Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

200
31035
Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds
Abstract:
The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.
199
113390
Investigation of the Properties of Epoxy Modified Binders Based on Epoxy Oligomer with Improved Deformation and Strength Properties
Abstract:
The process of modification of ed-20 epoxy resin synthesized by vinyl-containing compounds is considered. It is shown that the introduction of vinyl-containing compounds into the composition based on epoxy resin ED-20 allows adjusting the technological and operational characteristics of the binder. For improvement of the properties of epoxy resin, following modifiers were selected: polyvinylformalethyl, polyvinyl butyral and composition of linear and aromatic amines (Аramine) as a hardener. Now the big range of hardeners of epoxy resins exists that allows varying technological properties of compositions, and also thermophysical and strength indicators. The nature of the aramin type hardener has a significant impact on the spatial parameters of the mesh, glass transition temperature, and strength characteristics. Epoxy composite materials based on ED-20 modified with polyvinyl butyral were obtained and investigated. It is shown that the composition of resins based on derivatives of polyvinyl butyral and ED-20 allows obtaining composite materials with a higher complex of deformation-strength, adhesion and thermal properties, better water resistance, frost resistance, chemical resistance, and impact strength. The magnitude of the effect depends on the chemical structure, temperature and curing time. In the area of concentrations, where the effect of composite synergy is appearing, the values of strength and stiffness significantly exceed the similar parameters of the individual components of the mixture. The polymer-polymer compositions form their class of materials with diverse specific properties that ensure their competitive application. Coatings with high performance under cyclic loading have been obtained based on epoxy oligomers modified with vinyl-containing compounds.
198
31068
Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets
Abstract:
Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.
197
43088
Eco-Friendly Natural Filler Based Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, acrylated soybean oil (AESO) was used as modifying agent for DGEBF-type epoxy resin (ER). AESO was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt % with ER. Composites with eco-friendly natural fillers-banana bark and seashell were prepared. MNA was used as a hardener. Effect of banana peel (BP) and seashell (SSh) fillers on mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, elongation at break, and hardness of M-ERs were investigated. The structure epoxy resins (M-ERs) cured with MNA and sebacic acid (SAc) hardeners were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Tensile test results show that Young’s (elastic) modulus, tensile strength and hardness of SSh particles reinforced with M-ERs were higher than the M-ERs reinforced with banana bark.
196
107224
Nanomaterials for Archaeological Stone Conservation: Re-Assembly of Archaeological Heavy Stones Using Epoxy Resin Modified with Clay Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The archaeological large stone used in construction of ancient Pharaonic tombs, temples, obelisks and other sculptures, always subject to physicomechanical deterioration and destructive forces, leading to their partial or total broken. The task of reassembling this type of artifact represent a big challenge for the conservators. Recently, the researchers are turning to new technologies to improve the properties of traditional adhesive materials and techniques used in re-assembly of broken large stone. The epoxy resins are used extensively in stone conservation and re-assembly of broken stone because of their outstanding mechanical properties. The introduction of nanoparticles to polymeric adhesives at low percentages may lead to substantial improvements of their mechanical performances in structural joints and large objects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of clay nanoparticles in enhancing the performances of epoxy adhesives used in re-assembly of archaeological massive stone by adding proper amounts of those nanoparticles. The nanoparticles reinforced epoxy nanocomposite was prepared by direct melt mixing with a nanoparticles content of 3% (w/v), and then mould forming in the form of rectangular samples, and used as adhesive for experimental stone samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to investigate the morphology of the prepared nanocomposites, and the distribution of nanoparticles inside the composites. The stability and efficiency of the prepared epoxy-nanocomposites and stone block assemblies with new formulated adhesives were tested by aging artificially the samples under different environmental conditions. The effect of incorporating clay nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of epoxy adhesives was evaluated comparatively before and after aging by measuring the tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength tests. The morphological studies revealed that the mixture process between epoxy and nanoparticles has succeeded with a relatively homogeneous morphology and good dispersion in low nano-particles loadings in epoxy matrix was obtained. The results show that the epoxy-clay nanocomposites exhibited superior tensile, compressive, and Elongation strength. Moreover, a marked improvement of the mechanical properties of stone joints increased in all states by adding nano-clay to epoxy in comparison with pure epoxy resin.
195
74761
Amine Hardeners with Carbon Nanotubes Dispersing Ability for Epoxy Coating Systems
Abstract:
An addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) can simultaneously improve many features of epoxy coatings, i.e. electrical, mechanical, functional and thermal. Unfortunately, this nanofiller negatively affects visual properties of the coatings, such as transparency and gloss. The main reason for the low visual performance of CNT-modified epoxy coatings is the lack of compatibility between CNT and popular amine curing agents, although epoxy resins based on bisphenol A are indisputable good CNT dispersants. This is a serious obstacle in utilization of the coatings in advanced applications, demanding both high transparency and electrical conductivity. The aim of performed investigations was to find amine curing agents exhibiting affinity for CNT, and ensuring good performance of epoxy coatings with them. Commercially available CNT was dispersed in epoxy resin, as well as in different aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic amines, using one of two dispergation methods: ultrasonic or mechanical. The CNT dispersions were subsequently used in the preparation of epoxy coating compositions and coatings on a transparent substrate. It was found that amine derivative of bio-based cardanol, as well as modified o-tolylbiguanide exhibit significant CNT, dispersing properties, resulting in improved transparent/electroconductive performance of epoxy coatings. In one of prepared coating systems just 0.025 wt.% (250 ppm) of CNT was enough to obtain coatings with semi conductive properties, 83% of transparency as well as perfect chemical resistance to methyl-ethyl ketone and improved thermal stability. Additionally, a theory of the influence of amine chemical structure on CNT dispersing properties was proposed.
194
48449
Effect of Oil Shale Alkylresorcinols on Physico-Chemical and Thermal Properties of Polycondensation Resins
Abstract:
Oil shale alkylresorcinols are formed as a by-product in oil shale processing. They are unique raw material for chemical industry. Polycondensation resins obtaining is one of the worthwhile directions of oil shale alkylresorcinols use. These resins are widely applied in many branches of industry such as wood-working, metallurgic, tire, rubber products, construction etc. Possibility of resins obtaining using overall alkylresorcinols will allow to cheapen finished products on their base and to widen the range of resins offered on the market. Synthesis of polycondensation resins on the basis of alkylresorcinols was conducted by several methods in the process of investigations. In the formulations a part of resorcinol was replaced by fractions of oil shale alkylresorcinols containing different amount of 5-methylresorcinol (40-80 mass %). Some resins were modified by aromatic alkene at the stage of synthesis. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method both in an inert nitrogen environment and in an oxidative environment of air. TGA integral curves were obtained and processed in dynamic mode for interval of temperatures from 25 to 830 °C. Rate of temperature rise was 5°C/min, gas flow rate - 50 ml/min. Resins power for carbonization was evaluated by carbon residue. Physical-chemical parameters of the resins were determined. Content of resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol not reacted in the process of synthesis were determined by gas chromatography method.
193
40492
Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds
Abstract:
Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties
192
50452
The Effect of Mixing and Degassing Conditions on the Properties of Epoxy/Anhydride Resin System
Abstract:
Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Also, the changes in the mechanical properties of the cured resin were studied by three-point bending test. It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.
191
35363
Polyampholytic Resins: Advances in Ion Exchanging Properties
Abstract:
Ion exchange (IEX) resins are commonly available as cationic or anionic resins but not as polyampholytic resins. This is probably because sequential acid and base washing cannot produce complete regeneration of polyampholytic resins with chemically attached anionic and cationic groups in close proximity. The ‘Sirotherm’ process, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Melbourne, Australia was originally based on the use of a physical mixture of weakly basic (WB) and weakly acidic (WA) ion-exchange resin beads. These resins were regenerated thermally and they were capable of removing salts from an aqueous solution at higher temperatures compared to the salt sorbed at ambient temperatures with a significant reduction of the sorption capacity with increasing temperature. A new process for the efficient regeneration of mixed bead resins using ammonium bicarbonate with heat was studied recently and this chemical/thermal regeneration technique has the capability for completely regenerating polyampholytic resins. Even so, the low IEX capacities of polyampholytic resins restrict their commercial applications. Recently, we have established another novel process for increasing the IEX capacity of a typical polyampholytic resin. In this paper we will discuss the chemical/thermal regeneration of a polyampholytic (WA/WB) resin and a novel process for enhancing its ion exchange capacity, by increasing its internal pore area. We also show how effective this method is for completely recycled regeneration, with the potential of substantially reducing chemical waste.
190
35293
Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair
Abstract:
This experimental study consists of a characterization of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites. From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphene-based epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout. Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength. Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able to minimize sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.
189
40069
Influence of Degassing on the Curing Behaviour and Void Occurrence Properties of Epoxy / Anhydride Resin System
Abstract:
Epoxy resin is most widely used as matrices for composites of aerospace, automotive and electronic applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties. These properties are chiefly predetermined by the chemical structure of the prepolymer and type of hardener but can also be varied by the processing conditions such as prepolymer and hardener mixing, degassing and curing conditions. In this research, the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and the void occurrence is experimentally evaluated for epoxy /anhydride resin system. The epoxy prepolymer was mixed with an anhydride hardener and accelerator in an appropriate quantity. In order to investigate the effect of degassing on the curing behaviour and void content of the resin, the uncured resin samples were prepared using three different methods: 1) no degassing 2) degassing on prepolymer and 3) degassing on mixed solution of prepolymer and hardener with an accelerator. The uncured resins were tested in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to observe the changes in curing behaviour of the above three resin samples by analysing factors such as gel temperature, peak cure temperature and heat of reaction/heat flow in curing. Additionally, the completely cured samples were tested in DSC to identify the changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) between the three samples. In order to evaluate the effect of degassing on the void content and morphology changes in the cured epoxy resin, the fractured surfaces of cured epoxy resin were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the amount of void, void geometry and void fraction were also investigated using an optical microscope and image J software (image analysis software). It was found that degassing at different stages of resin mixing had significant effects on properties such as glass transition temperature, the void content and void size of the epoxy/anhydride resin system. For example, degassing (vacuum applied on the mixed resin) has shown higher glass transition temperature (Tg) with lower void content.
188
6080
Newly Developed Epoxy-Polyol and Epoxy- Polyurethane from Renewable Resources
Abstract:
Bio-polyols are important components in polyurethane industries. The preliminary studies into the synthesis of bio-polyol products (epoxy-polyol and epoxyl-polyurethanes) from Jatropha curcas were investigated. The reactions were followed by both infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Physico-chemical characterisation of the samples for iodine value (IV), acid value (AV), saponification value (SV) and hydroxyl value (HV) were carried out. Thermal transitions of the products were studied by heating 5 mg of the sample from 20ºC to 800ºC and then cooling down to -500ºC on a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The preparation of epoxylpolyol and polyurethane from Jatropha curcas oil was smooth and efficient. Results of film and solubility properties revealed that coatings of Jatropha curcas epoxy-polyurethanes performed better with increased loading of toluylene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) up to 2 wt% while their solvent resistance decreased beyond a TDI loading of 1.2 wt%. DSC analysis shows the epoxy-polyurethane to be less stable compared to the epoxy-polyol.
187
1508
Effect of TEOS Electrospun Nanofiber Modified Resin on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite
Abstract:
Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of fiber reinforced polymer composite is an important property for most of the structural applications. Matrix modification is an effective method used to improve the interlaminar shear strength of composite. In this paper, EPON 862/w epoxy system was modified using Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) electrospun nanofibers (ENFs) which were produced using electrospinning method. Unmodified and nanofibers modified resins were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP) using H-VARTM method. The ILSS of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites (GFRP) was investigated. The study shows that introduction of TEOS ENFs in the epoxy resin enhanced the ILSS of GFRPby 15% with 0.6% wt. fraction of TEOS ENFs.
186
9393
Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases
Abstract:
Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.
185
43082
Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes
Abstract:
Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.
184
119219
Proposition Model of Micromechanical Damage to Predict Reduction in Stiffness of a Fatigued A-SMC Composite
Authors:
Abstract:
Sheet molding compounds (SMC) are high strength thermoset moulding materials reinforced with glass treated with thermocompression. SMC composites combine fibreglass resins and polyester/phenolic/vinyl and unsaturated acrylic to produce a high strength moulding compound. These materials are usually formulated to meet the performance requirements of the moulding part. In addition, the vinyl ester resins used in the new advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) have many desirable features, including mechanical properties comparable to epoxy, excellent chemical resistance and tensile resistance, and cost competitiveness. In this paper, a proposed model is used to take into account the Young modulus evolutions of advanced SMC systems (A-SMC) composite under fatigue tests. The proposed model and the used approach are in good agreement with the experimental results.
183
28293
Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.
182
101241
Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils
Abstract:
Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.
181
67636
Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer
Abstract:
Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.
180
23492
Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane
Abstract:
In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.
179
2485
Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of MWCNTs-Modified Epoxy Resin
Abstract:
An industrial epoxy adhesive used in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)-strengthening systems was modified by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were fabricated using solvent-assisted dispersion method and ultrasonic mixing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were conducted to study the effect of nanotubes dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composite. Experimental results showed a substantial enhancement in the decomposition temperature and tensile properties of epoxy composite, while, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was slightly reduced due to the solvent effect. The morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by SEM. It was proved that using solvent improves the nanotubes dispersion. However, at contents higher than 2 wt. %, nanotubes started to re-bundle in the epoxy matrix which negatively affected the final properties of epoxy composite.
178
28295
Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.
177
20252
Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites
Abstract:
In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNTs-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on ratio 30:70 were studies. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by two method; (a) muscovite-MWCNTs hybrids were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing of muscovite with MWCNTs. The effect of different preparations of the composites and filler loading was evaluated. It is revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher compared to MIXED epoxy composites. It is also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increases the MWCNTs filler loading.
176
30169
Flammability of Banana Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Sodium Bromate Blend: Investigation of Variation in Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
In the present study, the flammability properties of banana fibre reinforced epoxy/ sodium bromate blended composites are studied. Two sets of composite material were prepared, one formed by blending sodium bromate with epoxy matrix and other with neat epoxy matrix. Epoxy resin was blended with various weight fractions of sodium bromate, 4%, 8% and 12%. The composite made with plain epoxy matrix was used as the standard reference material. The mechanical tests, heat deflection tests and flammability tests were carried out on all the composite samples. Flammability test shows the improved flammability properties of the sodium bromated banana-epoxy composite. The modification in flammability properties of the composites by the addition of sodium bromate results in the reduced mechanical properties. The fractured surfaces under various mechanical testing were analysed using morphological analysis done using scanning electron microscope.
175
20856
Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.
174
66582
Nanotechnology for Flame Retardancy of Thermoset Resins
Abstract:
In recent years, nanotechnology has been successfully applied for flame retardancy of polymers, in particular for construction materials. The consumption of thermoset resins as a construction polymers materials is approximately over one million tone word wide. Excellent mechanical, relatively high heat and thermal stability of their type of polymers are proven for variety applications, e.g. transportation, electrical, electronic, building part industry. Above applications in addition to the strength and thermal properties also requires -referring to the legal regulation or recommendation - an adequate level of flammability of the materials. This publication present the evaluation was made of effectiveness of flame retardancy of halogen-free hybrid flame retardants(FR) as compounds nitric/phosphorus modifiers that act with nanofillers (nano carbons, organ modified montmorillonite, nano silica, microsphere) in relation to unsaturated polyester/epoxy resins and glass-reinforced on base this resins laminates(GRP) as a final products. The analysis of the fire properties provided proof of effective flame retardancy of the tested composites by defining oxygen indices values (LOI), with the use of thermogravimetric methods (TGA) and combustion head (CH). An analysis of the combustion process with Cone Calorimeter (CC) method included in the first place N/P units and nanofillers with the observed phenomenon of synergic action of compounds. The fine-plates, phase morphology and rheology of composites were assessed by SEM/ TEM analysis. Polymer-matrix glass reinforced laminates with modified resins meet LOI over 30%, reduced in a decrease by 70% HRR (according to CC analysis), positive description of the curves TGA and values CH; no adverse negative impact on mechanical properties. The main objective of our current project is to contribute to the general understanding of the flame retardants mechanism and to investigate the corresponding structure/properties relationships. We confirm that nanotechnology systems are successfully concept for commercialized forms for non-flammable GRP pipe, concrete composites, and flame retardant tunnels constructions.
173
113691
The Performance and the Induced Rebar Corrosion of Acrylic Resins for Injection Systems in Concrete Structures
Abstract:
Commercially available methacrylate and acrylamide-based acrylic resins for injection in concrete systems have been tested with respect to the sealing performance and the rebar corrosion. Among the different resins, a methacrylate-based type of acrylic resin significantly inhibited the rebar corrosion. This was mainly caused by the relatively high pH of the resin and the resin aqueous solution. This resin also exhibited a relatively high sealing performance, in particular after exposing the resin to durability tests. The corrosion inhibition behaviour and the sealing properties after the exposition to durability tests were maintained up to one year. The other resins either promoted the corrosion of the rebar and/or exhibited relatively low sealing properties.
172
36761
Interfacial Reactions between Aromatic Polyamide Fibers and Epoxy Matrix
Abstract:
In order to understand the interactions on the interface polyamide fibers and epoxy matrix in fiber- reinforced composites were investigated industrial aramid fibers: armos, svm, terlon using individual epoxy matrix components, epoxies: diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), three- and diglycidyl derivatives of m, p-amino-, m, p-oxy-, o, m,p-carboxybenzoic acids, the models: curing agent, aniline and the compound, that depict of the structure the primary addition reaction the amine to the epoxy resin, N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline. The chemical structure of the surface of untreated and treated polyamide fibers analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The impregnation of fibers with epoxy matrix components and N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline has been carried out by heating 150˚C (6h). The optimum fiber loading is at 65%.The result a thermal treatment is the covalent bonds formation , derived from a combined of homopolymerization and crosslinking mechanisms in the interfacial region between the epoxy resin and the surface of fibers. The reactivity of epoxy resins on interface in microcomposites (MC) also depends from processing aids treated on surface of fiber and the absorbance moisture. The influences these factors as evidenced by the conversion of epoxy groups values in impregnated with DGEBA of the terlons: industrial, dried (in vacuum) and purified samples: 5.20 %, 4.65% and 14.10%, respectively. The same tendency for svm and armos fibers is observed. The changes in surface composition of these MC were monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the case of the purified fibers, functional groups of fibers act as well as a catalyst and curing agent of epoxy resin. It is found that the value of the epoxy groups conversion for reinforced formulations depends on aromatic polyamides nature and decreases in the order: armos >svm> terlon. This difference is due of the structural characteristics of fibers. The interfacial interactions also examined between polyglycidyl esters substituted benzoic acids and polyamide fibers in the MC. It is found that on interfacial interactions these systems influences as well as the structure and the isomerism of epoxides. The IR-spectrum impregnated fibers with aniline showed that the polyamide fibers appreciably with aniline do not react. FTIR results of treated fibers with N-di (oxyethylphenoxy) aniline fibers revealed dramatically changes IR-characteristic of the OH groups of the amino alcohol. These observations indicated hydrogen bondings and covalent interactions between amino alcohol and functional groups of fibers. This result also confirms appearance of the exo peak on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) curve of the MC. Finally, the theoretical evaluation non-covalent interactions between individual epoxy matrix components and fibers has been performed using the benzanilide and its derivative contaning the benzimidazole moiety as a models of terlon and svm,armos, respectively. Quantum-topological analysis also demonstrated the existence hydrogen bond between amide group of models and epoxy matrix components.All the results indicated that on the interface polyamide fibers and epoxy matrix exist not only covalent, but and non-covalent the interactions during the preparation of MC.
171
80450
Self-Assembling Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on β-FeOOH Nanorods for Reducing Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin
Authors:
Abstract:
Epoxy resins (EP), one of the most important thermosetting polymers, is widely applied in various fields due to its desirable properties, such as excellent electrical insulation, low shrinkage, outstanding mechanical stiffness, satisfactory adhesion and solvent resistance. However, like most of the polymeric materials, EP has the fatal drawbacks including inherent flammability and high yield of toxic smoke, which restricts its application in the fields requiring fire safety. So, it is still a challenge and an interesting subject to develop new flame retardants which can not only remarkably improve the flame retardancy, but also render modified resins low toxic gases generation. In recent work, polymer nanocomposites based on nanohybrids that contain two or more kinds of nanofillers have drawn intensive interest, which can realize performance enhancements. The realization of previous hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide provides us a novel route to decorate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets on the surface of β-FeOOH nanorods; the deposited LDH nanosheets can fill the network and promote the work efficiency of β-FeOOH nanorods. Moreover, the synergistic effects between LDH and β-FeOOH can be anticipated to have potential applications in reducing fire hazards of EP composites for the combination of condense-phase and gas-phase mechanism. As reported, β-FeOOH nanorods can act as a core to prepare hybrid nanostructures combining with other nanoparticles through electrostatic attraction through layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, LDH nanosheets wrapped β-FeOOH nanorods (LDH-β-FeOOH) hybrids was synthesized by a facile method, with the purpose of combining the characteristics of one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D), to improve the fire resistance of epoxy resin. The hybrids showed a well dispersion in EP matrix and had no obvious aggregation. Thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests confirmed that LDH-β-FeOOH hybrids into EP matrix with a loading of 3% could obviously improve the fire safety of EP composites. The plausible flame retardancy mechanism was explored by thermogravimetric infrared (TG-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reasons were concluded: condense-phase and gas-phase. Nanofillers were transferred to the surface of matrix during combustion, which could not only shield EP matrix from external radiation and heat feedback from the fire zone, but also efficiently retard transport of oxygen and flammable pyrolysis.
