Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66741

200
18425
The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.
199
78387
Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector
Abstract:
Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders’ spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.
198
77263
Choosing Local Organic Food: Consumer Motivations and Ethical Spaces
Abstract:
In recent years, the organic sector has increased significantly. However, with the ‘conventionalization’ of these products, it has been questioned whether these products have been losing their original vision. Accordingly, this research based on 31 phenomenological interviews with committed organic consumers in urban and rural areas of Portugal, aims to analyse how ethical motivations and ecological awareness are related to organic food consumption. The content thematic analysis highlights aspects related to society and environmental concerns. On an individual level, the importance of internal coherence, peace of mind and balance that these consumers find in the consumption of local organic products was stressed. For these consumers, local organic products consumption made for significant changes in their lives, aiding in the establishment of a green identity, and involves a certain philosophy of life. This vision of an organic lifestyle is grounded in a political and ecological perspective, beyond the usual organic definition, as a ‘post-organic era’. The paper contributes to better understand how an ideological environmental discourse allows highlighting the relationship between consumers’ environmental concerns and the politics of food, resulting in a possible transition to new sustainable consumption practices.
197
56151
‘Ethical Relativism’ in Offshore Business: A Critical Assessment
Abstract:
Ethical relativism, as an ethical perspective, holds that moral worth of a course of action is dependent on a particular space and time. Moral rightness or wrongness of a course of action varies from space to space and from time to time. In short, ethical relativism holds that morality is relative to the context. If we reflect conscientiously on the scope of this perspective, we will find that it is wide-spread amongst the marketers involved in the offshore business. However, the irony is that most of the marketers gone along with ethical relativism in their offshore business have been found to be unsuccessful in terms of loss in market-share and bankruptcy. The upshot is purely self-defeating in nature for the marketers. GSK in China and Nestle Maggi in India are some of the burning examples of that sort. The paper argues and recommends that a marketer, as an alternative, should have recourse to Kantian ethical perspective to deliberate courses of action sensitive to offshore business as Kantian ethical perspective is logically and methodologically sound in nature.
196
133119
The Beauty and the Cruel: The Price of Ethics
Abstract:
Understood as the preference for products and services that do not involve moral dilemmas, ethical consumption has been increasingly discussed by scholars, practitioners, and consumers. Among its diverse trends, the defense of animal rights and welfare seems to have gained particular momentum in past decades. Not surprisingly, companies, governments, ideologues, and virtually any institution or group interested in (re)shaping society invest in the building of narratives oriented to influence consumption behavior. The animal rights movement, for example, is devoted to the elimination of the use of animals in science, as well as of commercial animal agriculture and hunting activities. Although advances in ethical consumption may be observed in practice, it still seems more popular as rhetoric. Diverse scholars have addressed the disparities between self-professed ethical consumers and their actual purchase patterns, with differences being attributed to factors such as price sensitivity, lack of information, quality, cynicism, and limited availability. The gap is also linked to the 'consumer sovereignty myth', according to which consumers are only able to choose from a pre-determined range of choices made before products reach them. On the other hand, academics also debate ethical consumption behavior as more likely to occur when it assumes compliance with social norms. As sustainability becomes a permanent issue, customers may tend to adhere to ethical consumption, either because of an individual value or due to a social one. Regardless of these efforts, the actual value attributed to ethical businesses remains unclear. Likewise, the power of stakeholders’ initiatives to influence corporate strategies is dubious. In search to offer new perspectives on these matters, the present study concentrates on the following research questions: Do customers value products/companies that respect animal rights? If so, does such enhanced value convert into actions from the part of the companies? Broadly, we aim to understand if customers’ perception holds performative traits (i.e., are capable of either trigger or contribute to changes in organizational behaviour around the respect for animal rights). In addressing these issues, two preliminary behavioral vignette-based experiments were conducted, with the perspectives of 307 participants being assessed. Building on a case of the cosmetics industry, social, emotional, and functional values were hypothesized as directly impacting positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, would carry direct effects on purchase intention. A first structural equation model was analyzed with the combined samples of studies I and II. Results suggest that emotional value strongly impacts both positive word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Data confirms initial expectations on customers valuing products and companies that comply with ethical postures concerning animals, especially if social-oriented practices are also present.
195
100494
Ethical Leadership: A Theological and Ethical Alternative to the Culture of Greed in South African Government
Abstract:
Introductory Statement: The effect of corruption in South Africa has seriously constrained development of the national economy and has significantly inhibited good governance in the country. The significance of this paper is a demonstration that Corruption in a South African government is greatly influenced by the culture of greed by leaders in government. Many leaders in government are not satisfied with what they receive on monthly basis in the form of salaries and allowances. Thus, the quest to accumulate, as many material possessions by cabinet ministers and public servants is what is crippling the annual budget and disadvantaging the poor masses of our people including women, children and the elderly. Basic Methodology: In order to deal with this dilemma, this paper proposes ethical leadership as a theological and ethical alternative and antidote to the culture of greed in government. Research Findings: Ethical leadership is proposed because unlike the culture of greed, it is a leadership that is based on respect for ethical principles and standards and for the dignity and privileges of others. Ethical leadership is synonymous with principles like trust, morality, consideration, equality, and justice. Conclusion: The conclusion is that ethical leadership is one of the solutions that can assist the South African government to deal with the root causes of corruption, that is, the culture of greed.
194
4362
The Developmental of Ethical Behavior of Nursing Students in Borommarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand
Abstract:
The purposes of this study were to compare the ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand before and after providing the activity session of ethical behavior development. The samples consisted of 103 sophomores in the academic year 2006. The tools were tested for reliability and content validity. The reliability of the Ethical Behavior Questionnaire measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, and dependent t-test. The findings were as follows: a) after the activity session, the mean scores of ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students increased from middle level to high level; b) mean scores of responsibilities and polite manners after the activity session were significantly higher than those before the session (t =28.36, p < .001; t =23.9, p < .001, respectively).
193
15197
Teaching Ethical Behaviour: Conversational Analysis in Perspective
Abstract:
In the past researchers have questioned the effectiveness of ethics training in higher education. Also, there are observations that support the view that ethical behaviour (range of actions)/ethical decision making models used in the past make use of vignettes to explain ethical behaviour. The understanding remains in the perspective that these vignettes play a limited role in determining individual intentions and not actions. Some authors have also agreed that there are possibilities of differences in one’s intentions and actions. This paper makes an attempt to fill those gaps by evaluating real actions rather than intentions. In a way this study suggests the use of an experiential methodology to explore Berlo’s model of communication as an action along with orchestration of various principles. To this endeavor, an attempt was made to use conversational analysis in the pursuance of evaluating ethical decision making behaviour among students and middle level managers. The process was repeated six times with the set of an average of 15 participants. Similarities have been observed in the behaviour of students and middle level managers that calls for understanding that both the groups of individuals have no cognizance of their actual actions. The deliberations derived out of conversation were taken a step forward for meta-ethical evaluations to portray a clear picture of ethical behaviour among participants. This study provides insights for understanding demonstrated unconscious human behaviour which may fortuitously be termed both ethical and unethical.
192
121986
Ethical Leadership Mediates Subordinates’ Likeness for Leader and Affective Commitment to Squads among Police Cadets
Abstract:
There is a blur as to whether subordinates’ sheer fondness for a leader or the ethical behaviours demonstrated by such a leader is what engenders subordinates’ affective commitment to the group. This study aimed to depict and clarify that perceived ethical leadership by subordinates outweighs their likeness for a leader in determining their level of affective commitment to the group using a sample of police cadets. Subordinate cadets were asked to rate the ethical leadership behaviours displayed by their cadet Leaders; their likeness for their leaders and also rate their own affective commitment to their squads (N = 252, Mean Age = 22.70, Age range = 17 to 29 years, SD = 2.264, 75% males). A mediation analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Results showed that there was a significant indirect effect between likeness for leaders and affective commitment through ethical leadership behaviour (b = .734, 95% BCa CI [.413, 1.146], p = .000); and a nonsignificant direct effect between likeness for leader and subordinates’ affective commitment (b = .526, 95% BCa CI [-.106, 1.157], p = .10), this indicated a full mediation. The results strongly suggested that the positive relationship between subordinates’ likeness for their leaders and their affective commitment to the squad is produced by perceived leaders’ ethical behaviours. Therefore, leaders should exhibit and prioritize ethical behaviours over the need to be liked by their subordinates to guarantee their affective commitment to group goals and aspirations.
191
93634
Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development
Abstract:
Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which places us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the peculiarities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.
190
81381
Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development
Abstract:
Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which place us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the particularities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.
189
86913
Ethical Leadership and Individual Creativity: The Mediating Role of Psychological Safety
Abstract:
This study examines the relationship between ethical leadership and individual creativity and focused on mediating effects of psychological safety. In order to clarify the mechanism of ethical leadership, psychological safety of the members was set as a mediator. Using data gathered from a sample of 150 employees. For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analysis and Sobel-Test were performed. The results showed that ethical leadership had a positive effect on psychological safety and individual creativity, and psychological safety had a positive mediating effect. Since the mediating effect of psychological safety has been confirmed, we need to find ways to improve the psychological safety of the members in terms of organizational management. Psychological safety has a positive effect on individual creativity, which can have a positive impact on innovation throughout the organization.
188
11221
Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations
Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.
187
97181
A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Ethical Standards in Social and Behavioral Research
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper is to analyze research ethics in social and behavioral sciences from a cross-cultural perspective. A multi-phase study investigated implementations of ethical standards and guidelines in higher institutions in China. Institutional policies and procedures on human subject research and perceptions of human subject protection were assessed in the Chinese research universities from different regions. The findings of the study indicate that the implementations of ethical standards and guidelines vary from institution to institution and from region to region. Education and cultural backgrounds of the participants influence their perceptions of the welfare and privacy of human subjects. The results of the study reveal great differences and complexities in ethical standards for the protection of human subjects of research in contrast to the Western world. The Chinese collectivistic values and the cooperative-harmonious democracy play a significant role in perceiving and implementing ethical guidelines. Chinese researchers find themselves a long way to go before seeing implementations of regulations and guidelines on human subject research in social and behavioral sciences.
186
112860
The Contribution of Buddhist-Based Mindfulness Practices on Ethical Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Leaders in Thailand
Abstract:
Recent public ethical scandals in many organizations around the world have raised concern about organizational ethics, which have, in turn, made ethical behaviors and conducts on the part of leaders become more critical topics in organizational studies. However, current research on the benefits of mindfulness within the workplace contexts has predominantly focused on stress reduction and work performance enhancement, while the aspects of ethical behavior development have been far less investigated in mindfulness research in the organizational and management fields. Only recently has there been an emerging call for organizational researchers and practitioners to study mindfulness concepts and practices from the original Buddhist perspectives given that ethics is regarded as a foundation for Buddhist mindfulness. Yet little, if any, empirical research on the contributions of mindfulness practices to ethical leadership has been done in Eastern Buddhist contexts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the extent to which and how Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can influence organizational leaders’ ethical values and practices. On this basis, Thailand was selected as a context of study due to a predominantly Buddhist society and culture. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty executive leaders from various private organizations in Thailand, who practice Buddhist-based mindfulness meditation regularly. The findings from this study shed light on the role Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can play in promoting ethical behavior among executive leaders in Thailand. The results also suggest that ethical values and practices influenced by Buddhist-based mindfulness practices are well aligned with the elements appeared in the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural ethical leadership framework, namely: humane, justice, sustainability and responsibility, and moderation. This study concludes that the integration of ethical dimensions to mindfulness practices may provide promising opportunities for ethical leadership development, particularly in the context of Thailand. This could contribute significantly to the future development of both organizations and society at large. The study also suggests that mindfulness interventions in organizational contexts should place more explicit emphasis on ethics. This may be done by relating the ethical principles underlying Buddhist-based mindfulness to other ethical systems in different contexts and cultures where they can be aligned.
185
36110
Counseling Ethics in Turkish Counseling Programs
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate qualifications of ethics training in counselor education programs in Turkey. The survey data were collected from 251 Turkish counseling students to examine differences in ethical judgments between freshmen and seniors. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data from an ethical practice and belief survey. This survey was used to assess counselor candidates’ ethical judgments regarding Turkish counseling ethical codes and sources of ethics information. Statistically significant differences were found between university seniors and freshmen on items that are related to confidentiality, dual relationships, and professional relationships. Furthermore, patterns based on demographic information showed significant differences as a result of gender, economic status, and parents’ educational level. Participants gave the highest rating of information sources to Turkish counseling ethical codes.
184
118351
Urban Ethical Fashion Networks of Design, Production and Retail in Taiwan
Abstract:
The circular economy has become one of the seven fundamental pillars of Taiwan’s economic development, as this is promulgated by the government. The model of the circular economy, with its fundamental premise of waste elimination, can transform the textile and clothing sectors from major pollutant industries to a much cleaner alternative for a better quality of all citizens’ lives. In a related vein, the notion of the creative economy and more specifically the fashion industry can prompt similar results in terms of jobs and wealth creation. The combining forces of the circular and creative economies and their beneficial output have resulted in the configuration of ethical urban networks which potentially may lead to sources of competitive advantage. All actors involved in the configuration of this urban ethical fashion network from public authorities to private enterprise can bring about positive changes in the urban setting. Preliminary results through action research show that this configuration is an attainable task in terms of circularity by reducing fabric waste produced from local textile mills and through innovative methods of design, production and retail around urban spaces where the network has managed to generate a stream of jobs and financial revenues for all participants. The municipal authorities as the facilitating platform have been of paramount importance in this public-private partnership. In the explorative pilot study conducted about a network of production, consumption in terms of circularity of fashion products, we have experienced a positive disposition. As the network will be fully functional by attracting more participant firms from the textile and clothing sectors, it can be beneficial to Taiwan’s soft power in the region and simultaneously elevate citizens’ awareness on circular methods of fashion production, consumption and disposal which can also lead to the betterment of urban lifestyle and may open export horizons for the firms.
183
52823
Employee Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Organizational Performance: Evidence from the UAE
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine the role played by ethical climate and CSR on organizational performance in public sector organizations. In particular, the research will shed light on the link between formalized ethical procedures and employee responses including corporate social responsibility, and organizational performance among public sector employees. Data was collected from 425 employees working in public sector organizations in Abu Dhabi, the capital of United Arab Emirates. Structural Equation Modeling will be used to test the proposed hypotheses. The paper contributes to the literature by being one of the first to study CSR and ethical climate within a Middle Eastern context, and will offer important implications for theory and practice.
182
69828
Effect of Fast Fashion on Urban Indian Consumer
Abstract:
Purpose: Fast Fashion trend promotes consumption of low cost high fashion garments at a rapid rate. Frequent change in fashion trend results in higher disposability of Fast Fashion products. To cater for the Fast Fashion appetite of the present day consumer, fashion giants have ramped up production of garments, thus imposing a massive strain on the planet’s natural resources. Also, ethical issues related to cheaper methods of production are of concern. India being a large consumer base has a major role to play in proliferation of the Fast Fashion trend. This paper is an attempt to study the effect of fast fashion trends on the Indian consumer’s behaviour. It also attempts to ascertain the awareness of the consumer about the detrimental effect that the fast fashion trends manifest on the environment. Design /methodology/approach: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire targeted at a set of urban Indian consumers of varied age, profession and socio economic backgrounds. Trends regarding frequency of purchase, expenditure on clothing, disposal methods and awareness about environmental issues were analyzed using the obtained data. Findings: The result of the study indicates that urban Indian consumer has a strong affinity towards fast fashion trends, but is largely unaware of its detrimental effect on the environment and strain on natural resources. Research Limitation/implications: The sample size for survey was only of a hundred consumers, and the same could be expanded for a better estimate of trends. Also, the sample consumers were mostly urban. A big chunk of Indian fashion consumers reside in small towns and the same could be included in the survey. Practical implications: As the true cost of Fast Fashion in terms of environmental and ethical aspects is getting realized worldwide, a big market like India cannot remain isolated from this phenomenon. Globally there has been an increase in demand of ethically produced clothing. It is imperative that the Indian consumer be made aware about the unsustainable nature of Fast Fashion so that he can contribute towards conservation of natural resources and ethical production of garments. Originality/value The research attempts to ascertain consumption pattern of the Indian fashion consumer and also his awareness about the true cost and consequences of Fast Fashion. The inferences may be used by fashion giants to use ‘Green Marketing’ and ‘Social Marketing’ techniques to make the Indian consumer more aware about sustainable fashion and to market their own products as ‘Sustainable, Green and Ethical’.
181
92844
The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan
Abstract:
Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.
180
103560
Consumers’ Attitude towards Marketing Recreational Marijuana
Abstract:
Like tobacco and alcohol, recreational marijuana falls under the umbrella of ‘sin’ industries’. Notwithstanding this general negative image surrounding marijuana use, some scholars argue that most of the widely believed claims made about recreational marijuana users are irrelevant and that marijuana use can even improve individuals’ decision-making. This study intends to shed light on this particular product category (i.e., marijuana) often overlooked or portrayed as taboo from a business view. More specifically, it investigates whether legalizing the consumption of recreational marijuana would be perceived as ethical and whether companies/organizations involved in the commercialization of this particular product would be held socially responsible. Based on primary data collected in Canada, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1) What moral thoughts do individuals hold with regard to the consumption of recreational marijuana? 2) How do these moral thoughts determine consumers’ attitude toward the consumption of recreational marijuana? Regardless of the legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries such as Canada, probing people’s opinions, and investigating their attitudes toward the consumption of recreational marijuana is of important interest to different stakeholders such as consumers, public organizations, private businesses, and trade associations.
179
51009
Net Regularity and Its Ethical Implications on Internet Stake Holders
Abstract:
Net Neutrality (NN) is the principle of treating all online data the same without any prioritization of some over others. A research gap in current scholarship about "violations of NN" and the subsequent ethical concerns paves the way for the following research question: To what extent violations of NN entail ethical concerns and implications for Internet stakeholders? To answer this question, NR is examined using the two major action-based ethical theories, Kantian and Utilitarian, across the relevant Internet stakeholders. First some necessary IT background is provided that shapes how the Internet works and who the key stakeholders are. Following the IT background, the relationship between the stakeholders, users, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and content providers is discussed and illustrated. Then some violations of NN that are currently occurring is covered, without attracting any attention from the general public from an ethical perspective, as a new term Net Regularity (NR). Afterwards, the current scholarship on NN and its violations are discussed, that are mainly from an economic and sociopolitical perspectives to highlight the lack of ethical discussions on the issue. Before moving on to the ethical analysis however, websites are presented as digital entities that are affected by NR and their happiness is measured using functionalism. The analysis concludes that NR is prone to an unethical treatment of Internet stakeholders in the perspective of both theories. Finally, the current Digital Divide in the world is presented to be able to better illustrate the implications of NR. The implications present the new Internet divide that will take place between individuals within society. Through answering the research question using ethical analysis, it attempts to shed some light on the issue of NR and what kind of society it would lead to. NR would not just lead to a divided society, but divided individuals that are separated by something greater than distance, the Internet.
178
2489
Perceptions of Doctors and Nurses About Euthanasia in Indian Scenario
Abstract:
Euthanasia has been debated for the ethical, legal, social, and religious implications associated with it. The present research was conducted to study the perceptions of doctors and nurses about ethical and legal aspects of Euthanasia in Indian scenario. The study was carried out at three tertiary care hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Practicing doctors and nurses working in the hospitals associated with KMC were included in the study after taking written informed consent from the participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the responses of doctors and nurses. P-value of < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 144 doctors and nurses participated in the study. Both doctors and nurses agreed that if a terminally ill patient wishes to die, the wish cannot be honored ethically and legally. A significantly larger number of nurses agreed that patient’s wish for euthanasia cannot be honored ethically and legally when compared to the doctors. Though the doctors and nurses were broadly in agreement with the existing legal and ethical views on the issue, their knowledge on the issue with regard to the legal status of euthanasia in India and ethical aspects relating to it needs to be strengthened.
177
20286
Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession
Authors:
Abstract:
The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?
176
119230
Ethical Aspects of the Anti-Doping System Management in Poland and in Global Framework
Abstract:
This study is trying to analyse the organization of the anti-doping system globally (particularly in Poland). The analysis is going to show the concept of doping, indicating the types of doping, and list of banned substances and methods. The paper discusses ethical aspects of the global anti-doping system. The analysis is focusing on organization of global Anti-Doping Agency. The paper will try to describe the basic assumptions of regulations adopted by WADA, called &quot;standards" as well organization and functioning of the Polish Anti-Doping Agency (including the legal basis: POLADA). The base for this discuss will be the Polish 2018 annual report, which shows the most important assumptions, implementation and the number of anti-doping proceedings conducted in Poland. The aim of this paper is to show ethical arguments on anti-doping management strategies.
175
18717
Ethical Investment Instruments for Financial Sustainability
Abstract:
This paper aims to investigate whether ethical investment instruments could contribute to stability in financial markets. In order to address the main issue, the study investigates the stability of return in seven conventional and Islamic equity markets of Asia, Europe and North America and in five major commodity markets starting from 1996 to June 2012. In addition, the study examines the unconditional correlation between returns of the assets under review to investigate portfolio diversification benefits of investors. Applying relevant methods, the study finds that investors may enjoy sustainable returns from their portfolios by investing in ethical financial instruments such as Islamic equities. In addition, it should be noted that most of the commodities, gold in particular, are either low or negatively correlated with equity returns. These results suggest that investors would be better off by investing in portfolios combining Islamic equities and commodities in general. The sustainable returns of ethical investments has important implications for the investors and markets since these investments can provide stable returns while the investors can avoid production of goods and services which believes to be harmful for human and the society as a whole.
174
69596
Ethical Decision-Making by Healthcare Professionals during Disasters: Izmir Province Case
Authors:
Abstract:
Disasters could result in many deaths and injuries. In these difficult times, accessible resources are limited, demand and supply balance is distorted, and there is a need to make urgent interventions. Disproportionateness between accessible resources and intervention capacity makes triage a necessity in every stage of disaster response. Healthcare professionals, who are in charge of triage, have to evaluate swiftly and make ethical decisions about which patients need priority and urgent intervention given the limited available resources. For such critical times in disaster triage, 'doing the greatest good for the greatest number of casualties' is adopted as a code of practice. But there is no guide for healthcare professionals about ethical decision-making during disasters, and this study is expected to use as a source in the preparation of the guide. This study aimed to examine whether the qualities healthcare professionals in Izmir related to disaster triage were adequate and whether these qualities influence their capacity to make ethical decisions. The researcher used a survey developed for data collection. The survey included two parts. In part one, 14 questions solicited information about socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge levels of the respondents on ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources. Part two included four disaster scenarios adopted from existing literature and respondents were asked to make ethical decisions in triage based on the provided scenarios. The survey was completed by 215 healthcare professional working in Emergency-Medical Stations, National Medical Rescue Teams and Search-Rescue-Health Teams in Izmir. The data was analyzed with SPSS software. Chi-Square Test, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test and Linear Regression Analysis were utilized. According to results, it was determined that 51.2% of the participants had inadequate knowledge level of ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources. It was also found that participants did not tend to make ethical decisions on four disaster scenarios which included ethical dilemmas. They stayed in ethical dilemmas that perform cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, manage limited resources and make decisions to die. Results also showed that participants who had more experience in disaster triage teams, were more likely to make ethical decisions on disaster triage than those with little or no experience in disaster triage teams(p < 0.01). Moreover, as their knowledge level of ethical principles of disaster triage and allocation of scarce resources increased, their tendency to make ethical decisions also increased(p < 0.001). In conclusion, having inadequate knowledge level of ethical principles and being inexperienced affect their ethical decision-making during disasters. So results of this study suggest that more training on disaster triage should be provided on the areas of the pre-impact phase of disaster. In addition, ethical dimension of disaster triage should be included in the syllabi of the ethics classes in the vocational training for healthcare professionals. Drill, simulations, and board exercises can be used to improve ethical decision making abilities of healthcare professionals. Disaster scenarios where ethical dilemmas are faced should be prepared for such applied training programs.
