in applied linguistics and elementary school teachers in Japan explored new ways to realize emotional synchrony in a classroom in childhood education. The primary purpose of this project was to develop a cross-curriculum of the first language (L1) and second language (L2) based on the concept of plurilingualism. This concept is common in Europe, and can-do statements are used in forming the standard of linguistic proficiency in any language; these are attributed to the action-oriented approach in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). CEFR has a basic tenet of language education: improving communicative competence. Can-do statements are classified into five categories based on the tenet: reading, writing, listening, speaking/ interaction, and speaking/ speech. The first approach of this research was to specify the linguistic proficiency of the children, who are still developing their L1. Elementary school teachers brainstormed and specified the linguistic proficiency of the children as the competency needed to synchronize with others &ndash; teachers or peers &ndash; physically and mentally. The teachers formed original can-do statements in language proficiency on the basis of the idea that emotional synchrony leads to understanding others in communication. The research objectives are to determine the effect of language education based on the newly developed curriculum and can-do statements. The participants of the experiment were 72 third-graders in Uji Elementary School, Japan. For the experiment, 17 items were developed from the can-do statements formed by the teachers and divided into the same five categories as those of CEFR. A can-do checklist consisting of the items was created. The experiment consisted of three steps: first, the students evaluated themselves using the can-do checklist at the beginning of the school year. Second, one year of instruction was given to the students in Japanese and English classes (six periods a week). Third, the students evaluated themselves using the same can-do checklist at the end of the school year. The results of statistical analysis showed an enhancement of linguistic proficiency of the students. The average results of the post-check exceeded that of the pre-check in 12 out of the 17 items. Moreover, significant differences were shown in four items, three of which belonged to the same category: speaking/ interaction. It is concluded that children can get to understand others&rsquo; minds through physical and emotional synchrony. In particular, emotional synchrony is what teachers should aim at in childhood education.
17
38588
Emotional Intelligence in Educational Arena and Its Pragmatic Concerns
Authors:
Abstract:
This study intends to make analysis of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the process of pedagogy and look into its repercussions in different educational institutions including school, college, and university in the capital state of India, Delhi in 2015. Field of education is a complex area with challenging issues in a modern society. Education is the breeding ground for nurturing human souls, and personalities. Since antiquity, man has been in search of truth, wisdom, contentment, peace. His efforts have brought him to acquire these through hardship, evidently through the process of teaching and learning. Computer aids and artificial intelligence have made life easy but complex. Efficient pedagogy involves direct human intervention despite the flux of technological advancements. Time and again, pedagogical practices demand sincere human efforts to understand and improve upon life’s many pragmatic concerns. Apart from the intense academic scientific approaches, EI in academia plays a vital role in the growth of education, positively achieving national progression; ‘pedagogy of pragmatic purpose.’ Use of literature is found to be one of the valuable pragmatic tools of Emotional Intelligence. This research examines the way literature provides useful influence in building better practices in teaching-learning process. The present project also scrutinizes various pieces of world literature and translation, incorporating efforts of intellectuals in promoting comprehensive amity. The importance of EI in educational arena with its pragmatic uses was established by the study of interviews, and questionnaire collected from teachers and students. In summary the analysis of obtained empirical data makes it possible to accomplish that the use Emotional Intelligence in academic scenario yields multisided positive pragmatic outcomes; positive attitude, constructive aptitude, value-added learning, enthusiastic participation, creative thinking, lower apprehension, diminished fear, leading to individual as well as collective advancement, progress, and growth of pedagogical agents.