170
2261
Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography
Abstract:
The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.
169
1500
Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography
Abstract:
The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.
168
124057
Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.
167
114202
Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface
Authors:
Abstract:
Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.
166
52160
Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.
165
53542
Compressive Response of Unidirectional Basalt Fiber/Epoxy/MWCNTs Composites
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to study the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) addition at various contents with respect to the matrix (0-0.5 wt.% at a step of 0.1 wt.%) on the compressive response of unidirectional basalt fiber (UD-BF)/epoxy composites. Toward this end, MWCNTs were firstly functionalized with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS) to improve their dispersion state and interfacial compatibility with the epoxy. Subsequently, UD-BF/epoxy and multiscale 3-GPTMS-MWCNTs/UD-BF/epoxy composites were prepared. The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by quasi-static compression test. The compressive strength of the composites was obtained through performing the compression test on the off-axis specimens and extracting their longitudinal compressive strength. Results demonstrated that the highest value in compressive strength was attained at 0.4 wt.% MWCNTs with 41% increase, compared to the BF/epoxy composite. Potential mechanisms behind these were implied.
164
50205
Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.
163
2168
Toxicity of Bisphenol-A: Effects on Health and Regulations
Abstract:
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide in the plastic industry. This compound is mostly used in producing polycarbonate plastics that are often used for food and beverage storage, and BPA is also a component of epoxy resins that are used to line food and beverage containers. Studies performed in this area indicated that BPA could be extracted from such products while they are in contact with food. Therefore, BPA exposure is presumed. In this paper, the chemical structure of BPA, factors affecting BPA migration to food and beverages, effects on health, and recent regulations will be reviewed.
162
40405
Protection of Steel Bars in Reinforce Concrete with Zinc Based Coverings
Abstract:
There is no doubt that reinforced concrete is known as one of the most significant materials which is used in construction industry for many years. Although, some natural elements in dealing with environment can contribute to its corrosion or failure. One of which is bar or so-called reinforcement failure. So as to combat this problem, one of the oxidization prevention methods investigated was the barrier protection method implemented over the application of an organic coating, specifically fusion-bonded epoxy. In this study comparative method is prepared on two different kinds of covered bars (zinc-riches epoxy and polyamide epoxy coated bars) and also uncoated bar. With the aim of evaluate these reinforced concretes, the stickiness, toughness, thickness and corrosion performance of coatings were compared by some tools like Cu/CuSo4 electrodes, EIS and etc. Different types of concretes were exposed to the salty environment (NaCl 3.5%) and their durability was measured. As stated by the experiments in research and investigations, thick coatings (named epoxies) have acceptable stickiness and strength. Polyamide epoxy coatings stickiness to the bars was a bit better than that of zinc-rich epoxy coatings; nonetheless it was stiffer than the zinc rich epoxy coatings. Conversely, coated bars with zinc-rich epoxy showed more negative oxidization potentials, which take revenge protection of bars by zinc particles. On the whole, zinc-rich epoxy coverings is more corrosion-proof than polyamide epoxy coatings due to consuming zinc elements and some other parameters, additionally if the epoxy coatings without surface defects are applied on the rebar surface carefully, it can be said that the life of steel structures is subjected to increase dramatically.
161
63639
The Effect of Interfacial Chemistry on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Grafted Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
In this work, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (a-MWNTs) covalently grafted with hydroxylated functionalized poly (ether ether ketone), HPEEK, which is miscible with the pre-polymer (epoxy) through the esterification reaction. The functionalized MWNTs were systematically characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The epoxy composites containing a-MWNTs and HPEEK grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes (HPEEK-g-MWNTs) were formulated using mechanical stirring coupled with a bath sonicator to improve the dispersion property of the nanoparticles and were subsequently cured at 80 ̊C and post cured at 180 ̊C. With the addition of 0.5 wt% of HPEEK-g-MWNTs, an impressive 44% enhancement in the storage modulus, 22% increase in tensile strength and 38% increase in fracture toughness was observed with respect to neat epoxy. In addition to these mechanical properties, the epoxy composites displayed significant enhancement in the hardness without reducing thermal stability. These improved properties were attributed to the tailored interface between HPEEK-MWNTs and epoxy matrix.
160
41619
Effect of Volume Fraction of Fibre on the Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced E-Glass-Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
E-glass-epoxy laminated composites having different fiber volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of nanoclay. Flexural strength and tensile strength of the composite laminates were determined. It was observed that, with increasing the fiber volume fraction (Vf) of fiber from 40 to 60, the ability of nanoclay to enhance the tensile and flexural strength of E-glass-epoxy composites decreases significantly. At 70Vf, the tensile and flexural strength of the nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy were found to be lowest when compared to the E-glass-epoxy composite made without the addition of nanoclay. Based on the obtained data and microstructure of the tested samples, plausible mechanism for the observed trends has been proposed. The enhanced mechanical properties for nanoclay reinforced E-glass-epoxy composites for 40-60 Vf, due to higher interface toughness coupled with strong interfilament bonding may have ensured the homogeneous load distribution across all the glass fibers. Results in the decrease in mechanical properties at 70Vf, may be due to the inability of the matrix to bind the nanoclay and glass-fibers.
159
78726
High Performance Ceramic-Based Phthalonitrile Micro and Nanocomposites
Abstract:
The current work discusses the effects of adding various types of ceramic fillers on the curing behavior, thermal, mechanical, anticorrosion, and UV shielding properties of the bisphenol-A based phthalonitrile resins. The effects of different ceramic filler contents and sizes as well as their surface treatments are also discussed in terms of their impact on the morphology and mechanisms of enhancement. The synergistic effect obtained by these combinations extends the use of the phthalonitrile resins to more exigent applications such as aerospace and military. The presented results reveal the significant advantages that can be obtained from the preparation of hybrid materials based on phthalonitrile resins and open the way for further research in the field.
158
131587
Sulfanilamide/Epoxy Resin and Its Application as Tackifier in Epoxy Adhesives
Abstract:
Tackiness is described as the ability to spontaneously form a bond to another material under light pressures within a short application time. During the first few minutes of the adhesive's curing, it is necessary to have enough tack to keep the substrates together while cohesion is increasing within the adhesive. This property plays a key role in the manufacturing process of pieces. Epoxy adhesives, unlike other adhesives, usually present low tackiness before curing; however, there is very little literature about the use of tackifiers in epoxy adhesives, except for the high molecular weight epoxy additives. In the present work, a tetrafunctional epoxy resin based on Bisphenol-A and Sulfanilamide has been synthesized in order to be used as a tackifier. This additive offers improved specific adhesion to two-component (2K) epoxy adhesives. The dosage of the tackifier has to be done carefully not to alter the mechanical and rheological properties of the adhesive. The synthetized product has been analyzed by FTIR and ¹H-NMR analysis, and the effect of the addition of 1 wt % of the tackifier on rheological properties, viscoelastic behavior, and mechanical properties has been studied. On one hand, the addition of the product in the epoxy resin part showed a significant increase in tackiness regarding the neat epoxy resin. On the other hand, tackiness of the whole formulation was also increased. Curing time of the adhesive has not undergone any relevant changes with the tackifier addition. Regarding viscoelastic properties, Storage Modulus (G') and Loss Modulus (G'') remain also unchanged at ambient temperature. Probably, in case higher tackifier concentration would be added, differences in viscoelastic properties would be observed. The study of mechanical properties shows that hardness and tensile strength also keep their values unchanged regarding neat two component adhesive. In conclusion, the addition of 1 wt % of sulfanilamide/epoxy enhanced the tackiness of the epoxy resin part, improves tack without modifying significantly either the rheological, the mechanical, or the viscoelastic properties of the product. Thus, the sulfanilamide presented could be a good candidate to be used as an additive to the 2k epoxy formulation for the manufacturing process of pieces.
157
84173
Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk
Abstract:
The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.
156
50723
Evaluation of Drilling-Induced Delamination of Flax/Epoxy Composites by Non-Destructive Testing Methods
Abstract:
The use of natural fiber composites (NFCs) is growing at a fast rate regarding industrial applications and principle researches due to their eco-friendly, renewable nature, and low density/costs. Drilling is one of the most important machining operations that are carried out on natural fiber composites. Delamination is a major concern in the drilling process of NFCs that affects the structural integrity and long-term reliability of the machined components. Flax fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates were prepared by hot press technique. In this research, we evaluated drilling-induced delamination of flax/epoxy composites by X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasonic testing (UT), and optical methods and compared the results.
155
96794
Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles
Abstract:
Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.
154
29341
Study of Chemical and Physical - Mechanical Properties Lime Mortar with Addition of Natural Resins
Abstract:
Mexico has remarkable archaeological remains mainly in the Maya area, which are critical to the preservation of our cultural heritage, so the authorities have an interest in preserving and restoring these vestiges of the most original way, by employing techniques traditional, which has advantages such as compatibility, durability, strength, uniformity and chemical composition. Recent studies have confirmed the addition of natural resins extracted from the bark of trees, of which Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) has been the most evaluated, besides being one of the most abundant species in the vicinity of the archaeological sites, like that Manilkara Zapota (Chicozapote). Therefore, the objective is to determine if these resins are capable of being employed in archaeological restoration. This study shows the results of the chemical composition and physical-mechanical behavior of mortar mixtures eight made with commercial lime and off by hand, calcium sand, resins added with Brosium alicastrum (Ramon) and Manilkara zapota (Chicozapote), where determined and quantified properties and chemical composition of the resins by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), the pH of the material was determined, indicating that both resins are acidic (3.78 and 4.02), and the addition rate maximum was obtained from resins in water by means of ultrasonic baths pulses, being in the case of 10% Manilkara zapota, because it contains up to 40% rubber and for 40% alicastrum Brosium contain less rubber. Through quantitative methodology, the compressive strength 96 specimens of 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm of mortar binding, 72 with partial substitution of water mixed with natural resins in proportions 5 to 10% in the case was evaluated of Manilkara Zapota, for Brosium alicastrum 20 and 40%, and 12 artificial resin and 12 without additive (mortars witnesses). 24 specimens likewise glued brick with mortar, for testing shear adhesion was found where, then the microstructure more conducive additions was determined by SEM analysis were prepared sweep. The test results indicate that the addition Manilkara zapota resin in the proportion of 10% 1.5% increase in compressive strength and 1% with respect to adhesion, compared to the control without addition mortar; In the case of Brosium alicastrum results show that compressive strengths and adhesion were insignificant compared to those made with registered by Manilkara zapota mixtures. Mortars containing the natural resins have improvements in physical properties and increase the mechanical strength and adhesion, compared to those who do not, in addition to the components are chemically compatible, therefore have considered that can be employed in Archaeological restoration.
153
93896
The Effectschemical Treatment on Alkyl Phenol Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite
Abstract:
The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment of sisal fibre on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of bio based epoxy/fibre composites. The composite samples were manufactured through a vacuum infusion process by adding alkyl phenols from cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL). Changes in the chemical structure of the sisal fibres resulting from the treatments were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Both alkali and silane treatments produced enhancements in the mechanical properties of sisal fibre bundles. The alkali treatment, when combined with the silane treatment, the mechanical properties of epoxy composites notably improved (13%) in comparison to untreated sisal fibre reinforced composites.This was attributed to an enhanced fibre/matrix interface. The incorporation of CSNL into the sisal/epoxy composite enhanced the fibre-matrix interfacial properties because of the addition of -OH groups to the epoxy matrix. The incorporation of sisal fibre imparts stiffness to the epoxy matrix.
152
9260
Immobilization of Enzymes and Proteins on Epoxy-Activated Supports
Abstract:
Enzymes are promising biocatalysts for many organic reactions. They have excellent features like high activity, specificity and selectivity, and can catalyze under mild and environment friendly conditions. Epoxy-activated supports are almost-ideal ones to perform very easy immobilization of proteins and enzymes at both laboratory and industrial scale. The activated epoxy supports (chitosan/alginate, Eupergit C) may be very suitable to achieve the multipoint covalent attachment of proteins and enzymes, therefore, to stabilize their three-dimensional structure. The enzyme is firstly covalently immobilized under conditions pH 7.0 and 10.0. The remaining groups of the support are blocked to stop additional interaction between the enzyme and support by mercaptoethanol or Triton X-100. The results show support allowed obtaining biocatalysts with high immobilized protein amount and hydrolytic activity. The immobilization of lipases on epoxy support may be considered as attractive tool for obtaining highly active biocatalysts to be used in both aqueous and anhydrous aqueous media.
151
30250
The Efficiency of the Resin for Steel Concrete Adhesion
Abstract:
Repair is always the result of the appearance of apparent disorder or aggravation of a mass. Which had hitherto been considered minor if not negligible: The work was not done according to plan. So; the examination of causes can lead to thinking about repair. While the application of the epoxy resin has become a hot topic. In this context, we conducted an experimental campaign (48 specimens are tested beakout) whose objective is based on three points: 1- Highlight the importance and influence of important parameters (compressive strength of concrete anchorage length and diameter of the steel bar) on routes (steel-concrete and steel–concrete epoxy resin) 2- Understanding the influence of the parameters mentioned above on the relationship that may exist between the peel strength and slippage. 3- Faces of cracks and failure modes. This study shows that passage of a compressive strength of 40 MPa to 62 MPa increases the adhesion between the steel bar and concrete and for specimens with or without epoxy resin. The loading force was increased form 40 to 81 kM kN, a rate if increase in loading over 100% In addition, for specimens with and without epoxy resin. increased breakout force through a specimen without a specimen with resin ranging from 20% to 32%.
150
33613
Naturally Occurring Abietic Acid for Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Curing Agents
Abstract:
Two thermotropic liquid crystalline curing agents based on abietic acid with different mesogens (LCC1 and LCC2) were synthesized for producing thermally stable liquid crystal networks suitable for high performance epoxy coatings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM) was used to identify the liquid crystal phase transformation temperatures and texture, respectively. POM micro graphs for both LCCs revealing cholesteric texture. A multifunctional epoxy resin with two abietic acid moieties was also synthesized. Dynamic mechanical (DMA) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses show that the fully bio-based cured epoxies by either LCCs possess high glass transition temperature (Tg), high modulus (G`) and improved thermal stability. The chemical structure of the synthesized LCCs and epoxy resin was investigated through FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques.
149
36868
Elastic Behaviour of Graphene Nanoplatelets Reinforced Epoxy Resin Composites
Abstract:
Graphene has recently attracted an increasing attention in nanocomposites applications because it has 200 times greater strength than steel, making it the strongest material ever tested. Graphene, as the fundamental two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure with exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, has emerged as a rapidly rising star in the field of material science. Graphene, as defined, as a 2D crystal, is composed of monolayers of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycombed network with six-membered rings, which is the interest of both theoretical and experimental researchers worldwide. The name comes from graphite and alkene. Graphite itself consists of many graphite-sheets stacked together by weak van der Waals forces. This is attributed to the monolayer of carbon atoms densely packed into honeycomb structure. Due to superior inherent properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) over other nanofillers, GnP particles were added in epoxy resin with the variation of weight percentage. It is indicated that the DMA results of storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ, defined as the ratio of elastic modulus and imaginary (loss) modulus versus temperature were affected with addition of GnP in the epoxy resin. In epoxy resin, damping (tan δ) is usually caused by movement of the molecular chain. The tan δ of the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy resin composite is much lower than that of epoxy resin alone. This finding suggests that addition of graphene nanoplatelets effectively impedes movement of the molecular chain. The decrease in storage modulus can be interpreted by an increasing susceptibility to agglomeration, leading to less energy dissipation in the system under viscoelastic deformation. The results indicates the tan δ increased with the increase of temperature, which confirms that tan δ is associated with magnetic field strength. Also, the results show that the nanohardness increases with increase of elastic modulus marginally. GnP filled epoxy resin gives higher value than the epoxy resin, because GnP improves the mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Debonding of GnP is clearly observed in the micrograph having agglomeration of fillers and inhomogeneous distribution. Therefore, DMA and nanohardness studies indiacte that the elastic modulus of epoxy resin is increased with the addition of GnP fillers.
148
47148
Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Natural fibre has become an element in human lives. A lot of researchers have conducted research about natural fibre reinforced polymer. Malaysian government has spent a lot of money on the research funding for researchers and academician especially research on kenaf fibre due to exclusion of tobacco from AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) list. This work is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite where short kenaf fibre was applied and the mechanical properties of 5%, 10% and 15% wt. of kenaf fibre were added into the mixture of epoxy resin. Hand lay-up process was selected in the fabrication of the specimen for testing. The tensile, flexural and impact test were conducted following ASTM D3039, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 accordingly. From the experiment result, the effect of different fiber loading of the specimen on its mechanical properties would be analyzed and compared in the result and discussion.
147
104928
Compression Strength of Treated Fine-Grained Soils with Epoxy or Cement
Authors:
Abstract:
Geotechnical engineers face many problematic soils upon construction and they have the choice for replacing these soils with more appropriate soils or attempting to improve the engineering properties of the soil through a suitable soil stabilization technique. Mostly, improving soils is environmental, easier and more economical than other solutions. Stabilization soils technique is applied by introducing a cementing agent or by injecting a substance to fill the pore volume. Chemical stabilizers are divided into two groups: traditional agents such as cement or lime and non-traditional agents such as polymers. This paper studies the effect of epoxy additives on the compression strength of four types of soil and then compares with the effect of cement on the compression strength for the same soils. Overall, the epoxy additives are more effective in increasing the strength for different types of soils regardless its classification. On the other hand, there was no clear relation between studied parameters liquid limit, passing No.200, unit weight and between the strength of samples for different types of soils.
146
116586
Solvent-Aided Dispersion of Tannic Acid to Enhance Flame Retardancy of Epoxy
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Tannic acid (TA) is a bio-based high molecular weight organic, aromatic molecule that has been found to increase thermal stability and flame retardancy of many polymer matrices when used as an additive. Although it is biologically sourced, TA is a pollutant in industrial wastewater streams, and there is a desire to find applications in which to downcycle this molecule after extraction from these streams. Additionally, epoxy thermosets have revolutionized many industries, but are too flammable to be used in many applications without additives which augment their flame retardancy (FR). Many flame retardants used in epoxy thermosets are synthesized from petroleum-based monomers leading to significant environmental impacts on the industrial scale. Many of these compounds also have significant impacts on human health. Various bio-based modifiers have been developed to improve the FR of the epoxy resin; however, increasing FR of the system without tradeoffs with other properties has proven challenging, especially for TA. Methodologies: In this work, TA was incorporated into the thermoset by use of solvent-exchange using methyl ethyl ketone, a co-solvent for TA, and epoxy resin. Samples were then characterized optically (UV-vis spectroscopy and optical microscopy), thermally (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), and for their flame retardancy (mass loss calorimetry). Major Findings: Compared to control samples, all samples were found to have increased thermal stability. Further, the addition of tannic acid to the polymer matrix by the use of solvent greatly increased the compatibility of the additive in epoxy thermosets. By using solvent-exchange, the highest loading level of TA found in literature was achieved in this work (40 wt%). Conclusions: The use of solvent-exchange shows promises for circumventing the limitations of TA in epoxy.
145
126291
Preparation and Properties of Self-Healing Polyurethanes Utilizing the Host-Guest Interaction between Cyclodextrin and Adamantane Moieties
Abstract:
Self-healing polymers have attracted attention because their physical damage and cracks can be effectively repaired, thereby extending the lifetime of the materials. Self-healing polymers using host-guest interaction have the advantage that they are quickly repaired under mild temperature conditions when compared with self-healing polymer using dynamic covalent bonds such as Diels-Alder (DA)/retro-DA and disulfide metathesis reactions. Especially, it is known that hydrogels utilizing the host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and various guest molecules are repeatedly self-repaired at room temperature. However, most of the works deal with hydrogels, and little attention has been paid for thermosetting resins as polyurethane, epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins. In this study, polyetherurethane networks (PUN-CD-Ads) incorporating cyclodextrin and adamantane moieties were prepared by the crosslinking reactions of β-cyclodextrin (CD), 1-adamantanol (AdOH), glycerol ethoxylate (GCE) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and thermal, mechanical and self-healing properties of the polymer network films were investigated. Our attention was focused on the influences of molar ratio of CD/AdOH, GCE/CD and OH/NCO on the properties. The FT-IR, and gel fraction analysis revealed that the urethanization reaction smoothly progress to form polyurethane networks. When two cut pieces of the films were contacted at the cross-section at room temperature for 30 seconds, the two pieces adhered to produce a self-healed film. Especially, the PUN-CD-Ad prepared at GCE/CD = 5/1, CD/AdOH = 1/1, and OH/NCO = 1/1 film exhibited the highest healing efficiency for tensile strength. Most of the PUN-CD-Ads were successfully self-healed at room temperature.