173
49887
The Current Crisis of Refugees and Contemporary Ethics
Abstract:
The number of refugees currently is alarming, having overcome the numbers of World War II. The objective of this research will be to examine this refugee crisis the light of the main contemporary ethical theories, mainly by analyzing whether there is an ethical obligation to assist these refugees. Among the many existing theories like virtue ethics, Kantian ethics, utilitarian ethics, ethical egoism and psychological egoism, will be the ethical theories used to analyze the current refugee crisis. The ethics of virtue is the oldest of theories, an action can be considered correct if we are acting virtuously if we predisposition to act that virtuously, where the goal is always the eudaimonia, a good life, a happy life. The Kantian ethics of the works of the philosopher Immanuel Kant, where we apply the hypothetical and categorical imperatives to find universal truths, actions that we consider to be universally correct. Utilitarian ethics believes that action will be considered as correct to bring happiness to the greatest possible number of people, even if they somehow have to bring unhappiness to any number of people. Ethical egoism should be concerned first with our individual happiness, and then we can worry about the happiness of others, so long as it causes us some happiness. Thus, action is correct since it is causing us a greater degree of happiness than unhappiness. Finally, the psychological egoism does not seek to determine whether an action is right or not, but claims that all our actions, even if they seem altruistic, actually has another motivation, which will always be a selfish motivation, that is, concerned with the our well-being. From these initial concepts, the issue of refugees, especially the question of whether states and their citizens have or not any ethical obligation to help them and receive them in their territories will be analyzed .
172
55048
Alcohol and Soda Consumption of University Students in Manila
Abstract:
Majority of leading causes of mortality in the Philippines are NCDs, which are preventable through control of known risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol. Sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda and energy drinks also contribute to NCD risk and are of concern particularly for youth. This study provides baseline data on beverage consumption of university students in Manila with the focus on alcohol and soda. It further aims to identify factors affecting consumption. Specific objectives include: (1) to describe beverage consumption practices of university students in Manila; and (2) to determine factors promoting excessive consumption of alcohol and soda including demographic characteristics, attitude, interpersonal and environmental variables. Methods: The study employed correlational design with randomly selected students from two universities in Manila. Students 18 years or older who agreed to participate were included after obtaining ethical clearance. The study had two instruments: (1) World Health Organization’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used with permission, to determine excessive alcohol consumption; and (2) a questionnaire to obtain information regarding soda and energy drink consumption. Results: Out of 400 students surveyed, 70% were female and 78.75% were 18-20 years old (mean=19.79; SD=3.76). Among them, 51.50% consumed alcohol, with 30.10% excessive drinkers. Soda consumption is 91.50% with 37.70% excessive consumers. For energy drinks, 36.75% consume this and only 4.76% drink excessively. Using logistic regression, students who were more likely to be excessive alcohol drinkers belonged to non-health courses (OR=2.21) and purchased alcohol from bars (OR=7.84). Less likely to drink excessively are students who do not drink due to stress (OR=0.05) and drink when it is accessible (OR=0.02). Excessive soda consumption was less likely for female students (OR=0.28), those who drink when it is accessible (OR=0.14), do not drink soda during stressful situations (OR=0.19), and do not use soda as hangover treatment (OR=0.15). Conclusion: Excessive alcohol consumption was greater among students in Manila (30.10%) than in US (20%). Drinking alcohol with friends was not related to excessive consumption but availability in bars was. It is expected that health sciences students are less likely to engage in excessive alcohol as they are more aware of its ill effects. Prevalence of soda consumption in Manila (91.50%) is markedly higher compared to 24.5% in the US. These findings can inform schools in developing appropriate health education interventions and policies. For greater understanding of these behaviors and factors, further studies are recommended to explore knowledge and other factors that may promote excessive consumption.
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16063
To Include or Not to Include: Resolving Ethical Concerns over the 20% High Quality Cassava Flour Inclusion in Wheat Flour Policy in Nigeria
Abstract:
Cassava, an indigenous crop grown locally by subsistence farmers in Nigeria has potential to bring economic benefits to the country. Consumption of bread and other confectionaries has been on the rise due to lifestyle changes of Nigerian consumers. However, wheat, being the major ingredient for bread and confectionery production does not thrive well under Nigerian climate hence the huge spending on wheat importation. To reduce spending on wheat importation, the Federal Government of Nigeria intends passing into law mandatory inclusion of 20% high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) in wheat flour. While the proposed policy may reduce post harvest loss of cassava, and also increase food security and domestic agricultural productivity, there are downsides to the policy which include reduction in nutritional quality and low sensory appeal of cassava-wheat bread, reluctance of flour millers to use HQCF, technology and processing challenges among others. The policy thus presents an ethical dilemma which must be resolved for its successful implementation. While inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour in bread and confectionery is a topic that may have been well addressed, resolving the ethical dilemma resulting from the act has not received much attention. This paper attempts to resolve this dilemma using various approaches in food ethics (cost benefits, utilitarianism, deontological and deliberative). The Cost-benefit approach did not provide adequate resolution of the dilemma as all the costs and benefits of the policy could not be stated in the quantitative term. The utilitarianism approach suggests that the policy delivers greatest good to the greatest number while the deontological approach suggests that the act (inclusion of HQCF to wheat flour) is right hence the policy is not utterly wrong. The deliberative approach suggests a win-win situation through deliberation with the parties involved.
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77570
Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics
Abstract:
The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.
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129225
Being a Doctor and Being Ethical: An Existentialist's Approach to a Meaningful Doctor-Patient Relationship
Authors:
Abstract:
Even though the doctors are knowledgeable, there's a gap between knowing and being ethical. This is a barrier to establish an ethical doctor-patient relationship. Current health system has oriented in a way that gives a meaning to both the doctor and the patient through intermediate entities. For the doctor, the meaning of the doctor-patient relationship is given through the financial benefits, promotions, and social status. For the patient, the meaning is given through curing of the disease. It is obvious that both are independent entities between the doctor and the patient. As the philosophers like Husserl and Heidegger have pointed out, our subjective world will give the immediate meaningfulness to us. We should seek this immediate meaningfulness of the doctor-patient relationship. The present research has used the existential methodology as guided self-reflections on the lived experiences of a doctor and his students. In this approach, two important aspects have been understood. The first is, establishing the fact that being ethical is itself giving meaningfulness to the doctor’s being without any mediate entities. Simply, it is enjoying being an honest being. The second is by being-with-the-patient while treating the disease; both the doctor and the patient can enjoy the meaningfulness of their human relationship. The medical students and the doctors should focus on this meaningfulness. For that, this discussion should be actively incorporated into the medical curriculum with programs of practical guidance to medical students and should be discussed in patient-care reviews in the health setting within a satisfactory framework.
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86955
Agri-Food Transparency and Traceability: A Marketing Tool to Satisfy Consumer Awareness Needs
Abstract:
The link between man and food plays, in the social and economic system, a central role where cultural and multidisciplinary aspects intertwine: food is not only nutrition, but also communication, culture, politics, environment, science, ethics, fashion. This multi-dimensionality has many implications in the food economy. In recent years, the consumer became more conscious about his food choices, involving a consistent change in consumption models. This change concerns several aspects: awareness of food system issues, employment of socially and environmentally conscious decision-making, food choices based on different characteristics than nutritional ones i.e. origin of food, how it’s produced, and who’s producing it. In this frame the ‘consumption choices’ and the ‘interests of the citizen’ become one part of the others. The figure of the ‘Citizen Consumer’ is born, a responsible and ethically motivated individual to change his lifestyle, achieving the goal of sustainable consumption. Simultaneously the branding, that before was guarantee of the product quality, today is questioned. In order to meet these needs, Agri-Food companies are developing specific product lines that follow two main philosophies: ‘Back to basics’ and ‘Less is more’. However, the issue of ethical behavior does not seem to find an adequate on market offer. Most likely due to a lack of attention on the communication strategy used, very often based on market logic and rarely on ethical one. The label in its classic concept of ‘clean labeling’ can no longer be the only instrument through which to convey product information and its evolution towards a concept of ‘clear label’ is necessary to embrace ethical and transparent concepts in progress the process of democratization of the Food System. The implementation of a voluntary traceability path, relying on the technological models of the Internet of Things or Industry 4.0, would enable the Agri-Food Supply Chain to collect data that, if properly treated, could satisfy the information need of consumers. A change of approach is therefore proposed towards Agri-Food traceability that is no longer intended as a tool to be used to respond to the legislator, but rather as a promotional tool useful to tell the company in a transparent manner and then reach the slice of the market of food citizens. The use of mobile technology can also facilitate this information transfer. However, in order to guarantee maximum efficiency, an appropriate communication model based on the ethical communication principles should be used, which aims to overcome the pipeline communication model, to offer the listener a new way of telling the food product, based on real data collected through processes traceability. The Citizen Consumer is therefore placed at the center of the new model of communication in which he has the opportunity to choose what to know and how. The new label creates a virtual access point capable of telling the product according to different point of views, following the personal interests and offering the possibility to give several content modalities to support different situations and usability.
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122558
The Relationship between Organizational Political Behavior and Moral Values with Work Engagement in Sport Employees of National Iranian Gas Company
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between organizational political behavior and ethical values with the job enthusiasm of the sport personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company. The population of this research included all personnel of the National Iranian Gas Company's sports personnel (150 people). For collecting information, library resources and three questionnaires, organizational political behavior by Kaspar and Carlsen (1997), Lewall's moral values questionnaire (1986) and job enthusiasm questionnaire Schaufeli & Bekker (2003) have been used. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by university professors. Using Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient, the reliability of the organizational political behavior questionnaire was 0.92, the moral values questionnaire was 0.86 and the Schaufeli & Baker job enthusiasm questionnaire was 0.91-0.96. The results of this research show a significant, direct and positive relationship between the components of job aspiration with political behavior and ethical values. Therefore, managers of organizations should, as far as possible, remove political behaviors from the organization and be able to institutionalize ethical values in their organization so that they can increase employee eagerness.
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69359
Ethical Considerations for Conducting Research on Violence against Women with Disabilities: Discussing Issues of Reasonable Accommodation, Capacity and Equal Participation
Abstract:
Background: Women with disabilities are largely missing from global research on violence prevention, yet research shows that women with disabilities are a particularly marginalised group who experience heightened levels and unique forms of violence than men with disabilities, and women without disabilities. They face heightened stigma, discrimination, and violence due to their gender and their disability. Including women with disabilities in violence, research helps inform policy and prevention interventions that are relevant and inclusive. To ensure their inclusion in violence research, we need ethical guidelines that are sensitive to their heightened risk and vulnerability, that recognize the diversity in the disabled population, but that also promote disabled people’s agency in defining their own violence prevention needs and agendas. Objective: To highlight pertinent ethical issues around women with disabilities’ inclusion and participation in violence research. Methodology: Considering the lack of formalized guidelines for research of people with disabilities, we draw from the literature on international ethics guidelines for researching violence against women, and the Emancipatory Disability Research paradigm, as well as drawing from our own experiences from the field in applying the guidelines when doing research with disabled women. Findings: Following the guiding ethical principles of respect, benefit, justice, and do no harm, we argue that reasonable accommodation, capacity, and equal participation need to be considered in conceptualizing and conducting ethical violence research with women with disabilities. We conclude that disability research in the area of violence is highly politicized and must be carefully scrutinized to ensure justice and the contribution of women with disabilities to their own welfare. Implications: We suggest that these issues are practically applied in the field and tested and critiqued to enhance best practice for undertaking ethical research with this particular group. It is important that not only researchers and ethics committees, but also disabled women and disabled organizations, are involved in enhancing and formalizing ethical research guidelines for marginalized populations.
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32467
The Ethical Healthcare Paradigm with in Corporate Framework: CSR for Equitable Access to Drugs
Abstract:
The pharmaceutical industry today is a multi-billion dollar business and yet disadvantages people in many corners of the globe who are still dying in large numbers from curable illnesses for lack of access to drugs. The astronomical prices of essential and life-saving drugs is not just an economic problem that can be settled through clever market strategies but is an ethical issue, given the accumulated wealth of today’s humanity and the sense of global justice that it increasingly comes to share. In this paper, I make a very practical argument for what I shall call ‘the ethical healthcare paradigm’, which, I propose, can replace the economistic paradigm that can still drive the healthcare sector without creating spillover effects on the market. Taking off from the ethical-philosophical argument for recognizing every individual’s right to capability to be healthy, I shall come to the focused practical proposal of the cost-rationalization and universal availability of essential, life-saving drugs through the undertaking of research and development funding for drug innovation by the business establishment as such in terms of the concept of CSR. The paper will first expose the concepts of basic and fundamental capabilities in relation to education and health, after which it will focus on the right to capability to be healthy of every person. In the third section, it will discuss the ‘ethical healthcare paradigm’ as opposed to the economistic health paradigm and will argue that the patient will have to be considered the primary stakeholder of this paradigm or the very ‘subject’ of healthcare. The next section will be on an ethical-historical critique of the pharmaceutical industry’s profit driven economism. The section after that will look at the business operation and the stages in the life cycle of a drug that comes to the market in order to understand the risks, strengths and problems of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, the paper will discuss the concept of CSR in relation to the ethical healthcare paradigm in order to propose CSR funding in research and development for innovation on drugs so that life-saving drugs can be made available to every sick person cost-effectively.
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21416
The Impact of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) and the Perceived Moral Intensity on the Intention of Ethical Investment
Abstract:
This study seeks to examine perceived environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR) with a focus on negative environmental questions, related to intention of ethical investment intention after a environmental failure recovery. An empirical test was employed to test the hypotheses. We manipulated the information on negative ECSR activities of a hypothetical firm in a experimental design with a failure recovery treatment. The company’s negative ECSR recovery was depicted in a positive perspective (depicting a follow-up strong social action), whereas in the negative ECSR treatment it was described in a negative perspective (depicting a follow-up non social action). In both treatments, information about other key characteristics of the focal company were kept constant. Investors’ intentions to invest in the company’s stock were evaluated by multi-item scales. Results indicate that positive ECSR recovery information about a firm enhances investors’ intentions to invest in the company’s stock. In addition, perceived moral intensity has a significant impact on the intention of ethical investment and that perceived moral intensity also serves as a key moderating variable in the relationship between negative ECSR and the intention of ethical investment. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed. Practical implications: The results suggest that managers may need to be aware of perceived moral intensity as a key variable in restoring the intention of ethical investment. The results further suggest that perceived moral intensity has a direct, and it also has an moderating influence between ECSR and the intention of ethical investment. Originality/value: In an attempt to deepen the understanding of how investors perceptions of firm environmental CSR are connected with other investor‐related outcomes through ECSR recovery, the present research proposes a comprehensive model which encompasses ECSR and other key relationship constructs after a ECSR failure and recovery.
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122059
Artificial Intelligence in Global Healthcare: Need for Robust Governance Frameworks
Abstract:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its application in medicine has generated ample interest amongst policymakers and clinicians. Successes with AI in medical imaging interpretation and clinical decision support are paving the way for its incorporation into routine healthcare delivery. While there has been a focus on the development of ethical principles to guide its application in healthcare, challenges of this application go beyond what ethics principles can address thus requiring robust governance frameworks. Also, while ethical challenges of medical artificial intelligence are being discussed, the ethics of deploying AI in lower-income countries receive less attention than in other developed economies. This creates an imperative not only for sound ethical guidelines but also for robust governance frameworks to regulate AI in medicine around the world. In this article, we discuss what components need to be considered in developing these governance frameworks and who should lead this worldwide effort.
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80397
Factors Affecting Ethical Leadership and Employee Affective Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to explore and examines the theoretical frameworks of ethical leadership style and affective organizational commitment. Additionally, to investigate the extent to which employee orientation and ethical guidance either strengthen or weaken on the relationship between ethical leadership style and affective commitment. The study will also measure the mediating effects of leader’s integrity either influence to inspire and revival employee’s affective commitment or not. The methodology of the study comprised sample of 237 managers, departmental heads, top-level executives, and professors of several financial institutions, banks, and universities in Bangladesh who are directly related with decision making process of respective organization. A cross sectional research design will be used to examine the direct, moderating, and mediating analysis among the research key variables. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire. The findings of the study will be significance because it will provide the real scenario of leadership style which leads to financial and strategic success of any organizations. In addition, the results will be interesting enough to find out either ethical leadership style have positive relationship with affective commitment or not. Employee-orientation and ethical guidance is a moderator to improve leadership style and affective commitment, whereas, leader’s integrity mediates the relationships between leadership style and affective organizational commitment to do the right thing in the right way for the betterment of entire organizational success. Research limitations of the study are the data collected by self administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Second, the study concentrated on financial institutions, banks top executives, and universities professors in Bangladesh. An important implication of the research is that the interesting findings will give some insight to the leadership style and helps management to focus on their management and leadership efficacy, as that could improve their affective organizational commitment. The findings will be original and unique value adding with the existing literature on leadership studies. The study is based on a comprehensive literature review. The results will be based on a sample of financial institutions, banks, and universities in Bangladesh. The research findings are useful to academics and corporate leaders of financial institutions, banks, and universities all over the world.
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55581
Consumption Insurance against the Chronic Illness: Evidence from Thailand
Abstract:
This paper studies consumption insurance against the chronic illness in Thailand. The study estimates the impact of household consumption in the chronic illness on consumption growth. Chronic illness is the health care costs of a person or a household&rsquo;s decision in treatment for the long term; the causes and effects of the household&rsquo;s ability for smooth consumption. The chronic illnesses are measured in health status when at least one member within the household faces the chronic illness. The data used is from the Household Social Economic Panel Survey conducted during 2007 and 2012. The survey collected data from approximately 6,000 households from every province, both inside and outside municipal areas in Thailand. The study estimates the change in household consumption by using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The result shows that the members within the household facing the chronic illness would reduce the consumption by around 4%. This case indicates that consumption insurance in Thailand is quite sufficient against chronic illness.
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20956
Mapping of Electrical Energy Consumption Yogyakarta Province in 2014-2025
Abstract:
Yogyakarta is one of the provinces in Indonesia that often get a power outage because of high load electrical consumption. The authors mapped the electrical energy consumption [GWh] for the province of Yogyakarta in 2014-2025 using LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system) software. This paper use BAU (Business As Usual) scenario. BAU scenario in which the projection is based on the assumption that growth in electricity consumption will run as normally as before. The goal is to be able to see the electrical energy consumption in the household sector, industry , business, social, government office building, and street lighting. The data is the data projected statistical population and consumption data electricity [GWh] 2010, 2011, 2012 in Yogyakarta province.
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30657
Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe
Abstract:
Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?
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38729
Energy Consumption Forecast Procedure for an Industrial Facility
Abstract:
We regard forecasting of energy consumption by private production areas of a large industrial facility as well as by the facility itself. As for production areas the forecast is made based on empirical dependencies of the specific energy consumption and the production output. As for the facility itself implementation of the task to minimize the energy consumption forecasting error is based on adjustment of the facility’s actual energy consumption values evaluated with the metering device and the total design energy consumption of separate production areas of the facility. The suggested procedure of optimal energy consumption was tested based on the actual data of core product output and energy consumption by a group of workshops and power plants of the large iron and steel facility. Test results show that implementation of this procedure gives the mean accuracy of energy consumption forecasting for winter 2014 of 0.11% for the group of workshops and 0.137% for the power plants.
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38575
The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector
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This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.
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89975
Importance of Ethics in Cloud Security
Abstract:
This paper examines the importance of ethics in cloud computing. In the modern society, cloud computing is offering individuals and businesses an unlimited space for storing and processing data or information. Most of the data and information stored in the cloud by various users such as banks, doctors, architects, engineers, lawyers, consulting firms, and financial institutions among others require a high level of confidentiality and safeguard. Cloud computing offers centralized storage and processing of data, and this has immensely contributed to the growth of businesses and improved sharing of information over the internet. However, the accessibility and management of data and servers by a third party raise concerns regarding the privacy of clients’ information and the possible manipulations of the data by third parties. This document suggests the approaches various stakeholders should take to address various ethical issues involving cloud-computing services. Ethical education and training is key to all stakeholders involved in the handling of data and information stored or being processed in the cloud.
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18945
Reduced Power Consumption by Randomization for DSI3
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Abstract:
The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines 3 modulation levels from which 16 valid symbols are coded. This structure creates power consumption variations depending on the transmitted data of a factor of more than 2 between minimum and maximum. The power generation unit has to consider therefore the worst case maximum consumption all the time and be built accordingly. This paper proposes a method to reduce both the average current consumption and worst case current consumption. The transmitter randomizes the data using several pseudo-random sequences. It then estimates the energy consumption of the generated frames and selects to transmit the one which consumes the least. The transmitter also prepends the index of the pseudo-random sequence, which is not randomized, to allow the receiver to recover the original data using the correct sequence. We show that in the case that the frame occupies most of the DSI3 synchronization period, we achieve average power consumption reduction by up to 13% and the worst case power consumption is reduced by 17.7%.
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110838
Research on Online Consumption of College Students in China with Stimulate-Organism-Reaction Driven Model
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Abstract:
With the development of information technology in China, network consumption is becoming more and more popular. As a special group, college students have a high degree of education and distinct opinions and personalities. In the future, the key groups of network consumption have gradually become the focus groups of network consumption. Studying college students&rsquo; online consumption behavior has important theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) driving model and the structural equation model, this paper establishes the influencing factors model of College students&rsquo; online consumption behavior, evaluates and amends the model by using SPSS and AMOS software, analyses and determines the positive factors of marketing college students&rsquo; consumption, and provides an effective basis for guiding and promoting college student consumption.
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100250
Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah
Abstract:
Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.