16
75400
Creativity and Expressive Interpretation of Musical Drama in Children with Special Needs (Down Syndrome) in Special Schools Yayasan Pendidikan Anak Cacat, Medan, North Sumatera
Abstract:
Children with special needs, especially those with disability in mental, physical or social/emotional interactions, are marginalized. Many people still view them as troublesome, inconvenience, having learning difficulties, unproductive and burdensome to society. This study intends to investigate; how musical drama can develop the ability to control the coordination of mental functions; how musical dramas can assist children to work together; how musical dramas can assist to maintain the child's emotional and physical health; how musical dramas can improve children creativity. The objectives of the research are: To know whether musical drama can control the coordination of mental function of children; to know whether musical drama can improve communication ability and expression of children; to know whether musical drama can help children work with people around them; to find out if musical dramas can develop the child's emotional and physical health; to find out if musical drama can improve children's creativity. The study employed a qualitative research approach. Data was collecting by listening, observing in depth through public hearings that select the key informants who were teachers and principals, parents and children. The data obtained from each public hearing was then processed (reduced), conclusion drawing/verification, presentation of data (data display). Furthermore, the model obtained was implementing for musical performance, where the benefits of the show are: musical drama can improve language skills; musical dramas are capable of developing memory and storage of information; developing communication skills and express themselves; helping children work together; assisting emotional and physical health; enhancing creativity.
15
89323
Positive Behaviour Management Strategies: An Action Research Conducted in a Kindergarten Classroom in Remote Regional Queensland
Authors:
Abstract:
As an early childhood teacher in a socially and economically highly disadvantaged suburb in regional QLD, the author endeavors to find out effective positive approaches to behavior management for a classroom that is overwhelmed with challenging behaviors. After evaluating the first-hand data collected from the action research, the author summarizes a few innovative, positive behavior management strategies. The research also implies that behavior management opportunities are actually great social and emotional teachable moments, and by tapping into those teachable moments effectively, the teacher and children will have a closer relationship.
14
85629
Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Abstract:
This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease, as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province. Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form, unpleasant symptom form, and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions, peripheral nerves abnormality, fatigue, gastro-intestinal tract, pain and, waste congestion. Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = -.220; p < .05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=-.204; p
13
46608
Role of Self-Concept in the Relationship between Emotional Abuse and Mental Health of Employees in the North West Province, South Africa
Abstract:
The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems. The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids. The objectives of this paper are the modeling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances. Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation, so they were designed and modeled in this paper. The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters. According to the achieved results, the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid.
12
104790
Dancing with Perfectionism and Emotional Inhibition on the Ground of Disordered Eating Behaviors: Investigating Emotion Regulation Difficulties as Mediating Factor
Abstract:
Dancers seem to have much higher risk levels for the development of eating disorders, compared to non-dancing counterparts. In a remarkably competitive nature of dance environment, perfectionism and emotion regulation difficulties become inevitable risk factors. Moreover, early maladaptive schemas are associated with various eating disorders. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the mediating role of difficulties with emotion regulation on the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eating behaviors, as well as on the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and disordered eating behaviors. A total of 70 volunteer dancers (n = 47 women, n = 23 men) were recruited in the study (M age = 25.91, SD = 8.9, range 19–63) from the university teams or private clubs in Turkey. The sample included various types of dancers (n = 26 ballets or ballerinas, n =32 Latin, n = 10 tango, n = 2 hiphop). The mean dancing hour per week was 11.09 (SD = 7.09) within a range of 1-30 hours. The participants filled a questionnaire set including demographic information form, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, three subscales (Emotional Inhibition, Unrelenting Standards-Hypercriticalness, Approval Seeking-Recognition Seeking) from Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The mediation hypotheses were tested using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. The findings revealed that emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between three distinct subtypes of perfectionism and emotional eating. The results of the Sobel test suggested that there were significant indirect effects of self-oriented perfectionism (b = .06, 95% CI = .0084, .1739), other-oriented perfectionism (b = .15, 95% CI = .0136, .4185), and socially prescribed perfectionism (b = .09, 95% CI = .0104, .2344) on emotional eating through difficulties with emotion regulation. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties significantly mediated the relationship between emotional inhibition and emotional eating (F(1,68) = 4.67, R2 = .06, p < .05). These results seem to provide some evidence that perfectionism might become a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors when dancers are not able to regulate their emotions. Further, gaining an understanding of how inhibition of emotions leads to inverse effects on eating behavior may be important to develop intervention strategies to manage their disordered eating patterns in risk groups. The present study may also support the importance of using unified protocols for transdiagnostic approaches which focus on identifying, accepting, prompting to express maladaptive emotions and appraisals.