144
74817
Studying the Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite for the Oil Field Applications
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes are currently considered to be one of the strongest and stiffest engineering materials available, possessing a calculated tensile strength of σTS ≈ 200GPa and Young’s moduli up to E = 1.4 TPa. In the context of manufactured engineering composites, epoxy resin is the most commonly used matrix material for many aerospace and oil field, and other, industrial applications. This paper reports the initial findings of a study which considered the effects that small additions of nickel coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWCNTs) would have on the mechanical properties of an epoxy resin matrix material. To successfully incorporate these particles into the matrix materials, with good dispersive properties, standard mixing techniques using an ultrasonic bath were used during the manufacture of appropriate specimens for testing. The tensile and flexural strength properties of these specimens, as well as the microstructure, were then evaluated and studied. Scanning Electronics Microscope (SEM) was used to visualise the degree of dispersion of the Ni-MWCNT’s in matrix. The results obtained indicated that the mechanical properties of epoxy resin can be improved significantly by the addition of the Ni-MWCNT’s. Further, the addition of Ni-MWCNT’s increased the tensile strength by approximately 19% and the tensile modulus by 28%. The flexural strength increased by 20.7% and flexural modulus by 22.6% compared to unmodified epoxy resin. It is suggested that these improvements, seen with the Ni-MWCNT’s particles, were due to an increase in the degree of interfacial bonding between Ni-MWCNT and epoxy, so leading to the improved mechanical properties of the nanocomposite observed. Theoretical modelling, using ANSYS finite element analysis, also showed good correlation with the experimental results obtained.
143
15956
Analysis of Different Resins in Web-to-Flange Joints
Abstract:
The industrial process adds to engineering wood products features absent in solid wood, with homogeneous structure and reduced defects, improved physical and mechanical properties, bio-deterioration, resistance and better dimensional stability, improving quality and increasing the reliability of structures wood. These features combined with using fast-growing trees, make them environmentally ecological products, ensuring a strong consumer market. The wood I-joists are manufactured by the industrial profiles bonding flange and web, an important aspect of the production of wooden I-beams is the adhesive joint that bonds the web to the flange. Adhesives can effectively transfer and distribute stresses, thereby increasing the strength and stiffness of the composite. The objective of this study is to evaluate different resins in a shear strain specimens with the aim of analyzing the most efficient resin and possibility of using national products, reducing the manufacturing cost. First was conducted a literature review, where established the geometry and materials generally used, then established and analyzed 8 national resins and produced six specimens for each.
142
31388
Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars
Abstract:
Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable of replacing conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in the pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars is limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in the pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.
141
20839
In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.
140
54908
An Investigation of Aluminum Foil-Epoxy Laminated Composites for Rapid Tooling Applications
Abstract:
Mass customization is an area of increased importance and the development of rapid tooling applications is pivotal to the success of mass customization. This paper presents a laminated object manufacturing (LOM) process for rapid tooling. The process is termed 3D metal laminate printing and utilizes domestic-grade aluminum foil and epoxy for layered manufacturing. A detailed explanation of the process is presented to produce complex metal laminated composite parts. Aluminum-epoxy composite specimens were manufactured from 0.016mm aluminum and subjected to tensile tests to determine the mechanical properties of the manufactured composite in relation to solid metal specimens. The fracture zone of the specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize the fracture mode and study the interfacial bonding of the manufactured laminate specimens.
139
32274
Influence of Cure Degree in GO and CNT-Epoxy Nanocomposites
Abstract:
In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene oxide (GO), especially the functionalized ones, have been added to epoxy resin in order to increase the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. However, it's still unknown how the presence of these nanoparticles influences the curing process and the final mechanical properties as well. In this work, kinetic and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed, where the kinetic process was followed by DSC and the mechanical properties by DMA. Initially, CNT was annealed at high temperature (1800 °C) under vacuum atmosphere, followed by a chemical treatment using acids and ethylenediamine. GO was synthesized through chemical route, washed clean, dried and ground to #200. The presence of functional groups on CNT and GO surface was confirmed by XPS spectra and FT-IR. Then, epoxy resin, nanoparticles and acetone were mixed by sonication in order to obtain the composites. DSC analyses were performed on samples with different curing cycles (1h 80°C + 2h 120°C; 3h 80°C + 2h 120°C; 5h 80°C) and samples with different times at constant temperature (120°C). Results showed that the kinetic process and the mechanical strength are very dependent on the presence of graphene and functionalized-CNT in the nanocomposites.
138
101547
Producing and Mechanical Testing of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Foams Reinforced by Waste Phosphogypsum
Abstract:
Many of thermosetting resins have application only in filled state, reinforced with different mineral fillers. The co-filling of polymers with mineral filler and gases creates a possibility for production of polymer composites materials with low density. This processing leads to forming of new materials – gas-filled plastics (polymer foams). The properties of these materials are determined mainly by the shape and size of internal structural elements (pores). The interactions on the phase boundaries have influence on the materials properties too. In the present work, the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins were reinforced by waste phosphogypsum. The waste phosphogypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a solid by-product in wet phosphoric acid production processes. The values of the interactions polymer-filler were increased by using two modifying agents: polyvinyl acetate for polymer matrix and sodium metasilicate for filler. Technological methods for gas-filling and recipes of urea-formaldehyde based materials with apparent density 20-120 kg/m3 were developed. The heat conductivity of the samples is between 0.024 and 0.029 W/moK. Tensile analyses were carried out at 10 and 50% deformation and show values 0.01-0.14 MPa and 0.01-0.09 MPa, respectively. The apparent density of obtained materials is between 20 and 92 kg/m3. The changes in the tensile properties and density of these materials according to sodium metasilicate content were studied too. The mechanism of phosphogypsum adsorption modification was studied using methods of FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure of the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins was described by results of electron scanning microscopy at three different magnification ratios – x50, x150 and x 500. The aim of present work is to study the possibility of the usage of phosphogypsum as mineral filler for urea-formaldehyde resins and development of a technology for the production of gas-filled reinforced polymer composite materials. The structure and the properties of obtained composite materials are suitable for thermal and sound insulation applications.
137
7896
Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.
136
20933
Synthesis of Epoxidized Castor Oil Using a Sulphonated Polystyrene Type Cation Exchange Resin and Its Blend Preparation with Epoxy Resin
Abstract:
Epoxidized oils can replace petroleum derived materials in numerous industrial applications, because of their respectable oxirane oxygen content and high reactivity of oxirane ring. Epoxidized castor oil (ECO) has synthesized in the presence of a sulphonated polystyrene type cation exchange resin. The formation of the oxirane ring was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The epoxidation reaction was evaluated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies. ECO is used as a toughening phase to increase the toughness of petroleum-based epoxy resin.
135
4334
Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials
Abstract:
Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.
134
72704
Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Processing Using Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071 Resins: Batch Ion Exchange Modeling
Abstract:
In recent years, environmental pollution by wastewater rises very critically. Effluents discharged from various industries cause this challenge. Different type of pollutants such as organic compounds, oxyanions, and heavy metal ions create this threat for human bodies and all other living things. However, heavy metals are considered one of the main pollutant groups of wastewater. Therefore, this case creates a great need to apply and enhance the water treatment technologies. Among adopted treatment technologies, adsorption process is one of the methods, which is gaining more and more attention because of its easy operations, the simplicity of design and versatility. Ion exchange process is one of the preferred methods for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It has found widespread application in water remediation technologies, during the past several decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from aqueous solutions. Cr(VI) is considered as a well-known highly toxic metal which modifies the DNA transcription process and causes important chromosomic aberrations. The treatment and removal of this heavy metal have received great attention to maintaining its allowed legal standards. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to investigate some aspects of the use of three anion exchange resins: Eichrom 1-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of these three commercial resins in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The chromium solutions used in the experiments were synthetic solutions. The parameters that affect the adsorption, solution pH, adsorbent concentration, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were performed at room temperature. High adsorption rates of metal ions for the three resins were reported at the onset, and then plateau values were gradually reached within 60 min. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found as 3.0 for these three resins. The adsorption decreases with the increase in pH for three anion exchangers. The suitability of Freundlich, Langmuir and Scatchard models were investigated for Cr(VI)-resin equilibrium. Results, obtained in this study, demonstrate excellent comparability between three anion exchange resins indicating that Eichrom 1-X4 is more effective and showing highest adsorption capacity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Investigated anion exchange resins in this study can be used for the efficient removal of chromium from water and wastewater.
133
104074
Bisphenol-A Concentrations in Urine and Drinking Water Samples of Adults Living in Ankara
Abstract:
Drinking water is indispensable for life. With increasing awareness of communities, the content of drinking water and tap water has been a matter of curiosity. The presence of Bisphenol-A is the top one when content curiosity is concerned. The most used chemical worldwide for production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins is Bisphenol-A. People are exposed to Bisphenol-A chemical, which disrupts the endocrine system, almost every day. Each year it is manufactured an average of 5.4 billion kilograms of Bisphenol-A. Linear formula of Bisphenol-A is (CH₃)₂C(C₆H₄OH)₂, its molecular weight is 228.29 and CAS number is 80-05-7. Bisphenol-A is known to be used in the manufacturing of plastics, along with various chemicals. Bisphenol-A, an industrial chemical, is used in the raw materials of packaging mate-rials in the monomers of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. The pass through the nutrients of Bisphenol-A substance happens by packaging. This substance contaminates with nutrition and penetrates into body by consuming. International researches show that BPA is transported through body fluids, leading to hormonal disorders in animals. Experimental studies on animals report that BPA exposure also affects the gender of the newborn and its time to reach adolescence. The extent to what similar endocrine disrupting effects are on humans is a debate topic in many researches. In our country, detailed studies on BPA have not been done. However, it is observed that 'BPA-free' phrases are beginning to appear on plastic packaging such as baby products and water carboys. Accordingly, this situation increases the interest of the society about the subject; yet it causes information pollution. In our country, all national and international studies on exposure to BPA have been examined and Ankara province has been designated as testing region. To assess the effects of plastic use in daily habits of people and the plastic amounts removed out of the body, the results of the survey conducted with volunteers who live in Ankara has been analyzed with Sciex appliance by means of LC-MS/MS in the laboratory and the amount of exposure and BPA removal have been detected by comparing the results elicited before. The results have been compared with similar studies done in international arena and the relation between them has been exhibited. Consequently, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine. This has also revealed that environmental exposure and the habits of daily plastic use have also direct effects a human body. When the amount of BPA in drinking water is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 1.136 µg/L, mean 0.29194 µg/L and SD(standard deviation)= 0.199 have been detected. When the amount of BPA in urine is considered; minimum 0.028 µg/L, maximum 0.48 µg/L, mean 0.19181 µg/L and SD= 0.099 have been detected. In conclusion, there has been found no linear correlation between the amount of BPA in drinking water and the amount of BPA in urine (r= -0.151). The p value of the comparison between drinking water’s and urine’s BPA amounts is 0.004 which shows that there is a significant change and the amounts of BPA in urine is dependent on the amounts in drinking waters (p < 0.05). This has revealed that environmental exposure and daily plastic habits have also direct effects on the human body.
132
9085
Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag
Abstract:
Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.
131
40494
Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cellulose Fibers/HNT Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites
Authors:
Abstract:
Natural fiber reinforced composites have attracted researchers for their desirable properties of toughness, high modulus, low density, recyclability, and renewability. In fact, the use of natural fibers in polymer composites has the potential to produce materials with higher specific strength and specific modulus due of their low density. Likewise, polymer-nano-filler composites have been widely investigated for their unique and significant improvement in strength, modulus, impact strength, barrier properties, heat resistance and thermal stability. In this paper, The addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with three different weight percentages (1%, 3% and 5%) on enhancing barrier and flexural strength and modulus of cellulose-fiber (CF) /epoxy composites after water treatment for six months was studied. Results indicated that water uptake decreased as HNT content increased. The presence of HNT improved flexural strength and flexural modulus of CF/epoxy composites. SEM results showed damages in fiber-matrix interfacial bonding due to water absorption. The addition of HNTs was found to enhance to adhesion between fibers and matrix.
130
28163
Effect of the Poisson’s Ratio on the Behavior of Epoxy Microbeam
Abstract:
Researchers suggest that variations in Poisson’s ratio affect the behavior of Timoshenko micro beam. Therefore, in this study, two epoxy Timoshenko micro beams with different dimensions were modeled using the finite element method considering all boundary conditions and initial conditions that govern the problem. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on the resonant frequency, maximum deflection, and maximum rotation of the micro beams was examined. The analyses suggest that an increased Poisson’s ratio reduces the maximum rotation and the maximum rotation and increases the resonant frequency. Results were consistent with those obtained using the couple stress, classical, and strain gradient elasticity theories.
129
40489
New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers
Abstract:
Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.
128
82325
The Impact of Initiators on Fast Drying Traffic Marking Paint
Abstract:
Fast drying traffic marking paint comprising a solvent-borne resin, a filler, a pigment and a solvent that is especially suitable for colder ambient (temperatures near freezing) applications, where waterborne traffic paint cannot be used. Acrylic resins based on methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, and styrene were synthesized in different solvents using organic peroxide initiators such as peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo. After polymerization, the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index= PDI (Mw/Mn), viscosity, total residual monomer and APHA color were evaluated and results of organic peroxide initiators (t- butyl and t-amyl derivatives) were also compared with the azo initiator. The Mw, PDI, viscosity, mass conversation and APHA color of resins with t-amyl derivatives of organic peroxide initiators are very proper. The results of the traffic marking paints test such as non-volatile matter, no- pick- up time, hiding power, resistance to wear and water resistance study that produced with these resins also confirm this.
127
2069
On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.
126
70061
An Evaluation of the Impact of Epoxidized Neem Seed Azadirachta indica Oil on the Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene
Authors:
Abstract:
Neem seed oil has high contents of unsaturated fatty acids which can be converted to epoxy fatty acids. The vegetable oil – based epoxy material are sustainable, renewable and biodegradable materials replacing petrochemical – based epoxy materials in some applications. Polystyrene is highly brittle with limited mechanical applications. Raw neem seed oil was obtained from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria, Nigeria. The oil was epoxidized at 60 0C for three (3) hours using formic acid generated in situ. The epoxidized oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The disappearance of C = C stretching peak around 3011.7 cm-1and formation of a new absorption peak around 943 cm-1 indicate the success of epoxidation. The epoxidized oil was blended with pure polystyrene in different weight percent compositions using solution casting in chloroform. The tensile properties of the blends demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % ENO to PS led to an increase in elongation at break, but a decrease in tensile strength and modulus. This is in accordance with the common rule that plasticizers can decrease the tensile strength of the polymer.
125
22086
Synthesis and Characterization of Renewable Resource Based Green Epoxy Coating
Abstract:
Plant oils are a great renewable source for being a reliable starting material to access new products with a wide spectrum of structural and functional variations. Even though petroleum products might also render the same, but it would also impose a high risk factor of environmental and health hazard. Since epoxidized vegetable oils are easily available, eco-compatible, non-toxic and renewable, hence these have drawn much of the attentions in the polymer industrial sector especially for the development of eco-friendly coating materials. In this study a waterborne epoxy coating was prepared from epoxidized soyabean oil by using triethanolamine. Because of its hydrophobic nature, it was a tough and tedius task to make it hydrophilic. The hydrophobic biobased epoxy was modified into waterborne epoxy by the help of a plant based anhydride as curing agent. Physico-mechanical, chemical resistance tests and thermal analysis of the green coating material were carried out which showed good physic-mechanical, chemical resistance properties as well as environment friendly. The complete characterization of the final material was done in terms of scratch hardness, gloss test, impact resistance, adhesion and bend test.
124
76874
Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Processing Using Eichrom 50W-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071 Resins: Batch Ion Exchange Modeling
Abstract:
In recent years, environmental pollution by wastewater rises very critically. Effluents discharged from various industries cause this challenge. Different type of pollutants such as organic compounds, oxyanions, and heavy metal ions create this threat for human bodies and all other living things. However, heavy metals are considered one of the main pollutant groups of wastewater. Therefore, this case creates a great need to apply and enhance the water treatment technologies. Among adopted treatment technologies, adsorption process is one of the methods, which is gaining more and more attention because of its easy operations, the simplicity of design and versatility. Ion exchange process is one of the preferable methods for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It has found widespread application in water remediation technologies, during the past several decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from aqueous solutions. Cr(VI) is considered as a well-known highly toxic metal which modifies the DNA transcription process and causes important chromosomic aberrations. The treatment and removal of this heavy metal have received great attention to maintaining its allowed legal standards. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to investigate some aspects of the use of three anion exchange resins: Eichrom 50W-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of these three commercial resins in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The chromium solutions used in the experiments were synthetic solutions. The parameters that affect the adsorption, solution pH, adsorbent concentration, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were performed at room temperature. In addition, adsorption capacities were examined as a function of temperature rise. High adsorption rates of metal ions for the three resins were reported at the onset, and then plateau values were gradually reached within 60 min. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found as 3.0 for these three resins. The adsorption decreases with the increase in pH for three anion exchangers and slightly decreases with the increase in temperature for only Eichrom 50W-X4. The suitability of Freundlich, Langmuir and Scatchard models were investigated for Cr(VI)-resin equilibrium. Results, obtained in this study, demonstrate excellent comparability between three anion exchange resins indicating that Eichrom 50W-X4 is more effective and showing highest adsorption capacity on the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Investigated anion exchange resins in this study can be used for the efficient removal of chromium from water and wastewater.
123
76875
Chromium (VI) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Processing Using Eichrom 50W-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071 Resins: Batch Ion Exchange Modeling
Abstract:
In recent years, environmental pollution by wastewater rises very critically. Effluents discharged from various industries cause this challenge. Different type of pollutants such as organic compounds, oxyanions, and heavy metal ions create this threat for human bodies and all other living things. However, heavy metals are considered one of the main pollutant groups of wastewater. Therefore, this case creates a great need to apply and enhance the water treatment technologies. Among adopted treatment technologies, adsorption process is one of the methods, which is gaining more and more attention because of its easy operations, the simplicity of design and versatility. Ion exchange process is one of the preferable methods for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. It has found widespread application in water remediation technologies, during the past several decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from aqueous solutions. Cr(VI) is considered as a well-known highly toxic metal which modifies the DNA transcription process and causes important chromosomic aberrations. The treatment and removal of this heavy metal have received great attention to maintaining its allowed legal standards. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to investigate some aspects of the use of three anion exchange resins: Eichrom 50W-X4, Lewatit Monoplus M800 and Lewatit A8071. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of these three commercial resins in the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The chromium solutions used in the experiments were synthetic solutions. The parameters that affect the adsorption, solution pH, adsorbent concentration, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were performed at room temperature. In addition, adsorption capacities were examined as a function of temperature rise. High adsorption rates of metal ions for the three resins were reported at the onset, and then plateau values were gradually reached within 60 min. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was found as 3.0 for these three resins. The adsorption decreases with the increase in pH for three anion exchangers and slightly decreases with the increase in temperature for only Eichrom 50W-X4. The suitability of Freundlich, Langmuir and Scatchard models were investigated for Cr(VI)-resin equilibrium. Results, obtained in this study, demonstrate excellent comparability between three anion exchange resins indicating that Eichrom 50W-X4 is more effective and showing highest adsorption capacity on the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Investigated anion exchange resins in this study can be used for the efficient removal of chromium from water and wastewater.
122
113487
Computational Modelling of Epoxy-Graphene Composite Adhesive towards the Development of Cryosorption Pump
Authors:
Abstract:
Cryosorption pump is the best solution to achieve clean, vibration free ultra-high vacuum. Furthermore, the operation of cryosorption pump is free from the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Due to these attributes, this pump is used in the space simulation chamber to create the ultra-high vacuum. The cryosorption pump comprises of three parts (a) panel which is cooled with the help of cryogen or cryocooler, (b) an adsorbent which is used to adsorb the gas molecules, (c) an epoxy which holds the adsorbent and the panel together thereby aiding in heat transfer from adsorbent to the panel. The performance of cryosorption pump depends on the temperature of the adsorbent and hence, on the thermal conductivity of the epoxy. Therefore we have made an attempt to increase the thermal conductivity of epoxy adhesive by mixing nano-sized graphene filler particles. The thermal conductivity of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive is measured with the help of indigenously developed experimental setup in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K, which is generally the operating temperature range of cryosorption pump for efficiently pumping of hydrogen and helium gas. In this article, we have presented the experimental results of epoxy-graphene composite adhesive in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. We have also proposed an analytical heat conduction model to find the thermal conductivity of the composite. In this case, the filler particles, such as graphene, are randomly distributed in a base matrix of epoxy. The developed model considers the complete spatial random distribution of filler particles and this distribution is explained by Binomial distribution. The results obtained by the model have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the other established models. The developed model is able to predict the thermal conductivity in both isotropic regions as well as in anisotropic region over the required temperature range from 4.5 K to 7 K. Due to the non-empirical nature of the proposed model, it will be useful for the prediction of other properties of composite materials involving the filler in a base matrix. The present studies will aid in the understanding of low temperature heat transfer which in turn will be useful towards the development of high performance cryosorption pump.
121
3415
Study of the Green Composite Jute/Epoxy
Abstract:
Work presented is interested in the characterization of the quasistatic mechanical properties and in fatigue of a composite laminated in jute/epoxy. The natural fibers offer promising prospects thanks to their interesting specific properties, because of their low density, but also with their bio deterioration. Several scientific studies highlighted the good mechanical resistance of the vegetable fiber composites reinforced, even after several recycling. Because of the environmental standards which become increasingly severe, one attends the emergence of eco-materials at the base of natural fibers such as flax, bamboo, hemp, sisal, jute. The fatigue tests on elementary vegetable fibers show an increase of about 60% of the rigidity of elementary fibers of hemp subjected to cyclic loading. In this study, the test-tubes manufactured by the method infusion have sequences of stacking of 0/90° and ± 45° for the shearing and tensile tests. The quasistatic tests reveal a variability of the mechanical properties of about 8%. The tensile fatigue tests were carried out for levels of constraints equivalent to half of the ultimate values of the composite. Once the fatigue tests carried out for well-defined values of cycles, a series of static tests of traction type highlights the influence of the number of cycles on the quasi static mechanical behavior of the laminate jute/epoxy.