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32943
A Levinasian Perspective on the Field of Applied Ethics
Abstract:
Applied ethics is an area of ethics which is looked upon most favorably as the most appropriate and useful for educational purposes; after all if ethics finds no application would any investment of time, effort and finance by the educational institutions be warranted? The current approaches to ethics in business and management often entail appealing to various types of moral theories and to this end almost every major philosophical approach has been enlisted. In this paper, we look at ethics through the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to argue that since ethics is ‘first philosophy’ it can neither be rule-based nor rule-governed, not something that can be worked out first and then applied to a given situation, hence the overwhelming emphasis on ‘applied ethics’ as a field of study in business and management education is unjustified. True ethics is not applied ethics. This assertion does not mean that teaching ethical theories and philosophies need to be abandoned rather it is the acceptance of the fact that an increase in cognitive awareness of such theories and ethical models and frameworks, or the mastering of techniques and procedures for ethical decision making, will not affect the desired ethical transformation in our students. Levinas himself argued for an ethics without a foundation, not one that required us to go ‘beyond good and evil’ as Nietzsche contended, rather an ethics which necessitates going ‘before good and evil'. Such an ethics does not provide us with a set of methods or techniques or a decision tree that enable us determine the rightness of an action and what we ought to do, rather it is about a way of being, an ethical posture or approach one takes in the inter-subjective relationship with the other that holds the promise of ethical conduct. Ethics in this Levinasian sense then is one of infinite and unconditional responsibility for the other person in relationship, an ethics which is not subject to negotiation, calculation or reciprocity, and as such it could neither be applied nor taught through conventional pedagogy with its focus on knowledge transfer from the teacher to student, and to this end Levinas offers a non-maieutic, non-conventional approach to pedagogy. The paper concludes that from a Levinasian perspective on ethics and education, we may need to guide our students to move away from the clear and objective professionalism of the management and applied ethics towards the murky individual spiritualism. For Levinas, this is ‘the Copernican revolution’ in ethics.
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49985
The Influence of Gender and Harmful Alcohol Consumption on Academic Performance in Spanish University Students
Abstract:
First year university students comprise one of the groups most likely to indulge in hazardous alcohol consumption. The transition from secondary school to university presents a range of academic, social and developmental challenges requiring new responses that will meet the demands of this highly competitive environment. The main purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of gender and hazardous alcohol consumption on academic performance of 300 university students in Spain in a three-year follow-up study. Alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT), and the average university grades were provided by the Academic Management Services of the University. Analysis of variance showed that the level of alcohol consumption significantly affected academic performance. Students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption obtained the lowest grades during the first three years at university. These effects were particularly marked in the sample of women with a hazardous pattern of alcohol consumption, although the interaction between gender and this type of consumption was not significant. The study highlights the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the academic trajectory of university students. The findings confirm that alcohol consumption predicts poor academic performance in first year students and that the low level of performance is maintained throughout the university career.
150
10063
Financial Ethics: A Review of 2010 Flash Crash
Abstract:
Modern day stock markets have almost entirely became automated. Even though it means increased profits for the investors by algorithms acting upon the slightest price change in order of microseconds, it also has given birth to many ethical dilemmas in the sense that slightest mistake can cause people to lose all of their livelihoods. This paper reviews one such event that happened on May 06, 2010 in which $1 trillion dollars disappeared from the Dow Jones Industrial Average. We are going to discuss its various aspects and the ethical dilemmas that have arisen due to it.
149
133246
Nazi Experiments during World War II: Dismal Period for Bioethics
Abstract:
This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects related to the historical practices of experiments on humans that occurred in Nazi Germany during the period of World War II (1939-1945). The method was based on the bibliographic review of articles published in databases such as SciELO and Pubmed. In the discussion, historical and humanistic aspects that contributed to the construction of a genocidal culture practiced during this period were analyzed. Additionally, an ethical question arises: should the information acquired during this dark period be used by science? After analysis, it was found that these Nazi experiments went over medical and ethical principles, being a deplorable milestone in history. It was also concluded that, although they generated potentially 'useful' results in the scientific field, they should be discarded as an ethical question of principle, of never daring to validate such a deplorable way of obtaining knowledge.
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115605
Stress Perception, Ethics and Leadership Styles of Pilots: Implications for Airline Global Talent Acquisition and Talent Management Strategy
Abstract:
The behavioral pattern and performance of airline pilots are influenced by the level of stress, their ethical decision-making ability and above all their leadership style as part of the Crew Management process. Cultural differences of pilots, especially while working in ex-country airlines, could influence the stress perception. Culture also influences ethical decision making. Leadership style is also a variable dimension, and pilots need to adapt to the cultural settings while flying with the local pilots as part of their team. Studies have found that age, education, gender, and management experience are statistically significant factors in ethical maturity. However, in the decades to come, more studies are required to validate the results over and over again; thereby, providing support for the validity of the Moral Development Theory. Leadership style plays a vital role in ethical decision making. This study is grounded in the Moral Development theory and seeks to analyze the styles of leadership of airline pilots related to ethical decision making and also the influence of the culture on their stress perception. The sample for the study included commercial pilots from a National Airline. It is expected that these results should provide useful input to the literature in the context of developing appropriate Talent Management strategies. The authors intend to extend this study (carried out in one country) to major national carriers (many countries) to be able to develop a ultimate framework on Talent Management which should serve as a benchmark for any international airline as most of them (e.g., Emirates, Etihad, Cathay Pacific, China Southern, etc.) are dependent on the supply of this scarce resource from outside countries.
147
109311
Participation in Decision Making and Work Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Ethical Climate
Authors:
Abstract:
The study examines the consequences of decision making in Kuwait work organization. The framework used in this study proposes that participation in decision making improves organizational ethical climate, which in turn increases employee’s trust in supervisor and trust in the organization. Furthermore, the model suggests that allowing employees to voice their opinions positively effects their perceptions of organizational justice. Providing employees with the opportunity to participate in decision making (voice), enhances their perceptions of the fairness of those decisions. Allowing employees to express their opinions and feeling about decisions being made show that the organization respect appreciates their views. This feeling of respect and appreciation reflects positively on employee’s perception of justice. Survey data were collected from a sample of 292 employees working in Kuwaiti work organizations. Pearson correlation, non-parametric tests, and structural equation models were used to analyze the data. Results of the analysis show that participation in decision making enhances employee perception of ethical climate, which in turn increases perception organizational justice and organizational trust. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
146
1855
Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling
Abstract:
Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is, then, important in a first step to optimize household consumption to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipment's starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So, the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, firstly, per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.
145
67644
The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior
Abstract:
Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.
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8134
Organization’s Ethics, Job Performance Satisfaction and Effects on Employees’ Engagement and Commitment
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This research paper aimed to find out how was the ethical climate in an organization and job performance satisfaction of employees affected employees’ engagement and commitment by using the case study of PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, Thailand. The population of this research was 4,383 Thai employees of PTTEP, Thailand. From a total of 420 questionnaires sent out, 345 respondents replied. The statistics utilized was mean score and Multiple Regression Analysis. The findings revealed that the respondents had opinion towards ethical climate of their organization, job performance satisfaction and organization engagement and commitment at a high level. The test of hypothesis disclosed the determinant attributes of job performance satisfaction that affected the respondents’ overall level of organization engagement and commitment. The set of these determinant attributes consisted of employees’ responsibilities for duties, organization’s policies and practice, relationship with organization’s commanders, work security and stability, job description, career path and relationship with colleagues. These variables were able to predict the employees’ organization engagement and commitment at 50.6 percent.
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103594
Epistemological and Ethical Dimensions of Current Concepts of Human Resilience in the Neurosciences
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Since a number of years, scientific interest in human resilience is rapidly increasing especially in psychology and more recently and highly visible in neurobiological research. Concepts of resilience are regularly discussed in the light of liminal experiences and existential challenges in human life. Resilience research is providing both, explanatory models and strategies to promote or foster human resilience. Surprisingly, these approaches attracted little attention so far in philosophy in general and in ethics in particular. This is even more astonishing given the fact that the neurosciences as such have been and still are of major interest to philosophy and ethics and even brought about the specialized field of neuroethics, which, however, is not concerned with concepts of resilience, so far. As a result of the little attention given to the topic of resilience, the whole concept has to date been a philosophically under-theorized. This abstinence of ethics and philosophy in resilience research is lamentable because resilience as a concept as well as resilience interventions based on neurobiological findings do undoubtedly pose philosophical, social and ethical questions. In this paper, we will argue that particular notions of resilience are crossing the sometimes fine line between maintaining a person’s mental health despite the impact of severe psychological or physical adverse events and ethically more debatable discourses of enhancement. While we neither argue for or against enhancement nor re-interpret resilience research and interventions by subsuming them strategies of psychological and/or neuro-enhancement, we encourage those who see social or ethical problems with enhancement technologies should also take a closer look on resilience and the related neurobiological concepts. We will proceed in three steps. In our first step, we will describe the concept of resilience in general and its neurobiological study in particular. Here, we will point out some important differences in the way ‘resilience’ is conceptualized and how neurobiological research understands resilience. In what follows we will try to show that a one-sided concept of resilience – as it is often presented in neurobiological research on resilience – does pose social and ethical problems. Secondly, we will identify and explore the social and ethical challenges of (neurobiological) enhancement. In the last and final step of this paper, we will argue that a one-sided reading of resilience can be understood as latent form of enhancement in transition and poses ethical questions similar to those discussed in relation to other approaches to the biomedical enhancement of humans.
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76695
Mathematical Modelling for Diesel Consumption of Articulated Vehicle Used in Oyo State, Nigeria
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Since the usefulness of articulated vehicles is becoming more apparent and the diesel consumption of these vehicles constitutes a major portion of operating costs, development of mathematical model for their diesel consumption is of a great importance. Therefore, the present work developed a quantitative relationship between diesel consumption and vehicle age, annual use and cost of maintenance of the different makes of articulated vehicles. The vehicles selected for the study were FIAT 682 T3, IVECO 19036 and M.A.N. Diesel 19.240. The operating parameters for 90 vehicles of different age groups were recorded. Multiple regression models for diesel consumption of articulated vehicles of different makes were developed. From the analysis of results, it can be concluded that as the age of the vehicles increases, the diesel consumption increases. Also, as the diesel consumption increases, the cost of maintenance increases and there is a subsequent decrease in annual use. Moreover, FIAT 682 T3 and IVECO 19036 should be replaced at 7 years of age while M.A.N diesel should be replaced at 8 years of age. These are the ages where the diesel consumption becomes abnormal and uneconomical and they are points of optimal overhaul.
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27583
Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico
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The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root tests and causality test are applied. The results show that the series are stationary in levels and that there is causality running from economic growth to energy consumption. The energy conservation policies have little or no impact on economic growth in México.
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40243
Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli
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Abstract:
The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an important part of the training module in the curriculum for Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed. The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical implementation.
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33596
Hidden Truths of Advertising: An Unspoken Fact in Making Ethical Diffusions
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the consequences of silent or hidden messages and their effectiveness in deteriorating or altering our ethical norms and values. The study also focuses the repercussions of subconscious messages and possibilities of ethical diffusion in our society. The research based on the question that what are the different factors that motivate advertisers to include subliminal messages and how much these unspoken truths affecting our ethical values silently. What are the causes and effects of the subliminal messages in general and the level of ethical diffusion and its acceptance? The concept of advertising is to promote and highlight the salient features of the products and services, a company offers. Advertising is the best option nowadays to convey the related information to the consumers so that they attracted more towards the products or services proposed. The other thing advertisers concentrate, is the psychological characteristics using to persuade consumers choice. Using skills and tactics of advertising to promote a product in such a way that it creates a sensation, controversy or brand consciousness among the consumers or customers. The purpose to have increase purchase or to gain popularity in comparison to their competitors, they sometimes use such tactics and techniques, which is highly unethical and immoral for any society. These kinds of stuff used very smartly within the ads that only the conscious mind subconsciously catches the meaning of those glittery images, posters, phrases, tag lines and non-verbal clues. This study elucidates the subliminal advertising their repercussions and impact on consumer’s behaviour in our society with the help of few ads embedded subliminally and the trends of profitability. The methods used to accomplish our research are based on qualitative research along with the research articles, books and feedback from focused groups regarding the topic. The basic objective of this study was that, there is no significant change in the behaviour and attitude observed. These messages capture very short-term life on the viewer’s subconscious mind but in long run people get used to it and hence not only have the diffusion power but also has the high level of acceptance as well that reflects mostly through their social behaviours and attitudes.
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64520
The New Consumption of Sustainability for Green Capitalism
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Today, globalization encourages the global culture acceleration in the middle of accelerated industrialization that leads to the transformation of consumption pattern. Consumption is not only considered as a need but also lifestyle, moreover, plays a role as an ideology supported by global shopping system. This paper is aimed at analyzing how global society directed to support sustainability consumption, this is line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that prioritise sustainable program for environmental preservation to cope with economic growth impact. The paper applies qualitative method to analyze through literature studies. As a result, we attempt to discuss the relationship of various concepts among globalization, consumption, and risk society that produce green capitalism. There are three points related with green capitalism: Sustainable agenda, political ecology, and sustainable commodities that show sustainable consumption pattern supported by Capitalism. Sustainability consumption system is an ideal instrument to be implemented, nevertheless, this is not only solely a modernity of ecology politics to hidden Capitalist`s interest.
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131706
Baring Witness, Bearing Withness: Paradoxes of Testimony in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians
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This paper contends with the intersection between the act of witnessing and the act of reading in order to consider the relevance of literary testimony and fiction as tools for postcolonial readings of history. J. M. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians elucidates what Primo Levi deems the 'paradoxical' task of testimony: that suffering can only be fully narrated by the sufferer themselves, whose voice and narrative capacity is often foreclosed by the very extent of their trauma. By examining the fictional Magistrate's position as both a reader and translator of history, this paper posits Waiting for the Barbarians as an ethical command against the appropriation of trauma.
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45490
[Keynote Talk]: Let Us Move to Ethical Finance: A Case Study of Takaful
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Ethicality is essential in our daily activities, including personal and commercial activities. This is evidenced by referring to the historical development of the corporate governance and ethical guidelines. The first corporate governance guideline, i.e. Cadbury Report from U.K. focuses the responsibility of board members towards the shareholders only. Gradually, realising the need to take care of the society and community, stakeholders are now concerns of business entities. Consequently, later codes of corporate governance started extending the responsibility to the other stakeholders in addition to the shareholders. One prevailing corporate governance theory, i.e. stakeholder theory, has been widely used in the research to explore the effects of business entities on society. In addition, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is the leading organisation which promotes social care from businesses for sustainable development. Conventionally, history shows that ethics is key to the long term success of businesses. Many organisations, societies, and regulators give full attention and consideration to ethics. Several countries have introduced ethical codes of conduct to direct trade activities. Similarly, Islam and other religions prohibit the practice of interest, uncertainty, and gambling because of its unethical nature. These prohibited practices are not at all good for the society, business, and any organisation especially as it is detrimental to the well-being of society. In order to avoid unethicality in the finance industry, Shari’ah scholars come out with the idea of Islamic finance which is free from the prohibited elements from the Islamic perspective. It can also be termed ethical finance. This paper highlights how Takaful as one of the Islamic finance products offers fair and just products to the contracting parties and the society. Takaful is framed based on ethical guidelines which are extracted from Shari’ah principles and divine sources such as the Quran and Sunnah. Takaful products have been widely offered all over the world, including in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. It seems that it is gaining acceptance regardless of religion. This is evidence that Takaful is being accepted as an ethical financial product.
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121658
Environmental Sustainability and Energy Consumption: The Role of Financial Development in OPEC-1 Countries
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Abstract:
The current research investigates the role of financial development in an environmental sustainability-energy consumption nexus for OPEC-1 member countries. The empirical findings suggest that financial development increases environmental sustainability but energy consumption and real output expansion diminishes environmental sustainability, generally. Thus, whilst real output and financial development accelerates energy consumption, environmental sustainability quality diminishes clean energy initiatives. Even more so, energy consumption and financial development stimulates real output growth. The result empirically demonstrates that policy advocates must address broader issues relating to financial development whilst seeking to achieve environmental sustainability due largely to energy consumption.
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117896
The Role of Emotions in Addressing Social and Environmental Issues in Ethical Decision Making
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A transition towards a future where the economy serves society so that it evolves within the safe operating space of the planet calls for fundamental changes in the way managers think, feel and act, and make decisions that relate to social and environmental issues. Sustainable decision-making in organizations are often challenging tasks characterized by trade-offs between environmental, social and financial aspects, thus often bringing forth ethical concerns. Although there have been significant developments in incorporating uncertainty into environmental decision-making and measuring constructs and dimensions in ethical behavior in organizations, the majority of sustainable decision-making models are rationalist-based. Moreover, research in psychology indicates that one’s readiness to make a decision depends on the individual’s state of mind, the feasibility of the implied change, and the compatibility of strategies and tactics of implementation. Although very informative, most of this extant research is limited in the sense that it often directs attention towards the rational instead of the emotional. Hence, little is known about the role of emotions in sustainable decision making, especially in situations where decision-makers evaluate a variety of options and use their feelings as a source of information in tackling the uncertainty. To fill this lacuna, and to embrace the uncertainty and perceived risk involved in decisions that touch upon social and environmental aspects, it is important to add emotion to the evaluation when aiming to reach the one right and good ethical decision outcome. This analysis builds on recent findings in moral psychology that associate feelings and intuitions with ethical decisions and suggests that emotions can sensitize the manager to evaluate the rightness or wrongness of alternatives if ethical concerns are present in sustainable decision making. Capturing such sensitive evaluation as triggered by intuitions, we suggest that rational justification can be complemented by using emotions as a tool to tune in to what feels right in making sustainable decisions. This analysis integrates ethical decision-making theories with recent advancements in emotion theories. It determines the conditions under which emotions play a role in sustainability decisions by contributing to a personal equilibrium in which intuition and rationality are both activated and in accord. It complements the rationalist ethics view according to which nothing fogs the mind in decision making so thoroughly as emotion, and the concept of cheater’s high that links unethical behavior with positive affect. This analysis contributes to theory with a novel theoretical model that specifies when and why managers, who are more emotional, are, in fact, more likely to make ethical decisions than those managers who are more rational. It also proposes practical advice on how emotions can convert the manager’s preferences into choices that benefit both common good and one’s own good throughout the transition towards a more sustainable future.
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97603
Consumption Culture of Rural Youth: A Study of the Conspicuous Consumption Pattern of a Youth Sample in an Egyptian Village
Abstract:
Modern consumption culture represents a widespread phenomenon that affects young people, as it affects all age groups in both urban and rural societies. It has been helped by globalization, specifically cultural globalization, also internal and external migration, and the immense development in information technology as well, these factors have led to the appearance of the conspicuous consumption pattern among young people. This research firstly interested in identifying the nature of this pattern of consumption among young people in the countryside, which represents a society with a special nature, was characterized by the pattern of traditional consumption. Secondly to find out whether the rural character has an impact on the conspicuous consumption of youth. Finally to identify the reasons for the rural youth's tendency to such type of consumption and if it contributes in satisfying certain social needs. The research used the anthropological method. Observation and open-ended interviews were used as tools to collect data and an interview guide was applied on a selective youth sample (40:20 male and 20 female) aged between 17to 34 in an Egyptian village located in Dakahlia governorate. The research showed that rural youth has impacted with the modern consumption culture and not isolated from it despite the lack of financial abilities. The conspicuous consumption is a dominant pattern of consumption among the Egyptian rural youth and it has been practicing by rural youth regardless of their educational & financial levels. Also, the wish to show the social and economic status, bragging and show off is the main reason for the rural youth to adopt the conspicuous consumption, moreover to face the inferior view from their counterparts’ urban youth.
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136399
Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption
Abstract:
One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.
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54629
Granger Causal Nexus between Financial Development and Energy Consumption: Evidence from Cross Country Panel Data
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This paper examines the Granger causal nexus between financial development and energy consumption in the group of 35 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Countries over the period 1988-2012. The study uses two financial development indicators such as private sector credit and stock market capitalization and seven energy consumption indicators such as coal, oil, gas, electricity, hydro-electrical, nuclear and biomass. Using panel cointegration tests, the study finds that financial development and energy consumption are cointegrated, indicating the presence of a long-run relationship between the two. Using a panel vector error correction model (VECM), the study detects both bidirectional and unidirectional causality between financial development and energy consumption. The variation of this causality is due to the use of different proxies for both financial development and energy consumption. The policy implication of this study is that economic policies should recognize the differences in the financial development-energy consumption nexus in order to maintain sustainable development in the selected 35 FATF countries.
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21110
Social Assistive Robots, Reframing the Human Robotics Interaction Benchmark of Social Success
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It is likely that robots will cross the boundaries of industry into households over the next decades. With demographic challenges worldwide, the future ageing populations will require the introduction of assistive technologies capable of providing, care, human dignity and quality of life through the aging process. Robotics technology has a high potential for being used in the areas of social and healthcare by promoting a wide range of activities such as entertainment, companionship, supervision or cognitive and physical assistance. However, such close Human Robotics Interactions (HRIs) encompass a rich set of ethical scenarios that need to be addressed before Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) reach the global markets. Such interactions with robots may seem a worthy goal for many technical/financial reasons but inevitably require close attention to the ethical dimensions of such interactions. This article investigates the current HRI benchmark of social success. It revises it according to the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice aligned with social care ethos. An extension of such benchmark is proposed based on an empirical study of HRIs with elderly groups.
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63895
Ethics Can Enable Open Source Data Research
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The openness, availability and the sheer volume of big data have provided, what some regard as, an invaluable and rich dataset. Researchers, businesses, advertising agencies, medical institutions, to name only a few, collect, share, and analyze this data to enable their processes and decision making. However, there are important ethical considerations associated with the use of big data. The rapidly evolving nature of online technologies has overtaken the many legislative, privacy, and ethical frameworks and principles that exist. For example, should we obtain consent to use people’s online data, and under what circumstances can privacy considerations be overridden? Current guidance on how to appropriately and ethically handle big data is inconsistent. Consequently, this paper focuses on two quite distinct but related ethical considerations that are at the core of the use of big data for research purposes. They include empowering the producers of data and empowering researchers who want to study big data. The first consideration focuses on informed consent which is at the core of empowering producers of data. In this paper, we discuss some of the complexities associated with informed consent and consider studies of producers’ perceptions to inform research ethics guidelines and practice. The second consideration focuses on the researcher. Similarly, we explore studies that focus on researchers’ perceptions and experiences.
128
81952
Biomimetic Building Envelopes to Reduce Energy Consumption in Hot and Dry Climates
Abstract:
Energy shortage became a worldwide major problem since the 1970s, due to high energy consumption. Buildings are the primary energy users which consume 40% of global energy consumption, in which, 40%-50% of building’s energy usage is consumed due to its envelope. In hot and dry climates, 40% of energy is consumed only for cooling purpose, which implies major portion of energy savings can be worked through the envelopes. Biomimicry can be one solution for extracting efficient thermoregulation strategies found in nature. This paper aims to identify different biomimetic building envelopes which shall offer a higher potential to reduce energy consumption in hot and dry climates. It focuses on investigating the scope for reducing energy consumption through biomimetic approach in terms of envelopes. An in-depth research on different biomimetic building envelopes will be presented and analyzed in terms of heat absorption, in addition to, the impact it had on reducing the buildings energy consumption. This helps to understand feasible biomimetic building envelopes to mitigate heat absorption in hot and dry climates.