11
95743
Emotions in Health Tweets: Analysis of American Government Official Accounts
Abstract:
The Government Departments of Health have the task of informing and educating citizens about public health issues. For this, they use channels like Twitter, key in the search for health information and the propagation of content. The tweets, important in the virality of the content, may contain emotions that influence the contagion and exchange of knowledge. The goal of this study is to perform an analysis of the emotional projection of health information shared on Twitter by official American accounts: the disease control account CDCgov, National Institutes of Health, NIH, the government agency HHSGov, and the professional organization PublicHealth. For this, we used Tone Analyzer, an International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) tool specialized in emotion detection in text, corresponding to the categorical model of emotion representation. For 15 days, all tweets from these accounts were analyzed with the emotional analysis tool in text. The results showed that their tweets contain an important emotional load, a determining factor in the success of their communications. This exposes that official accounts also use subjective language and contain emotions. The predominance of emotion joy over sadness and the strong presence of emotions in their tweets stimulate the virality of content, a key in the work of informing that government health departments have.
10
109867
Correlation between General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Stress Response after One Month Practice of Moderate Intensity Physical Exercise
Abstract:
Background and Aim: Physical aerobic exercises promote positive changes in one’s mental health, intelligence, and ability to cope with stressful encounters. The present study was designed to explore the correlation between intelligence and stress parameters and to assess the correlation between the same parameters after the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise. Method: The study was conducted on thirty-five healthy male volunteer students to assess the correlation between stress parameters in subjects with varying level of general intelligence (GI) and emotional intelligence (EI). Correlation studies were again conducted after one month between the same parameters to evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity physical exercise (MIPE). Baseline values were recorded using standard scales. Result: IQ and EQ correlated negatively with both acute and chronic stress parameters and positively with each other. A positive correlation was found between acute and chronic stress. With the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise, there was significant increment between the parameters under study and hence improved results. Conclusion: MIPE improved correlation between GI, EI, stress parameters, and thus reduced stress and improved intelligence.
9
66753
Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer
Abstract:
The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.
8
70611
Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Support and Wellbeing in People with Vitiligo
Abstract:
The present study investigated the relationship between fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social support and well-being in people with Vitiligo. It was hypothesized that low level of FNE and greater social support is likely to predict well-being. It was also hypothesized that social support is likely to moderate the relationship between FNE and well-being. Correlational research design was used for the present study. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect a sample (N=122) of people with Vitiligo. Hierarchical Moderated Regression analysis was used to test prediction and moderation. Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mental Health Continuum-Short form (MHC-SF) were used to evaluate the study variables. Fear of negative evaluation negatively predicted well-being (emotional and psychological). Social support from significant others and friends predicted social well-being. Social Support from family predicted emotional and psychological well-being. It was found that social support from significant others moderated the relationship between FNE and emotional well-being and social support from family moderated the relationship between FNE and social well-being. Dermatologists treating people with Vitiligo need to educate them and their families about the buffering role of social support (family and significant others). Future studies need to focus on other important mediating factors that can possibly explain the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and wellbeing.