120
47301
Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric
Abstract:
Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.
119
130419
Acrylate-Based Photopolymer Resin Combined with Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil for 3D-Printing
Abstract:
Stereolithography (SLA) is one of the 3D-printing technologies that has been steadily growing in popularity for both industrial and personal applications due to its versatility, high accuracy, and low cost. Its printing process consists of using a light emitter to solidify photosensitive liquid resins layer-by-layer to produce solid objects. However, the majority of the resins used in SLA are derived from petroleum and characterized by toxicity, stability, and recalcitrance to degradation in natural environments. Aiming to develop an eco-friendly resin, in this work, different combinations of a standard commercial SLA resin (Peopoly UV professional) with a vegetable-based resin were investigated. To reach this goal, different mass concentrations (varying from 10 to 50 wt%) of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), a vegetable resin produced from soyabean oil, were mixed with a commercial acrylate-based resin. 1.0 wt% of Diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO) was used as photo-initiator, and the samples were printed using a Peopoly moai 130. The machine was set to operate at standard configurations when printing commercial resins. After the print was finished, the excess resin was drained off, and the samples were washed in isopropanol and water to remove any non-reacted resin. Finally, the samples were post-cured for 30 min in a UV chamber. FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the UV polymerization of the formulated resin with different AESO/Peopoly ratios. The signals from 1643.7 to 1616, which corresponds to the C=C stretching of the AESO acrylic acids and Peopoly acrylic groups, significantly decreases after the reaction. The signal decrease indicates the consumption of the double bonds during the radical polymerization. Furthermore, the slight change of the C-O-C signal from 1186.1 to 1159.9 decrease of the signals at 809.5 and 983.1, which corresponds to unsaturated double bonds, are both proofs of the successful polymerization. Mechanical analyses showed a decrease of 50.44% on tensile strength when adding 10 wt% of AESO, but it was still in the same range as other commercial resins. The elongation of break increased by 24% with 10 wt% of AESO and swelling analysis showed that samples with a higher concentration of AESO mixed absorbed less water than their counterparts. Furthermore, high-resolution prototypes were printed using both resins, and visual analysis did not show any significant difference between both products. In conclusion, the AESO resin was successful incorporated into a commercial resin without affecting its printability. The bio-based resin showed lower tensile strength than the Peopoly resin due to network loosening, but it was still in the range of other commercial resins. The hybrid resin also showed better flexibility and water resistance than Peopoly resin without affecting its resolution. Finally, the development of new types of SLA resins is essential to provide new sustainable alternatives to the commercial petroleum-based ones.
118
16198
Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Young’s Modulus of Silica-Reinforced Epoxy Composite
Abstract:
In this study, the evaluation of thermal stability of the micrometer-sized silica particle reinforced epoxy composite was carried out through the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient and Young’s modulus of the specimens. For all the specimens in this study from the baseline to those containing 50 wt% silica filler, the thermal expansion coefficients and the Young’s moduli were gradually decreased down to 20% and increased up to 41%, respectively. The experimental results were compared with filler-volume-based simple empirical relations. The experimental results of thermal expansion coefficients correspond with those of Thomas’s model which is modified from the rule of mixture. However, the measured result for Young’s modulus tends to be increased slightly. The differences in increments of the moduli between experimental and numerical model data are quite large.
117
71457
Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater
Abstract:
Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and&nbsp;&nbsp; amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.
116
110602
Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete
Abstract:
The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.
115
109374
Experimental and Comparative Study of Composite Thin Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure
Abstract:
An experimental procedure is developed to study the performance of composite thin wall cylinders subjected to internal pressure loading for investigations of stress distribution through the composite cylinders wall. Three types of fibers were used in this study are; woven roving glass fiber/epoxy, hybrid fiber/epoxy, and Kevlar fiber/epoxy composite specimens were fabricated and tested. All of these specimens subjected to uniformed pressure load using the hydraulic pump. Axial stress is identified, and values were found after collecting all the results. Comparison between the deferent types of specimens was done. Thus, the present investigation concludes the efficient and effective composite cylinder experimentally and provides a considerable advantage for using woven roving fibers in pressure vessels applications.
114
11124
Microwave Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Nano-Binder from Renewable Resource and Their Application in Textile Printing
Abstract:
Due to limited fossil resource and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feed stocks in textile industry area will increase in the decades to come. This research highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins for high characterization and reactive properties, completely based on commercially available renewable resources (sunflower and/or soybean oil) were prepared and characterized. In this work, we present results on the synthesis of various alkyd resins according to the alcoholysis – polyesterification process under different preparation conditions using a microwave synthesis as energy source to determine suitable reaction conditions. Effects of polymerization parameters, such as catalyst ratio, reaction temperature and microwave power level have been studied. The prepared binder was characterized via FT-IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), in addition to acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), water absorbance, weight loss, and glass transition temperature. The prepared binder showed high performance physico-mechanical properties. TEM analysis showed that the polymer latex nanoparticle within range of 20–200 nm. The study involved the application of the prepared alkyd resins as binder for pigment printing process onto cotton fabric by using a flat screen technique and the prints were dried and thermal cured. The optimum curing conditions were determined, color strength and fastness properties of pigment printed areas to light, washing, perspiration and crocking were evaluated. The rheological properties and apparent viscosity of prepared binders were measured in addition roughness of the prints was also determined.
113
22485
Adhesive Connections in Timber: A Comparison between Rough and Smooth Wood Bonding Surfaces
Abstract:
The use of adhesive anchors for wooden constructions is an efficient technology to connect and design timber members in new timber structures and to rehabilitate the damaged structural members of historical buildings. Due to the lack of standard regulation in this specific area of structural design, designers’ choices are still supported by test analysis that enables knowledge, and the prediction, of the structural behavior of glued in rod joints. The paper outlines an experimental research activity aimed at identifying the tensile resistance capacity of several new adhesive joint prototypes made of epoxy resin, steel bar and timber, Oak and Douglas Fir species. The development of new adhesive connectors has been carried out by using epoxy to glue stainless steel bars into pre-drilled holes, characterized by smooth and rough internal surfaces, in timber samples. The realization of a threaded contact surface using a specific drill bit has led to an improved bond between wood and epoxy. The applied changes have also reduced the cost of the joints’ production. The paper presents the results of this parametric analysis and a Finite Element analysis that enables identification and study of the internal stress distribution in the proposed adhesive anchors.
112
80456
Reduce the Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin by a Zinc Stannate and Graphene Hybrids
Abstract:
Spinel structure Zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4, ZS)/Graphene was successfully synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal route. Morphological study and structure analysis confirmed the homogenously loading of ZS on the graphene sheets. Then, the resulted ZS/graphene hybrids were incorporated into epoxy resin to form EP/ZS/graphene composites by a solvent dispersion method. Improved thermal stability was investigated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Cone calorimeter result showed low peak heat release rate (PHRR). Toxical gases release during combustion was evaluated by a facile device organized in our lab. The results showed that the release of NOx, HCN decrease of about 55%. Also, TG-IR technology was used to investigate the gas release during the EP decomposition process. The CO release had decreased about 80%.The EP/G/ZS showed lowest hazards during combustion (including flame retardancy, thermal stability, lower toxical gases release and so on) than pure EP.
111
17279
OLED Encapsulation Process Using Low Melting Point Alloy and Epoxy Mixture by Instantaneous Discharge
Abstract:
In this study we are to develop a sealing process using a mixture of a LMPA and an epoxy for the atmospheric OLED sealing process as a substitute for the thin-film process. Electrode lines were formed on the substrates, which were covered with insulating layers and sacrificial layers. A mixture of a LMPA and an epoxy was screen printed between the two electrodes. In order to generate a heat for the melting of the mixture, Joule heating method was used. Were used instantaneous discharge process for generating Joule heating. Experimental conditions such as voltage, time and constituent of the electrode were varied to optimize the heating conditions. As a result, the mixture structure of this study showed a great potential for a low-cost, low-temperature, atmospheric OLED sealing process as a substitute for the thin-film process.
110
94945
Durability Performances of Epoxy Resin/TiO₂ Composited Alkali-Activated Slag/Fly Ash Pastes in Phosphoric Acid Solution
Authors:
Abstract:
Laden with phosphates at a low pH value, sewage wastewater aggressive environments constitute a great threat to concrete-based pipes which is made of alkaline cementitious materials such as ordinary Portland cement (OPC). As a promising alternative for OPC-based binders, alkali-activated slag/fly ash (AASF) cementitious binders are generally believed to gain similar or better properties compared to OPC-based counterparts, especially durability. However, there is limited research on the performance of AASF binders in phosphoric acid solution. Moreover, the behavior of AASF binders composited with epoxy resin/TiO₂ when exposed to acidic media has been rarely explored. In this study, the performance of AASF paste with the precursor slag:fly ash (50:50 in mass ratio) enhanced with epoxy resin/TiO₂ composite in phosphoric acid solution (pH = 3.0-4.0) was investigated. The exposure towards acid attack lasted for 90 days. The same AASF mixture without resin/TiO₂ composite was used as a reference. The compressive strength and porous-related properties prior to acidic immersion were tested. The mass variations and degradation depth of the two mixtures of binders were also monitored which is based on phenolphthalein-videomicroscope method. The results show that the binder with epoxy resin/TiO₂ addition gained a higher compressive strength and lower water absorption than the reference. In addition, it also displayed a higher resistance towards acid attack indicated by a less mass loss and less degradation depth compared to the control sample. This improvement can be attributed to a dense microstructure evidenced by the higher compressive strength and related porous structures. It can be concluded that the microstructure can be improved by adding epoxy resin/TiO₂ composite in order to enhance the resistance of AASF binder towards acid attacks.
109
25671
Influence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube on Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite
Abstract:
Interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT has been investigated through experimental methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (GC) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum assisted resin transfer method (VARTM) used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results are supported by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation.
108
53477
A Study on the Synthetic Resin of Fire Risk Using the Room Corner Test
Abstract:
Synthetic resins are widely used in various fields including electricity, engineering, construction and agriculture. Many of interior and exterior finishing materials for buildings are synthetic resin products. In this study, full-scale fire tests were conducted on polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and urethane in accordance with the “ISO 9705: Fire test - Full-scale room test for surface products” to measure heat release rate, toxic gas emission and smoke production rate. Based on the tests, fire growth pattern and fire risk were analyzed. Findings from the tests conducted on polyvinyl chloride and urethane are as follows. The total heat release rate and total smoke production rate of polyvinyl chloride were 98.89MW and 5284.41m2, respectively and its highest CO2 concentration was 0.149%. The values obtained from the test with urethane were 469.94 MW, 3396.28 m2 and 1.549%. While heat release rate and CO2 concentration were higher in urethane implying its high combustibility, smoke production rate was 1.5 times higher in polyvinyl chloride. Follow-up tests are planned to be conducted to accumulate data for the evaluation of heat emission and fire risk associated with synthetic resins.
107
44711
Thermal Property Improvement of Silica Reinforced Epoxy Composite Specimens
Abstract:
In this study, the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy composites that are reinforced with micrometer-sized silica particles were investigated by using the specimen experiments. For all specimens used in this study (from the baseline to specimen containing 70 wt% silica filler), the tensile strengths were gradually increased by 8-10%, but the ductility of the specimen was decreased by 34%, compared with those of the baseline samples. Similarly, for the samples containing 70 wt% silica filler, the coefficient of thermal expansion was reduced by 25%, but the thermal conductivity was increased by 100%, compared with those of the baseline samples. The improvement of thermal stability of the silica-reinforced specimen was confirmed to be within the experimented range, and the smaller silica particle was found to be more effective in delaying the thermal expansion of the specimens. When the smaller particle was used as filler, due to the increased specific interface area between filler and matrix, the thermal conductivities of the composite specimens were measured to be slightly lower than those of the specimens reinforced with the larger particle.
106
9677
Microfluidization for Processing of Carbonized Chicken Feather Fiber (CCFF) Modified Epoxy Suspensions and the Thermal Properties of the Resulting Composites
Abstract:
In this study, microfluidization was considered a promising approach to breaking up of carbonized chicken feather fibers (CCFFs) flocs to synthesizing epoxy suspensions containing (1 wt. %) CCFFs. For comparison, CCFF was also treated using sonication. The energy consumed to break up CCFFs in the ethanol was the same for both processes. CCFFs were found to be dispersed in ethanol in a significantly shorter time with the high shear processor. The CCFFs treated by both sonication and microfluidization were dispersed in epoxy by sonication. SEM examination revealed that CCFFs were broken up into smaller pieces using the high shear processor while being not agglomerated. Further, DSC, TMA, and DMA were systematically used to measure thermal properties of the resulting composites. A significant improvement was observed in the composites including CCFFs treated with microfluidization.
105
40879
Low Frequency Ultrasonic Degassing to Reduce Void Formation in Epoxy Resin and Its Effect on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of the Cured Polymer
Abstract:
The demand for multi-functional lightweight materials in sectors such as automotive, aerospace, electronics is growing, and for this reason fibre-reinforced, epoxy polymer composites are being widely utilized. The fibre reinforcing material is mainly responsible for the strength and stiffness of the composites whilst the main role of the epoxy polymer matrix is to enhance the load distribution applied on the fibres as well as to protect the fibres from the effect of harmful environmental conditions. The superior properties of the fibre-reinforced composites are achieved by the best properties of both of the constituents. Although factors such as the chemical nature of the epoxy and how it is cured will have a strong influence on the properties of the epoxy matrix, the method of mixing and degassing of the resin can also have a significant impact. The production of a fibre-reinforced epoxy polymer composite will usually begin with the mixing of the epoxy pre-polymer with a hardener and accelerator. Mechanical methods of mixing are often employed for this stage but such processes naturally introduce air into the mixture, which, if it becomes entrapped, will lead to voids in the subsequent cured polymer. Therefore, degassing is normally utilised after mixing and this is often achieved by placing the epoxy resin mixture in a vacuum chamber. Although this is reasonably effective, it is another process stage and if a method of mixing could be found that, at the same time, degassed the resin mixture this would lead to shorter production times, more effective degassing and less voids in the final polymer. In this study the effect of four different methods for mixing and degassing of the pre-polymer with hardener and accelerator were investigated. The first two methods were manual stirring and magnetic stirring which were both followed by vacuum degassing. The other two techniques were ultrasonic mixing/degassing using a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The cured cast resin samples were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and Image J analysis software to study morphological changes, void content and void distribution. Three point bending test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were also performed to determine the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin. It was found that the use of the 20 kHz ultrasonic probe for mixing/degassing gave the lowest percentage voids of all the mixing methods in the study. In addition, the percentage voids found when employing a 40 kHz ultrasonic bath to mix/degas the epoxy polymer mixture was only slightly higher than when magnetic stirrer mixing followed by vacuum degassing was utilized. The effect of ultrasonic mixing/degassing on the thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resin will also be reported. The results suggest that low frequency ultrasound is an effective means of mixing/degassing a pre-polymer mixture and could enable a significant reduction in production times.
104
24062
Mechanical Behavior of Banana Peel Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
This paper examines the results of an experimental study based on the engineering properties of banana peel reinforced epoxy composites. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of weight fraction on mechanical behavior of epoxy based polymer composites. The composites were made by varying the weight fraction of banana peel from 0 to 30% and banana peel were made using hand layup method. The fabricated composite samples were cut according to the ASTM standards for different experiments. Hardness test and density test were carried out at the samples. The maximum hardness, density, tensile strength, flexural strength and ILSS are getting for the material prepared with the 20 % reinforced banana peel epoxy composite. The detailed test results and observations are discussed sequentially in the paper.
103
79319
Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System
Authors:
Abstract:
Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.
102
78208
Environmental Effects on Coconut Coir Fiber Epoxy Composites Having TiO₂ as Filler
Abstract:
Composite materials are being widely used in Aerospace, Naval, Defence and other branches of engineering applications. Studies on natural fibers is another emerging research area as they are available in abundance, and also due to their eco-friendly in nature. India being one of the major producer of coir, there is always a scope to study the possibilities of exploring coir as reinforment, and with different combinations of other elements of the composite. In present investigation effort is made to utilize properties possessed by natural fiber and make them enable with polymer/epoxy resin. In natural fiber coconut coir is used as reinforcement fiber in epoxy resin with varying weight percentages of fiber and filler material. Titanium dioxide powder (TiO2) is used as filler material with varying weight percentage including 0%, 2% and 4% are considered for experimentation. Environmental effects on the performance of the composite plate are also studied and presented in this project work; Moisture absorption test for composite specimens is conducted using different solvents including Kerosene, Mineral Water and Saline Water, and its absorption capacity is evaluated. Analysis is carried out in different combinations of Coir as fiber and TiO2 as filler material, and the best suitable composite material considering the strength and environmental effects is identified in this work. Therefore, the significant combination of the composite material is with following composition: 2% TiO2 powder 15% of coir fibre and 83% epoxy, under unique mechanical and environmental conditions considered in the work.
101
40328
Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach
Abstract:
Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.
100
14608
Tensile Retention Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Based Biocomposites Modified with Glutaraldehyde
Abstract:
Tensile retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with glutaraldehyde (GA) in their gelatinization processes. Small amounts of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were blended with GA modified TPS resins to improve their processability. As evidenced by the newly developed ether (-C-O-C-) stretching bands on FT-IR spectra of TPS100BC0.02GAx series specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the aldehyde groups of GA molecules during their modification processes. The retention values of tensile strengths (σf) of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as GA contents approached an optimal value at 0.5 part per hundred parts of TPS resin (PHR). By addition of 0.5 PHR GA in biocomposite specimens, the initial tensile strength and elongation at break values of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen improved to 24.6 MPa and 5.6%, respectively, which were slightly improved than those of (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. However, the retention values of tensile strengths of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen reached around 82.5%, after placing the specimen under 20oC/50% relative humidity for 56 days, which were significantly better than those of the (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. In order to understand these interesting tensile retention properties found for (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens. Thermal analyses of initial and aged TPS100BC0.02, TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens were also performed in this investigation. Possible reasons accounting for the significantly improved tensile retention properties of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens are proposed.
99
19913
Thermal Property of Multi-Walled-Carbon-Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
In this study, epoxy composite specimens reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube filler were fabricated using shear mixer and ultra-sonication processor. The mechanical and thermal properties of the fabricated specimens were measured and evaluated. From the electron microscope images and the results from the measurements of tensile strengths, the specimens having 0.6 wt% nanotube content show better dispersion and higher strength than those of the other specimens. The Young’s moduli of the specimens increased as the contents of the nanotube filler in the matrix were increased. The specimen having a 0.6 wt% nanotube filler content showed higher thermal conductivity than that of the other specimens. While, in the measurement of thermal expansion, specimens having 0.4 and 0.6 wt% filler contents showed a lower value of thermal expansion than that of the other specimens. On the basis of the measured and evaluated properties of the composites, we believe that the simple and time-saving fabrication process used in this study was sufficient to obtain improved properties of the specimens.
98
90888
An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry
Abstract:
Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).
97
37807
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites
Abstract:
This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with jute and filled with rice husk flour. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylene tetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.
96
70312
Effect of Particle Size Variations on the Tribological Properties of Porcelain Waste Added Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Epoxy based materials have advantages in tribological applications due to their unique properties such as light weight, self-lubrication capacity and wear resistance. On the other hand, their usage is often limited by their low load bearing capacity and low thermal conductivity values. In this study, it is aimed to improve tribological and also mechanical properties of epoxy by reinforcing with ceramic based porcelain waste. It is well-known that the reuse or recycling of waste materials leads to reduction in production costs, ease of manufacturing, saving energy, etc. From this perspective, epoxy and epoxy matrix composites containing 60wt% porcelain waste with different particle size in the range of below 90µm and 150-250µm were fabricated, and the effect of filler particle size on the mechanical and tribological properties was investigated. The microstructural characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and phase analysis was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Archimedes principle was used to measure the density and porosity of the samples. The hardness values were measured using Shore-D hardness, and bending tests were performed. Microstructural investigations indicated that porcelain particles were homogeneously distributed and no agglomerations were encountered in the epoxy resin. Mechanical test results showed that the hardness and bending strength were increased with increasing particle size related to low porosity content and well embedding to the matrix. Tribological behavior of these composites was evaluated in terms of friction, wear rates and wear mechanisms by ball-on-disk contact with dry and rotational sliding at room temperature against WC ball with a diameter of 3mm. Wear tests were carried out at room temperature (23–25°C) with a humidity of 40 ± 5% under dry-sliding conditions. The contact radius of cycles was set to 5 mm at linear speed of 30 cm/s for the geometry used in this study. In all the experiments, 3N of constant test load was applied at a frequency of 8 Hz and prolonged to 400m wear distance. The friction coefficient of samples was recorded online by the variation in the tangential force. The steady-state CoFs were changed in between 0,29-0,32. The dimensions of the wear tracks (depth and width) were measured as two-dimensional profiles by a stylus profilometer. The wear volumes were calculated by integrating these 2D surface areas over the diameter. Specific wear rates were computed by dividing the wear volume by the applied load and sliding distance. According to the experimental results, the use of porcelain waste in the fabrication of epoxy resin composites can be suggested to be potential materials due to allowing improved mechanical and tribological properties and also providing reduction in production cost.