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123416
Assessment of Dietary Patterns of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods
Abstract:
Background: Unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Improvement in diet can be beneficial for countering diabetes. For example, HbA1c, an important biomarker for diabetes, can be reduced by 1.1% through only alteration in diet. Ramadan fasting has been reported to provide positive health benefits. However, optimal benefits are not achieved, often due to poor dietary habits and lifestyle. There is a need to better understand the dietary habits of people fasting during Ramadan, so that necessary improvements can be made to develop this form of fasting as a non-pharmacological strategy for management and prevention of T2DM. Aim: This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of Saudi adult patients with T2DM over three different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and relate this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Dietary patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire in each period. This assessment included the diet type and frequency. Blood samples were collected in each period for determination of HbA1c. Results: The number of meals per day for the participants significantly decreased during Ramadan (P < 0.001). The consumption of fruit and vegetables significantly increased during Ramadan (P = 0.017). However, the consumption of sugary drinks significantly increased during and after Ramadan (P = 0.005). Approximately 60% of the patients indicated that they ate sugary foods at least once per week. The consumption of bread and rice was reported to be at least two times per week. The consumption of rice significantly reduced during Ramadan (P = 0.002). The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan compared to before and after Ramadan. The increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables had a medium effect size on the reduction in HbA1c during Ramadan. There was a variance of 7.7% in the mean difference in HbA1c levels between groups (who changed their fruit and vegetable consumption) which can be accounted for by the increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Likewise, 9.3% of the variance in the mean HbA1c difference between the groups was accounted for by a decrease in the consumption of rice. Conclusion: The increase in the frequency of fruit and vegetables intake, and especially the reduction in the frequency of rice consumption, during Ramadan produce beneficial effects in reducing HbA1c level. Therefore, further improving the dietary habits of patients with T2DM, such as reducing their sugary drinks intake, may help them to obtain greater benefits from Ramadan fasting in the management of their diabetes. It is recommended that dietary guidance is provided to the public to maximise health benefits through Ramadan fasting.
126
30957
Understanding Consumer Behavior Towards Business Ethics: Is it Really Important for Consumers
Abstract:
Ethics is important for all shareholders and stakeholders that a firm has in its environment. Whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically has a significant influence on consumers’ decision making and buying process. This research tries to explain business ethics from consumers’ perspective. The survey includes several questions to explain how consumers react if they know a firm behave unethically or ethically. What are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethical behavior of firm? Do consumer reward or punish the firms considering the ethics? Does it really important for consumers firms behaving ethical?
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14462
Ethical Enhancement Strategies for Development of Mass Media Profession Conducted for the Ethical Promotion of Undergraduate Students in Communication Science
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This research study was a qualitative documentary research by using an in-depth interview with many experts in the field who has both knowledge and experience to provide information to create a strategic plan to enhance the students’ ethics. The findings revealed that there were five areas that require an attention. The five areas included honesty, accurate fact, human right, speed, and responsibility. The development of the strategic plan to enhance the ethics for students who major in communication arts can be concluded as follows. First, the government, private, and religion sectors need to come up together and set up the activities to promote the ethical standard in schools, universities, and organizations. Second, it is important to cultivate the knowledge that ethics is important of the professional jobs, especially in the mass communication and media. Third, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy should be brought to explain to students in order for them to have some immunity to the negative attitude such as drinking alcohol, gambling, cut classes, and cheating at exams. Fourth, experts in the field of ethics should be found to provide more knowledge to students and allow students to participate in activities that will increase their experience and knowledge of the real world problem.
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127741
The Case for Implementing a Supplier Diversity and Inclusion Program beyond the Ethical Value
Abstract:
The supply chain industry has integrated the need for supplier Diversity and Inclusion (D&I), mostly from an ethical and moral argument. In addition, in some countries, it is also a legal requirement for companies reaching a certain size. As a matter of fact, a lot of successful companies have developed a Corporate Social Responsibility Program that encourages diversity and inclusion in the supply chain, such as building strong relationships with minority owned businesses (women, LGBT, veterans, etc.). Outside ethical and legal perspectives, it is also worth researching the economic and financial benefits of pursuing such efforts. Through surveys of purchasing and supply chain managers in their current roles as well as review of some case studies on supplier based D&I programs, it becomes apparent that a financial return on investment is to be expected as well for companies who make a concerted effort to grow their D&I programs. The study explores the levers to increase shareholder value and business efficiencies. Finally, the research highlights the competitive advantage related to a broad minority based supplier network. The benefits manifest themselves in the areas of competitiveness, innovation, and collaboration. The economic reward ends up being at the forefront of those programs while being an opportunity for organizations to become 'a good citizen'.
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33356
Corporate Social Responsibility: An Ethical or a Legal Framework?
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Indeed, in our globalized world which is facing with various international crises, the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have the capacity to foster economic well-being, development, technological improvement and wealth, as well as causing adverse impacts on human rights. The UN Human Rights Council declared that although the primary responsibility to protect human rights lie with the State but the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have also a responsibility to respect and protect human rights in the framework of corporate social responsibility. In 2011, the Human Rights Council endorsed the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, a set of guidelines that define the key duties and responsibilities of States and business enterprises with regard to business-related human rights abuses. In UN’s view, the Guiding Principles do not create new legal obligations but constitute a clarification of the implications of existing standards, including under international human rights law. In 2014 the UN Human Rights Council decided to establish a working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises whose mandate shall be to elaborate an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises. Extremely difficult task for the working group to codify a legally binding document to regulate the behavior of corporations on the basis of the norms of international law! Concentration of this paper is on the origins of those human rights applicable on business enterprises. The research will discuss that the social and ethical roots of the CSR are much more institutionalized and elaborated than the legal roots. Therefore, the first step is to determine whether and to what extent corporations, do have an ethical responsibility to respect human rights and if so, by which means this ethical and social responsibility is convertible to legal commitments.
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79614
Accounting Practitioners’ Insight into Distance-Learning Graduates’ Workplace Ethics
Abstract:
Society expects professional accountants to uphold fundamental principles of professional competence, confidentiality, and ethical behavior. Their work needs to be trusted by the public, clients and other stakeholders. However, self-interest, intimidation and even ignorance could create conditions in which accounting practitioners and their staff may act contradictory to these principles. Similarly, plagiarism and cheating occur regularly at higher education institutions, where students claim ignorance of these actions and the accompanying consequences. Teaching students ethical skills in a distance-learning environment where interaction between students and instructors is limited is a challenge for academics. This also applies to instructors who teach accounting subjects to potential professional accountants. The researchers wanted to understand the concerns of accounting practitioners regarding recently qualified accounting students’ understanding of ethics and the resulting influence on their conduct. A mixed method approach was used to obtain feedback from numerous accounting practitioners in South Africa. The research questions focused mainly on ethical conduct in the workplace and the influence of social media on the behavior of graduates. The findings of the research suggested, inter alia, that accounting practitioners are of the opinion that the ethical conduct of graduates starts at home, but higher education institutions play a pivotal role in providing students with an understanding of ethics in the workplace, including the role of social media. The paper concludes with recommendations on how academics in higher education institutions need to address these challenges.
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126844
The Fall of Cultural Consumption in Spain during the Economic Crisis of 2008: Lessons for the Upcoming Crisis
Abstract:
The economic crisis of 2008 had a special impact on cultural consumption in Spain. It fell by almost 30% in a few years, and its share of total family spending decreased from 3.19% in 2007 to 2.38% in 2015. In 2017, unlike other indicators, cultural consumption levels were still far from recovering their pre-crisis values. In times of economic difficulties, the satisfaction of primary subsistence needs takes priority over that of social, cultural and experiential needs, among which cultural consumption would mostly be framed. However, its evolution cannot be attributed exclusively to macroeconomic trends. In parallel to these, technological advances mainly related to the Internet have been disseminated in recent years, which have a very marked impact on the consumption patterns of some cultural sectors. Thus, the aim of this study is to define the causes of the decline in cultural consumption in Spain in recent years, and analyse what type of products, territories and population profiles suffered it especially. From the data analysis of the Family Budget Survey, the study seeks to improve the understanding of the determinants of cultural consumption and their behaviour in the face of macroeconomic trends, as well as identify and extract some policy implications regarding to the upcoming crisis caused by COVID-19.
120
90412
Reconfigurable Ubiquitous Computing Infrastructure for Load Balancing
Abstract:
Ubiquitous computing helps make data and services available to users anytime and anywhere. This makes the cooperation of devices a crucial need. In return, such cooperation causes an overload of the devices and/or networks, resulting in network malfunction and suspension of its activities. Our goal in this paper is to propose an approach of devices reconfiguration in order to help to reduce the energy consumption in ubiquitous environments. The idea is that when high-energy consumption is detected, we proceed to a change in component distribution on the devices to reduce and/or balance the energy consumption. We also investigate the possibility to detect high-energy consumption of devices/network based on devices abilities. As a result, our idea realizes a reconfiguration of devices aimed at reducing the consumption of energy and/or load balancing in ubiquitous environments.
119
116662
Construction Sustainability Improvement through Using Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Production
Abstract:
Due to the energy consumption caused by the construction industry, the public is paying more and more attention to the sustainability of the buildings. With the advancement of research on recycled aggregates, it has become possible to replace natural aggregates with recycled aggregates and to achieve a reduction in energy consumption of materials during construction. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively compare the emergy consumption of natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). To do so, the emergy analysis method is adopted. Using this technique, it can effectively analyze different forms of energy and substance. The main analysis object is the direct and indirect emergy consumption of the stages in concrete production. Therefore, for indirect energy, consumption of production machinery and transportation vehicle also need to be considered. Finally, the emergy values required to produce the two concrete types are compared to analyze whether the RAC can reduce emergy consumption.
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74025
Ethical 'Spaces': A Critical Analysis of the Medical, Ethical and Legal Complexities in the Treatment and Care of Unidentified and Critically Incapacitated Victims Following a Disaster
Abstract:
The increasing threat of ‘marauding terror,' utilising improvised explosive devices and firearms, has focused the attention of policy makers and emergency responders once again on the treatment of the critically injured patient in a highly volatile scenario. Whilst there have been significant improvements made in the response and lessons learned from recent disasters in the international disaster community there still remain areas of uncertainty and a lack of clarity in the care of the critically injured. This innovative, longitudinal study has at its heart the aim of using ethnographic methods to ‘slow down’ the journey such patients will take and make visible the ethical complexities that 2017 technologies, expectations and over a decade of improved combat medicine techniques have brought. The primary researcher, previously employed in the hospital emergency management environment, has closely followed responders as they managed casualties with life-threatening injuries. Ethnographic observation of Exercise Unified Response in March 2016, exposed the ethical and legal 'vacuums' within a mass casualty and fatality setting, specifically the extrication, treatment and care of critically injured patients from crushed and overturned train carriages. This article highlights a gap in the debate, evaluation, planning and response to an incident of this nature specifically the incapacitated, unidentified patients and the ethics of submitting them to the invasive ‘Disaster Victim Identification’ process. Using a qualitative ethnographic analysis, triangulating observation, interviews and documentation, this analysis explores the gaps and highlights the next stages in the researcher’s pathway as she continues to explore with emergency practitioners some of this century’s most difficult questions in relation to the medico-legal and ethical challenges faced by emergency services in the wake of new and emerging threats and medical treatment expectations.
117
90275
The Competence of Solving Mathematical Problems in the Formation of Ethical Values
Abstract:
A study and its preliminary results are presented. The research is descriptive and exploratory and it is still in process. Its objective is to develop an assessment method in the field of fostering values using competence mathematics problem solving. This is part of a more extensive research that aims at contributing to educational integration in Latin America, particularly to the development of proposals to link education for citizenship and the mathematics lessons. This is being carried out by research teams of University of Barcelona-Espa&ntilde;a; University Nacional of Costa Rica; University Aut&oacute;noma of Quer&eacute;taro-M&eacute;xico; Pontificia University Cat&oacute;lica of Per&uacute;, University Nacional of Villa Mar&iacute;a- Argentina and University of Los Lagos-Chile, in the context of Andr&eacute;s Bello Chair for the Association of Latin American Universities. This research was developed and implemented in Chile in 2016, using mixed research methods. It included interviews and a problem-solving math test with ethical values that was administered to students of the secondary education of the regions of Los R&iacute;os and of the Lakes of Chile. The results show the lack of integration between the teaching of values and science discipline.
116
106701
Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle
Abstract:
The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.
115
115217
Optimization of Energy Consumption with Various Design Parameters on Office Buildings in Chinese Severe Cold Zone
Abstract:
The primary energy consumption of buildings throughout China was approximately 814 million tons of coal equivalents in 2014, which accounts for 19.12% of China's total primary energy consumption. Also, the energy consumption of public buildings takes a bigger share than urban residential buildings and rural residential buildings among the total energy consumption. To improve the level of energy demand, various design parameters were chosen. Meanwhile, a series of simulations by Energy Plus (EP-Launch) is performed using a base case model established in Open Studio. Through the results, 16%-23% of total energy demand reductions can be found in the severe cold zone of China, and it can also provide a reference for the architectural design of other similar climate zones.
114
108694
Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Bus
Abstract:
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing geometry and pattern. Based on benchmarking a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption on an electric bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
113
61213
Energy Potential of Turkey and Evaluation of Solar Energy Technology as an Alternative Energy
Abstract:
Emerging demand for energy in developing countries rapid population growth and industrialization are causing a rapid increase, such as Turkey. Energy is an important and indispensable factor in the industry. At the same time, energy is one of the main indicators that reflect a country's economic and social development potential. There is a linear relationship between the energy consumption and social development, and in parallel this situation, it is seen that energy consumption increase with economic growth and prosperity. In recent year’s, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing, because of population growth and economy in Turkey. 80% of the energy used in Turkey is supplied from abroad. At the same time, while almost all of the energy obtained from our country is met by hydropower. Alternatively, studies of determining and using potential renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been realized for recent years. In this study, first of all, the situation of energy sources was examined in Turkey. Information of reserve/capacity, production and consumption values of energy sources were emphasized. For this purpose, energy production and consumption, CO2 emission and electricity energy consumption of countries were investigated. Energy consumption and electricity energy consumption per capita were comparatively analyzed.
112
35473
The Application of Data Mining Technology in Building Energy Consumption Data Analysis
Abstract:
Energy consumption data, in particular those involving public buildings, are impacted by many factors: the building structure, climate/environmental parameters, construction, system operating condition, and user behavior patterns. Traditional methods for data analysis are insufficient. This paper delves into the data mining technology to determine its application in the analysis of building energy consumption data including energy consumption prediction, fault diagnosis, and optimal operation. Recent literature are reviewed and summarized, the problems faced by data mining technology in the area of energy consumption data analysis are enumerated, and research points for future studies are given.
111
104608
The Internet of Healthcare Things: A European Perspective and a Review of Ethical Concerns
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a disruptive technological paradigm that is at the center of the digital evolution by integrating physical and virtual worlds leading to the creation of extended interconnected ecosystems that are characterized as smart environments. The concept of the IoT has a broad range of applications in different industries including the healthcare sector. The Internet of Healthcare Things (IoHT), a branch of the IoT, is expected to bring promising benefits to all involved stakeholders and accelerate the revolution of the healthcare sector through a transition towards preventive and personalized medicine. The socio-economic challenges that the healthcare sector is facing further emphasize the need for a radical transformation of healthcare systems in both developed and developing countries with the role of pervasive technological innovations, such as IoHT, recognized as key to counteract the relevant challenges. Besides the number of potential opportunities that IoHT presents, there are fundamental ethical concerns that need to be considered and addressed in relation to the application of IoHT. This paper contributes to the discussion of the emerging topic of IoHT by providing an overview of the role and potential of IoHT, highlighting the characteristics of the current and future healthcare landscape, reporting on the up-to-date status of IoHT in Europe and reflecting upon existing research in the ethics of IoHT by incorporating additional ethical dimensions that have been ignored which can provide pathways for future research in the field.
110
92934
Ethical Challenges for Journalists in Times of Fake News and Hate Speech: A Survey with German Journalists
Abstract:
Journalists worldwide have been confronted with a variety of ethical challenges over the last years. Because of massive changes in media technology and the public sphere, especially online journalism has trouble to uphold the fundamental values of journalism. In particular, the increasing amount of fake news and hate speech puts journalists under more and more pressure. In order to understand better how journalists judge this development and how they adapt in their daily work, a survey with journalists in Germany was carried out. 303 professional journalists participated in an online questionnaire. Results show that 65% underline that economic pressure grows and nearly the same number describe a change in the role of journalists in society. Furthermore, 61% agree that they put more time into research to secure their work against accusations of fabricating fake news. Interestingly, over 60% see a change in the role of journalists in society. The majority (85%) confirms that print journalism has to give way for online platforms and that the influence of social media for journalism grows (75%). Half of the surveyed advocate for more personalized public activism on part of journalists, such as appearance in talk shows and public talks. The results of the study will be discussed in light of the ongoing debate on ethical standards as a condition for a sustainable and trustworthy digital public sphere.
109
24337
Fashion Consumption for Fashion Innovators: A Study of Fashion Consumption Behavior of Innovators and Non-Innovators
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to examine the differences fashion innovators and non-fashion innovators in their fashion consumption behavior in terms of their pre-purchase behavior, purchase behavior and post purchase behavior. The questionnaire was distributed to a female college student for data collection for achieving the objective of the first part of the study. Question-related to fashion innovativeness and fashion consumption behavior was asked. The sample was comprised of 81 college females ages 18 through 30 who were attending Business Management degree. A series of attitude questions was used to categorize respondents on the Innovativeness Scale. 32 respondents with a score of 21 and above were designated as Fashion innovators and the remainder (49) as Non-fashion innovators. Findings showed that there exist significant differences between innovators and non-innovators in their fashion consumption behavior. Data was analyzed through frequency distribution table. Many differences were found in the behavior of innovators and non-innovators in terms of their pre-purchase, actual purchase, and post-purchase behavior.
108
16752
Current Strategic Trends – A Comparative Analysis of Hungarian Corporations
Abstract:
This paper deals with the current strategic challenges related to the reshaping of the basic conditions of corporate operations. With the help of the experimental analysis of some domestic corporations, it presents the form and extent the Hungarian corporations are prepared for the current strategic challenges. The study examines how strategic directions and answer opportunities changed in the following interrelated areas in the past five years: economic globalization, corporate sustainability, IT applications, labour force diversity and ethical competences. The conclusions of the empirical survey give a reliable basis for economic organizations and enterprises to formulate their strategy.
107
46334
Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance
Authors:
Abstract:
Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.
106
122029
Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems
Abstract:
The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache&rsquo;s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache&rsquo;s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.
105
49983
Effects of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Gender on Academic and Personal-Emotional Adjustment in First Year University Students in Spain
Abstract:
The first year at university is a critical period for personal-emotional and academic adjustment in emerging adults. Moreover, some studies show that alcohol consumption increases in young adults on transition to university. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of hazardous alcohol consumption and gender on adjustment to university, understood as a multidimensional construct involving an array of demands. A sample of 300 first year students in Spain completed the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Examination of the data by analysis of variance revealed that adjustment to university was lower in the students undertaking hazardous alcohol consumption than in the other students. Surprisingly, the personal-emotional adjustment of students with hazardous alcohol consumption was not lower than in the other students. Analysis of the gender effect revealed that levels of personal-emotional adjustment were higher in males than in females. This is our first study examining the influence of alcohol consumption on university adjustment. Future research should examine this relationship more closely, with the aim of designing public health strategies focused on limiting abusive consumption of alcohol in university students.
104
96732
Ethical Framework in Organ Transplantation and the Priority Line between Law and Life
Abstract:
The need for organ transplantation is vigorously increasing worldwide. The numbers on the waiting lists grow, but the number of donors is not keeping up with the demand even though there is a legal possibility of decreasing the gap between the demand and supply. Most countries around the globe are facing an organ donation problem (living or deceased); however, the extent of the problem differs based on how well developed a country is. The determining issues seem to be centered on how aware the society is about the concept of organ donation, as well as cultural and religious factors. Even if people are aware of the benefits of organ donation, they may still have fears that keep them from being in complete agreement with the idea. Some believe that in the case of deceased organ donation: “the brain dead human body may recover from its injuries” or “the sick might get less appropriate treatment if doctors know they are potential donors.” In the case of living organ donations, people sometimes fear that after the donation, “it might reduce work efficiency, cause health deterioration or even death.” Another major obstacle in the organ shortage is a lack of a well developed ethical framework. In reality, there are truly an immense number of people on the waiting list, and they have only two options in order to receive a suitable organ. First is the legal way, which is to wait until their turn. Sadly, numerous patients die while on the waiting list before an appropriate organ becomes available for transplant. The second option is an illegal way: seeking an organ in a country where they can possibly get. To tell the truth, in people’s desire to live, they may choose the second option if their resources are sufficient. This process automatically involves “organ brokers.” These are people who get organs from vulnerable poor people by force or betrayal. As mentioned earlier, the high demand and low supply leads to human trafficking. The subject of the study was the large number of society from different backgrounds of their belief, culture, nationality, level of education, socio-economic status. The great majority of them interviewed online used “Google Drive Survey” and others in person. All statistics and information gathered from trusted sources annotated in the reference list and above mentioned considerable testimonies shared by the respondents are the fundamental evidence of a lack of the well developed ethical framework. In conclusion, the continuously increasing number of people on the waiting list and an irrelevant ethical framework, lead people to commit to atrocious, dehumanizing crimes. Therefore, world society should be equally obligated to think carefully and make vital decisions together for the advancement of an organ donations and its ethical framework.
103
10303
Investigation on Machine Tools Energy Consumptions
Abstract:
Several researches have been conducted to study consumption of energy in cutting process. Most of these researches are focusing to measure the consumption and propose consumption reduction methods. In this work, the relation between the cutting parameters and the consumption is investigated in order to establish a generalized energy consumption model that can be used for process and production planning in real production lines. Using the generalized model, the process planning will be carried out by taking into account the energy as a function of the selected process parameters. Similarly, the generalized model can be used in production planning to select the right operational parameters like batch sizes, routing, buffer size, etc. in a production line. The description and derivation of the model as well as a case study are given in this paper to illustrate the applicability and validity of the model.
102
111629
Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle
Abstract:
Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.
101
17216
Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.
100
69264
Energy Consumption Models for Electric Vehicles: Survey and Proposal of a More Realistic Model
Abstract:
Replacing combustion engine vehicles by electric vehicles (EVs) is a major step in recent years due to their potential benefits. Battery autonomy and charging processes are still a big issue for that kind of vehicles. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption of electric vehicles becomes a necessity. Many researches target introducing recent information and communication technologies in EVs in order to propose reducing energy consumption services. Evaluation of realistic scenarios is a big challenge nowadays. In this paper, we will elaborate a state of the art of different proposed energy consumption models in the literature, then we will present a comparative study of these models, finally, we will extend previous works in order to propose an accurate and realistic energy model for calculating instantaneous power consumption of electric vehicles.
99
51657
Eating Behaviour and the Nature of Food Consumption in a Malaysian Adults Sample
Abstract:
Research examining whether eating behaviour is related to unhealthy or healthy eating pattern is required to explain the mechanisms underlying obesity, and to inform health intervention aim to prevent and treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviours and nature of food consumption. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 588 adults (males = 231 and females = 357). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to measure restrained, emotional and external eating. Nature of food consumption was assessed by self-reported consumption of fruit and vegetables, sweet food, junk food and snacking. Results: Results revealed that emotional eating was found to be the principal predictor of the consumption of less healthy food (sweet food, junk food and snacking), while external eating predicted sweet food intake. Intake of fruit and vegetable was associated with restrained eating. In light of the significant associations between eating behaviour and nature of food consumption, acknowledging individuals eating styles can have implications for tailoring effective nutritional programs in the context of obesity and chronic disease epidemic.