7
83508
Application of Vector Representation for Revealing the Richness of Meaning of Facial Expressions
Abstract:
Studies investigating emotional facial expressions typically reveal consensus among observes regarding the meaning of basic expressions, whose number ranges between 6 to 15 emotional states. Given this limited number of discrete expressions, how is it that the human vocabulary of emotional states is so rich? The present study argues that perceivers use sequences of these discrete expressions as the basis for a much richer vocabulary of emotional states. Such mechanisms, in which a relatively small number of basic components is expanded to a much larger number of possible combinations of meanings, exist in other human communications modalities, such as spoken language and music. In these modalities, letters and notes, which serve as basic components of spoken language and music respectively, are temporally linked, resulting in the richness of expressions. In the current study, in each trial participants were presented with sequences of two images containing facial expression in different combinations sampled out of the eight static basic expressions (total 64; 8X8). In each trial, using single word participants were required to judge the 'state of mind' portrayed by the person whose face was presented. Utilizing word embedding methods (Global Vectors for Word Representation), employed in the field of Natural Language Processing, and relying on machine learning computational methods, it was found that the perceived meanings of the sequences of facial expressions were a weighted average of the single expressions comprising them, resulting in 22 new emotional states, in addition to the eight, classic basic expressions. An interaction between the first and the second expression in each sequence indicated that every single facial expression modulated the effect of the other facial expression thus leading to a different interpretation ascribed to the sequence as a whole. These findings suggest that the vocabulary of emotional states conveyed by facial expressions is not restricted to the (small) number of discrete facial expressions. Rather, the vocabulary is rich, as it results from combinations of these expressions. In addition, present research suggests that using word embedding in social perception studies, can be a powerful, accurate and efficient tool, to capture explicit and implicit perceptions and intentions. Acknowledgment: The study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Defense in Israel to GA and CS. CS is also supported by the ABC initiative in Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
6
1380
The Relation between Coping Strategies with Stress and Mental Health Situation in Flying Addicted Family of Self Introducer and Private
Abstract:
Recent research studies relation between coping strategies with stress and mental health situation in flying addicted family of self-introducer and private, Units of Guilan province. For this purpose 251 family (parent, spouse), that referred to private and self-introducer centers to break out of drug are selected in random sampling form. Research method was cross sectional-descriptive and purpose of research was fixing of between kinds of coping strategies with stress and mental health condition with attention to demographic variables. Therefore to collection of information, coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) and mental health questionnaire (GHQ) was used and finally data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods (average, standard deviation) and inferential statistical correlation coefficient and regression. Study of correlation coefficient between mental healths with problem focused emotional focused and detachment strategies in level more than %99 is confirmed. Also mental health with avoidant focused hasn't correlation in other words relation is between mental health with problem focused strategies (r= 0/34) and emotional focused with mental health (r=0.52) and detachment with mental health (r= 0.18) in meaningful level 0.05. And also relation is between emotional focused strategies and mental health (r= 0.034) that is meaningless in Alpha 0.05. Also relation between problem processed coping strategies and mental health situation with attention to demographic variable is meaningful and relation level verified in confidence level more than 0.99. And result of anticipation equation regression statistical test has most a have in problem focused coping strategy, mental health, but relation of the avoidant emotional, detachment strategy with mental health was meaningless with attention to demographic variables.
5
63401
Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs
Abstract:
Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.
4
101394
Prevalence of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in School Going Adolescents in India
Abstract:
Background: Adolescence is the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. It is marked by immense turmoil in emotional and behavioral spheres. Adolescents are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational function impairments. Conflicts in the family and inability of the parents to cope with the changing demands of an adolescent have a negative impact on the overall development of the child. This augers ill for the individual’s future, resulting in depression, delinquency and suicides among other problems. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years residing in Ludhiana city. Method: A total of 1380 school children in the age group of 13 to 15 years were assessed by the adolescent health screening questionnaire (FAPS) and Youth Self-Report (2001) questionnaire. Statistical significance was ascertained by t-test, chi-square test (x²) and ANOVA, as appropriate. Results: A considerably high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was found in school going adolescents (26.5%), more in girls (31.7%) than in boys (24.4%). In case of boys, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 28.2%, followed by a significant decline by the age of 14 years, i.e., 24.2% and 15 years, i.e., 19.6%. In case of girls also, the maximum problem was in the 13 year age group, i.e., 32.4% followed by a marginal decline in the 14 years i.e., 31.8% and 15 year age group, i.e., 30.2%. Demographic factors were non contributory. Internalizing syndrome (22.4%) was the most common problem followed by the neither internalizing nor externalizing (17.6%) group. In internalizing group, most (26.5%) of the students were observed to be anxious/ depressed. Social problem was observed to be the most frequent (10.6%) among neither internalizing nor externalizing group. Aggressive behavior was the commonest (8.4%) among externalizing group. Internalizing problems, mainly anxiety and depression, were commoner in females (30.6%) than males (24.6%). More boys (16%) than girls (13.4%) were reported to suffer from externalizing disorders. A critical review of the data showed that most of the adolescents had poor knowledge about reproductive health. Almost 36% reported that the source of their information on sexual and reproductive health being friends and the electronic media. There was a high percentage of adolescents who reported being worried about sexual abuse (20.2%) with majority of them being girls (93.6%) reflecting poorly on the social setup in the country. About 41% of adolescents reported being concerned about body weight and most of them being girls (92.4%). Up to 14.5% reported having thoughts of using alcohol or drugs perhaps due to the easy availability of substances of abuse in this part of the country. 12.8% (mostly girls) reported suicidal thoughts. Summary/conclusion: There is a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems among school-going adolescents. Resolution of these problems during adolescence is essential for attaining a healthy adulthood. The need of the hour is to spread awareness among caregivers and formulation of effective management strategies including school mental health programme.