95
86607
Thermal Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Epoxy Nanocomposites Produced by Aqueous Emulsion
Abstract:
The present study desired to obtain a nanocomposite of epoxy resin reinforced with graphene oxide (OG), for aerospace application, produced by aqueous emulsion. It was obtained proof bodies with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.25 wt% and 0.50 wt% in weight of nanoparticles, to check the influence of it in the final quality of the obtained product. The validation of the results was done by the application thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was seen that the nanocomposite reinforced with 0.10 wt% of OG showed the best results, the average glass transition temperature, at 2 &deg;C, compared to the pure resin.
94
19014
Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 Gpa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.
93
46100
Material Concepts and Processing Methods for Electrical Insulation
Authors:
Abstract:
Epoxy composites are broadly used as an electrical insulation for the high voltage applications since only such materials can fulfill particular mechanical, thermal, and dielectric requirements. However, properties of the final product are strongly dependent on proper manufacturing process with minimized material failures, as too large shrinkage, voids and cracks. Therefore, application of proper materials (epoxy, hardener, and filler) and process parameters (mold temperature, filling time, filling velocity, initial temperature of internal parts, gelation time), as well as design and geometric parameters are essential features for final quality of the produced components. In this paper, an approach for three-dimensional modeling of all molding stages, namely filling, curing and post-curing is presented. The reactive molding simulation tool is based on a commercial CFD package, and include dedicated models describing viscosity and reaction kinetics that have been successfully implemented to simulate the reactive nature of the system with exothermic effect. Also a dedicated simulation procedure for stress and shrinkage calculations, as well as simulation results are presented in the paper. Second part of the paper is dedicated to recent developments on formulations of functional composites for electrical insulation applications, focusing on thermally conductive materials. Concepts based on filler modifications for epoxy electrical composites have been presented, including the results of the obtained properties. Finally, having in mind tough environmental regulations, in addition to current process and design aspects, an approach for product re-design has been presented focusing on replacement of epoxy material with the thermoplastic one. Such "design-for-recycling" method is one of new directions associated with development of new material and processing concepts of electrical products and brings a lot of additional research challenges. For that, one of the successful products has been presented to illustrate the presented methodology.
92
96642
Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats
Abstract:
The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.
91
74353
Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
Abstract:
In this study, elastic constants, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios, and shear moduli of orthotropic composite materials, consisting of E-glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy, were calculated by ultrasonic velocities which were measured using ultrasonic pulse-echo method. 35 MHz computer controlled analyzer, 60 MHz digital oscilloscope, 5 MHz longitudinal probe, and 2,25 MHz transverse probe were used for the measurements of ultrasound velocities, the measurements were performed at ambient temperature. It was understood from the data obtained in this study that, measured ultrasound velocities and the calculated elasticity coefficients were depending on the fiber orientations.
90
42277
Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage
Abstract:
Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.
89
83019
Recycling Carbon Fibers/Epoxy Composites Wastes in Building Materials Based on Geopolymer Binders
Abstract:
Scraps deriving from the production of epoxy-carbon fibers composites have been recycled as a reinforcement to produce building materials. Short chopped fibers (5-7 mm length) have been added at low volume content (max 10%) to produce mortars. The microstructure, mechanical properties (mainly flexural strength) and dimensional stability of the derived materials have been investigated. Two different types of matrix have been used: one based on conventional Portland Cement and the other containing geopolymers formed starting from activated metakaolin and fly ashes. In the second case the materials is almost completely made of recycled ingredients. This is an attempt to produce reliable materials solving waste disposal problems. The first collected results show promising results.
88
35161
The LMPA/Epoxy Mixture Encapsulation of OLED on Polyimide Substrate
Abstract:
The organic light emitting diode(OLED), is a potential organic optical functional materials which is considered as the next generation display technology with the advantages such as all-solid state, ultra-thin thickness, active luminous and flexibility. Due to the development of polymer-inorganic substrate, it becomes possible to achieve the flexible OLED display. However the organic light-emitting material is very sensitive to the oxygen and water vapor, and the encapsulation requires water vapor transmission rate(WVTR) and oxygen transmission rate(OTR) as lower as 10-6 g/(m2.d) and 10-5 cm3/(m2.d) respectively. In current situation, the rigorous WVTR and OTR have restricted the application of the OLED display. Traditional epoxy/getter or glass frit approaches, which have been widely applied on glass-substrate-based devices, are not suitable for transparent flexible organic devices, and mechanically flexible thin-film approaches are required. To ensure the OLED’s lifetime, the encapsulation material of the OLED package is very important. In this paper, a low melting point alloy(LMPA)-epoxy mixture in the encapsulation process is introduced. There will be a phase separation when the mixture is heated to the melting of LMPA and the formation of the double line structure between two substrates: the alloy barrier has extremely low WVTR and OTR and the epoxy fills the potential tiny cracks. In our experiment, the PI film is chosen as a flexible transparent substrate, and Mo and Cu are deposited on the PI film successively. Then the two metal layers are photolithographied to the sealing pattern line. The Mo is a transition layer between the PI film and Cu, at the same time, the Cu has a good wettability with the LMPA(Sn-58Bi). At last, pattern is printed with LMPA layer and applied voltage, the gathering Joule heat melt the LMPA and form the double line structure and the OLED package is sealed in the same time. In this research, the double-line encapsulating structure of LMPA and epoxy on the PI film is manufactured for the flexible OLED encapsulation, and in this process it is investigated whether the encapsulation satisfies the requirement of WVTR and OTR for the flexible OLED.
87
78913
Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Abstract:
Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.
86
89742
Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites
Abstract:
Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson&rsquo;s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.
85
24228
Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Enhanced Prepreg Composite Laminates
Abstract:
Low specific weight and high strength is the basic requirement for aerospace materials. Fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites are attractive materials for this purpose. Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) have good radiation shielding capacity, which is very important to aerospace materials. Herein a processing route for an advanced hybrid composite material is demonstrated by introducing dispersed BNNPs in standard prepreg manufacturing. The hybrid materials contain three parts: E-fiberglass, an aerospace-grade epoxy resin system, and BNNPs. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was utilized in this processing. Two BNNP functionalization approaches are presented in this study: (a) covalent functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550); (b) non-covalent functionalization with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that BN powder was successfully functionalized via the covalent and non-covalent approaches without any crystal structure change and big agglomerate particles were broken into platelet-like nanoparticles (BNNPs) after functionalization. Compared to pristine BN powder, surface modified BNNPs could result in significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strength and modulus. CTAB functionalized BNNPs (CTAB-BNNPs) showed higher tensile and flexural strength but lower compressive strength than KH-550 functionalized BNNPs (KH550-BNNPs). These reinforcements are mainly attributed to good BNNPs dispersion and interfacial adhesion between epoxy matrix and BNNPs. This study reveals the potential in improving mechanical properties of BNNPs-containing composites laminates through surface functionalization of BNNPs.
84
43820
Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Abstract:
In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of &alpha;-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.
83
35498
Effects of Interfacial Modification Techniques on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Particle Based Polymer Composites
Abstract:
Composites combining the particulates and polymer components have attracted great interest in various application areas such as packaging, furniture, electronics and automotive industries. For strengthening the plastic matrices, the utilization of natural fillers instead of traditional reinforcement materials has received increased attention. The properties of natural filler based polymer composites (NFPC) may be improved by applying proper surface modification techniques to the powder phase of the structures. In this study, acorn powder-epoxy and pine corn powder-epoxy composites containing up to 45% weight percent particulates were prepared by casting method. Alkali treatment and acetylation techniques were carried out to the natural particulates for investigating their influences under mechanical forces. The effects of filler type and content on the tensile properties of the composites were compared with neat epoxy. According to the quasi-static tensile tests, the pine cone based composites showed slightly higher rigidity and strength properties compared to the acorn reinforced samples. Furthermore, the structures independent of powder type and surface modification technique, showed higher tensile properties with increasing the particle content.
82
62434
Synthesis of Bisphenols Containing Pendant Furyl Group Based on Chemicals Derived from Lignocellulose and Their Utilization for Preparation of Clickable Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s
Abstract:
Lignocellulose-derived chemicals such as furfural, furandicarboxylic acid, syringol, guaiacol, etc are highly attractive as sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals for the synthesis of monomers and polymers. We wish to report herein the facile synthesis of fully bio-based bisphenols containing pendant furyl group by base-catalyzed condensation of furfural with guaiacol. Bisphenols possessing pendant furyl group represent valuable monomers for the synthesis of a range of polymers which include epoxy resins, polyesters, polycarbonates, poly(aryl ether)s, etc. Several new homo/co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4(-fluorodiphenyl sulfone (FDS) with 4,4'-(furan-2-ylmethylene)bis(2-methoxyphenol) (BPF) and 4,4(-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) using different molar ratios of bisphenols. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed inherent viscosities in the range 0.92-1.47 dLg-1 and number average molecular weights (Mn), obtained from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were in the range 91,300 – 1,31,000. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s could be cast into tough, transparent and flexible films from chloroform solutions. X-Ray diffraction studies indicated amorphous nature of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed Tg values in the range 179-191 oC. Additionally, the pendant furyl groups in poly(arylene ether sulfone)s provide reactive sites for chemical modifications and cross-linking via Diels-Alder reaction with maleimides and bismaleimides, respectively.
81
10285
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite Reinforced with Copper Coated MWCNTs
Abstract:
Mechanical properties of epoxy based nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs were investigated and a comparative study between nanocomposites containing functionalized MWCNTs and copper coated MWCNTs which are already functionalized was conducted. The MWCNTs was deposited with copper nanoparticles through electroless deposition process after accomplishment of "two-step" method as sensitization and activation procedures on oxidized MWCNTs. In addition, functionalization of MWCNTs was carried out through combination of two covalent and non-covalent funcionalization methods using HNO3 for acid solution of covalent treatment and Triton X100 as non-ionic surfactant of non-covalent treatment. The presence of functional groups and removal of impurities of MWCNTs were confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The layer of copper nanoparticles on the MWCNTs wall increasing its diameter was observed by SEM. Utilizing solution blending process, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% wt loading of both copper coated MWCNTs and non-coated MWCNTs were used to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of nanocomposites were investigated. The results of tensile test demonstrated that nanocomposites containing copper coated MWCNTs exhibited brittle behavior compared to those reinforced with functionalized MWCNTs, whereas former one exhibited higher values of modulus than latter one for concentrations more than 0.4% wt. Presence of copper particles on MWCNTs surface decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposites. In comparison to pure epoxy, nanocomposites with treated-MWCNTs and Cu-MWCNTs loading of 0.1% wt showed an increase of 35% and 51.6% for flexural strength beside 20% and 30% increase in flexural modulus, respectively, whereas flexural properties of both naocomposites decreased with increasing of CNTs concentration. The results of impact strength of nanocomposites with Cu-CNTs demonstrated that impact properties decreased with increasing of filler content with a optimum value at 0.1% wt while in high concentrations impact properties of Cu-nanocomposites exhibited lower values than f-MWCNT nanocomposites.
80
19436
Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications
Abstract:
Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.
79
50236
Carbon-Based Electrodes for Parabens Detection
Abstract:
Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode has been investigated through voltammetric and amperometric techniques in order to detect parabens from aqueous solutions. The occurrence into environment as emerging pollutants of these preservative compounds has been extensively studied in the last decades, and consequently, a rapid and reliable method for their quantitative quantification is required. In this study, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) were chosen as representatives for paraben class. The individual electrochemical detection of each paraben has been successfully performed. Their electrochemical oxidation occurred at the same potential value. Their simultaneous quantification should be assessed electrochemically only as general index of paraben class as a cumulative signal corresponding to both MP and PP from solution. The influence of pH on the electrochemical signal was studied. pH ranged between 1.3 and 9.0 allowed shifting the detection potential value to smaller value, which is very desired for the electroanalysis. Also, the signal is better-defined and higher sensitivity is achieved. Differential-pulsed voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry were exploited under the optimum pH conditions to improve the electroanalytical performance for the paraben detection. Also, the operation conditions were selected, i.e., the step potential, modulation amplitude and the frequency. Chronomaprometry application as the easiest electrochemical detection method led to worse sensitivity, probably due to a possible fouling effect of the electrode surface. The best electroanalytical performance was achieved by pulsed voltammetric technique but the selection of the electrochemical technique is related to the concrete practical application. A good reproducibility of the voltammetric-based method using carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode was determined and no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species that are common in the water matrix. Besides these characteristics, the long life-time of the electrode give to carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode a great potential for practical applications.
78
29344
Theoretical and Experimental Bending Properties of Composite Pipes
Abstract:
Aim of this work is to determine the theoretical and experimental properties of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy resin composite pipes with different winding design subjected under bending. For determination of bending strength of composite samples three point bending tests were conducted according to ASTM D790 standard. Good correlation between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained, where sample No4 has shown the highest value of bending strength. All samples have demonstrated matrix cracking and fiber failure followed by layers delamination during testing. Also, it was found that smaller winding angles lead to an increase in bending stress. From presented results good merger between glass fibers and epoxy resin was confirmed by SEM analysis.
77
91243
Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.
76
50817
Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Resole Resin: Synthesis and Characteristics
Abstract:
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins are widely used as wood adhesives for variety of industrial products such as plywood, laminated veneer lumber and others. Lignin as a main constituent of wood has become well-known as a potential substitute for phenol in PF adhesives because of their structural similarity. During the last decades numerous research approaches have been carried out to substitute phenol with pulping-derived lignin, whereby the lower reactivity of resins synthesized with shares of lignin seem to be one of the major challenges. This work reports about a systematic screening of different types of lignin (plant origin and pulping process) for their suitability to replace phenol in phenolic resins. Lignin from different plant sources (softwood, hardwood and grass) were used, as these should differ significantly in their reactivity towards formaldehyde of their reactive phenolic core units. Additionally a possible influence of the pulping process was addressed by using the different types of lignin from soda, kraft, and organosolv process and various lignosulfonates (sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium). To determine the influence of lignin on the adhesive performance beside others the rate of viscosity development, bond strength development of varying hot pressing time and other thermal properties were investigated. To evaluate the performance of the cured end product, a few selected properties were studied at the example of solid wood-adhesive bond joints, compact panels and plywood. As main results it was found that lignin significantly accelerates the viscosity development in adhesive synthesis. Bonding strength development during curing of adhesives decelerated for all lignin types, while this trend was least for pine kraft lignin and spruce sodium lignosulfonate. However, the overall performance of the products prepared with the latter adhesives was able to fulfill main standard requirements, even after exposing the products to harsh environmental conditions. Thus, a potential application can be considered for processes where reactivity is less critical but adhesive cost and product performance is essential.
75
76000
Mechanical Analysis of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
In the field of material engineering, composites are in great concern for their nonbiodegradability and their cost. In order to reduce its cost and weight, plant derived fibers witnessed miraculous triumph. Plant fibers can be of different types like seed fibers, blast fibers, leaf fibers, etc. Composites can be reinforced with exclusively one type of natural fiber or also can be combined with two or more different types of natural or synthetic fibers to boost up their specific properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes like HDPE, LDPE, PET, epoxy, etc. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its adhesion and compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix i.e. epoxy resin. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of fiber loading and surface treatments have been studied for different mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, flexural strength and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber composites. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. Scanning electron microscopy has also been used to study and compare the morphology of untreated and treated fibers. Also, the fracture surface has been reviewed comparing the reported literature of other eminent researchers of this field.
74
17061
Improving the Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy Coating Using Carbon Nanotube by Electrodeposition Method
Abstract:
Electrodeposition is a method for applying coatings with uniform thickness on complex objects. A conductive surface can be produced using the electrical current in this method. Carbon nanotubes are known to have high electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. In this report, NH2-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in epoxy resin with different weight percent. The weight percent of incorporated MWCNTS into the matrix was changed in the range of 0.6-3.6 wt% to obtain a series of electrocoatings. The electrocoats were then applied on steel substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy were used to characterize the electrocoated films. The results illustrated the increase in conductivity by increasing of MWCNT load. However, at the percolation threshold, throwing power was dropped with increase in recoating ability.
73
28159
Static and Dynamic Analysis of Timoshenko Microcantilever Using the Finite Element Method
Abstract:
Micro cantilevers are one of the components used in the manufacture of micro-electromechanical systems. Epoxy microcantilevers have a variety of applications in the manufacture of micro-sensors and micro-actuators. In this paper, the Timoshenko Micro cantilever was statically and dynamically analyzed using the finite element method. First, all boundary conditions and initial conditions governing micro cantilevers were considered. The effect of size on the deflection, angle of rotation, natural frequencies, and mode shapes were then analyzed and evaluated under different frequencies. It was observed that an increased micro cantilever thickness reduces the deflection, rotation, and resonant frequency. A good agreement was observed between our results and those obtained by the couple stress theory, the classical theory, and the strain gradient elasticity theory.
72
25115
Evaluation of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea water by EIS
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
71
24695
Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint
Abstract:
In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.
70
79708
The Effect of Nylon and Kevlar Stitching on the Mode I Fracture of Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Composite materials are widely used in aviation industry due to their superior properties; however, they are susceptible to delamination. Through-thickness stitching is one of the techniques to alleviate delamination. Kevlar is one of the most common stitching materials; in contrast, it is expensive and presents stitching fabrication challenges. Therefore, this study compares the performance of Kevlar with an inexpensive and easy-to-use nylon fiber in stitching to alleviate delamination. Three laminates of unidirectional carbon fiber-epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. One panel was stitched with Kevlar, one with nylon, and one unstitched. Mode I interlaminar fracture tests were carried out on specimens from the three composite laminates, and the results were compared. Fractographic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscope were conducted to reveal the differences between stitching with Kevlar and nylon on the internal microstructure of the composite with respect to the interlaminar fracture toughness values.
69
26728
Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol a, Phtalates and Its Metabolites in Human Urine, by Tandem SPE Coupled to GC-MS
Abstract:
Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic compounds that even though being initially designed for a specific function are now being linked with a wide range of side effects. The list of possible EDCs is growing and includes phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA). Phthalates are one of the most widely used plasticizers to improve the extensibility, elasticity and workability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl acetates, etc. Considered non-toxic and harmless additives for polymers, they were used unrestrainedly all over the world for several decades. However, recent studies have indicated that some phthalates and their metabolic products are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. BPA (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) is a high production volume chemical mainly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Although BPA was initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, nowadays it is known that this compound can stimulate several cellular responses at very low levels of concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on tandem SPE to evaluate the presence of phthalates, metabolites and BPA in human urine samples. The analyzed compounds included: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and. mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP). Two SPE cartridges were applied both from Phenomenex, the strata X polymeric reversed phase and the strata X A (Strong anion). Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Thermo GC ULTRA GC-MS/MS. Good recoveries and linear calibration curves were obtained. After validation, the methodology was applied to human urine samples for phthalates, metabolites and BPA evaluation.
68
81474
Service Life Study of Polymers Used in Renovation of Heritage Buildings and Other Structures
Abstract:
Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during renovation or replacement and is a time consuming and costly process. Rehabilitation by polymer composites is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in heritage buildings and other structures which are less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment; however, it is still not clear for how long these materials can perform as expected in the field and working condition. To study their service life, two types of composites based on Epoxy and Polyester resins have been evaluated by accelerated exposure and field exposure. The primary degradation agent used in accelerated exposure has been cycling temperature with half of the tests performed in presence of water. Thin films of materials used in accelerated testing were prepared in laboratory by using the same amount of material as well as technique of multi-layers application used in majority of the field installations. Extreme intensity levels of degradation agents have been used only to evaluate materials properties and as also mentioned in ISO 15686, are not directly correlated with degradation mechanisms that would be experienced in service. In the field exposure study, the focus has been to identify possible failure modes, causes, and effects. In field exposure, it has been observed that there are other degradation agents present which can be investigated further such as presence of contaminants and rust before application which prevents formation of a uniform layer of polymer or incompatibility between dissimilar materials. This part of the study also highlighted the importance of application’s quality of the materials in the field for providing the expected performance and service life. Results from extended accelerated exposure and field exposure can help in choosing inspection techniques, establishing the primary degradation agents and can be used for ageing exposure programs with clarifying relationship between different exposure periods and sites.
67
72833
Fluorescing Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Complex for the Sensitive Detection of Bisphenol A
Abstract:
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine disruptors (EDCs), which have been suspected to be associated with reproductive dysfunction and physiological abnormality in human. Since the BPA has been widely used to make plastics and epoxy resins, the leach of BPA from the lining of plastic products has been of major concern, due to its environmental or human exposure issues. The simple detection of BPA based on the self-assembly of aptamer-mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been reported elsewhere, yet the detection sensitivity still remains challenging. Here we demonstrate an improved AuNP-based sensor of BPA by using fluorescence-combined AuNP colorimetry in order to overcome the drawback of traditional AuNP sensors. While the anti-BPA aptamer (full length or truncated ssDNA) triggered the self-assembly of unmodified AuNP (citrate-stabilized AuNP) in the presence of BPA at high salt concentrations, no fluorescence signal was observed by the subsequent addition of SYBR Green, due to a small amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. In contrast, the absence of BPA did not cause the self-assembly of AuNPs (no color change by salt-bridged surface stabilization) and high fluorescence signal by SYBP Green, which was due to a large amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. As a result, the quantitative analysis of BPA was achieved using the combination of absorption of AuNP with fluorescence intensity of SYBR green as a function of BPA concentration, which represented more improved detection sensitivity (as low as 1 ppb) than did in the AuNP colorimetric analysis. This method also enabled to detect high BPA in water-soluble extracts from thermal papers with high specificity against BPS and BPF. We suggest that this approach will be alternative for traditional AuNP colorimetric assays in the field of aptamer-based molecular diagnosis.