98
32674
Analysis of Resource Consumption Accounting as a New Approach to Management Accounting
Abstract:
This paper presents resource consumption accounting as an imaginative way to deal with management accounting which concentrates on administrators as the essential clients of the data and gives the best information of conventional management accounting. This system underscores that association's asset reasons costs, accordingly in costing frameworks the emphasis ought to be on assets and utilization of them. Resource consumption accounting consolidates two costing methodologies, action based and German cost accounting method known as GPK. This methodology notwithstanding giving a chance to managers to decide, makes task management accounting as operational. The reason for this article is to clarify the idea of resource consumption accounting, its parts and highlights and use of this strategy in associations. In the first place we deliver to presentation of resource consumption accounting, foundation, reasons for its development and the issues that past costing frameworks confronted it. At that point we give standards and presumptions of this technique; at last we depict the execution of this strategy in associations and its preferences over other costing strategies.
97
40249
Energy Consumption and GHG Production in Railway and Road Passenger Regional Transport
Abstract:
Paper deals with the modeling and simulation of energy consumption and GHG production of two different modes of regional passenger transport – road and railway. These two transport modes use the same type of fuel – diesel. Modeling and simulation of the energy consumption in transport is often used due to calculation satisfactory accuracy and cost efficiency. Paper deals with the calculation based on EN standards and information collected from technical information from vehicle producers and characteristics of tracks. Calculation included maximal theoretical capacity of bus and train and real passenger’s measurement from operation. Final energy consumption and GHG production is calculated by using software simulation. In evaluation of the simulation is used system ‘well to wheel’.
96
56657
Determinants of Aggregate Electricity Consumption in Ghana: A Multivariate Time Series Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
In Ghana, electricity has become the main form of energy which all sectors of the economy rely on for their businesses. Therefore, as the economy grows, the demand and consumption of electricity also grow alongside due to the heavy dependence on it. However, since the supply of electricity has not increased to match the demand, there has been frequent power outages and load shedding affecting business performances. To solve this problem and advance policies to secure electricity in Ghana, it is imperative that those factors that cause consumption to increase be analysed by considering the three classes of consumers; residential, industrial and non-residential. The main argument, however, is that, export of electricity to other neighbouring countries should be included in the electricity consumption model and considered as one of the significant factors which can decrease or increase consumption. The author made use of multivariate time series data from 1980-2010 and econometric models such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Vector Error Correction Model. Findings show that GDP growth, urban population growth, electricity exports and industry value added to GDP were cointegrated. The results also showed that there is unidirectional causality from electricity export and GDP growth and Industry value added to GDP to electricity consumption in the long run. However, in the short run, there was found to be a directional causality among all the variables and electricity consumption. The results have useful implication for energy policy makers especially with regards to electricity consumption, demand, and supply.
95
126217
Assessment of Energy Consumption in Cluster Redevelopment: A Case Study of Bhendi Bazar in Mumbai
Abstract:
Cluster Redevelopment is a new concept in the city of Mumbai. Its regulations were laid down by the government in 2009. The concept of cluster redevelopment encompasses a group of buildings defined by a boundary as specified by the municipal authority (in this case, Mumbai), which may be dilapidated or approved for redevelopment. The study analyses the effect of cluster redevelopment in the form of renewal of old group of buildings as compared to refurbishment or restoration - on energy consumption. The methodology includes methods of assessment to determine increase or decrease in energy consumption in cluster redevelopment based on different criteria such as carpet area of the units, building envelope and its architectural elements. Results show that as the area and number of units increase the Energy consumption increases and the EPI (energy performance index) decreases as compared to the base case. The energy consumption per unit area declines by 29% in the proposed cluster redevelopment as compared to the original settlement. It is recommended that although the development is spacious and provides more light and ventilation, aspects such as glass type, traditional architectural features and consumer behavior are critical in the reduction of energy consumption.
94
46463
Psychological and Ethical Factors in African American Custody Litigation
Abstract:
The current study examines psychological factors relevant to child custody litigation among African American fathers. Thirty-seven fathers engaged in various stages of custody litigation involving their children were surveyed about their perceptions of racial stereotypes, parental motivations, and racialized dynamics of the court/ legal process. Data were analyzed using a Critical Race Theory model designed to statistically isolate fathers’ perceptions of the existence and maintenance of structural racism through the legal process. Results indicate significant correlations between fathers’ psychological measures and structural outcomes of their cases. Findings are discussed in terms of ethical implications for family court judicial systems and attorney practice.
93
60989
Short-Long Term between Gross Domestic Product and Consumption in Indonesia
Abstract:
Recently, the significant fluctuations accosiated with Indonesian economy justifies the need for paying more attention to this issue. In this regard, the main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between two issues related to the macro Indonesia economy called consumption and GDP during the period of 1967 to 2014. This research method exploits short term and long term relationships using Granger and subsequently, models them by the causality method . However, using analysis of Granger with Johansen shows that there is not only a long term, but also a short-long relationship between GDP and consumption using lags the interval 5.
92
64243
An Experimental Exploration of the Interaction between Consumer Ethics Perceptions, Legality Evaluations, and Mind-Sets
Abstract:
During the last three decades, consumer ethics perceptions have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Nevertheless, little is known about the effect of the cognitive and situational contexts of the decision on ethics judgments. In this paper, the interrelationship between consumers’ ethics perceptions, legality evaluations and mind-sets are explored. Legality evaluations represent the cognitive context of the ethical judgments, whereas mind-sets represent their situational context. Drawing on moral development theories and priming theories, it is hypothesized that both factors are significantly related to consumer ethics perceptions. To test this hypothesis, 289 participants were allocated to three mind-set experimental conditions and a control group. Participants in the mind-set conditions were primed for aggressiveness, politeness or awareness to the negative legal consequences of breaking the law. Mind-sets were induced using a sentence-unscrambling task, in which target words were included. Ethics and legality judgments were assessed using consumer ethics and internet ethics questionnaires. All participants were asked to rate the ethicality and legality of consumer actions described in the questionnaires. The results showed that consumer ethics and legality perceptions were significantly correlated. Moreover, including legality evaluations as a variable in ethics judgment models increased the predictive power of the models. In addition, inducing aggressiveness in participants reduced their sensitivity to ethical issues; priming awareness to negative legal consequences increased their sensitivity to ethics when uncertainty about the legality of the judged scenario was high. Furthermore, the correlation between ethics and legality judgments was significant overall mind-set conditions. However, the results revealed conflicts between ethics and legality perceptions: consumers considered 10%-14% of the presented behaviors unethical and legal, or ethical and illegal. In 10-23% of the questions, participants indicated that they did not know whether the described action was legal or not. In addition, an asymmetry between the effects of aggressiveness and politeness priming was found. The results show that the legality judgments and mind-sets interact with consumer ethics perceptions. Thus, they portray consumer ethical judgments as dynamical processes which are inseparable from other cognitive processes and situational variables. They highlight that legal and ethical education, as well as adequate situational cues at the service place, could have a positive effect on consumer ethics perceptions. Theoretical contribution is discussed.
91
76399
Photovoltaic System: An Alternative to Energy Efficiency in a Residence
Abstract:
The concern to carry out a study related to Energy Efficiency arose based on the various debates in international television networks and not only, but also in several forums of national debates. The concept of Energy Efficiency is not yet widely disseminated and /or taken into account in terms of energy consumption, not only at the domestic level but also at the industrial level in Mozambique. In the context of the energy audit, the time during which each of the appliances is connected to the voltage source, the time during which they are in standby mode was recorded on a spreadsheet basis. Based on these data, daily and monthly consumption was calculated. In order to have more accurate information on the daily levels of daily consumption, the electricity consumption was read every hour of the day (from 5:00 am to 11:00 pm), since after 23:00 the energy consumption remains constant. For ten days. Based on the daily energy consumption and the maximum consumption power, the design of the photovoltaic system for the residence was made. With the implementation of the photovoltaic system in order to guarantee energy efficiency, there was a significant reduction in the use of electricity from the public grid, increasing from approximately 17 kwh per day to around 11 kwh, thus achieving an energy efficiency of 67.4 %. That is to say, there was a reduction not only in terms of the amount of energy consumed but also of the monthly expenses with electricity, having increased from around 2,500,00Mt (2,500 meticais) to around 800Mt per month.
90
32023
The Influence of Demographic on Tea Consumption in China
Abstract:
This study investigates the tea consumption based on the Double-Hurdle model. The results of a CHNS survey of 12,745 samples in China offer two preliminary insights: First, we can’t apply the conclusions we get by using all samples to the men or women subgroups. Second, men and women are impacted by different demographic not only on the intention to drink tea, but also on the quantities of tea consumed. These two findings suggest that appropriate and corresponding marketing strategies should be developed to targeting on the different groups of tea consumers.
89
84339
In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China
Abstract:
Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman&rsquo;s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.
88
75330
Association of Alcohol Consumption with Active Tuberculosis in Taiwanese Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Abstract:
Background: Animal studies have shown that alcohol exposure may cause immunosuppression and increase the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the temporality of alcohol consumption with subsequent TB development remains unclear. This nationwide population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure on TB development in Taiwanese adults. Methods: We included 46 196 adult participants from three rounds (2001, 2005, 2009) of the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Alcohol consumption was classified into heavy, regular, social, or never alcohol use. Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as intoxication at least once/week. Alcohol consumption and other covariates were collected by in-person interviews at baseline. Incident cases of active TB were identified from the National Health Insurance database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and active TB, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, socioeconomic status, and other covariates. Results: A total of 279 new cases of active TB occurred during the study follow-up period. Heavy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.21; 95% confident interval [CI], 2.41-11.26) and regular alcohol use (AOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.26-2.38) were associated with higher risks of incident TB after adjusting for the subject demographics and comorbidities. Moreover, a strong dose-response effect was observed between increasing alcohol consumption and incident TB (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.59-3.21; P
87
13514
The Role of Labour Substitution by Age in the Effect of Fertility on Living Standards: Simulations for Scandinavia
Abstract:
This paper analyses a potentially new consumption dividend from lower fertility arising from imperfect labour substitution by age. A smaller proportion of young workers relative to older workers raises relative youth wages given imperfect labour substitution by age. Discounted lifetime labour income rises which provides a consumption dividend. Simulation results are reported for the four Scandinavian countries, adopting a simple overlapping generations model. Imperfect labour substitution is modelled using a CRESH functional form of an aggregate labour index. The magnitudes of this new consumption dividend from a Low fertility projection compared with a high fertility projection are found to be approximately 4 percent annually, on average over the Scandinavian countries in the very long run, but somewhat lower in the short term. There is some sensitivity to the interest rate and the degree of consumption smoothing.
86
44047
Disaggregating and Forecasting the Total Energy Consumption of a Building: A Case Study of a High Cooling Demand Facility
Abstract:
Energy disaggregation has been focused by many energy companies since energy efficiency can be achieved when the breakdown of energy consumption is known. Companies have been investing in technologies to come up with software and/or hardware solutions that can provide this type of information to the consumer. On the other hand, not all people can afford to have these technologies. Therefore, in this paper, we present a methodology for breaking down the aggregate consumption and identifying the highdemanding end-uses profiles. These energy profiles will be used to build the forecast model for optimal control purpose. A facility with high cooling load is used as an illustrative case study to demonstrate the results of proposed methodology. We apply a high level energy disaggregation through a pattern recognition approach in order to extract the consumption profile of its rooftop packaged units (RTUs) and present a forecast model for the energy consumption. &nbsp;
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21548
Designing a Low Power Consumption Mote in Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
The market of Wireless Sensor Network WSN has a great potential and development opportunities. Researchers are focusing on optimization in many fields like efficient deployment and routing protocols. In this article, we will concentrate on energy efficiency for WSN because WSN nodes are habitually deployed in severe No Man’s Land with batteries are not rechargeable, so reducing energy consumption represents an important challenge to extend the life of the network. We will present the design of new WSN mote based on ultra low power STM32L microcontrollers and the ZIGBEE transceiver CC2520. We will compare it to existent motes and we will conclude that our mote is promising in energy consumption.
84
73037
Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption
Abstract:
Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human&rsquo;s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies brought consumer oriented market. The consumption of resources has increased at a very high scale. This overconsumption pattern brought economic boom and provided multiple opportunities, but it also put stress on the natural resources. This paper tries to put forth the facts and figures of the population growth and consumption of resources with examples. This is explained with the help of the mathematical expression of doubling known as exponential growth. It compares the carrying capacity of the earth and resource consumption of humans&rsquo; i.e. ecological footprint and bio-capacity. Further, it presents the need to conserve natural resources and re-examine sustainable resource use approach for sustainability.
83
95174
Water Saving in Electricity Generation System Considering Natural Gas Limitation
Abstract:
Power plants exploit striking proportion of underground water consumption. Correspondingly, natural gas-fired power plants need less water than the other conventional power plants. Therefore, shifting unit commitment planning toward these power plants would help to save water consumption. This paper discusses the impacts of water consumption limitation on natural gas consumption and vice versa as a short-term water consumption management solution. To do so, conventional unit commitment problem is extended by adding water consumption and natural gas constraints to the previous constrains. The paper presents the impact of water saving on natural gas demands as well as natural gas shortage on water demand. Correspondingly, the additional cost of electricity production according to the aforementioned constraints is evaluated. Finally, a test system is applied to investigate potentials and impacts of water saving and natural gas shortage. Different scenarios are conducted and the results are presented. The results of the study illustrate that in order to use less water for power production it needs to use more natural gas. Meanwhile, natural gas shortage causes to utilize more amount of water in aggregate.
82
95939
A Review of Challenges of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressed People
Abstract:
Shock therapy has been used in persons living with depression and deeply depressed persons. It has been used in children also. Shock therapy has been also among its pros believed to improve the quality of life and an effective treatment of depression. The review of the literature on ECT papers have highlighted that benefits to users of ECT are elusive, and iatrogenic harm often occurs showing that the approach will always fall far in comporting to psychological ethics. On the contrary, ECT is known as shock therapy which is the administration of electric shock within the brain; it has been challenged on ethical grounds if it’s proper ethically. From this ethical aperture, it has emerged that relapse rates are approximately higher than 50%, it results in diencephalon disturbances and has also side effects related to cognitive function among other negative effects. It is from these reviewed studies that that ECT should not be viewed as an effective treatment of depression as it does not comport to the mores of psychological ethics.
81
57892
Affordability and Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia
Abstract:
Safe drinking water is needed for survival. Households have to pay the water bill monthly. However, lower income households are sometimes unable to afford the cost. This study examines water access and affordability among households in Malaysia and the determinants of water affordability using cross-sectional data and multiple regression. The paper expects that the bill for basic water consumption is inversely related to average income. This means that policy makers need to redesign the water tariff to improve the quality of life of lower income households.
80
20884
Power Consumption for Viscoplastic Fluid in a Rotating Vessel with an Anchor Impeller
Abstract:
Rheology is known to have a strong impact on the flow behavior and the power consumption of mechanically agitated vessels. The laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with an anchor impeller in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work the objective of this paper is: to evaluate the power consumption for yield stress fluids in standard mixing system. The power consumption is calculated for the different types of anchor impeller configurations and an optimum configuration is proposed.The hydrodynamic fields of incompressible yield stress fluid with model of Bingham in a cylindrical vessel not chicaned equipped with anchor stirrer was undertaken by means of numerical simulation. The flow structures, and especially the effect of inertia, the plasticity and the yield stress, are discussed.
79
116973
Fashion Designers' Role Towards Society through Ethical Designing
Abstract:
Fashion is a dynamic entity. With globalisation, fashion is being retailed out to every corner of the world, and people are becoming fashion aware and adapting to the latest trends and look. In this scenario, the role of fashion in providing social change in society is strong. Every product that we use has a design element in it, and consumers prefer to buy those products. The aim of the paper is to look at the ways in which social change can be brought into society through ethical designing by designers taking into consideration the IPR issues. Review of research done by earlier researchers in studying the work done by designers to achieve social change in the society and also discussions with designers to understand the future plans looking at changing world scenario would be done. The paper concludes that fashion has a dynamic role to play in achieving social change in society, and designers are virtually controlling what people buy, wear, and consume globally. This paper would be useful to the social planners and designers in planning the future of society.
78
93969
Work Engagement, Sense of Humor and Workplace Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
Abstract:
Positive psychological capital is the key contributor to the competitive advantage of the organizations. Moreover, work engagement and sense of humor are also positive notions and are able to facilitate positive workplace behaviour but the mechanism behind these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work engagement, sense of humor and outcome variables (organizational citizenship behaviour and ethical performance) as well as investigating how psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationships between work engagement, sense of humor and the outcome variables among healthcare professionals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals (n= 240). Data were collected using questionnaires which includes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire, and Ethical Performance Scale (EPS). The results of the regression analyses showed that work engagement and sense of humor both positively predicted the outcome variables. Mediation analysis reveals that psychological capital mediates the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The study recommends that the framework presented in this study can be an important tool for managers to enhance their employees’ psychological capital by increasing their levels of work engagement and sense of humor. In turn, psychological capital could be a positive resource for employees to dealing more ethically and enhancing more positive workplace behaviour.
77
99605
Analyzing Energy Consumption Behavior of Migrated Population in Turkey Using Bayesian Belief Approach
Abstract:
In Turkey, emigration, especially from Syria, has been continuously increasing together with rapid urbanization. In parallel to this, total energy consumption has been growing, rapidly. Unfortunately, domestic energy sources could not meet this energy demand. Hence, there is a need for reliable predictions. For this reason, before making a survey study for the migrated people, an informative questionnaire was prepared to take the opinions of the experts on the main drivers that shape the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people. Totally, 17 experts were answered, and they were analyzed by means of Netica program considering Bayesian belief analysis method. In the analysis, factors affecting energy consumption behaviors as well as strategies, institutions, tools and financing methods to change these behaviors towards efficient consumption were investigated. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that changing the energy consumption behavior of the migrated people is crucial. In order to be successful, electricity and natural gas prices and tariffs in the market should be arranged considering energy efficiency. In addition, support mechanisms by not only the government but also municipalities should be taken into account while preparing related policies. Also, electric appliance producers should develop and implement strategies and action in favor of the usage of more efficient appliances. Last but not least, non-governmental organizations should support the migrated people to improve their awareness on the efficient consumption for the sustainable future.
76
64994
The Emerging Global Judicial Ethics: Issues and Problems
Abstract:
In many states around the world, actions to improve judicial ethics are developing significantly through the production of professional standards for judges. The quest to improve the ethics of judges is legitimate. However, as this development tends to be very important at the moment, some risks it presents must be highlighted. Indeed, if the objective of improving Judges&rsquo; Ethics is legitimate, it can also lead to banalization of justice, reinforcement of criticism against the judiciary and to broach incidentally the question of the limits of judgment, which is most perilous for the independence of the judiciary. This research, based on case studies, interviews with judges and an analysis of the literature on this topic (mainly from the United States of America and European Union Member States), tends to draw attention to the fact that the result of the development of these professional standards is that the ethical requirements of judges become ethical requirements of justice, which is an undesirable effect of which we must be aware, in order to prevent it.
75
36689
Psychodiagnostic Tool Development for Measurement of Social Responsibility in Ukrainian Organizations
Abstract:
How to define the understanding of social responsibility issues by Ukrainian companies is a contravention question. Thus, one of the practical uses of social responsibility is a diagnostic tool development for educational, business or scientific purposes. So the purpose of this research is to develop a tool for measurement of social responsibility in organization. Methodology: A 21-item questionnaire “Organization Social Responsibility Scale” was developed. This tool was adapted for the Ukrainian sample and based on the questionnaire “Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility” which connects ethical and socially responsible behavior to different aspects of the organizational effectiveness. After surveying the respondents, the factor analysis was made by the method of main compounds with orthogonal rotation VARIMAX. On the basis of the obtained results the 21-item questionnaire was developed (Cronbach’s alpha – 0,768; Inter-Item Correlations – 0,34). Participants: 121 managers at all levels of Ukrainian organizations (57 males; 65 females) took part in the research. Results: Factor analysis showed five ethical dilemmas concerning the social responsibility and profit compatibility in Ukrainian organizations. Below we made an attempt to interpret them: — Social responsibility vs profit. Corporate social responsibility can be a way to reduce operational costs. A firm’s first priority is employees’ morale. Being ethical and socially responsible is the priority of the organization. The most loaded question is "Corporate social responsibility can reduce operational costs". Significant effect of this factor is 0.768. — Profit vs social responsibility. Efficiency is much more important to a firm than ethics or social responsibility. Making the profit is the most important concern for a firm. The dominant question is "Efficiency is much more important to a firm than whether or not the firm is seen as ethical or socially responsible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.793. — A balanced combination of social responsibility and profit. Organization with social responsibility policy is more attractive for its stakeholders. The most loaded question is "Social responsibility and profitability can be compatible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.802. — Role of Social Responsibility in the successful organizational performance. Understanding the value of social responsibility and business ethics. Well-being and welfare of the society. The dominant question is "Good ethics is often good business". Significant effect of this factor is 0.727. — Global vision of social responsibility. Issues related to global social responsibility and sustainability. Innovative approaches to poverty reduction. Awareness of climate change problems. Global vision for successful business. The dominant question is "The overall effectiveness of a business can be determined to a great extent by the degree to which it is ethical and socially responsible". Significant effect of this factor is 0.842. The theoretical contribution. The perspective of the study is to develop a tool for measurement social responsibility in organizations and to test questionnaire’s adequacy for social and cultural context. Practical implications. The research results can be applied for designing a training programme for business school students to form their global vision for successful business as well as the ability to solve ethical dilemmas in managerial practice. Researchers interested in social responsibility issues are welcome to join the project.
74
31959
An Introduction to the Current Epistemology of Ethical Philosophy of Islamic Banking
Abstract:
Ethical philosophy of Quran pinnacled virtue and economics as the part and parcel of human life. Human beings are to be imagined by the sign of morals. Soul and morality are both among the essences of human personality. Islam lays the foundation of ethics by installation of making a momentous variance between virtue and vice. It suggests for the distribution of wealth in-order to terminate accumulation of economic resources. Quran claims for the ambiguous pavement to attain virtue by saying, ‘Never will you attain the good (reward) until you spend (in the way of Allah) from that which you love. And whatever you spend indeed, Allah knows of it.’ The essence of Quran is to eliminate all the deep-seated approaches through which the wealth of nations is being accumulated within few hands. The paper will study the Quranic Philosophy Of Islamic Economic System. In recent times, to get out of the human resource development mystery of Muslims, Ismail Al-Raji Faruqi led the way in the so-called ‘Islamization’ of knowledge. Rahman and Faruqi formed opposite opinions on this project. Al-Faruqi thought of the Islamization of knowledge in terms of introducing Western learning into received Islamic values and vice versa. This proved to be a mere peripheral treatment of Islamic values in relation to Western knowledge. It is true that out of the programme of Islamization of knowledge arose Islamic universities in many Muslim countries. Yet the academic programmes of these universities were not founded upon a substantive understanding and application of the tawhidi epistemology.