3
87264
Posttraumatic Stress and Comorbid Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Sri Lankan Adolescents
Abstract:
Background: Comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological problems is common. Recent studies focused to investigate the underlying relationship between PTSD and comorbid psychopathologies. Among adolescents, higher rates of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) have been reported following trauma, often coexisted with PTSD. The current study, thus, examined the relationship of posttraumatic stress symptoms to EBP in adolescents exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Further, the study investigated the relationship of trauma and comorbid PTSS to the self-perceived negative impact of EBP on daily functioning. Methods: Participants were 729 Sri Lankan adolescents (age 12 to 16 years; 54.9% female) living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, school-based screening was conducted and completed measures of, trauma exposure, PTSS, EBP, and related functional impairment. Results: Participants reported a high prevalence of trauma exposure (n = 438), including interpersonal violence (n = 155). DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD were met by 23.7% of the trauma-exposed sample. Across all participants, 13.4% and 16.7% displayed clinically relevant levels of EBP and functional impairment, respectively. Among the trauma-exposed, 7% met criteria for both EBP and PTSD. EBP total scores and caseness were significantly higher in trauma-exposed adolescents with PTSD than in either those without PTSD or the non-traumatized control group. In subscale analysis, higher prevalence of serious emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems were reported in the PTSD positive group; the PTSD negative group did not differ significantly from the control group on any of the problem scales. In regression analyses, PTSS (β = .28, p < .001) and interpersonal violence (β = .13, p = .033) were significant predictors of EBP, cumulative trauma (β = .11, p = .076) showed no significant effect. Further, PTSS exacerbated the impact of EBP on daily functioning (β = 0.29, p = .023). Conclusion: PTSS were closely linked to EBP in adolescents, even years after the traumatic experience. PTSD and emotional and behavioral problems together pose a heightened risk for impaired daily functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the causal pathway.
2
78471
Cognitive Behavioral Modification in the Treatment of Aggressive Behavior in Children
Abstract:
Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is a combination of cognitive and behavioral learning principles to shape and encourage the desired behaviors. A crucial element of cognitive-behavioral modification is that a change the behavior precedes awareness of how it affects others. CBM is oriented toward changing inner speech and learning to control behaviors through self-regulation techniques. It aims to teach individuals how to develop the ability to recognize, monitor and modify their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The review of literature emphasizes the efficiency the CBM approach in the treatment of children's hyperactivity and negative emotions such as anger. The results of earlier research show how impulsive and hyperactive behavior, agitation, and aggression may slow down and block the child from being able to actively monitor and participate in regular classes, resulting in the disruption of the classroom and the teaching process, and the children may feel rejected, isolated and develop long-term poor image of themselves and others. In this article, we will provide how the use of CBM, adapted to child's age, can incorporate measures of cognitive and emotional functioning which can help us to better understand the children’s cognitive processes, their cognitive strengths, and weaknesses, and to identify factors that may influence their behavioral and emotional regulation. Such a comprehensive evaluation can also help identify cognitive and emotional risk factors associated with aggressive behavior, specifically the processes involved in modulating and regulating cognition and emotions.
1
29363
Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners
Authors:
Abstract:
The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.