66
24263
Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
65
135193
Modulation of the Interphase in a Glass Epoxy System: Influence of the Sizing Chemistry on Adhesion and Interfacial Properties
Abstract:
Glass fiber-reinforced composite materials have gradually developed in all sectors ranging from consumer products to aerospace applications. However, the weak point is most often the fiber/matrix interface, which can reduce the durability of the composite material. To solve this problem, it is essential to control the interphase and improve our understanding of the adhesion mechanism at the fibre/matrix interface. The interphase properties depend on the nature of the sizing applied on the surface of the glass fibers during their manufacture in order to protect them, facilitate their handling, and ensure fibre/matrix adhesion. The sizing composition, and in particular the nature of the coupling agent and the film-former affects the mechanical properties and the durability of composites. The aim of our study is, therefore, to develop and study composite materials with simplified sizing systems in order to understand how the main constituents modify the mechanical properties and the durability of composites from the nanometric to the macroscopic scale. Two model systems were elaborated: an epoxy matrix reinforced with simplified-sized glass fibres and an epoxy coating applied on glass substrates treated with the same sizings as fibres. For the sizing composition, two configurations were chosen. The first configuration possesses a chemical reactivity to link the glass and the matrix, and the second sizing contains non-reactive agents. The chemistry of the sized glass substrates and fibers was analyzed by FT-IR and XPS spectroscopies. The surface morphology was characterized by SEM and AFM microscopies. The observation of the surface samples reveals the presence of sizings which morphology depends on their chemistry. The evaluation of adhesion of coated substrates and composite materials show good interfacial properties for the reactive configuration. However, the non-reactive configuration exhibits an adhesive rupture at the interface of glass/epoxy for both systems. The interfaces and interphases between the matrix and the substrates are characterized at different scales. Correlations are made between the initial properties of the sizings and the mechanical performances of the model composites.
64
24267
EIS Study of the Corrosion Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
63
106011
Tribological Characterization of Composites Based on Epoxy Resin Filled with Tailings of Scheelite
Abstract:
The use of mineral fillers in the preparation of organic matrix composites can be an efficient alternative in minimizing the environmental damage generated in passive mineral beneficiation processes. In addition, it may represent a new material option for wind, construction, and aeronautical industries, for example. In this sense, epoxy resin composites with Tailings of Scheelite (TS) were developed. The composites were manufactured with 5%, 10% and 20% of TS in volume percentage, homogenized by mechanical mixing and molded in a silicon mold. In order to make the tribological evaluation, pin on disk tests were performed to analyze coefficient of friction and wear. The wear mechanisms were identified by SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. The coefficient of friction had a tendency to decrease with increasing amount of filler. The wear tends to increase with increasing amount of filler, although it exhibits a similar wear behavior. The results suggest characteristics that are potential used in many tribological applications.
62
40036
Syntheses of Biobased Hybrid Poly(epoxy-hydroxyurethane) Polymers
Abstract:
The development of polyurethanes began in 1937 at I. G. Farbenindustrie where Bayer with coworkers discovered the addition polymerization reaction between diisocyanates and diols. Since their discovery, the demand in PU has continued to increase and it will attain in 2016 a production of 18 million tons. However, isocyanates compounds are harmful to human and environment. Methylene diphenyl 4,4’-diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), the most widely used isocyanates in PU industry, are classified as CMR (Carcinogen, Mutagen, and Reprotoxic). In order to design isocyanate-free materials, an interesting alternative is the use of Polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) by reaction between cyclic carbonate and polyfunctional amines. The main problem concerning PHUs synthesis relates to the low reactivity of carbonate/amine reaction. To solve this issue, many studies in the literature have been conducted to design PHU from more reactive cyclic-carbonates, bearing electro-withdrawing substituent or by using six-membered, seven-membered or thio-cyclic carbonate. The main drawback of all these systems remains the low molar masses obtained for the synthesized PHUs, which hinders their use for material applications. Therefore, we developed another strategy to afford new hybrid PHU with high conversion. This very innovative two-step approach consists in the first step in the synthesis of aminotelechelic PHU oligomers with different chain length from bis-cyclic carbonate with different excess of primary amine functions. In the second step, these aminotelechelic PHU oligomers were used in formulation with biobased epoxy monomers (from cashew nut shell liquid and tannins) to synthesize hybrid polyepoxyurethane polymers. These materials were then characterized by thermal and mechanical analyses.
61
85932
Experimentation and Analysis of Reinforced Basalt and Carbon Fibres Composite Laminate Mechanical Properties
Abstract:
The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with matrix epoxy. At present, there is demand for nature friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently, and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibres for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibres (uni-directional) which are used as reinforcement materials for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY 556-HY 951) is taken into account to assess its influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorption are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results.
60
116809
Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel by Surfactant Containing Reagents
Abstract:
The anti-corrosion performance of fatty acid coated mild steel samples is studied. Samples of structural steel coated with collector reagents deposited from surfactant in ethanol solution and overcoated with an epoxy barrier paint. A quantitative corrosion rate was determined by linear polarization resistance method using biopotentiostat/galvanostat 400. Coating morphology was determined by scanning electronic microscopy. A test for hydrophobic surface of steel by surfactant was done. From the samples, the main component or high content iron was determined by chemical method and other metal contents were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. Prior to measuring the corrosion rate, mechanical and chemical treatments were performed to prepare the test specimens. Overcoating the metal samples with epoxy barrier paint after exposing them with surfactant the corrosion rate can be inhibited by 34-35 &micro;m/year.
59
99682
Experimental Assessment of Micromechanical Models for Mechanical Properties of Recycled Short Fiber Composites
Abstract:
Processing of polymer fiber composites has a remarkable influence on their mechanical performance. These mechanical properties are even more influenced when using recycled reinforcement. Therefore, we place particular attention on the evaluation of micromechanical models to estimate the mechanical properties and compare them against the experimental results of the manufactured composites. For the manufacturing process, an epoxy matrix and carbon fiber production cut-offs as reinforcing material are incorporated using a vacuum infusion process. In addition, continuous textile reinforcement in combination with the epoxy matrix is used as reference material to evaluate the kick-down in mechanical performance of the recycled composite. The experimental results show less degradation of the composite stiffness compared to the strength properties. Observations from the modeling also show the same trend as the error between the theoretical and experimental results is lower for stiffness comparisons than the strength calculations. Yet still, good mechanical performance for specific applications can be expected from these materials.
58
18900
An Integrated Approach to Find the Effect of Strain Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Randomly Oriented Short Glass Fiber Composite in Combination with Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
In this study tensile testing was performed on randomly oriented short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens which were prepared using hand lay-up method. Samples were tested over a wide range of strain rate/loading rate from 2mm/min to 40mm/min to see the effect on ultimate tensile strength of the composite. A multi layered 'back propagation artificial neural network of supervised learning type' was used to analyze and predict the tensile properties with strain rate and temperature as given input and output as UTS to predict. Various network structures were designed and investigated with varying parameters and network sizes, and an optimized network structure was proposed to predict the UTS of short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens with reasonably good accuracy.
57
117128
Optimization of Sodium Lauryl Surfactant Concentration for Nanoparticle Production
Abstract:
Sodium lauryl surfactant concentration optimization, for nanoparticle production, provided the platform for advanced research studies. Different concentrations (0.05 %, 0.1 %, and 0.2 %) of sodium lauryl surfactant was added to snail shells powder during milling processes for producing CaCO3 at smaller particle size. Epoxy nanocomposites prepared at filler content 2 wt.% synthesized with different volumes of sodium lauryl surfactant were fabricated using a conventional resin casting method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, and hardness of prepared nanocomposites was investigated to determine the effect of sodium lauryl surfactant concentration on nanocomposite properties. It was observed that the loading of the synthesized nano-calcium carbonate improved the mechanical properties of neat epoxy at lower concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %. Meaningfully, loading of achatina fulica snail shell nanoparticles manufactures, with small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, increased the neat epoxy tensile strength by 26%, stiffness by 55%, and hardness by 38%. Homogeneous dispersion facilitated, by the addition of sodium lauryl surfactant during milling processes, improved mechanical properties. Research evidence suggests that nano-CaCO3, synthesized from achatina fulica snail shell, possesses suitable reinforcement properties that can be used for nanocomposite fabrication. The evidence showed that adding small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, improved dispersion of nanoparticles in polymetrix material that provided mechanical properties improvement.
56
111033
Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites
Abstract:
Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.
55
96457
Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft
Abstract:
Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.
54
111375
Corrosion Behavior of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coatings Fabricated by Electrostatic Method
Abstract:
Mild steels have a limited alloying content which makes them vulnerable to excessive corrosion rates in the harsh medium. To overcome this issue, some protective coatings are used to prevent corrosion on the steel surface. The use of specialized coatings, mainly organic coatings (such as epoxies, polyurethanes, and acrylics) and inorganic coatings (such as Polysiloxanes) is the most common method of mitigating corrosion of carbon steel. Incorporating the benefits of organic and inorganic hybrid (OIH) compounds for the designing of hybrid protective coatings is still challenging for industrial applications. There are advantages of inorganic coatings have, but purely inorganic siloxane-based coatings are difficult to use on industrial applications unless they are used at extremely low thicknesses (< 1-2 microns). Hence, most industrial applications try to have a combination of Polysiloxanes with organic compounds.  A hybrid coating possesses an organic section, which transports flexibility and impact resistance, and an inorganic section, which usually helps in the decreasing of porosity and increasing thermal stability and hardness. A number of polymers including polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone have been reported to inhibit the corrosion mild steel in acidic media. However, reports on the effect of polyethylene oxide (PEO) or its blends on corrosion inhibition of metals is very scarce. Different composition of OIH coatings was synthesized by using silica sol-gel, epoxy, and PEO. The effect of different coating types on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in harsh solution has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical measurements using Gamry 1000 Interface Potentiostat. Coating structures were investigated by SEM. İt revealed a considerable reduction in corrosion rate for coated sample. Based on these results, OIH coating prepared by epoxy-silica sol gel-PEO and epoxy-silica sol-gel exhibit had a %99.5 and %98 reduction of (Corrosion rate) CR compares to baseline. Cathodic Tafel constant (βc) shows that coatings change both Tafel constants but had more effect on the cathodic process. The evolution of the Potentiostatic scan with time displays stability in potential, some of them in a high value while the other in a low value which can be attributed to the formation of an oxide film covering substrate surface. The coated samples with the group of epoxy coating have a lower potential along with the time test, while the silica group shows higher in potential with respect to time.
53
48422
A Comparison of Kinetic and Mechanical Properties between Graphene Oxide (GO) and Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)-Epoxy Nanocomposites
Abstract:
It is still unknown how the presence of nanoparticles such as graphene oxide (GO) or carbon nanotubes (CNT) influence the curing process and the final mechanical properties as well. In this work, kinetic and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were analyzed, where the kinetic process was followed by DSC and the mechanical properties by DMA as well as mechanical tests. Initially, CNT was annealed at high temperature (1800 °C) under vacuum atmosphere, followed by a chemical treatment using acids and ethylenediamine. GO was synthesized through chemical route, washed clean, dried and ground to #200. The presence of functional groups on CNT and GO surface was confirmed by XPS spectra and FT-IR. Then, nanoparticles and acetone were mixed by sonication in order to obtain the composites. DSC analyses were performed on samples with different curing cycles (1h 80 °C + 2h 120 °C; 3h 80 °C + 2h 120 °C; 5h 80 °C) and samples with different times at constant temperature (120 °C). Mechanical tests were performed according to ASTM D638 and D790. Results showed that the kinetic process and the mechanical strength are very dependent on the presence of graphene and functionalized-CNT in the nanocomposites, and the GO reinforced samples had a slightly bigger improvement compared to functionalized CNT.
52
112005
Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Ultraviolet and Immersion Stability of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Coating
Abstract:
The marine environment is very aggressive for a number of factors, such as moisture, temperature, winds, ultraviolet radiation, chloride ion concentration, oxygen concentration, pollution, and biofouling, all contributing to marine corrosion. Protective organic coatings provide protection either by a barrier action from the layer, which is limited due to permeability to water and oxygen or from active corrosion inhibition and cathodic protection due to the pigments in the coating. Carbon nanotubes can play not only barrier effect but also passivation effect via adsorbing molecular species of oxygen, hydroxyl, chloride and sulphate anions. Multiwall carbon nanotubes composite provide very important properties such as mechanical strength, non-cytotoxicity, outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity, and very strong absorption of ultraviolet radiation. The samples of stainless steel (316L) coated by epoxy resin with carbon nanotubes-based pigments were exposed to UV irradiation (340nm), and immersion to the sodium chloride solution for 1000h and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was investigated. Experimental results showed that corrosion current significantly decreased in the presence of carbon nanotube-based materials, especially nitrogen-doped ones, in the composite coating. Importance of the structure and composition of the pigment materials and its composition was established, and the mechanism of the protection was described. Finally, the effect of nitrogen doping on the corrosion behavior was investigated. The pigment-polymer crosslinking improves the coating performance and the corrosion rate decreases in comparison with pure epoxy coating from 5.7E-05 to 1.4E-05mm/yr for the coating without any degradation; in more than 6 times for the coating after ultraviolet degradation; and more than 16% for the coatings after immersion degradation.
51
17655
Preparation of Metal Containing Epoxy Polymer and Investigation of Their Properties as Fluorescent Probe
Abstract:
Metal containing polymers (MCPs) are macro molecules usually containing metal-ligand coordination units and are a multidisciplinary research field mainly based at the interface between coordination chemistry and polymer science. The progress of this area has also been reinforced by the growth of several other closely related disciplines including macro molecular engineering, crystal engineering, organic synthesis, supra molecular chemistry and colloidal and material science. Schiff base ligands are very effective in constructing supra molecular architectures such as coordination polymers, double helical and triple helical complexes. In addition, Schiff base derivatives incorporating a fluorescent moiety are appealing tools for optical sensing of metal ions. MCPs are well-known systems in which the combinations of local parameters are possible by means of fluoro metric techniques. Generally, without incorporation of the fluorescent groups with polymers is unspecific, and it is not useful to analyze their fluorescent properties. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare a new type epoxy polymers with fluorescent groups in terms of metal sensing prop and the other photo chemical applications. In the present study metal containing polymers were prepared via poly functional monomeric Schiff base metal chelate complexes in the presence of dis functional monomers such as diglycidyl ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA). The synthesized complexes and polymers were characterized by FTIR, UV-VIS and mass spectroscopies. The preparations of epoxy polymers have been carried out at 185 °C. The prepared composites having sharp and narrow excitation/emission properties are expected to be applicable in various systems such as heat-resistant polymers and photo voltaic devices. The prepared composite is also ideal for various applications, easily prepared, safe, and maintain good fluorescence properties.
50
101055
Study of the Effect of Sewing on Non Woven Textile Waste at Dry and Composite Scales
Abstract:
Textile waste recycling has become a necessity considering the augmentation of the amount of waste generated each year and the ecological problems that landfilling and burning can cause. Textile waste can be recycled into many different forms according to its composition and its final utilization. Using this waste as reinforcement to composite panels is a new recycling area that is being studied. Compared to virgin fabrics, recycled ones present the disadvantage of having lower structural characteristics, when they are eco-friendly and with low cost. The objective of this work is transforming textile waste into composite material with good characteristic and low price. In this study, we used sewing as a method to improve the characteristics of the recycled textile waste in order to use it as reinforcement to composite material. Textile non-woven waste was afforded by a local textile recycling industry. Performances tests were evaluated using tensile testing machine and based on the testing direction for both reinforcements and composite panels; machine and transverse direction. Tensile tests were conducted on sewed and non sewed fabrics, and then they were used as reinforcements to composite panels via epoxy resin infusion method. Rule of mixtures is used to predict composite characteristics and then compared to experimental ones.
49
43089
UV-Cured Coatings Based on Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxy Carboxylate
Abstract:
During the past two decades, photoinitiated polymerization has been attracting a great interest in terms of scientific and industrial activity. The wide recognition of UV treatment in the polymer industry results not only from its many practical applications but also from its advantage for low-cost processes. Unlike most thermal curing systems, radiation-curable systems can polymerize at room temperature without additional heat, and the curing is completed in a very short time. The advantage of cationic UV technology is that post-cure can continue in the &lsquo;dark&rsquo; after radiation. In this study, bio-based acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was cured with UV radiation using radicalic photoinitiator Irgacure 184. Triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate was used as cationic photoinitiator for curing of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate. The effect of curing time and the amount of initiators on the curing degree and thermal properties were investigated. The thermal properties of the coating were analyzed after crosslinking UV irradiation. The level of crosslinking in the coating was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Cationic UV-cured coatings demonstrated excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance properties. Therefore, our study holds a great potential with its simple and low-cost applications.
48
93687
Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites
Abstract:
Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.
47
27466
An Investigation on the Sandwich Panels with Flexible and Toughened Adhesives under Flexural Loading
Abstract:
The material selection in the design of the sandwich structures is very crucial aspect because of the positive or negative influences of the base materials to the mechanical properties of the entire panel. In the literature, it was presented that the selection of the skin and core materials plays very important role on the behavior of the sandwich. Beside this, the use of the correct adhesive can make the whole structure to show better mechanical results and behavior. By this way, the sandwich structures realized in the study were obtained with the combination of aluminum foam core and three different glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins using two different commercial adhesives which are based on flexible polyurethane and toughened epoxy. The static and dynamic tests were already applied on the sandwiches with different types of adhesives. In the present work, the static three-point bending tests were performed on the sandwiches having an aluminum foam core with the thickness of 15 mm, the skins with three different types of fabrics ([0°/90°] cross ply E-Glass Biaxial stitched, [0°/90°] cross ply E-Glass Woven and [0°/90°] cross ply S-Glass Woven which have same thickness value of 1.75 mm) and two different commercial adhesives (flexible polyurethane and toughened epoxy based) at different values of support span distances (L= 55, 70, 80, 125 mm) by aiming the analyses of their flexural performance. The skins used in the study were produced via Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique and were easily bonded onto the aluminum foam core with flexible and toughened adhesives under a very low pressure using press machine with the alignment tabs having the total thickness of the whole panel. The main results of the flexural loading are: force-displacement curves obtained after the bending tests, peak force values, absorbed energy, collapse mechanisms, adhesion quality and the effect of the support span length and adhesive type. The experimental results presented that the sandwiches with epoxy based toughened adhesive and the skins made of S-Glass Woven fabrics indicated the best adhesion quality and mechanical properties. The sandwiches with toughened adhesive exhibited higher peak force and energy absorption values compared to the sandwiches with flexible adhesive. The core shear mode occurred in the sandwiches with flexible polyurethane based adhesive through the thickness of the core while the same mode took place in the sandwiches with toughened epoxy based adhesive along the length of the core. The use of these sandwich structures can lead to a weight reduction of the transport vehicles, providing an adequate structural strength under operating conditions.
46
75998
Influence of Fiber Loading and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
In the current scenario, development of new biodegradable composites with the reinforcement of some plant derived natural fibers are in major research concern. Abundant quantity of these natural plant derived fibers including sisal, ramp, jute, wheat straw, pine, pineapple, bagasse, etc. can be used exclusively or in combination with other natural or synthetic fibers to augment their specific properties like chemical, mechanical or thermal properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes. Not much work has been carried out in this area. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of variation in fiber loading up to 20% in epoxy composites has been studied for mechanical properties like tensile strength and flexural strength. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. SEM micrographs have also been studied for fracture surface.
45
27022
Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Three-Point Flexural Properties of Isogrid E-Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures
Abstract:
Increased interest in lightweight and efficient structural components has created the need for selecting materials with improved mechanical properties. To do so, composite materials are being widely used in many applications, due to durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. Among the various composite structures, grid-stiffened structures are extensively considered in various aerospace and aircraft applications, because of higher specific strength and stiffness, higher impact resistance, superior load-bearing capacity, easy to repair, and excellent energy absorption capability. Although there are a good number of publications on the design aspects and fabrication of grid structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the reinforcing effect of silica nanoparticles on the flexural properties of epoxy/E-glass isogrid panels under three-point bending test. Samples containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt.% of the silica nanoparticles, with 44 and 48 vol.% of the glass fibers in the ribs and skin components respectively, were fabricated by using a manual filament winding method. Ultrasonic and mechanical routes were employed to disperse the nanoparticles within the epoxy resin. To fabricate the ribs, the unidirectional fiber rovings were impregnated with the matrix mixture (epoxy + nanoparticles) and then laid up into the grooves of a silicone mold layer-by-layer. At once, four plies of woven fabrics, after impregnating into the same matrix mixture, were layered on the top of the ribs to produce the skin part. In order to conduct the ultimate curing and to achieve the maximum strength, the samples were tested after 7 days of holding at room temperature. According to load-displacement graphs, the bellow trend was observed for all of the samples when loaded from the skin side; following an initial linear region and reaching a load peak, the curve was abruptly dropped and then showed a typical absorbed energy region. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, a considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. The results showed that the flexural properties of the nanocomposite samples were always higher than those of the nanoparticle-free sample. The maximum enhancement in flexural maximum load and energy absorption was found to be for the incorporation of 3 wt.% of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the flexural stiffness was continually increased by increasing the silica loading. In conclusion, this study suggested that the addition of nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.