73
83919
Legume and Nuts Consumption in Relation to Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults
Abstract:
Background: Although considerable research has been devoted to the link between consumption of legume and nuts and metabolic abnormalities, few studies have examined legume and nuts consumption in relation to psychological disorders. Objective: The current study aimed to examine the association of legume and nuts consumption with depression, anxiety and psychological distress in Iranian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 3172 adult participants aged 18-55 years. Assessment of legume and nuts consumption was conducted using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to examine psychological health. Scores of 8 or more on either subscale in the questionnaire were considered to indicate the presence of depression or anxiety. Data on psychological distress were collected through the use of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), in which the score of 4 or more was considered as having psychological distress. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.5±7.9 years. Compared with the lowest quintile, men in the highest quintile of legume and nuts consumption had lower odds of anxiety; such that after adjusting for potential confounding variables, men in the top quintile of legume and nuts consumption were 66% less likely to be anxious than those in the bottom quintile (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.82). Such relationship was not observed among women. We failed to find any significant association between legume plus nuts consumption and depression or psychological distress after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion: We found that consumption of legume and nuts was associated with lower odds of anxiety in men, but not in women. No significant association was seen between consumption of legume and nuts and odds of depression or psychological disorder. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
72
54389
Comparison of Power Consumption of WiFi Inbuilt Internet of Things Device with Bluetooth Low Energy
Abstract:
The Internet of things (IoT) is currently a highly researched topic, especially within the context of the smart home. These are small sensors that are capable of gathering data and transmitting it to a server. The majority of smart home products use protocols such as ZigBee or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). As these small sensors are increasing in number, the need to implement these with much more capable and ubiquitous transmission technology is necessary. The high power consumption is the reason that holds these small sensors back from using other protocols such as the most ubiquitous form of communication, WiFi. Comparing the power consumption of existing transmission technologies to one with WiFi inbuilt, would provide a better understanding for choosing between these technologies. We have developed a small IoT device with WiFi capability and proven that it is much more efficient than the first protocol, 433 MHz. We extend our work in this paper and compare WiFi power consumption with the other most widely used protocol BLE. The experimental results in this paper would conclude whether the developed prototype is capable in terms of power consumption to replace the existing protocol BLE with WiFi.
71
44068
Modelling Vehicle Fuel Consumption Utilising Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:
The main source of energy used in this modern age is fossil fuels. There is a myriad of problems that come with the use of fossil fuels, out of which the issues with the greatest impact are its scarcity and the cost it imposes on the planet. Fossil fuels are the only plausible option for many vital functions and processes; the most important of these is transportation. Thus, using this source of energy wisely and as efficiently as possible is a must. The aim of this work was to explore utilising mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques to enhance fuel consumption in passenger cars by focusing on the speed at which cars are driven. An artificial neural network with an error less than 0.05 was developed to be applied practically as to predict the rate of fuel consumption in vehicles.
70
94001
Dematerialized Beings in Katherine Dunn's Geek Love: A Corporeal and Ethical Study under Posthumanities
Authors:
Abstract:
This study identifies the dynamical image of human body that continues its metamorphosis in the virtual field of reality. It calls attention to the ways where humans start co-evolving with other life forms; technology in particular and are striving to establish a realm outside the physical framework of matter. The problem exceeds the area of technological ethics by explicably and explanatorily entering the space of literary texts and criticism. Textual analysis of Geek Love (1989) by Katherine Dunn is adjoined with posthumanist perspectives of Pramod K. Nayar to beget psycho-somatic changes in man’s nature of being. It uncovers the meaning people give to their experiences in this budding social and cultural phenomena of material representation tied up with personal practices and technological innovations. It also observes an ethical, physical and psychological reassessment of man within the context of technological evolutions. The study indicates the elements that have rendered morphological freedom and new materialism in man’s consciousness. Moreover this work is inquisitive of what it means to be a human in this time of accelerating change where surgeries, implants, extensions, cloning and robotics have shaped a new sense of being. It attempts to go beyond individual’s body image and explores how objectifying media and culture have influenced people’s judgement of others on new material grounds. It further argues a decentring of the glorified image of man as an independent entity because of his energetic partnership with intelligent machines and external agents. The history of the future progress of technology is also mentioned. The methodology adopted is posthumanist techno-ethical textual analysis. This work necessitates a negotiating relationship between man and technology in order to achieve harmonic and balanced interconnected existence. The study concludes by recommending a call for an ethical set of codes to be cultivated for the techno-human habituation. Posthumanism ushers a strong need of adopting new ethics within the terminology of neo-materialist humanism.
69
54774
Development of Prediction Models of Day-Ahead Hourly Building Electricity Consumption and Peak Power Demand Using the Machine Learning Method
Abstract:
To encourage building owners to purchase electricity at the wholesale market and reduce building peak demand, this study aims to develop models that predict day-ahead hourly electricity consumption and demand using artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). All prediction models are built in Python, with tool Scikit-learn and Pybrain. The input data for both consumption and demand prediction are time stamp, outdoor dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air handling unit (AHU), supply air temperature and solar radiation. Solar radiation, which is unavailable a day-ahead, is predicted at first, and then this estimation is used as an input to predict consumption and demand. Models to predict consumption and demand are trained in both SVM and ANN, and depend on cooling or heating, weekdays or weekends. The results show that ANN is the better option for both consumption and demand prediction. It can achieve 15.50% to 20.03% coefficient of variance of root mean square error (CVRMSE) for consumption prediction and 22.89% to 32.42% CVRMSE for demand prediction, respectively. To conclude, the presented models have potential to help building owners to purchase electricity at the wholesale market, but they are not robust when used in demand response control.
68
41724
Towards Sustainable Consumption: A Framework for Assessing Supplier's Commitment
Abstract:
Product consumption constitutes an important consideration for sustainable development. Seeing how product consumption could be highly unsustainable, coupled with how existing policies on corporate responsibility do not particularly address the consumption aspect of product lifecycle, conducting this research became necessary. The research makes an attempt to provide a framework by which to gauge corporate responsibility of product suppliers in terms of their commitment towards the sustainable consumption of their products. Through an exploration of relevant literature, independently established ideas with which to assess a given product supplier were galvanised into a four-criterion framework. The criteria are: (1) Embeddedness of consumption as a factor in corporate sustainability policy, (2) Level of understanding of consumption behaviour, (3) Breadth of behaviour-influencing strategies adopted, and (4) Inclusiveness for all main dimensions of sustainability. This resulting framework was then applied in a case study involving a UK-based furniture supplier where interviews and content analysis of corporate documents were used as the mode for primary data collection. From the case study, it was found that the supplier had performed to different levels across the four themes of the assessment. Two major areas for improvement were however identified – one is for the furniture supplier to focus more proactively on understanding consumption behaviour and, two is for it to widen the scope of its current strategies for enhancing sustainable consumption of supplied furniture. As a generalisation, the framework presented here makes it possible for companies to reflect with a sense of guidance, how they have demonstrated commitment towards sustainable consumption through their values, culture, and operations. It also provides a foundation for developing standardized assessment which the current widely used frameworks such as the GRI, the Global Compact, and others do not cover. While these popularly used frameworks mainly focus on sustainability of companies within the production and supply chain management contexts (i.e. mostly ‘upstream’), the framework here provides an extension by bringing the ‘downstream’ or consumer bit into light.
67
30404
Is Electricity Consumption Stationary in Turkey?
Authors:
Abstract:
The number of research articles analyzing the integration properties of energy variables has rapidly increased in the energy literature for about a decade. The stochastic behaviors of energy variables are worth knowing due to several reasons. For instance, national policies to conserve or promote energy consumption, which should be taken as shocks to energy consumption, will have transitory effects in energy consumption if energy consumption is found to be stationary in one country. Furthermore, it is also important to know the order of integration to employ an appropriate econometric model. Despite being an important subject for applied energy (economics) and having a huge volume of studies, several known limitations still exist with the existing literature. For example, many of the studies use aggregate energy consumption and national level data. In addition, a huge part of the literature is either multi-country studies or solely focusing on the U.S. This is the first study in the literature that considers a form of energy consumption by sectors at sub-national level. This research study aims at investigating unit root properties of electricity consumption for 12 regions of Turkey by four sectors in addition to total electricity consumption for the purpose of filling the mentioned limits in the literature. In this regard, we analyze stationarity properties of 60 cases . Because the use of multiple unit root tests make the results robust and consistent, we apply Dickey-Fuller unit root test based on Generalized Least Squares regression (DFGLS), Phillips-Perron unit root test (PP) and Zivot-Andrews unit root test with one endogenous structural break (ZA). The main finding of this study is that electricity consumption is trend stationary in 7 cases according to DFGLS and PP, whereas it is stationary process in 12 cases when we take into account the structural change by applying ZA. Thus, shocks to electricity consumption have transitory effects in those cases; namely, agriculture in region 1, region 4 and region 7, industrial in region 5, region 8, region 9, region 10 and region 11, business in region 4, region 7 and region 9, total electricity consumption in region 11. Regarding policy implications, policies to decrease or stimulate the use of electricity have a long-run impact on electricity consumption in 80% of cases in Turkey given that 48 cases are non-stationary process. On the other hand, the past behavior of electricity consumption can be used to predict the future behavior of that in 12 cases only.
66
61808
Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
Abstract:
It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
65
3352
Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria (1971-2012)
Abstract:
Few scholars disagrees that electricity consumption is an important supporting factor for economy growth. However, the relationship between electricity consumption and economy growth has different manifestation in different countries according to previous studies. This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth for Nigeria. In an attempt to do this, the paper tests the validity of the modernization or depending hypothesis by employing various econometric tools such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration test, the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and Granger Causality test on time series data from 1971-2012. The Granger causality is found not to run from electricity consumption to real GDP and from GDP to electricity consumption during the year of study. The null hypothesis is accepted at the 5 per cent level of significance where the probability value (0.2251 and 0.8251) is greater than five per cent level of significance because both of them are probably determined by some other factors like; increase in urban population, unemployment rate and the number of Nigerians that benefit from the increase in GDP and increase in electricity demand is not determined by the increase in GDP (income) over the period of study because electricity demand has always been greater than consumption. Consequently; the policy makers in Nigeria should place priority in early stages of reconstruction on building capacity additions and infrastructure development of the electric power sector as this would force the sustainable economic growth in Nigeria.
64
33896
Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Potential for HVAC System in Commercial Buildings Sector in India
Abstract:
In order to reduce energy consumption for sustainable development, continuous energy consumption tracking of building energy systems are essential. In this paper an assessment study has been done to identify the energy consumption & energy conservation potential for commercial buildings sector in Karnataka state, India. There are a total of 326 commercial buildings in the state of Karnataka who has qualified as designated consumers (i.e., having a Contract Demand ≥ 600 KVA), was consider for the study. It has estimated that the annual electricity sale to commercial sector is 3.62 Billion Units (BU) in alone Karnataka State, India, which is an account for 9.57 % of the total electricity sold. The commercial sector constitutes Government & private establishments, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, malls etc. Total 326 commercial buildings in the state accounting for annual energy consumption of 1295.72 Million Units (MU) which works out to about 35% of the sectoral consumption. The annual energy savings potential for 326 commercial buildings is assessed to be 0.25 BU.
63
105751
Realizing the Full Potential of Islamic Banking System: Proposed Suitable Legal Framework for Islamic Banking System in Tanzania
Abstract:
Laws of any given secular state have a huge contribution in the growth of the Islamic banking system because the system uses conventional laws to govern its activities. Therefore, the former should be ready to accommodate the latter in order to make the Islamic banking system work properly without affecting the current conventional banking system and therefore without affecting its system. Islamic financial rules have been practiced since the birth of Islam. Following the recent world economic challenges in the financial sector, a quick rebirth of the contemporary Islamic ethical banking system took place. The coming of the Islamic banking system is due to various reasons including but not limited to the failure of the interest based economy in solving financial problems around the globe. Therefore, the Islamic banking system has been adopted as an alternative banking system in order to recover the highly damaged global financial sector. But the Islamic banking system has been facing a number of challenges which hinder its smooth operation in different parts of the world. It has not been the aim of this paper to discuss other challenges rather than the legal ones, but the same was partly discussed when it was justified that it was proper to do so. Generally, there are so many things which have been discovered in the course of writing this paper. The most important part is the issue of the regulatory and supervisory framework for the Islamic banking system in Tanzania and in other nations is considered to be a crucial part for the development of the Islamic banking industry. This paper analyses what has been observed in the study on that area and recommends for necessary actions to be taken on board in a bid to make Islamic banking system reach its climax of serving the larger community by providing ethical, equitable, affordable, interest-free and society cantered banking system around the globe.
62
32145
The Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis
Abstract:
Turkey is a country in the process of development and its economy has undergone structural reforms in order to realize a sustainable development and energy has vital role as a basic input for this aim. Turkey has been in the process of economic growth and development and, because of this, has an increasing energy need. This paper investigates relationship between economic growth and electricity consumption using annual data for Turkey between 1970-2008 by using bounds test. As economic growth and energy consumption variables used in empirical analysis was different order of integration I(0) and I(1), we employed bounds test approach. We have not found co-integration relationship between the variables.
61
130956
A Particle Swarm Optimal Control Method for DC Motor by Considering Energy Consumption
Abstract:
In the actual start-up process of DC motors, the DC drive system often faces a conflict between energy consumption and acceleration performance. To resolve the conflict, this paper proposes a comprehensive performance index that energy consumption index is added on the basis of classical control performance index in the DC motor starting process. Taking the comprehensive performance index as the cost function, particle swarm optimization algorithm is designed to optimize the comprehensive performance. Then it conducts simulations on the optimization of the comprehensive performance of the DC motor on condition that the weight coefficient of the energy consumption index should be properly designed. The simulation results show that as the weight of energy consumption increased, the energy efficiency was significantly improved at the expense of a slight sacrifice of fastness indicators with the comprehensive performance index method. The energy efficiency was increased from 63.18% to 68.48% and the response time reduced from 0.2875s to 0.1736s simultaneously compared with traditional proportion integrals differential controller in energy saving.
60
23350
West Meets Islam in Contemporary World, Leadership Perspective
Abstract:
Islam is a way of life than merely a religion that covers all facets of Muslim affairs and lifes. It provides the most comprehensive values, principles and guidance that are based on divine sources to all mankind in all spheres including leadership. Islamic leadership is all encompassing and holistic model of leadership that offers the tauhidic paradigm, spiritual and ethical (akhlaq) dimensions that are absent in the modern conventional leadership theories. Islamic leadership has a glorious history of great success from the era of the Prophet S.A.W. and the following caliphs that had conquered almost one third of the world territory during that time, as their leadership was paragon of excellence that followed to the spirits and teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. As the modern civilisation designed by the West takes place, the modern leadership theories has been dominating the world and literature including those in the Muslim countries. However, it is clear that values and principles derived from Islam and the West are distinct, as the Islamic ones are based on divine, the non-Islamics are not indeed as there are based on human rational and judgement. Recent development in business organisations and literature have seen the tendency towards moral, ethical, even spiritual and positive form of leadership such as servant leadership, ethical leadership, authentic leadership and spiritual leadership that found its root in the Islamic model of leadership.This development has surfaced after series of serious ethical dilemma, corporate scandals and leadership crisis in the West. This paper aims to draw a comparative discussions and analysis between the modern conventional leadership theories with the Islamic leadership by highlighting the key dimensions that distinguish the two. It is suggested in this paper that the core dimensions of Islamic leadership are spiritual dimension, moral and ethical dimension and physical dimension which is also paralleled with the roles of khalifah of Allah on earth; relationship with Allah, relationship with human beings and relationship with the environment respectively. Islam is a way of life than merely a religion that covers all facets of Muslim affairs and lifes. It provides the most comprehensive values, principles and guidance that are based on divine sources to all mankind in all spheres including leadership. Islamic leadership is all encompassing and holistic model of leadership that offers the tauhidic paradigm, spiritual and ethical (akhlaq) dimensions that are absent in the modern conventional leadership theories. Islamic leadership has a glorious history of great success from the era of the Prophet S.A.W. and the following caliphs that had conquered almost one third of the world territory during that time, as their leadership was paragon of excellence that followed to the spirits and teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. As the modern civilisation designed by the West takes place, the modern leadership theories has been dominating the world and literature including those in the Muslim countries. However, it is clear that values and principles derived from Islam and the West are distinct, as the Islamic ones are based on divine, the non-Islamics are not indeed as there are based on human rational and judgement. Recent development in business organisations and literature have seen the tendency towards moral, ethical, even spiritual and positive form of leadership such as servant leadership, ethical leadership, authentic leadership and spiritual leadership that found its root in the Islamic model of leadership.This development has surfaced after series of serious ethical dilemma, corporate scandals and leadership crisis in the West. This paper aims to draw a comparative discussions and analysis between the modern conventional leadership theories with the Islamic leadership by highlighting the key dimensions that distinguish the two. It is suggested in this paper that the core dimensions of Islamic leadership are spiritual dimension, moral and ethical dimension and physical dimension which is also paralleled with the roles of khalifah of Allah on earth; relationship with Allah, relationship with human beings and relationship with the environment respectively.
59
110820
The Ethical Imperative of Corporate Social Responsibility Practice and Disclosure by Firms in Nigeria Delta Swamplands: A Qualitative Analysis
Abstract:
As a mono-product economy, Nigeria relies largely on oil revenues for its foreign exchange earnings and the exploration activities of firms operating in the Niger Delta region have left in its wake tales of environmental degradation, poverty and misery. This, no doubt, have created corporate social responsibility issues in the region. The focus of this research is the critical evaluation of the ethical response to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practice by firms operating in Nigeria Delta Swamplands. While CSR is becoming more popular in developed society with effective practice guidelines and reporting benchmark, there is a relatively low level of awareness and selective applicability of existing international guidelines to effectively support CSR practice in Nigeria. This study, haven identified the lack of CSR institutional framework attempts to develop an ethically-driven CSR transparency benchmark laced within a regulatory framework based on international best practices. The research adopts a qualitative methodology and makes use of primary data collected through semi-structured interviews conducted across the six core states of the Niger Delta Region. More importantly, the study adopts an inductive, interpretivist philosophical paradigm that reveal deep phenomenological insights into what local communities, civil society and government officials consider as good ethical benchmark for responsible CSR practice by organizations. The institutional theory provides for the main theoretical foundation, complemented by the stakeholder and legitimacy theories. The Nvivo software was used to analyze the data collected. This study shows that ethical responsibility is lacking in CSR practice by firms in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Furthermore, findings of the study indicate key issues of environmental, health and safety, human rights, and labour as fundamental in developing an effective CSR practice guideline for Nigeria. The study has implications for public policy formulation as well as managerial perspective.
58
117875
A Study of the Trade-off Energy Consumption-Performance-Schedulability for DVFS Multicore Systems
Abstract:
Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) multicore platforms are promising execution platforms that enable high computational performance, less energy consumption and flexibility in scheduling the system processes. However, the resulting interleaving and memory interference together with per-core frequency tuning make real-time guarantees hard to be delivered. Besides, energy consumption represents a strong constraint for the deployment of such systems on energy-limited settings. Identifying the system configurations that would achieve a high performance and consume less energy while guaranteeing the system schedulability is a complex task in the design of modern embedded systems. This work studies the trade-off between energy consumption, cores utilization and memory bottleneck and their impact on the schedulability of DVFS multicore time-critical systems with a hierarchy of shared memories. We build a model-based framework using Parametrized Timed Automata of UPPAAL to analyze the mutual impact of performance, energy consumption and schedulability of DVFS multicore systems, and demonstrate the trade-off on an actual case study.
57
36227
Insulation, Sustainable Construction, and Architectural Design to Reduce Energy Consumption in Sustainable Buildings
Abstract:
Nowadays according to increasing the population all around the world, consuming of fossil fuels increased dramatically. Many believe that most of the atmospheric pollution comes by using fossil fuels. The process of natural sources entering cities show one of the large challenges in consumption sources management. Nowadays, everyone considered about the consumption of fossil fuels and also reduction of consumption civil energy in megacities that play a key role in solving serious problems such as air pollution, producing greenhouse gasses, global warming and damage ozone layer. In construction industry we should use the materials with the lowest need to energy for making and carrying them, and also the materials which need the lowest energy and expenses to recycling. In this way, the kind of usage material, the way of processing, regional materials and the adaption with environment is critical. Otherwise, the isolation should be use and mention in long term. Accordingly, in this article we investigates the new ways in order to reduce environmental pollution and save more energy by using materials that are not harmful to the environment, fully insulated materials in buildings, sustainable and diversified buildings, suitable urban design and using solar energy more efficiently in order to reduce energy consumption.
56
15398
An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Control Algorithm on the Energy Consumption and Temperature Distribution of a Household Refrigerator
Abstract:
In order to determine the energy consumption level and cooling characteristics of a domestic refrigerator controlled with various cooling system algorithms, a side by side type (SBS) refrigerator was tested in temperature and humidity controlled chamber conditions. Two different control algorithms; so-called drop-in and frequency controlled variable capacity compressor algorithms, were tested on the same refrigerator. Refrigerator cooling characteristics were investigated for both cases and results were compared with each other. The most important comparison parameters between the two algorithms were taken as; temperature distribution, energy consumption, evaporation and condensation temperatures, and refrigerator run times. Standard energy consumption tests were carried out on the same appliance and resulted in almost the same energy consumption levels, with a difference of %1,5. By using these two different control algorithms, the power consumptions character/profile of the refrigerator was found to be similar. By following the associated energy measurement standard, the temperature values of the test packages were measured to be slightly higher for the frequency controlled algorithm compared to the drop-in algorithm. This paper contains the details of this experimental study conducted with different cooling control algorithms and compares the findings based on the same standard conditions.
55
34125
Simulation and Study of the Effect of Paint Mineral Coating on Energy Saving
Abstract:
By using an adequate paint in buildings, energy consumption can be decreased. In this research, a range of wall paints in different climatic conditions has been investigated to observe its effect on energy consumption. In the current study, the researchers have investigated the effect of different parameters including climatic condition, absorption coefficient, and thermal loads on paint coating. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a typical building with different color paints have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and a comparison was drawn between paints and painting coats with inorganic micro particles in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption.
54
63735
EcoLife and Greed Index Measurement: An Alternative Tool to Promote Sustainable Communities and Eco-Justice
Abstract:
Greed, as epitomized by overconsumption of natural resources, is at the root of ecological destruction and unsustainability of modern societies. Presently economies rely on unrestricted structural greed which fuels unlimited economic growth, overconsumption, and individualistic competitive behavior. Structural greed undermines the life support system on earth and threatens ecological integrity, social justice and peace. The World Council of Churches (WCC) has developed a program on ecological and economic justice (EEJ) with the aim to promote an economy of life where the economy is embedded in society and society in ecology. This paper aims at analyzing and assessing the economy of life (EcoLife) by offering an empirical tool to measure and monitor the root causes and effects of unsustainability resulting from human greed on global, national, institutional and individual levels. This holistic approach is based on the integrity of ecology and economy in a society founded on justice. The paper will discuss critical questions such as ‘what is an economy of life’ and ‘how to measure and control it from the effect of greed’. A model called GLIMS, which stands for Greed Lines and Indices Measurement System is used to clarify the concept of greed and help measuring the economy of life index by fuzzy logic reasoning. The inputs of the model are from statistical indicators of natural resources consumption, financial realities, economic performance, social welfare and ethical and political facts. The outputs are concrete measures of three primary indices of ecological, economic and socio-political greed (ECOL-GI, ECON-GI, SOCI-GI) and one overall multidimensional economy of life index (EcoLife-I). EcoLife measurement aims to build awareness of an economy life and to address the effects of greed in systemic and structural aspects. It is a tool for ethical diagnosis and policy making.