44
125920
Study of the Adhesive Bond Effect on Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Coupled Piezo Structural System
Authors:
Abstract:
Electro-mechanical impedance technique is a recently developed non-destructive method for structural health monitoring. This system comprises of piezo electric patch, bonded to the structure using an adhesive/epoxy and electrically excited to determine the health of the component. The subjected electric field actuates the PZT patch harmonically and imparts a force on the host structure. The structural response thus produced by the host component is in the form of peaks and valleys which further shows the admittance signatures of the structure for the given excitation frequency. Adhesives have the capability to change the structural signatures, in EMI technique, by transforming conductance and susceptance signatures. The static approximation provide a justifiable result where adhesive bond lines are thin and stiff. The epoxy adhesive bonds limits design flexibility due to poor bond strengths, hence to enhance the performance of the joints, a new technique is developed for joining PZT, i.e. the alloy bonding technique. It is a metallic joining compound which contains many active elements including Titanium, that reacts with the tenacious surface films of the ceramic and composites to create excellent bonds. This alloy-based bonding technique will be used for better strain interaction and rigorous stress transfer between PZT patch and the host structure.
43
3533
Teratogenic Effect of Bisphenol A in Development of Balb/C Mouse
Abstract:
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Due to having properties such as transparency, heat and impact resistance, it is used widely in medicine, sorts, electronic components, and food containers. It is also used in the production of resins which is applied for lining cans. BPA releases from resins and polycarbonate when it is heated or continuously used the containers from which BPA can enter the body. There are several reports indicating the presence of BPA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and the embryo itself. While researchers investigated the teratogenic effect of BPA on embryos, very limited work has been done on the effects of BPA when applied from early stages of development. In this study, The teratogenic effect of BPA was investigated at earliest preimplantation (day zero) through day 15.5 of the development of Balb/C mouse embryos. After ensuring the pregnancy via observing vaginal plug, Pregnant mice were divided into five groups. For the three experimental groups, the amount of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg/d Bisphenol A was given orally according to body weight. The sham group that was treated with sesame oil, which was used as vehicle and control group remained intact. On day 18.5 of gestation, embryos were removed from the uterus. Randomly half of the embryo were fixed in Bouin for tissue analysis. The other half were prepared for skeletal system staining using Alizarin Red and alcian blue dies. The results showed that the embryonic weight and the crown-rump length of embryos decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all experimental groups compared to the control group and the sham. In this study, skeletal abnormalities such as delay in ossification of skull and limbs as well as the deviation in the backbone were seen. This research suggests that pregnant mothers need to be aware of possible teratogenic effects of BPA at any stage of pregnancy especially from early to mid stages. In this case, pregnant mothers may need to stop using any manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, as a container for food or drinking.
42
66025
Stability Characteristics of Angle Ply Bi-Stable Laminates by Considering the Effect of Resin Layers
Abstract:
In this study, the stability characteristics of a bi-stable composite plate with different asymmetric composition are considered. The interest in bi-stable structures comes from their ability that these structures can have two different stable equilibrium configurations to define a discrete set of stable shapes. The structures can easily change the first stable shape to the second one by a simple snap action. The main purpose of the current research is to consider the effect of including resin layers on the stability characteristics of bi-stable laminates. To this end and In order to determine the magnitude of the loads that are responsible for snap through and snap back phenomena between two stable shapes of the laminate, a non-linear finite element method (FEM) is utilized. An experimental investigation was also carried out to study the critical loads that caused snapping between two different stable shapes. Several specimens were manufactured from T300/5208 graphite-epoxy with [0/90]T, [-30/60]T, [-20/70]T asymmetric stacking sequence. In order to create an accurate finite element model, different thickness of resin layers created during the manufacturing process of the laminate was measured and taken into account. The geometry of each lamina and the resin layers was characterized by optical microscopy from different locations of the laminates thickness. The exact thickness of each lamina and the resin layer in all specimens with [0/90]T,[-30/60]T, [-20/70]T stacking sequence were determined by using image processing technique.
41
35580
Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite Influenced by Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube
Abstract:
Higher strength to weight ratio is the main advantage of sandwich composite structures. Interfacial delamination between the face sheet and core is a major problem in these structures. Many research works are devoted to improve the interfacial fracture toughness of composites majorities of which are on nano and laminated composites. Work on influence of multiwalled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNT) dispersed resin system on interface fracture of glass-epoxy PVC core sandwich composite is extremely limited. Finite element study is followed by experimental investigation on interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (Gc) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum resin infusion (VRI) technology used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results agree with finite element study, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation. Interface fracture toughness (GC) of the DCB sandwich samples is calculated using the compliance calibration (CC) method considering the modification due to shear. Compliance (C) vs. crack length (a) data of modified sandwich DCB specimen is fitted to a power function of crack length. The calculated mean value of the exponent n from the plots of experimental results is 2.22 and is different from the value (n=3) prescribed in ASTM D5528-01for mode 1 fracture toughness of laminate composites (which is the basis for modified compliance calibration method). Differentiating C with respect to crack length (a) and substituting it in the expression GC provides its value. The research demonstrates improvement of 14.4% in peak load carrying capacity and 34.34% in interface fracture toughness GC for samples with 1.5 wt% MWCNT (weight % being taken with respect to weight of resin) in comparison to samples without MWCNT. The paper focuses on significant improvement in experimentally determined interface fracture toughness of sandwich samples with MWCNT over the samples without MWCNT using much simpler method of sonication. Good dispersion of MWCNT was observed in HRTEM with 1.5 wt% MWCNT addition in comparison to other percentages of MWCNT. FESEM studies have also demonstrated good dispersion and fiber bridging of MWCNT in resin system. Ductility is also observed to be higher for samples with MWCNT in comparison to samples without.
40
35582
The Effect of Bisphenol A and Its Selected Analogues on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Human Erythrocytes
Abstract:
Bisphenols are one of the most widely used chemical compounds worldwide. They are used in the manufacturing of polycarbonates, epoxy resins and thermal paper which are applied in plastic containers, bottles, cans, newspapers, receipt and other products. Among these compounds, bisphenol A (BPA) is produced in the highest amounts. There are concerns about endocrine impact of BPA and its other toxic effects including hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity on human organism. Moreover, BPA is supposed to increase the incidence the obesity, diabetes and heart disease. For this reason the use of BPA in the production of plastic infant feeding bottles and some other consumers products has been restricted in the European Union and the United States. Nowadays, BPA analogues like bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed as alternative compounds. The replacement of BPA with other bisphenols contributed to the increase of the exposure of human population to these substances. Toxicological studies have mainly focused on BPA. In opposite, a small number of studies concerning toxic effects of BPA analogues have been realized, which makes impossible to state whether those substituents are safe for human health. Up to now, the mechanism of bisphenols action on the erythrocytes has not been elucidated. That is why, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of BPA and its selected analogues such as BPF and BPS on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e. catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.), glutathione peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.9) and superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) in human erythrocytes. Red blood cells in respect to their function (transport of oxygen) and very well developed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative system, are useful cellular model to assess changes in redox balance. Erythrocytes were incubated with BPA, BPF and BPS in the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/ml for 24 h. The activity of catalase was determined by the method of Aebi (1984). The activity of glutathione peroxidase was measured according to the method described by Rice-Evans et al. (1991), while the activity of superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) was determined by the method of Misra and Fridovich (1972). The results showed that BPA and BPF caused changes in the antioxidative enzymes activities. BPA decreased the activity of examined enzymes in the concentration of 100 µg/ml. We also noted that BPF decreased the activity of catalase (5-100 µg/ml), glutathione peroxidase (50-100 µg/ml) and superoxide dismutase (25-100 µg/ml), while BPS did not cause statistically significant changes in investigated parameters. The obtained results suggest that BPA and BPF disrupt redox balance in human erythrocytes but the observed changes may occur in human organism only during occupational or subacute exposure to these substances.
39
6190
Swastika Shape Multiband Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications on Low Cost Substrate
Abstract:
In this article, a compact simple structure modified Swastika shape patch multiband antenna on a substrate of available low cost polymer resin composite material is designed for Wi-Fi and WiMAX applications. The substrate material consists of an epoxy matrix reinforced by woven glass. The designed micro-strip line fed compact antenna comprises of a planar wide square slot ground with four slits and Swastika shape radiation patch with a rectangular slot. The effect of the different substrate materials on the reflection coefficients of the proposed antennas was also analyzed. It can be clearly seen that the proposed antenna provides a wider bandwidth and acceptable return loss value compared to other reported materials. The simulation results exhibits that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth with -10 dB return loss at 3.01-3.89 GHz and 4.88-6.10 GHz which can cover both the WLAN, WiMAX and public safety WLAN bands. The proposed swastika shape antenna was designed and analyzed by using a finite element method based simulator HFSS and designed on a low cost FR4 (polymer resin composite material) printed circuit board. The electrical performances and superior frequency characteristics make the proposed material antenna desirable for wireless communications.
38
119479
An Enzyme Technology - Metnin™ - Enables the Full Replacement of Fossil-Based Polymers by Lignin in Polymeric Composites
Abstract:
Lignin is an important component in the exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass. It has been shown that within the next years, the yield of added-value lignin-based chemicals and materials will generate renewable alternatives to oil-based products (e.g. polymeric composites, resins and adhesives) and enhance the economic feasibility of biorefineries. In this paper, a novel technology for lignin valorisation (METNIN™) is presented. METNIN™ is based on the oxidative action of an alkaliphilic enzyme in aqueous alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) at mild temperature (40-50 °C) combined with a cascading membrane operation, yielding a collection of lignin fractions (from oligomeric down to mixture of tri-, di- and monomeric units) with distinct molecular weight distribution, low polydispersity and favourable physicochemical properties. The alkaline process conditions ensure the high processibility of crude lignin in an aqueous environment and the efficiency of the enzyme, yielding better compatibility of lignin towards targeted applications. The application of a selected lignin fraction produced by METNIN™ as a suitable lignopolyol to completely replace a commercial polyol in polyurethane rigid foam formulations is presented as a prototype. Liquid lignopolyols with a high lignin content were prepared by oxypropylation and their full utilization in the polyurethane rigid foam formulation was successfully demonstrated. Moreover, selected technical specifications of different foam demonstrators were determined, including closed cell count, water uptake and compression characteristics. These specifications are within industrial standards for rigid foam applications. The lignin loading in the lignopolyol was a major factor determining the properties of the foam. In addition to polyurethane foam demonstrators, other examples of lignin-based products related to resins and sizing applications will be presented.
37
43071
Production of Biocomposites Using Chars Obtained by Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes
Abstract:
The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. Pyrolysis of waste plastics is one of the routes to waste minimization and recycling that has been gaining interest. In pyrolysis, the pyrolysed material is separated into gas, liquid (both are fuel) and solid (char) products. All fractions have utilities and economical value depending upon their characteristics. The first objective of this study is to determine the co-pyrolysis product fractions of waste HDPE- (high density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene)-olive pomace (OP) and to determine the qualities of the solid product char. Chars obtained at 700 &deg;C pyrolysis were used in biocomposite preparation as additive. As the second objective, the effects of char on biocomposite quality were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700 &deg;C with heating rates of 5 &deg;C/min. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing of chars with bisphenol-F type epoxy resin in various wt%. Biocomposite properties were determined by measuring electrical conductivity, surface hardness, Young&rsquo;s modulus and tensile strength of the composites. The best electrical conductivity results were obtained with HDPE-OP char. For HDPE-OP char and LDPE-OP char, compared to neat epoxy, the tensile strength values of the composites increased by 102% and 78%, respectively, at 10% char dose. The hardness measurements showed similar results to the tensile tests, since there is a correlation between the hardness and the tensile strength.
36
18209
A Study of Resin-Dye Fixation on Dyeing Properties of Cotton Fabrics Using Melamine Based Resins and a Reactive Dye
Abstract:
Study of the effect of dye–resin complexation on the degree of dye absorption were carried out using Procion Blue MX-R to dye cotton fabric in the presence hexamethylol melamine (MR 6) and its phosphate derivative (MPR 4) for resination. The highest degree of dye exhaustion was obtained at 400 C for 1 hour with the resinated fabric showing more affinity for the dye than the ordinary fiber. Improved fastness properties was recorded which show a relatively higher stability of dye–resin–cellulose network formed.
35
63332
Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate
Abstract:
A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.
34
102210
Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I
Abstract:
Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.
33
27040
Testing of Protective Coatings on Automotive Steel, a Correlation Between Salt Spray, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, and Linear Polarization Resistance Test
Abstract:
Corrosion can cause serious and expensive damage to the automobile components. Various proven techniques for controlling and preventing corrosion depend on the specific material to be protected. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests are commonly used to assess the corrosion degradation mechanism of coatings on metallic surfaces. While, the only test which monitors the corrosion rate in real time is known as Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR). In this study, electrochemical tests (EIS & LPR) and spray test are reviewed to assess the corrosion resistance and durability of different coatings. The main objective of this study is to correlate the test results obtained using linear polarization resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with the results obtained using standard salt spray test. Another objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of various coating systems- CED, Epoxy, Powder coating, Autophoretic, and Zn-trivalent coating for vehicle underbody application. The corrosion resistance coating are assessed. From this study, a promising correlation between different corrosion testing techniques is noted. The most profound observation is that electrochemical tests gives quick estimation of corrosion resistance and can detect the degradation of coatings well before visible signs of damage appear. Furthermore, the corrosion resistances and salt spray life of the coatings investigated were found to be according to the order as follows- CED> powder coating > Autophoretic > epoxy coating > Zn- Trivalent plating.
32
67562
Behavior of Epoxy Insulator with Surface Defect under HVDC Stress
Abstract:
HVDC technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its simplicity in topology and less power loss over long distance of power transmission, in comparison with HVAC technology. However, the dielectric behavior of insulators in the long term under HVDC stress is completely different from that under HVAC stress as a result of charge accumulation in a constant electric field. Insulators used in practical systems are never perfect in their structural conditions. Over time shallow cracks may develop on their surface. The presence of defects can lead to drastic change in their dielectric behaviour and thus increase the probability of surface flashover. In this contribution, experimental investigations have been carried out on the charge accumulation phenomenon on the surface of a rod insulator made of epoxy that is placed between two disk shaped electrodes at different voltage levels and in different gases (SF6, CO2 and N2). Many results obtained, such as, the two-dimensional electrostatic potential distribution along the insulator surface after the removal of the power source following a pre-defined period of application. The probe has been carefully calibrated before each test. Results show that surface charge distribution near the two disk shaped electrodes is not uniform in the circumferential direction, possibly due to the imperfect electrical connections between the embeded conductor in the insulator and the disk shaped electrodes. The axial length of this non-uniform region is experimentally determined, which provides useful information for shielding design. A charge transport model is also used to explain the formation of the long term electrostatic potential distribution under a constant applied voltage.
31
82959
Monitoring the Production of Large Composite Structures Using Dielectric Tool Embedded Capacitors
Abstract:
With the rise of public awareness on climate change comes an increasing demand for renewable sources of energy. As a result, the wind power sector is striving to manufacture longer, more efficient and reliable wind turbine blades. Currently, one of the leading causes of blade failure in service is improper cure of the resin during manufacture. The infusion process creating the main part of the composite blade structure remains a critical step that is yet to be monitored in real time. This stage consists of a viscous resin being drawn into a mould under vacuum, then undergoing a curing reaction until solidification. Successful infusion assumes the resin fills all the voids and cures completely. Given that the electrical properties of the resin change significantly during its solidification, both the filling of the mould and the curing reaction are susceptible to be followed using dieletrometry. However, industrially available dielectrics sensors are currently too small to monitor the entire surface of a wind turbine blade. The aim of the present research project is to scale up the dielectric sensor technology and develop a device able to monitor the manufacturing process of large composite structures, assessing the conformity of the blade before it even comes out of the mould. An array of flat copper wires acting as electrodes are embedded in a polymer matrix fixed in an infusion mould. A multi-frequency analysis from 1 Hz to 10 kHz is performed during the filling of the mould with an epoxy resin and the hardening of the said resin. By following the variations of the complex admittance Y*, the filling of the mould and curing process are monitored. Results are compared to numerical simulations of the sensor in order to validate a virtual cure-monitoring system. The results obtained by drawing glycerol on top of the copper sensor displayed a linear relation between the wetted length of the sensor and the complex admittance measured. Drawing epoxy resin on top of the sensor and letting it cure at room temperature for 24 hours has provided characteristic curves obtained when conventional interdigitated sensor are used to follow the same reaction. The response from the developed sensor has shown the different stages of the polymerization of the resin, validating the geometry of the prototype. The model created and analysed using COMSOL has shown that the dielectric cure process can be simulated, so long as a sufficient time and temperature dependent material properties can be determined. The model can be used to help design larger sensors suitable for use with full-sized blades. The preliminary results obtained with the sensor prototype indicate that the infusion and curing process of an epoxy resin can be followed with the chosen configuration on a scale of several decimeters. Further work is to be devoted to studying the influence of the sensor geometry and the infusion parameters on the results obtained. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a larger scale sensor able to monitor the flow and cure of large composite panels industrially.
30
54473
Determination of Fatigue Limit in Post Impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Polymer (CFRP) Specimens Using Self Heating Methodology
Abstract:
This paper presents the experimental identification of the fatigue limit for pristine and impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy polymer (CFRP) woven composites based on the relatively new self-heating methodology for composites. CFRP composites of [0/90]8 and quasi isotropic configurations prepared using hand-layup technique are subjected to low energy impacts (20 J energy) simulating a barely visible impact damage (BVID). Runway debris strike, tool drop or hailstone impact can cause a BVID on an aircraft fuselage made of carbon composites and hence understanding the post-impact fatigue response of CFRP laminates is of immense importance to the aerospace community. The BVID zone on the specimens is characterized using X-ray Tomography technique. Both pristine and impacted specimens are subjected to several blocks of constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loading keeping R-ratio a constant but with increments in the mean loading stress after each block. The number of loading cycles in each block is a subjective parameter and it varies for pristine and impacted CFRP specimens. To monitor the temperature evolution during fatigue loading, thermocouples are pasted on the CFRP specimens at specific locations. The fatigue limit is determined by two strategies, first is by considering the stabilized temperature in every block and second is by considering the change in the temperature slope per block. The results show that both strategies can be adopted to determine the fatigue limit in both pristine and impacted CFRP composites.
29
104772
Study of Mechanical Properties of Glutarylated Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Natural fibers have attained the potential market in the composite industry because of the huge environmental impact caused by synthetic fibers. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. Even though there is a good motive to utilize the natural supplement, the strength of the natural fiber composites is still a topic of discussion. In recent days, many researchers are showing interest in the chemical modification of the natural fibers to increase various mechanical and thermal properties. In the present study, jute fibers have been modified chemically using glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The glutaric anhydride solution is prepared by dissolving the different quantity of glutaric anhydride in benzene and dimethyl-sulfoxide using sodium formate catalyst. The jute fiber mats have been treated by the method of retting at various time intervals of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. The modification structure of the treated fibers has been confirmed with infrared spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with an increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure. The unmodified fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix under room temperature. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of unmodified fiber.
28
65267
Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange
Abstract:
The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.
27
61855
Adsorptive Media Selection for Bilirubin Removal: An Adsorption Equilibrium Study
Abstract:
The liver is a complex, large-scale biochemical reactor which plays a unique role in the human physiology. When liver ceases to perform its physiological activity, a functional replacement is required. Actually, liver transplantation is the only clinically effective method of treating severe liver disease. Anyway, the aforementioned therapeutic approach is hampered by the disparity between organ availability and the number of patients on the waiting list. In order to overcome this critical issue, research activities focused on liver support device systems (LSDs) designed to bridging patients to transplantation or to keep them alive until the recovery of native liver function. In recirculating albumin dialysis devices, such as MARS (Molecular Adsorbed Recirculating System), adsorption is one of the fundamental steps in albumin-dialysate regeneration. Among the albumin-bound toxins that must be removed from blood during liver-failure therapy, bilirubin and tryptophan can be considered as representative of two different toxin classes. The first one, not water soluble at physiological blood pH and strongly bounded to albumin, the second one, loosely albumin bound and partially water soluble at pH 7.4. Fixed bed units are normally used for this task, and the design of such units requires information both on toxin adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. The most common adsorptive media used in LSDs are activated carbon, non-ionic polymeric resins and anionic resins. In this paper, bilirubin adsorption isotherms on different adsorptive media, such as polymeric resin, albumin-coated resin, anionic resin, activated carbon and alginate beads with entrapped albumin are presented. By comparing all the results, it can be stated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of the five different media increases in the following order: Alginate beads < Polymeric resin < Albumin-coated resin < Activated carbon < Anionic resin. The main focus of this paper is to provide useful guidelines for the optimization of liver support devices which implement adsorption columns to remove albumin-bound toxins from albumin dialysate solutions.
26
36951
Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites
Abstract:
Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.