53
41864
The Role of Ethical Orientation in Two Countries: Different Outcomes in Perception of Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behavior Intention
Abstract:
This study identifies and examines the impact of factors on two types of CSR outcomes, consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intentions. Specifically we investigated the roles of two factors - the consumers’ perceptions of CSR motives of a company (i.e. business-oriented vs. society-oriented) and their ethical orientations (i.e. deontology vs. consequentialism). A web-based survey was conducted in South Korea and the United States respectively to compare the differences of consumer reactions between the two countries. The results show that consumers in two countries behave differently to a firm’s CSR motives. In the United States, when consumers perceive a company’s CSR motive as society-oriented, they are more likely to perceive the company authentic and as a result more likely to engage in pro-firm behavior. However, when consumers’ ethical orientation is considered, only consumers’ consequential orientation led to their pro-firm behavioral intention. In South Korea, interpretation of two different CSR motives affects the valence in consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity (i.e. society-oriented CSR motive and positive perception of corporate authenticity vs. business-oriented CSR motive and negative perception of corporate authenticity). Korean consumers also showed same pattern in terms of relationship among society-oriented CSR motive, perception of corporate authenticity, and pro-firm behavior intention. Interestingly, Korean consumers’ consequential orientation affects both their perception of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intention positively. In addition, there was an interaction effect of business-oriented CSR motive and deontological orientation on perception of corporate authenticity. Theoretical and practical implications will be discussed.
52
89401
An Analysis of the Relationship between Consumer Perception and Purchase Behavior towards Green Fashion in India
Abstract:
The green fashion market is growing rapidly as eco-friendly consumers are willing to expand their organic lifestyle to include clothing. With an increasing share of fashion consumers globally, Indian consumers are observed to consider the social and environmental ethics while making purchasing decisions. While some research clearly identifies the efforts of responsible consumers towards green fashion, some argue that fashion-orientated consumers who are sensitive towards environment do not actively participate towards supporting green fashion. This study aims to analyze the current perception of green fashion among Indian consumers. A small-scale exploratory study is conducted where consumers’ perception of green fashion is examined followed by an analysis of translation of this perception into purchase decision making. This research paper gives insight into consumer awareness on green fashion and provides scope towards the expansion of ethical fashion consumption within the demography of India.
51
14268
Windcatcher as Sustainable Solution for Natural Ventilation in Hot Arid Regions: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Currently, building energy consumption has become an international issue especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia 14% of total final energy consumption is utilized in the building sector. Due to hot arid climate, 60% of total building energy consumption in this country is associated with cooling systems. In addition in 2011, this country was one of top ten CO2 emitting countries which illustrate the significance of renewable resources to sustaining the energy consumption. Wind as an important renewable energy can play a prominent role to supply natural ventilation inside the building and windcatcher as a traditional technique can be implemented for this purpose. In this paper the different types of windcatchers, its performance and function was reviewed. It can be concluded due high temperature and low humidity in most area of Saudi Arabia this technique can be successfully be employed and help to reduce fossil energy consumption and related CO2 emissions.
50
89941
Improvement of Energy Consumption toward Sustainable Ceramic Industry in Indonesia
Abstract:
The industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy consumption in Indonesia. The ceramics industry includes one of seven industries categorized as an energy-intensive industry. Energy costs on the ceramic floor production process reached 40 percent of the total production cost. The kiln is one of the machines in the ceramic industry that consumes the most gas energy reach 51 percent of gas consumption in ceramic production. The purpose of this research is to make improvement of energy consumption in kiln machine part with the innovation of burner tube to support the sustainability of Indonesian ceramics industry. The tube burner is technically designed to be able to raise the temperature and stabilize the air pressure in the burner so as to facilitate the combustion process in the kiln machine which implies the efficiency of gas consumption required. The innovation of the burner tube also has an impact on the decrease of the combustion chamber pressure in the kiln and managed to keep the pressure of the combustion chamber according to the operational standard of the kiln; consequently, the smoke fan motor power can be lowered and the kiln electric energy consumption is also more efficient. The innovation of burner tube succeeded in saving consume of gas and electricity respectively by 0.0654 GJ and 1,693 x 10-3 GJ for every ton of ceramics produced. Improvement of this energy consumption not only implies the cost savings of production but also supports the sustainability of the Indonesian ceramics industry.
49
129303
The Connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and Ethical Principles in Clinical Psychology
Abstract:
The research deals with the connection between the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values and the ethical principles in psychology, on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The research focuses on ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology in the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of papers that identified ethically problematic situations faced by clinical psychologists, a questionnaire of ethically problematic situations in clinical psychology (EPSCP) was created for the purposes of the research. The questionnaire was created to represent situations that correspond to the 4 principles on which the meta-code of ethics the European Federation of Psychological Associations is based. The questionnaire EPSCP consists of descriptions of 32 situations that respondents evaluate on a scale from 1 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically perfectly fine) to 10 (psychologist's behaviour is ethically completely unacceptable). The EPSCP questionnaire, together with Schwartz's PVQ questionnaire, will be presented to 60 psychology students. The relationship between principles in clinical psychology and the values on Schwartz´s value continuum will be described using multidimensional scaling. A positive correlation is assumed between the higher-order value of openness to change and problematic ethical situations related to the principle of integrity; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of self-transcendence and the principle of respect and responsibility; a positive correlation between the value of the higher order of conservation and the principle of competence; and negative correlation between the value of the higher order of ego strengthening and sensitivity to ethically problematic situations. The research also includes an experimental part. The first half of the students are presented with the code of ethics of the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists before completing the questionnaires, and to the second half of the students is the code of ethics presented after completing the questionnaires. In addition to reading the code of ethics, students describe the three rules of the code of ethics that they consider most important and state why they chose these rules. The output of the experimental part will be to determine whether the presentation of the code of ethics leads to greater sensitivity to ethically problematic situations.
48
102696
Influence of Coatings on Energy Conservation in Construction Industry
Abstract:
World energy consumption has increased rapidly in the past few years. Due to population growth, total energy consumption is increasing; a large amount of energy is wasted on the cooling and heating processes in buildings. However, using thermal heating management can minimize costs, heat consumption and create a management system for the heat insulation for buildings. This concept is being implemented through different approaches. Based on analysis and research, there is evidence in the energy consumption before and after testing and applying construction approaches for thermal heating management in building units. This investigation addresses the evaluation of the influence of external coatings on energy consumption. Coatings are considered one of the smart effective available approaches for energy efficiency. Unfortunately, this approach is not widely applied in the construction industry. It needs more data to prove effectiveness and credibility between people to use it as a smart thermal insulation approach. Two precedents have been analyzed in order to monitor buildings’ heat exposure, and how the buildings will be affected by thermal insulation materials. Data sheets from chemical companies which produce similar coatings are compared with the usual products and the protective thermal products.
47
73606
A Study on the Conspicuous Consumption, Involvement and Physical and Mental Health of Pet Owners
Abstract:
This study is to explore the relationship between the conspicuous consumption, leisure involvement and physical and mental health, and to understand the prediction of conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement to physical and mental health. The data was collected and analysed by purposive sampling, and the research objects were the dog walkers in Taiwan area. A total of 300 questionnaires were issued and after shaving the invalid questionnaire, a total of 246 valid samples were collected, and the effective rate was 82%.. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement, and the conspicuous consumption and leisure involvement of dog walkers have a significant impact on physical and mental health, especially in self-expression, attractiveness and centrality of leisure involvement have a significant impact on physical and mental health.
46
39322
Towards the Use of Software Product Metrics as an Indicator for Measuring Mobile Applications Power Consumption
Abstract:
Maintaining factory default battery endurance rate over time in supporting huge amount of running applications on energy-restricted mobile devices has created a new challenge for mobile applications developer. While delivering customers’ unlimited expectations, developers are barely aware of efficient use of energy from the application itself. Thus developers need a set of valid energy consumption indicators in assisting them to develop energy saving applications. In this paper, we present a few software product metrics that can be used as an indicator to measure energy consumption of Android-based mobile applications in the early of design stage. In particular, Trepn Profiler (Power profiling tool for Qualcomm processor) has used to collect the data of mobile application power consumption, and then analyzed for the 23 software metrics in this preliminary study. The results show that McCabe cyclomatic complexity, number of parameters, nested block depth, number of methods, weighted methods per class, number of classes, total lines of code and method lines have direct relationship with power consumption of mobile application.
45
34795
Combining Chiller and Variable Frequency Drives
Abstract:
In most buildings, according to US Department of Energy Data Book, the electrical consumption attributable to centralized heating and ventilation of air- condition (HVAC) component can be as high as 40-60% of the total electricity consumption for an entire building. To provide efficient energy management for the market today, researchers are finding new ways to develop a system that can save electrical consumption of buildings even more. In this concept paper, a system known as Intelligent Chiller Energy Efficiency (iCEE) System is being developed that is capable of saving up to 25% from the chiller’s existing electrical energy consumption. In variable frequency drives (VFDs), research has found significant savings up to 30% of electrical energy consumption. Together with the VFDs at specific Air Handling Unit (AHU) of HVAC component, this system will save even more electrical energy consumption. The iCEE System is compatible with any make, model or age of centrifugal, rotary or reciprocating chiller air-conditioning systems which are electrically driven. The iCEE system uses engineering principles of efficiency analysis, enthalpy analysis, heat transfer, mathematical prediction, modified genetic algorithm, psychometrics analysis, and optimization formulation to achieve true and tangible energy savings for consumers.
44
80990
An Approach to Consumption of Exhaustible Resources Based on Islamic Justice and Hartwick Criteria
Abstract:
Nowadays, there is an increasing attention to the resources scarcity issues. Because of failure in present patterns in the field of the allocation of exhaustible resources between generations and the challenges related to economic justice supply, it is supposed, to present a pattern from the Islamic perspective in this essay. By using content analysis of religious texts, we conclude that governments should remove the gap which is exists between the per capita income of the poor and their minimum consumption (necessary consumption). In order to preserve the exhaustible resources for poor people) not for all), between all generations, government should invest exhaustible resources on endless resources according to Hartwick&rsquo;s criteria and should spend these benefits for poor people. But, if benefits did not cover the gap between minimum consumption and per capita income of poor levels in one generation, in this case, the government is responsible for covering this gap through the direct consumption of exhaustible resources. For an exact answer to this question, &lsquo;how much of exhaustible resources should expense to maintain justice between generations?&rsquo; The theoretical and mathematical modeling has been used and proper function has been provided. The consumption pattern is presented for economic policy makers in Muslim countries, and non-Muslim even, it can be useful.
43
33870
Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost
Abstract:
The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution
42
27055
Developing Model for Fuel Consumption Optimization in Aviation Industry
Abstract:
The contribution of aviation to society and economy is undisputedly significant. The aviation industry drives economic and social progress by contributing prominently to tourism, commerce and improved quality of life. Identifying the amount of fuel consumed by an aircraft while moving in both airspace and ground networks is critical to air transport economics. Aviation fuel is a major operating cost parameter of the aviation industry and at the same time it is prone to various constraints. This article aims to develop a model for fuel consumption of aviation product. The paper tailors the information for the fuel consumption optimization in terms of information development, information evaluation and information refinement. The information is evaluated and refined using statistical package R and Factor Analysis which is further validated with neural networking. The study explores three primary dimensions which are finally summarized into 23 influencing variables in contrast to 96 variables available in literature. The 23 variables explored in this study should be considered as highly influencing variables for fuel consumption which will contribute significantly towards fuel optimization.
41
27614
The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption, and GDP for Turkey: Time Series Analysis, 1980-2010
Authors:
Abstract:
The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of CO2 emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: crude oil, coal, natural gas, electricity), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Turkey using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Phillips–Perron (PP) test for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. All the variables in this study show very strong significant effects on GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests negative long-run causalities from consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil, coal and natural gas to GDP. Conversely, positive impacts of CO2 emissions and electricity consumption on GDP are found to be significant in Turkey during the period. There exists a short-run bidirectional relationship between electricity consumption and natural gas consumption. There exists a positive unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to natural gas consumption, while there exists a negative unidirectional causality running from natural gas consumption to electricity consumption. Moreover, GDP has a negative effect on electricity consumption in Turkey in the short run. Overall, the results support arguments that there are relationships among environmental quality, energy use and economic output but the associations can to be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Turkey over of period 1980-2010.
40
11918
The Energy Consumption by the Sector of Transport and His Impact on the Atmospheric Pollution
Abstract:
The transport is the base of the development of the exchanges and the business, being both a recognized determiner of the economic and social development. The development of the transport is in the center of the big challenges of development of countries, but it is also at the heart of big contradictions, since we integrate the environmental issues which are bound to him, in particular through the questions of energy. Indeed, the energy consumption by the sector of transport is one of bigger concerns, because it is increasing and it has a big impact on our environment. The main consequences are, the atmospheric pollution causing an increase of the greenhouse effect which causes a global warming. These global warming risks to engender a partial cast iron of polar caps so raising the level of seas, flooding the low coastal zones, certain islands and the deltas. Thus, the purpose of this communication is to present the impact of the energy consumption by the sector of transport on the air quality, showing its effect on the health and on the global warming.
39
92553
Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Semarang State University Campus
Abstract:
Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is the existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality, &nbsp;energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and awareness of citizens in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students and employees). The research area covers 6 faculties and one administrative center building. Data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The research used a quantitative descriptive method to analyze the data. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264. Total emission on campus UNNES is 7.862.281.56 kg/year, the tree absorption is 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still 1,575,031.18 kg/year of emissions, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions. The awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing energy consumption is seen in change the habit of: using energy-saving equipment (65%); reduce energy consumption per unit (68%); do energy literacy for UNNES citizens (74%). UNNES leaders always provide motivation to the citizens of UNNES, to reduce and change patterns of energy consumption.
38
30378
Optimal Energy Consumption with Semiconductor Lamps
Abstract:
Using LED lamps as lighting resources with new technology in designing lighting systems has been studied in this article. In this respect a history of LED emergence, its different manufacturing methods and technologies were revised, then their structure, light production line, its application and benefits in lighting industry has been evaluated. Finally, there is a comparison between these lamps and ordinary lamps to assess light parameters as well as energy consumption using DIALux software. Considering the results of analogies LED lamps have lower consumption and more lighting yield, therefore they are more economically feasible. Color variety, longer usage lap (circa 10 years) and compatibility with DC voltages are other LED lamps perquisites.
37
107866
Architecture Performance-Related Design Based on Graphic Parameterization
Abstract:
Architecture plane form is an important consideration in the design of green buildings due to its significant impact on energy performance. The most effective method to consider energy performance in the early design stages is parametric modelling. This paper presents a methodology to program plane forms using MATLAB language, generating 16 kinds of plane forms by changing four designed parameters. DesignBuilder (an energy consumption simulation software) was proposed to simulate the energy consumption of the generated planes. A regression mathematical model was established to study the relationship between the plane forms and their energy consumption. The main finding of the study suggested that there was a cubic function relationship between the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings and energy consumption, and there is also a cubic function relationship between the width-ratio and energy consumption. In the design, the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings should not be less than 2.5, and the width-ratio should not be less than 2.
36
2495
Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach
Abstract:
As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 periods. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential sector, a sector that is important for the contemplation of energy policy. The Phillips-Perron (P-P) unit root test is employed to infer the stationary of each variable while the bound test is executed to determine the existence of co-integration relationship among the variables, modeled in an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework. The CUSUM and CUSUM of squares tests are applied to ensure the stability of the model. The results suggest the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship and bidirectional Granger causality between EC and the macroeconomic variables. The empirical findings will help policy makers of Malaysia in developing new monitoring standards of energy consumption. As it is the major contributing factor in economic growth and CO2 emission, there is a need for more proper planning in Malaysia to attain future targets in order to cut emissions.
35
74988
The Study on Energy Saving in Clarification Process for Water Treatment Plant
Abstract:
Clarification is the turbidity removal process of water treatment plant. This paper was to study the factors affecting on energy consumption in order to control energy saving strategy. The factors studied were raw water turbidity in the range of 26-40 NTU and production rate in the range of 3.76-5.20 m³/sec. Clarifiers were sludge blanket and sludge recirculation clarifier. Experimental results found that the raw water turbidity was not affected significantly by energy consumption, while the production rate was affected significantly by energy consumption. Sludge blanket clarifier provided lower energy consumption than sludge recirculation clarifier about 32-37%. Subsequently, the operating pattern in production rate can be arranged to decreased energy consumption. The results showed that it can be reduced about 5.09 % of energy saving of clarification process about 754,655 Baht per year.
34
117346
Reduction of Energy Consumption Using Smart Home Techniques in the Household Sector
Abstract:
Outcomes of exhaustion of natural resources started influencing each spirit on this planet. Energy is an essential factor in this aspect. To restore the circumstance to the appropriate track, all attempts must focus on two fundamental branches: producing electricity from clean and renewable reserves and decreasing the overall unnecessary consumption of energy. The focal point of this paper will be on lessening the power consumption in the household&#39;s segment. This paper is an attempt to give a clear understanding of a framework called Reduction of Energy Consumption in Household Sector (RECHS) and how it should help householders to reduce their power consumption by substituting their household appliances, turning-off the appliances when stand-by modus is detected, and scheduling their appliances operation periods. Technically, the framework depends on utilizing Z-Wave compatible plug-ins which will be connected to the usual house devices to gauge and control them remotely and semi-automatically. The suggested framework underpins numerous quality characteristics, for example, integrability, scalability, security and adaptability.
33
52508
Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption
Abstract:
In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions which are one of critical network functions, and presents the virtual routing function allocation algorithm that minimizes the total power consumption. In addition, this study presents the useful allocation policy of virtual routing functions, based on an evaluation with a ladder-shaped network model. This policy takes the ratio of the power consumption of a routing function to that of a circuit and traffic distribution between areas into consideration. Furthermore, the present paper shows that there are cases where the use of NFV-based routing functions makes it possible to reduce the total power consumption dramatically, in comparison to a conventional network, in which it is not economically viable to distribute small-capacity routing functions.
32
77149
Evaluation of Hospital Antibiotic Policy Implementation at the Oncosurgery Ward: A Six Years' Experience
Abstract:
The Hospital Antibiotic Policy (HAP) should be implemented to rationalize the antibiotic use and to decrease the risk of spreading of spreading of resistant bacteria. The aim of our study was to describe the antibiotic consumption patterns at the single oncosurgery ward before and after implementation of the HAP. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the antibiotic use at the Oncosurgery Ward in Warsaw (Poland) in years 2011-2016. Calculations were based on daily defined doses (DDDs), DDDs/100 hospitalizations and DDDs/100 person-days, drug utilization rates (DU 90% and DU 100%) were also analysed. After implementation of the HAP, the total antibiotic consumption increased (365.35 DDD in 2011 vs. 1359,22 DDD in 2016). The significant change was observed in antibiotic consumption patterns: the use of amoxicillin clavulanate and carbapenems or glycopeptides decreased significantly (p < 0,05), while the use of ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides increased (p < 0,05). The DU100% rate varied from 6 in 2011 to 12 in 2016; while DU 90% rate varied from 2 in 2011 to 3-5 in 2013-2016. Although the implementation of the HAP did not result in the decreased total antibiotic consumption, it provided favorable changes in the antibiotic consumption patterns.
31
1597
Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013
Abstract:
The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.
30
36990
A Comprehensive Model of Professional Ethics Based on the Teachings of the Holy Quran
Abstract:
Professional ethic is a subject that has been an issue today, so most of the businesses, including the teaching profession, understand the need and importance of it. So they need to develop a code of professional ethics for their own. In this regard, this study seeks to answer the question, with respect to the integrity of the Qur'an (Nahl / 89), is it possible to contemplate the divine teachers conduct to extract the divine pattern for teaching and training? In the code of conduct for divine teachers what are the most important moral obligations and duties of the teaching professionals? The results of this study show that the teaching of Khidr, according to the Quran’s verses, Abundant and subtle hints emphasized that it can be as comprehensive and divine pattern used in teaching and in the drafting of the charter of professional ethics of teachers used it. Also, the results show that in there have been many ethical principles in prophet Khidr’s teaching pattern.The most important ethical principles include: Student assessment, using objective and not subjective examples, assessment during teaching, flexibility, and others. According to each of these principles can help teachers achieve their educational goals and lead human being in their path toward spiritual evaluation.
29
16597
Conceptualizing Clashing Values in the Field of Media Ethics
Abstract:
Lack of ethics is the crisis of the 21-century. Today’s global world is filled with economic, political, environmental, media/communication, and social crises that all generated by the eroding fabric of ethics and moral values that guide human’s decisions in all aspects of live. Our global world is guided by liberal western democratic principles and liberal capitalist economic principles that define and reinforce each other. In economic terms, capitalism has turned world economic systems into one market place of ideas and products controlled by big multinational corporations that not only determine the conditions and terms of commodity production and commodity exchange between countries, but also transform the political economy of media systems around the globe. The citizen (read the consumer) today is the target of persuasion by all types of media at a time when her/his interests should be, ethically and in principle, the basic significant factor in the selection of media content. It is very important in this juncture of clashing media values –professional and commercial- and wide spread ethical lapses of media organizations and media professionals to think of a perspective to theorize these conflicting values within a broader framework of media ethics. Thus, the aim of this paper is to, epistemologically, bring to the center a perspective on media ethics as a basis for reconciliation of clashing values of the media. The paper focuses on conflicting ethical values in current media debate; namely ownership of media vs. press freedom, individual right for privacy vs. public right to know, and global western consumerism values vs. media values. The paper concludes that a framework to reconcile conflicting values of media ethics should focus on the “individual” journalist and his/her moral development as well as focus on maintaining ethical principles of the media as an institution with a primary social responsibility for the “public” it serves.
28
25303
Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data
Abstract:
Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.
27
30883
Assessment of Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Means of Transport in Agriculture
Abstract:
The paper discusses the problem of load transport using farm tractors and road tractor units. This type of carriage of goods is often done with farm vehicles. The tests were performed with the PEMS equipment (Portable Emission Measurement System) under actual traffic conditions. The vehicles carried a load of 20000 kg. This research method is one of the most desired because it provides reliable information on the actual vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (carbon balance method). For the tests, a route was selected that simulated a trip from a small town to a food-processing facility located in a city. The analysis of the obtained results gave a clear answer as to what vehicles need to be used for the carriage of this type of cargo in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.
26
127411
Simulation and Analysis of Passive Parameters of Building in eQuest: A Case Study in Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract:
With rapid development of urbanization and improvement of living standards in the world, energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building sector are expected to increase in the near future; because of that, energy-saving issues have become more important among the engineers. Besides, the building sector is a major contributor to energy consumption and carbon emissions. The concept of efficient building appeared as a response to the need for reducing energy demand in this sector which has the main purpose of shifting from standard buildings to low-energy buildings. Although energy-saving should happen in all steps of a building during the life cycle (material production, construction, demolition), the main concept of efficient energy building is saving energy during the life expectancy of a building by using passive and active systems, and should not sacrifice comfort and quality to reach these goals. The main aim of this study is to investigate passive strategies (do not need energy consumption or use renewable energy) to achieve energy-efficient buildings. Energy retrofit measures were explored by eQuest software using a case study as a base model. The study investigates predictive accuracy for the major factors like thermal transmittance (U-value) of the material, windows, shading devices, thermal insulation, rate of the exposed envelope, window/wall ration, lighting system in the energy consumption of the building. The base model was located in Istanbul, Turkey. The impact of eight passive parameters on energy consumption had been indicated. After analyzing the base model by eQuest, a final scenario was suggested which had a good energy performance. The results showed a decrease in the U-values of materials, the rate of exposing buildings, and windows had a significant effect on energy consumption. Finally, savings in electric consumption of about 10.5%, and gas consumption by about 8.37% in the suggested model were achieved annually.
25
54483
'Bemo' (Beras Moringa) as Commodity Innovation Cost of Food Ingredients: In Dealing with Afta Competition
Abstract:
Indonesia is one country with the largest agricultural producer in the world but still can not meet the needs of the national rice. In addition, Indonesia was ranked the second-largest rice importer after the Philippines. Indonesia's rice consumption reached 102 kg per capita, or almost twice the average global rice consumption is only 60 kg per capita per year. One of the government's efforts in developing national food consumption is to invite people to improve diversification and food security. This is done considering the diet of Indonesia is still high consumption of rice. Therefore, this program made innovations Rice Moringa namely imitation rice with the addition of Moringa (Moringa oleifera). Moringa is a plant that is widely grown and easily found. In addition, Moringa has many benefits because it contains vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, calcium, protein, and potassium. Based on the analysis of the nutrient content, it is known that the Moringa leaves have good potential to maintain the balance of nutrients in the body
24
34196
Modelling Residential Space Heating Energy for Romania
Abstract:
This paper proposes a linear model for optimizing domestic energy consumption, in Romania. Both techno-economic and consumer behavior approaches have been considered, in order to develop the model. The proposed model aims to reduce the energy consumption, in households, by assembling in a unitary model, aspects concerning: residential lighting, space heating, hot water, and combined space heating – hot water, space cooling, and passenger transport. This paper focuses on space heating domestic energy consumption model, and quantify not only technical-economic issues, but also consumer behavior impact, related to people decision to envelope and insulate buildings, in order to minimize energy consumption.
23
96776
Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Campus of Semarang State University
Abstract:
Semarang State University (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality, energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees, and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and citizen awareness in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students, and employees). Research objects include carbon emissions on campus UNNES, energy consumption, citizen awareness, behavior and attitude in energy use, knowledge the energy. The research area covers 6 Faculty and 1 rectorate area. Data collection is done by observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis by quantitative descriptive method, calculation of energy consumption, carbon emission, tree absorption, and energy awareness. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264 trees. Total emissions generated on campus UNNES amounted to 7.862.281.56 kg/year, absorption by the tree by 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still emissions of 1,575,031.18 kg/year, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the Faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions, the areas of other faculty have not been able to absorb emissions. The awareness citizens UNNES in reducing emissions: using energy-efficient appliances (65%), reducing energy consumption per unit (68%), finding other solutions for energy reduction (42%), disseminating literacy energy to UNNES citizens (74%). The leader of Unnes to monitoring and emphasize pragmatic motivation, to change the pattern of energy consumption.
22
96773
Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Campus of Semarang State University
Abstract:
Semarang State University (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality, energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees, and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and citizen awareness in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students, and employees). Research objects include carbon emissions on campus UNNES, energy consumption, citizen awareness, behavior and attitude in energy use, knowledge the energy. The research area covers 6 Faculty and 1 rectorate area. Data collection is done by observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis by quantitative descriptive method, calculation of energy consumption, carbon emission, tree absorption, and energy awareness. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264 trees. Total emissions generated on campus UNNES amounted to 7.862.281.56 kg/year, absorption by the tree by 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still emissions of 1,575,031.18 kg/year, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the Faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions, the areas of other faculty have not been able to absorb emissions. The awareness citizens UNNES in reducing emissions: using energy-efficient appliances (65%), reducing energy consumption per unit (68%), finding other solutions for energy reduction (42%), disseminating literacy energy to UNNES citizens (74%). The leader of Unnes to monitoring and emphasize pragmatic motivation, to change the pattern of energy consumption.
21
96774
Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Campus of Semarang State University
Abstract:
Semarang State University (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality, energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees, and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and citizen awareness in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students, and employees). Research objects include carbon emissions on campus UNNES, energy consumption, citizen awareness, behavior and attitude in energy use, knowledge the energy. The research area covers 6 Faculty and 1 rectorate area. Data collection is done by observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis by quantitative descriptive method, calculation of energy consumption, carbon emission, tree absorption, and energy awareness. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264 trees. Total emissions generated on campus UNNES amounted to 7.862.281.56 kg/year, absorption by the tree by 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still emissions of 1,575,031.18 kg/year, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the Faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions, the areas of other faculty have not been able to absorb emissions. The awareness citizens UNNES in reducing emissions: using energy-efficient appliances (65%), reducing energy consumption per unit (68%), finding other solutions for energy reduction (42%), disseminating literacy energy to UNNES citizens (74%). The leader of Unnes to monitoring and emphasize pragmatic motivation, to change the pattern of energy consumption.
20
96775
Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Campus of Semarang State University
Abstract:
Semarang State University (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality, energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees, and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and citizen awareness in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students, and employees). Research objects include carbon emissions on campus UNNES, energy consumption, citizen awareness, behavior and attitude in energy use, knowledge the energy. The research area covers 6 Faculty and 1 rectorate area. Data collection is done by observation, interview, and documentation. Data analysis by quantitative descriptive method, calculation of energy consumption, carbon emission, tree absorption, and energy awareness. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264 trees. Total emissions generated on campus UNNES amounted to 7.862.281.56 kg/year, absorption by the tree by 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still emissions of 1,575,031.18 kg/year, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the Faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions, the areas of other faculty have not been able to absorb emissions. The awareness citizens UNNES in reducing emissions: using energy-efficient appliances (65%), reducing energy consumption per unit (68%), finding other solutions for energy reduction (42%), disseminating literacy energy to UNNES citizens (74%). The leader of Unnes to monitoring and emphasize pragmatic motivation, to change the pattern of energy consumption.
19
76749
Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context
Authors:
Abstract:
A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.
18
13511
Income-Consumption Relationships in Pakistan (1980-2011): A Cointegration Approach
Abstract:
The present paper analyses the income-consumption relationships in Pakistan using annual time series data from 1980-81 to 2010-1. The paper uses the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to check the unit root and stationarity in these two time series. The paper finds that the two time series are nonstationary but stationary at their first difference levels. The Augmented Engle-Granger test and the Cointegrating Regression Durbin-Watson test imply that the two time series of consumption and income are cointegrated and that long-run marginal propensity to consume is 0.88 which is given by the estimated (static) equilibrium relation. The paper also used the error correction mechanism to find out to model dynamic relationship. The purpose of the ECM is to indicate the speed of adjustment from the short-run equilibrium to the long-run equilibrium state. The results show that MPC is equal to 0.93 and is highly significant. The coefficient of Engle-Granger residuals is negative but insignificant. Statistically, the equilibrium error term is zero, which suggests that consumption adjusts to changes in GDP in the same period. The short-run changes in GDP have a positive impact on short-run changes in consumption. The paper concludes that we may interpret 0.93 as the short-run MPC. The pair-wise Granger Causality test shows that both GDP and consumption Granger cause each other.
17
47495
Numerical Study of Two Mechanical Stirring Systems for Yield Stress Fluid
Abstract:
Mechanically agitated vessels are commonly used for various operations within a wide range process in chemical, pharmaceutical, polymer, biochemical, mineral, petroleum industries. Depending on the purpose of the operation carried out in mixer, the best choice for geometry of the tank and agitator type can vary widely. In this paper, the laminar 2D agitation flow and power consumption of viscoplastic fluids with straight and circular gate impellers in a stirring tank is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), where the velocity profile, the velocity fields and power consumption was analyzed.
16
15198
Consumer Values in the Perspective of Javanese Mataraman Society: Identification, Meaning, and Application
Abstract:
Culture is the important determinant of human behavior and desire. Culture influences the consumer through the norms and values established by the society in which they live and reflect it. The cultural values of Javanese society certainly have united in the Javanese society behavior in consumption. This research is expected to give big enough theoretical benefits in the findings of cultural value in consumption in Javanese society. These can be an incentive in finding the local cultural value in many tribes in Indonesia, so one time, the local cultural value in Indonesia about consumption can be fundamental part in education and consumption practice in Indonesia. The approach used in this research is non positivist research or is known as qualitative approach. The method or type of research used in this research is ethnomethodology. The collection data is done in Central Java region. The research subject or informant is determined by the purposive technique by certain criteria determined by the researcher. The data is collected by deep interview and observation. Before the data analysis, the researcher does the storing method data stage and implements the data validity procedures. Then, the data is analyzed by the theme and interactive analysis technique. The Javanese Mataraman society has such consumption values such as has to be sufficient, be careful, economical, submit to the one who creates the life, the way life flow, and the present problem is thought in the present also. In the financial management for consumption, the consumer should have the simple life principles, has to be sufficient, has to be able to eat, has to be able to self-press, well-managed/diligent/accurate/careful, the open or transparent management, has the struggle effort, like to self-sacrifice and think about the future. The meaning of consumption value in family is centered to the submission and full-trust to God. These consumption values are applied in consumer behavior in self, family, investment and credit need in short term and long term perspective.
15
69150
Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process
Abstract:
Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.
14
72133
Development of a Suitable Model for Energy Storage in Residential Buildings in Ahvaz Using Energy Plus Software
Abstract:
This research tries to study the residential buildings in Ahvaz, the common materials used, and the impact of passive methods of energy storage (as one of the most effective ways to reduce energy consumption in residential complexes) in order to achieve patterns for construction of residential buildings in Ahvaz conditions to reduce energy consumption. In this research, after studying Ahvaz conditions, the components of an existing building were simulated in Energy Plus software, and the climatic data of Ahvaz station was introduced to software. Then to achieve the most optimal conditions of energy consumption in Ahvaz conditions, each of the residential building elements was optimized. The results of simulation showed that using inactive materials and design including double glass, outside wall insulation, inverted roof, etc. in the buildings can reduce energy consumption in the hot and dry climate of Ahvaz. Among the parameters investigated, the inverted roof was the most effective energy saving pattern. According to the results of simulation of the entire building with the most optimal parameters, energy consumption can be saved by a mean of 12.51% in buildings of Ahvaz, and the obtained pattern can also be used in similar climates.
13
27847
Evaporative Air Coolers Optimization for Energy Consumption Reduction and Energy Efficiency Ratio Increment
Abstract:
Significant quota of Municipal Electrical Energy consumption is related to Decentralized Air Conditioning which is mostly provided by evaporative coolers. So the aim is to optimize design of air conditioners to increase their efficiencies. To achieve this goal, results of practical standardized tests for 40 evaporative coolers in different types collected and simultaneously results for same coolers based on one of EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) modeling styles are figured out. By comparing experimental results of different coolers standardized tests with modeling results, preciseness of used model is assessed and after comparing gained preciseness with international standards based on EER for cooling capacity, aeration and also electrical energy consumption, energy label from A (most effective) to G (less effective) is classified. finally needed methods to optimize energy consumption and cooler's classification are provided.
12
21557
Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity
Abstract:
Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P< 0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.
11
93377
Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State
Abstract:
One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.
10
55519
Energy Efficient Resource Allocation and Scheduling in Cloud Computing Platform
Abstract:
There has been renewal of interest in the relation between Green IT and cloud computing in recent years. Cloud computing has to be a highly elastic environment which provides stable services to users. The growing use of cloud computing facilities has caused marked energy consumption, putting negative pressure on electricity cost of computing center or data center. Each year more and more network devices, storages and computers are purchased and put to use, but it is not just the number of computers that is driving energy consumption upward. We could foresee that the power consumption of cloud computing facilities will double, triple, or even more in the next decade. This paper aims at resource allocation and scheduling technologies that are short of or have not well developed yet to reduce energy utilization in cloud computing platform. In particular, our approach relies on recalling services dynamically onto appropriate amount of the machines according to user&rsquo;s requirement and temporarily shutting down the machines after finish in order to conserve energy. We present initial work on integration of resource and power management system that focuses on reducing power consumption such that they suffice for meeting the minimizing quality of service required by the cloud computing platform.
9
68656
Developing Well-Being Indicators and Measurement Methods as Illustrated by Projects Aimed at Preventing Obesity in Children
Abstract:
Consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents is essential for their normal growth, development and health, but a significant minority of the world&#39;s population consumes the right amount of these products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preferences and frequency of consumption of vegetables by school children and adolescents. It has been assumed that effectively implemented nutrition education programs should have an impact on increasing the frequency of vegetable consumption among the recipients. The study covered 514 students of five schools in the Opole Voivodeship aged 9 years to 22 years. The research tool was an author&#39;s questionnaire, which consisted of closed questions on the frequency of vegetable consumption and the use of 10 ways to treat them. Preferences and frequencies are shown in percentages, while correlations were estimated on the basis of Cramer`s V and gamma coefficients. In each of the examined age groups, the relationship between sex and vegetable consumption (the Cramer`s V coefficient value was 0.06 to 0.38) was determined and the various methods of culinary processing were used (V Cram&eacute;ra was 0.08 to 0.34). For both sexes, the relationship between age and frequency of vegetable consumption was shown (gamma values ranged from ~ 0.00 to 0.39) and different cooking methods (gamma values were 0.01 to 0.22). The most important determinant of nutritional choices is the taste and availability of products. The fact that they have a positive effect on their health is only in third position. As has been shown, obesity prevention programs can not only address nutrition education but also teach about new flavors and increase the availability of healthy foods. In addition, the frequency of vegetable consumption can be a good indicator reflecting the healthy behaviors of children and adolescents.
8
30328
The Enlightenment of the Ventilation System in Chinese Traditional Residence to Architecture Design
Abstract:
Nowadays, China's building energy consumption constitutes 25% of the total energy consumption, half of which was caused by air conditioning in both summer and winter. The ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, which is totally passive and environmentally friendly, works effectively to create comfortable indoor environment. The research on the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence can provide advancements to architecture design and energy savings to the society. Through field investigation, case analysis, strategy proposing and other methods, it comes out that the location and layout, the structure system and the design of atrium are the most important elements for a good ventilation system. Taking every factor into consideration, techniques are deployed extensively such as the organization of draught, the design of the thermal pressure ventilation system and the application of modern materials. With the enlightenment of the ventilation system in Chinese traditional residence, we can take effective measures to achieve low energy consumption and sustainable architecture.
7
125578
Virtue Ethics as a Corrective to Mismanagement of Resources in Nigeria’s Economy: Akwa Ibom State Experience
Abstract:
This research work examines the socio-ethical issues embedded in resource management and wealth creation in Nigeria, using Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The work is poised to proffer answers to the problematic questions raised, “why is the wealth of Akwa Ibom State not prudently managed, and wastages curbed in order to cater for the satisfaction of the indigent citizens, as Jesus Christ did in the feeding of five thousand people (John 6:12) ? Could ethical and responsible resource management not solve the paradox of poverty stricken people of Akwa Ibom in a rich economy? What ought to be done to better the lot of Akwa Ibomites? The research adopts phenomenological and sociological research methodology with primary and secondary sources of information to explore the socio-ethical issues embedded in resource management and wealth creation in Akwa Ibom State. Findings revealed that, reckless exploitation and mismanagement of the rich natural and human resources of Akwa Ibom State have spelt doom to the economic progress and survival of Akwa Ibomites in particular and Nigerians in general. Hence, hunger and poverty remain adversaries to majority of the people. Again, the culture of diversion of funds and squandermania institutionalized within the confine of Akwa Ibom State government, deter investment in economic enterprises, job and wealth creation that would have yielded economic dividends for Akwa Ibomites. These and many other unwholesome practices are responsible for the present deplorable condition of Akwa Ibom State in particular and Nigerian society in general. As a way out of this economic quagmire, it is imperative that, every unwholesome practice within the State be tackled more proactively and innovatively in the interest of the masses through responsible resource management and wealth creation. It is believed that, an effective leadership, a statesman with vision and commitment would transform the abundant resources to achieve meaningful development, create wealth and reduce poverty. Ethical leadership is required in all the tiers of government and public organizations to transform resources into more wealth. Thus, this paper advocates for ethics of virtue: a paradigm shift from exploitative leadership style to productive leadership style; change from atomistic human relation to corporative human relation; change from being subsistence to abundant in other to maximize the available resources in the State. To do otherwise is unethical and lack moral justification.
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57381
A Consumption-Based Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Footprints in California: High Footprints in Small Urban Households
Abstract:
Higher density reduces distances, private car dependency and thus reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). As a result, increased density has been given a central role among urban development targets. However, it is not just travel behavior that changes along with density. Rather, the consumption patterns, or overall lifestyles, change along with changing urban structure, particularly with changing housing types and consumption opportunities. Furthermore, elevated consumption of services, more frequent flying and less intra-household sharing have been shown to potentially outweigh the gains from reduced driving in more dense urban settlements. In this study, the geography of carbon footprints (CFs) in California is analyzed paying close attention to the household size differences and the resulting economies-of-scale advantages and disadvantages. A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is employed together with consumer expenditure data to assess the CFs. According to the study, small urban households have the highest CFs in California. Their transport related emissions are significantly lower than those of the residents of less urbanized areas, but higher emissions from other consumption categories, together with the low degree of sharing of goods, overweigh the gains. Two functional units, per capita and per household, are used to analyze the CFs and to demonstrate the importance of household size. The lifestyle impacts visible through the consumption data are also discussed. The study suggests that there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the premises of low-carbon human settlements.
5
26023
Ethical Consumers, The Myth or the Reality?: The Effects of Ethics in CSR on Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behaviours
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Abstract:
This study investigates how consumers’ evaluations of a multinational corporation’s corporate social responsibility program connected to the perceived corporate authenticity and consumers’ pro-firm behavioral intention. With special attention to the two different types of CSR motives, business-oriented CSR motive and society-oriented motive, the current study empirically tests a theoretical model of a mediating role of corporate authenticity between perception of CSR motives and the consumers’ subsequent pro-firm behaviours. Results indicate significant mediation effects of corporate authenticity between perception of altruistic and societal CSR motives and consumers’ pro-firm behaviours. Unlike previous notions of the negative influence of self-interested motives on corporate authenticity, perceived strategic and business-oriented motives in CSR does not negatively affect the evalution of corporate authenticity when stakeholders have utilitarian ethical perspectives. Unlike the Korean participants, US participants are not willing to conduct pro-firm behaviors when they perceive strategic and business-oriented CSR motives. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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84766
The Influence of Chinese Philosophic-Religious Traditions on Chinese Consumption Behaviour: Findings from the Taoist Case Study
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Abstract:
The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to explore how the Chinese philosophic-religious tradition of Taoism impacts on the consumption behaviour of contemporary Chinese consumers. Although much cultural research has been conducted on Chinese consumption behaviours, most studies have approached the subject from Western perspectives. Examination of the limited literature indicates a gap in the knowledge of the relationship of traditional Chinese Taoism philosophy and Chinese consumption behaviour. To bridge this gap, this study examines Chinese consumption behaviour at a Taoist-related Chinese religious festival - the DuanWu festival - in order to seek some understanding of how the Taoism philosophic-religious tradition influences Chinese consumption behaviour from the point of view of the individuals involved. It focuses attention on their expression of Taoism cultural values, purchasing experience and subsequent consumption behaviours. This study undertook multiple methods for Taoist case study data collection: accompanied shopping with Taoists before DuanWu Festival; participant observations during DuanWu Festival; and in-depth interviews in order to explore Taoists consumption behaviours at the end of the Festival. Specifically, the finding from the Taoist case study corroborates and details the influence of the Taoism doctrine: man–nature orientation, Fenshui, ecological effect, and ecological knowledge, on their attitudes toward green purchasing behaviour. Findings from this Taoist case study - one of a series of three Chinese philosophic religious tradition case studies - contribute to the deeper understanding of contemporary Chinese consumers from a non-Western viewpoint and offer initial insights for global marketers to differentiate consumer needs and develop effective marketing strategies.
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17696
Designing Elevations by Photocatalysis of Precast Concrete Materials, in Reducing Energy Consumption of Buildings: Case Study of Tabriz
Abstract:
The important issues that are addressed in most advanced industrial countries in recent decades, discussion of minimizing heat losses through the buildings. And the most influential parameters in the calculation of building energy consumption, is heat exchange, which takes place between the interior and outer space. One of the solutions to reduce heat loss is using materials with low thermal conductivity. The purpose of this article, is the effect of using some frontages with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials for reducing energy consumption in buildings. For this purpose, estimating the energy dissipation through the facade built with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials on a sample building in Tabriz city by BCS 19 software ( topic 19 simulation) is done and the results demonstrate reduce heat loss through the facade nano- concrete.
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53459
Energy Efficient Plant Design Approaches: Case Study of the Sample Building of the Energy Efficiency Training Facilities
Abstract:
Nowadays, due to the growing problems of energy supply and the drastic reduction of natural non-renewable resources, the development of new applications in the energy sector and steps towards greater efficiency in energy consumption are required. Since buildings account for a large share of energy consumption, increasing the structural density of buildings causes an increase in energy consumption. This increase in energy consumption means that energy efficiency approaches to building design and the integration of new systems using emerging technologies become necessary in order to curb this consumption. As new systems for productive usage of generated energy are developed, buildings that require less energy to operate, with rational use of resources, need to be developed. One solution for reducing the energy requirements of buildings is through landscape planning, design and application. Requirements such as heating, cooling and lighting can be met with lower energy consumption through planting design, which can help to achieve more efficient and rational use of resources. Within this context, rather than a planting design which considers only the ecological and aesthetic features of plants, these considerations should also extend to spatial organization whereby the relationship between the site and open spaces in the context of climatic elements and planting designs are taken into account. In this way, the planting design can serve an additional purpose. In this study, a landscape design which takes into consideration location, local climate morphology and solar angle will be illustrated on a sample building project.
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87925
Energy Analysis of Seasonal Air Conditioning Demand of All Income Classes Using Bottom up Model in Pakistan
Abstract:
Currently, the energy crisis is taking serious attention. Globally, industries and building are major share takers of energy. 72% of total global energy is consumed by residential houses, markets, and commercial building. Additionally, in appliances air conditioners are major consumer of electricity; about 60% energy is used for cooling purpose in houses due to HVAC units. Energy demand will aid in determining what changes will be needed whether it is the estimation of the required energy for households or instituting conservation measures. Bottom-up model is one of the most famous methods for forecasting. In current research bottom-up model of air conditioners' energy consumption in all income classes in comparison with seasonal variation and hourly consumption is calculated. By comparison of energy consumption of all income classes by usage of air conditioners, total consumption of actual demand and current availability can be seen.