25
52814
Lightweight Sheet Molding Compound Composites by Coating Glass Fiber with Cellulose Nanocrystals
Abstract:
There has been considerable interest in cellulose nanomaterials (CN) as polymer and polymer composites reinforcement due to their high specific modulus and strength, low density and toxicity, and accessible hydroxyl side groups that can be readily chemically modified. The focus of this study is making lightweight composites for better fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emission in auto industries with no compromise on mechanical performance using a scalable technique that can be easily integrated in sheet molding compound (SMC) manufacturing lines. Light weighting will be achieved by replacing part of the heavier components, i.e. glass fibers (GF), with a small amount of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in short GF/epoxy composites made using SMC. CNC will be introduced as coating of the GF rovings prior to their use in the SMC line. The employed coating method is similar to the fiber sizing technique commonly used and thus it can be easily scaled and integrated to industrial SMC lines. This will be an alternative route to the most techniques that involve dispersing CN in polymer matrix, in which the nanomaterials agglomeration limits the capability for scaling up in an industrial production. We have demonstrated that incorporating CNC as a coating on GF surface by immersing the GF in CNC aqueous suspensions, a simple and scalable technique, increases the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) by ~69% compared to the composites produced by uncoated GF, suggesting an enhancement of stress transfer across the GF/matrix interface. As a result of IFSS enhancement, incorporation of 0.17 wt% CNC in the composite results in increases of ~10% in both elastic modulus and tensile strength, and 40 % and 43 % in flexural modulus and strength respectively. We have also determined that dispersing 1.4 and 2 wt% CNC in the epoxy matrix of short GF/epoxy SMC composites by sonication allows removing 10 wt% GF with no penalty on tensile and flexural properties leading to 7.5% lighter composites. Although sonication is a scalable technique, it is not quite as simple and inexpensive as coating the GF by passing through an aqueous suspension of CNC. In this study, the above findings are integrated to 1) investigate the effect of CNC content on mechanical properties by passing the GF rovings through CNC aqueous suspension with various concentrations (0-5%) and 2) determine the optimum ratio of the added CNC to the removed GF to achieve the maximum possible weight reduction with no cost on mechanical performance of the SMC composites. The results of this study are of industrial relevance, providing a path toward producing high volume lightweight and mechanically enhanced SMC composites using cellulose nanomaterials.
24
79250
Assessing Acute Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Potential of Selected Packages Internal Layers Extracts
Abstract:
In the scientific literature related to the widely understood issue of packaging materials designed to have contact with food (food contact materials), there is much information on raw materials used for their production, as well as their physiochemical properties, types, and parameters. However, not much attention is given to the issues concerning migration of toxic substances from packaging and its actual influence on the health of the final consumer, even though health protection and food safety are the priority tasks. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of particular foodstuff packaging type, food production, and storage conditions on the degree of leaching of potentially toxic compounds and endocrine disruptors to foodstuffs using the acute toxicity test Microtox and XenoScreen YES YAS assay. The selected foodstuff packaging materials were metal cans used for fish storage and tetrapak. Five stimulants respectful to specific kinds of food were chosen in order to assess global migration: distilled water for aqueous foods with a pH above 4.5; acetic acid at 3% in distilled water for acidic aqueous food with pH below 4.5; ethanol at 5% for any food that may contain alcohol; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and artificial saliva were used in regard to the possibility of using it as an simulation medium. For each packaging three independent variables (temperature and contact time) factorial design simulant was performed. Xenobiotics migration from epoxy resins was studied at three different temperatures (25°C, 65°C, and 121°C) and extraction time of 12h, 48h and 2 weeks. Such experimental design leads to 9 experiments for each food simulant as conditions for each experiment are obtained by combination of temperature and contact time levels. Each experiment was run in triplicate for acute toxicity and in duplicate for estrogen disruption potential determination. Multi-factor analysis of variation (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of the three main factors solvent, temperature (temperature regime for cup), contact time and their interactions on the respected dependent variable (acute toxicity or estrogen disruption potential). From all stimulants studied the most toxic were can and tetrapak lining acetic acid extracts that are indication for significant migration of toxic compounds. This migration increased with increase of contact time and temperature and justified the hypothesis that food products with low pH values cause significant damage internal resin filling. Can lining extracts of all simulation medias excluding distilled water and artificial saliva proved to contain androgen agonists even at 25°C and extraction time of 12h. For tetrapak extracts significant endocrine potential for acetic acid, DMSO and saliva were detected.
23
16616
Comparisonal Study of Succinylation and Glutarylation of Jute Fiber: Study of Mechanical Properties of Modified Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Due to several environmental concerns, natural fibers have greatly replaced the synthetic fibers as a reinforcing material in polymer matrix composites. Among the natural fibers, jute fibers are the most abundant plant fibers which are manufactured mainly in countries like India. In recent years, modification of plant fibers with range of chemicals to increase various mechanical and thermal properties has been focused greatly. Among that, some of the plant fibers were modified using succinic anhydride. In the present study, Jute fibers have been modified chemically by treatment with succinic anhydride and glutaric anhydride at different concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The fiber modification was done under retting condition at various retention times of 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. The modification of fiber structure in both the cases is confirmed with Infrared Spectroscopy. The degree of modification increases with increase in retention time, but higher retention time has damaged the fiber structure which is common in both the cases. Comparatively, treatment of fibers with glutaric anhydride has shown efficient output than that of succinic anhydride. The unmodified fibers, succinylated fibers and glutarylated fibers at different retention times are reinforced with epoxy matrix at various volume fractions of fiber under room temperature. The composite made using unmodified fiber is used as a standard material. The tensile strength and flexural strength of the composites are analyzed in detail. Among these, the composite made with glutarylated fiber has shown good mechanical properties when compared to those made of succinylated and unmodified fiber.
22
80905
Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru
Abstract:
Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.
21
77304
Wastewater Treatment in the Abrasives Industry via Fenton and Photo-Fenton Oxidation Processes: A Case Study from Peru
Abstract:
Phenols are toxic for life and the environment and may come from many sources. Uncured phenolic monomers present in phenolic resins used as binders in grinding wheels and emery paper can contaminate industrial wastewaters in abrasives manufacture plants. Furthermore, vestiges of resol and novolacs resins generated by wear and tear of abrasives are also possible sources of water contamination by phenolics in these facilities. Fortunately, advanced oxidation by dark Fenton and photo-Fenton techniques are capable of oxidizing phenols and their degradation products up to their mineralization into H₂O and CO₂. The maximal allowable concentrations for phenols in Peruvian waterbodies is very low, such that insufficiently treated effluents from the abrasives industry are a potential environmental noncompliance. The current case study highlights findings obtained during the lab-scale application of Fenton’s and photo-assisted Fenton’s chemistries to real industrial wastewater samples from an abrasives manufacture plant in Peru. The goal was to reduce the phenolic content and sample toxicity. For this purpose, two independent variables-reaction time and effect of ultraviolet radiation–were studied as for their impacts on the concentration of total phenols, total organic carbon (TOC), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, diluted samples (1 L) of the industrial effluent were treated with Fenton’s reagent (H₂O₂ and Fe²⁺ from FeSO₄.H₂O) during 10 min in a photochemical batch reactor (Alphatec RFS-500, Brazil) at pH 2.92. In the case of photo-Fenton tests with ultraviolet lamps of 9 W, UV-A, UV-B and UV-C lamps were evaluated. All process conditions achieved 100% of phenols degraded within 5 minutes. TOC, BOD and COD decreased by 49%, 52% and 86% respectively (all processes together). However, Fenton treatment was not capable of reducing BOD, COD and TOC below a certain value even after 10 minutes, contrarily to photo-Fenton. It was also possible to conclude that the processes here studied degrade other compounds in addition to phenols, what is an advantage. In all cases, elevated effluent dilution factors and high amounts of oxidant agent impact negatively the overall economy of the processes here investigated.
20
50992
Condition Assessment and Diagnosis for Aging Drinking Water Pipeline According to Scientific and Reasonable Methods
Abstract:
In public water facilities, drinking water distribution systems have played an important role along with water purification systems. The water distribution network is one of the most expensive components of water supply infrastructure systems. To improve the reliability for the drinking rate of tap water, advanced water treatment processes such as granular activated carbon and membrane filtration were used by water service providers in Korea. But, distrust of the people for tap water are still. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and condition assessment for water pipelines are required to supply the clean water. The internal corrosion of water pipe has increased as time passed. Also, the cross-sectional areas in pipe are reduced by the rust, deposits and tubercles. It is the water supply ability decreases as the increase of hydraulic pump capacity is required to supply an amount of water, such as the initial condition. If not, the poor area of water supply will be occurred by the decrease of water pressure. In order to solve these problems, water managers and engineers should be always checked for the current status of the water pipe, such as water leakage and damage of pipe. If problems occur, it should be able to respond rapidly and make an accurate estimate. In Korea, replacement and rehabilitation of aging drinking water pipes are carried out based on the circumstances of simply buried years. So, water distribution system management may not consider the entire water pipeline network. The long-term design and upgrading of a water distribution network should address economic, social, environmental, health, hydraulic, and other technical issues. This is a multi-objective problem with a high level of complexity. In this study, the thickness of the old water pipes, corrosion levels of the inner and outer surface for water pipes, basic data research (i.e. pipe types, buried years, accident record, embedded environment, etc.), specific resistance of soil, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of metal pipes, samples characteristics, and chemical composition analysis were performed about aging drinking water pipes. Samples of water pipes used in this study were cement mortar lining ductile cast iron pipe (CML-DCIP, diameter 100mm) and epoxy lining steel pipe (diameter 65 and 50mm). Buried years of CML-DCIP and epoxy lining steel pipe were respectively 32 and 23 years. The area of embedded environment was marine reclamation zone since 1940’s. The result of this study was that CML-DCIP needed replacement and epoxy lining steel pipe was still useful.
19
25873
Luminescent Functionalized Graphene Oxide Based Sensitive Detection of Deadly Explosive TNP
Abstract:
In the 21st century, sensitive and selective detection of trace amounts of explosives has become a serious problem. Generally, nitro compound and its derivatives are being used worldwide to prepare different explosives. Recently, TNP (2, 4, 6 trinitrophenol) is the most commonly used constituent to prepare powerful explosives all over the world. It is even powerful than TNT or RDX. As explosives are electron deficient in nature, it is very difficult to detect one separately from a mixture. Again, due to its tremendous water solubility, detection of TNP in presence of other explosives from water is very challenging. Simple instrumentation, cost-effective, fast and high sensitivity make fluorescence based optical sensing a grand success compared to other techniques. Graphene oxide (GO), with large no of epoxy grps, incorporate localized nonradiative electron-hole centres on its surface to give very weak fluorescence. In this work, GO is functionalized with 2, 6-diamino pyridine to remove those epoxy grps. through SN2 reaction. This makes GO into a bright blue luminescent fluorophore (DAP/rGO) which shows an intense PL spectrum at ∼384 nm when excited at 309 nm wavelength. We have also characterized the material by FTIR, XPS, UV, XRD and Raman measurements. Using this as fluorophore, a large fluorescence quenching (96%) is observed after addition of only 200 µL of 1 mM TNP in water solution. Other nitro explosives give very moderate PL quenching compared to TNP. Such high selectivity is related to the operation of FRET mechanism from fluorophore to TNP during this PL quenching experiment. TCSPC measurement also reveals that the lifetime of DAP/rGO drastically decreases from 3.7 to 1.9 ns after addition of TNP. Our material is also quite sensitive to 125 ppb level of TNP. Finally, we believe that this graphene based luminescent material will emerge a new class of sensing materials to detect trace amounts of explosives from aqueous solution.
18
39312
Fundamental Research on Factors Affecting the Under-Film Corrosion Behavior of Coated Steel Members
Abstract:
Firstly, in order to examine the influence of the remaining amount of the rust on the coating film durability, the accelerated deterioration tests were carried out. In order to prepare test specimens, uncoated steel plates were corroded by the Salt Spray Test (SST) prior to the accelerated deterioration tests, and then the prepared test specimens were coated by epoxy resin and phthalic acid resin each of which has different gas-barrier performance. As the result, it was confirmed that the under-film corrosion occurred in the area and the adjacency to great quantities of salt exists in the rust, and did not occurred in the specimen which was applied the epoxy resin paint after the surface preparation by the power tool. Secondly, in order to clarify the influence of the corrosive factors on the coating film durability, outdoor exposure tests were conducted for one year on actual steel bridge located at a coastal area. The tests specimens consist of coated corroded plates and the uncoated steel plates, and they were installed on the different structural members of the bridge for one year. From the test results, the uncoated steel plates which were installed on the underside of the member are easily corrosive and had highly correlation with the amount of salt in the rust. On the other hand, the most corrosive under-film steel was the vertical surface of the web plate. Thus, it was confirmed that under-film corrosion rate was not match with corrosion rate of the uncoated steel. Consequently, it is estimated that the main factors of under-film corrosion are gas-barrier property of coating film and corrosive factors such as water vapor and temperature. The salt which significantly corrodes the uncoated steel plate is not directly related to the under-film corrosion.
17
73257
Minimizing the Drilling-Induced Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites
Abstract:
Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites are finding wide-spread industrial applications because of their exceptionally high specific strength and specific modulus of elasticity. Nevertheless, it is very seldom to get ready-for-use components or products made of FRP composites. Secondary processing by machining, particularly drilling, is almost always required to make holes for fastening components together to produce assemblies. That creates problems since the FRP composites are neither homogeneous nor isotropic. Some of the problems that are encountered include the subsequent damage in the region around the drilled hole and the drilling &ndash; induced delamination of the layer of ply, that occurs both at the entrance and the exit planes of the work piece. Evidently, the functionality of the work piece would be detrimentally affected. The current work was carried out with the aim of eliminating or at least minimizing the work piece damage associated with drilling of FPR composites. Each test specimen involves a woven reinforced graphite fiber/epoxy composite having a thickness of 12.5 mm (0.5 inch). A large number of test specimens were subjected to drilling operations with different combinations of feed rates and cutting speeds. The drilling induced damage was taken as the absolute value of the difference between the drilled hole diameter and the nominal one taken as a percentage of the nominal diameter. The later was determined for each combination of feed rate and cutting speed, and a matrix comprising those values was established, where the columns indicate varying feed rate while and rows indicate varying cutting speeds. Next, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach was employed using Minitab software, in order to obtain the combination that would improve the drilling induced damage. Experimental results show that low feed rates coupled with low cutting speeds yielded the best results.
16
50194
Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water
Abstract:
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 &micro;A&middot;&micro;M-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.
15
14368
Modeling of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Concrete for Filling Trenches in Radioactive Waste Management
Abstract:
The leaching rate of 60Co from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source, an equation for diffusion coupled to a first order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.
14
58645
Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior
Abstract:
Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.
13
17676
Cost Effective Microfabrication Technique for Lab on Chip (LOC) Devices Using Epoxy Polymers
Abstract:
Microfluidics devices are fabricated by using multiple fabrication methods. Photolithography is one of the common methods wherein SU8 is widely used for making master which in turn is used for making working chip by the process of soft lithography. The high-aspect ratio features of SU-8 makes it suitable to be used as micro moulds for injection moulding, hot embossing, and moulds to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures for bioMEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) applications. But due to high cost, difficulty in procuring and need for clean room, restricts the use of this polymer especially in developing countries and small research labs. ‘Bisphenol –A’ based polymers in mixture with curing agent are used in various industries like Paints and coatings, Adhesives, Electrical systems and electronics, Industrial tooling and composites. We present the novel use of ‘Bisphenol – A’ based polymer in fabricating micro channels for Lab On Chip(LOC) devices. The present paper describes the prototype for production of microfluidics chips using range of ‘Bisphenol-A’ based polymers viz. GY 250, ATUL B11, DER 331, DER 330 in mixture with cationic photo initiators. All the steps of chip production were carried out using an inexpensive approach that uses low cost chemicals and equipment. This even excludes the need of clean room. The produced chips using all above mentioned polymers were validated with respect to height and the chip giving least height was selected for further experimentation. The lowest height achieved was 7 micrometers by GY250. The cost of the master fabricated was $ 0.20 and working chip was $. 0.22. The best working chip was used for morphological identification and profiling of microorganisms from environmental samples like soil, marine water and salt water pan sites. The current chip can be adapted for various microbiological screening experiments like biochemical based microbial identification, studying uncultivable microorganisms at single cell/community level.
12
37842
Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of E-Glass/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels
Abstract:
Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silane coupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, a considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. Also, 3-GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.
11
39593
Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels
Abstract:
Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components, which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silane-coupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3-GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.
10
9167
Preservation of Historical Zelkova carpinifolia Wooden Structure in Humid Weather
Abstract:
This study aims to identify suitable conservative product for the conservation and restoration of historical Zelkova Carpinifolia wood located in humid weather. The superficial properties and hardness of 14 compounds treated with several consolidants were compared. The consolidants have been applied alone, with synthetic resin or with protein glues and natural resins by the brushing method. Colorimetric measurements, observation methods and hardness tests were conducted before and after aging to verify the possible changes of the treated wood and the consolidating resistance. The compound 1:2 of Butvar B98 and sandarac in 5% ethanol was found to be more effective, providing a suitable compound compared to the other consolidants tested.
9
13309
Behavior of Polymeric Mortars: An Analysis from the Point of View of Application in Severe Conditions
Abstract:
This present work was aimed to develop polymeric mortars having as binder two polyester resins namely isophtalic and orthophtalic polyester. The inorganic phase was composed by medium-size river sand and fly ash fíller, a by-product of the burning of coal in power plants. The compositions in this study are high performance mortars and were assessed by mechanical properties, through compressive strength and flexural strength, by durability strength when exposed to the cyclical variation of temperature from -400C to +300C and by the chemical aggression test. The composites displayed good performance when exposed to cyclical temperature variations and chemical solutions. The mechanical strength values reached the 100 MPa, the flexural strength yielded values of about twenty percent of mechanical strength.
8
36988
Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications
Abstract:
As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.
7
112768
Studies on Separation of Scandium from Sulfate Environment Using Ion Exchange Technique
Abstract:
The ion exchange method was used to assess the absorption of sulfate media from laboratory-grade materials. The Taguchi method was employed for determining the optimum conditions for scandium adsorption. Results show that optimum conditions for scandium adsorption from sulfate were obtained by Purolite C100 cationic resin in 0.1 g/l sulfuric acid and scandium concentration of 2 g/l at 25 °C. Studies also showed that lowering H₂SO₄ concentration and aqueous phase temperature leads to an increase in Sc adsorption. Visual Minteq software was used to ascertain the various possible cation types and the effect of concentration of scandium ion species on scandium adsorption by cationic resins. The simulation results of the above software show that scandium ion species are often cationic species that are consistent with experimental data.
6
23767
Finite Element Analysis of Debonding Propagation in FM73 Joint under Static Loading
Abstract:
In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive joining aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore, 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.
5
23770
Prediction of Crack Propagation in Bonded Joints Using Fracture Mechanics
Abstract:
In this work, Fracture Mechanics is used to predict crack propagation in the adhesive jointing aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate. Therefore 2*3=6 cases are considered and their results are compared. The debonding initiation load, complete debonding load, crack face profile and load-displacement diagram have been compared for the six cases.
4
66108
Polypropylene/Red Mud Polymer Composites: Effects of Powder Size on Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Abstract:
Polymer/clay composites have received great attention in the past three decades owing to their light weight coupled with significantly better mechanical and barrier properties than the corresponding neat polymer resins. An investigation was carried out on the effects of red mud powder size and ratio on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene /red mud polymer composites. Red mud, in four different concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 wt %) and three different powder size (180, 63 and 38 micron) were added to PP to produce composites. The mechanical properties, including the elasticity modulus, tensile & yield strength, % elongation, hardness, Izod impact strength and the thermal properties including the melt flow index, heat deflection temperature and vicat softening point of the composites were investigated. The structures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and compared to mechanical and thermal properties as a function of red mud powder content and size.
3
36954
Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature
Abstract:
Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.
2
85671
Stress Concentration and Strength Prediction of Carbon/Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Unidirectional composites are very popular structural materials used in aerospace, marine, energy and automotive industries thanks to their superior material properties. However, the mechanical behavior of composite materials is more complicated than isotropic materials because of their anisotropic nature. Also, a stress concentration availability on the structure, like a hole, makes the problem further complicated. Therefore, enormous number of tests require to understand the mechanical behavior and strength of composites which contain stress concentration. Accurate finite element analysis and analytical models enable to understand mechanical behavior and predict the strength of composites without enormous number of tests which cost serious time and money. In this study, unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy composite specimens with central circular hole were investigated in terms of stress concentration factor and strength prediction. The composite specimens which had different specimen wide (W) to hole diameter (D) ratio were tested to investigate the effect of hole size on the stress concentration and strength. Also, specimens which had same specimen wide to hole diameter ratio, but varied sizes were tested to investigate the size effect. Finite element analysis was performed to determine stress concentration factor for all specimen configurations. For quasi-isotropic laminate, it was found that the stress concentration factor increased approximately %15 with decreasing of W/D ratio from 6 to 3. Point stress criteria (PSC), inherent flaw method and progressive failure analysis were compared in terms of predicting the strength of specimens. All methods could predict the strength of specimens with maximum %8 error. PSC was better than other methods for high values of W/D ratio, however, inherent flaw method was successful for low values of W/D. Also, it is seen that increasing by 4 times of the W/D ratio rises the failure strength of composite specimen as %62.4. For constant W/D ratio specimens, all the strength prediction methods were more successful for smaller size specimens than larger ones. Increasing the specimen width and hole diameter together by 2 times reduces the specimen failure strength as %13.2.
1
34311
Study of Biofuel Produced by Babassu Oil Fatty Acids Esterification
Abstract:
In this work aviation, biofuel production was studied by fatty acids (C6 to C16) esterification. The process variables in heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated using an experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the studied parameters, and the methyl esters content was the response of the experimental design. An ion exchange resin was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and polynomial model of second order. Results show that the most influential variables on the linear coefficient of each effect studied were temperature and reaction time. The best result of methyl esters conversion in the experimental design was under the conditions: 10% wt of catalyst; 100 °C and 4 hours of reaction. The best-achieved conversion was 96.5% wt of biofuel.