Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62496

200
98568
Visualizing Imaging Pathways after Anatomy-Specific Follow-Up Imaging Recommendations
Abstract:
Radiologists routinely make follow-up imaging recommendations, usually based on established clinical practice guidelines, such as the Fleischner Society guidelines for managing lung nodules. In order to ensure optimal care, it is important to make guideline-compliant recommendations, and also for patients to follow-up on these imaging recommendations in a timely manner. However, determining such compliance rates after a specific finding has been observed usually requires many time-consuming manual steps. To address some of these limitations with current approaches, in this paper we discuss a methodology to automatically detect finding-specific follow-up recommendations from radiology reports and create a visualization for relevant subsequent exams showing the modality transitions. Nearly 5% of patients who had a lung related follow-up recommendation continued to have at least eight subsequent outpatient CT exams during a seven year period following the recommendation. Radiologist and section chiefs can use the proposed tool to better understand how a specific patient population is being managed, identify possible deviations from established guideline recommendations and have a patient-specific graphical representation of the imaging pathways for an abstract view of the overall treatment path thus far.
199
76466
Physiotherapy Program for Frozen Shoulder Related to Onset of Symptom, Range of Motions and Obtaining Modalities
Abstract:
Frozen shoulder is a common problem. The prevalence of frozen shoulder showed 18-31% of population. Generally, the symptoms of frozen shoulder present by pain around shoulder and consequently limit range of motion. The effect of frozen shoulder lead to limit activities daily living life and high medical care cost. Physiotherapy is well known treatment for frozen shoulder but there was no data about the treatment of physiotherapy in frozen shoulder and length of follow up. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate physiotherapy program for frozen shoulder on range of motion and length of follow up. A retrospective study design was conducted. 182 medical records of patients with frozen shoulder were reviewed. These frozen shoulders were treated at physiotherapy unit, department of Rehabilitation last 3 years (January, 2014- December, 2016). The data consist of range of motions and length of follow up were recorded. The medical record of 47 males and 135 females with average aged 60.21±9.8 years were reviewed in this study. There was a statistically significant increase in shoulder flexion [mean difference 38.88 with 95%CI were [16.00- 61.77], shoulder abduction [mean difference 48.47 with 95%CI were 16.07-90.59], shoulder internal rotation [mean difference 22.36 with 95%CI were 2.81-37.18] and shoulder external rotation [mean difference 32.12 with 95%CI were [(-2.47)-(46.91)] respectively. In addition, the length of follow up averaged 83.47±60.32 days. In summary, physiotherapy program likely to be benefit for patients with frozen shoulder in term of range of motion and short length of follow up. And short length of follow up mean low medical care cost. Keyword— Frozen shoulder, physiotherapy, range of motions, length of follow up
198
87983
Physiotherapy Program for Frozen Shoulder on Length of Follow up and Range of Motions
Abstract:
Generally, frozen shoulder will improve over time, although it may take a long time up to year. The symptoms of frozen shoulder present by pain around shoulder and consequently limit range of motions. The effect of frozen shoulder leads to limit activities daily living life and high medical care cost. Physiotherapy is well known treatment for frozen shoulder but there was no data about the treatment of physiotherapy in frozen shoulder and length of follow up. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate physiotherapy program for frozen shoulder on range of motion and length of follow up. A retrospective study design was conducted. 469 medical records of patients with frozen shoulder were reviewed. These frozen shoulders were treated at physiotherapy unit, department of Rehabilitation last 3 years (January, 2014- December, 2016). The data consist of range of motions and length of follow up was recorded. The medical record of 183 males and 286 females with average aged 57.82±12.32 years were reviewed in this study. There was a statistically significant increase in shoulder flexion [mean difference 30.24 with 95%CI were [24.37-36.12], shoulder abduction [mean difference 34.93 with 95%CI were 27.8-42.0], shoulder internal rotation [mean difference 17.25 with 95%CI were 12.55-21.95] and shoulder external rotation [mean difference 17.71 with 95%CI were [13.07-22.36] respectively. In addition, the length of follow up averaged 84 days. In summary, the retrospective study show physiotherapy program likely to be benefit for patients with frozen shoulder in term of range of motion and short length of follow up.
197
102697
Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Lost to Follow-Up Tuberculosis Patients in Yemen
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a major disease that affects daily activities and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The impact of TB on HRQoL can affect treatment outcome and may lead to treatment defaulting. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the HRQoL of TB treatment lost to follow-up during and after treatment in Yemen. For this aim, this prospective study enrolled a total of 399 TB lost to follow-up patients between January 2011 and December 2015. By applying HRQoL criteria, only 136 fill the survey during treatment. Moreover, 96 were traced and fill out the HRQoL survey. All eight HRQol domains were categorized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), which were calculated using QM scoring software. Results show that all lost to follow-up TB patients reported a score less than 47 for all eight domains, except general health (67.3) during their treatment period. Low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 were reported for emotional role limitation (RE) and mental health (MH), respectively. Moreover, the mental component score (MCS) was found to be only 28.9. The trace lost follow-up shows a significant improvement in all eight domains and a mental component score of 43.1. The low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 for role emotion and mental health, respectively, in addition to the MCS score of 28.9, show that severe emotional condition and reflect the higher depression during treatment period that can result to lost to follow-up. The low MH, RE, and MCS can be used as a clue for predicting future TB treatment lost to follow-up.
196
81567
Use of Telephone Counselling in Employee Assistance Program
Abstract:
Background: Telephone counselling is one of the essential interventions that can be found in most of the Employee Assistance Programs (EAP). The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the trend of the telephone counselling from 2003-2016 in Hong Kong; (2) explore which EAP issue requires more follow-up; and 3) examine the relationship between the EAP issues and demographic data such as gender and job ranking. Method: Date of EAP services usage was collected from EAP providers in Hong Kong during 2003-2016. EAP issues were categorized into two domains, namely workplace issues and personal issues. Each domain has 12 sub-categories. Two hypotheses were formulated in this study (1) there was a gender difference in EAP issues and the follow-up hours; and (2) there was a significant difference between job ranking, EAP issues and follow-up hours. Results: A total of eight hundred and ninety-three valid cases were identified for analysis. Of them, three hundred and forty-three cases sought for follow-up. The duration of follow-up by hours was calculated for each of the follow-up cases. The results of the study shows that the top three workplace issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) workload, (2) supervisor-subordinate relationship; and (3) team member’s relationship. On the other hand, the top three personal issues that required the longest duration of follow-up were (1) parenting/parent-child relationship, (2) family care, and (3) marital relationship. Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the total follow-up hours (excluding first intake) between gender and EAP issues. There was no statistical significance for gender (p =.891), but a statistically significant main effect for EAP issues (p
195
80349
Efficacy of Heart Failure Reversal Treatment Followed by 90 Days Follow up in Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Low Ejection Fraction
Abstract:
The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) that uses herbal procedure (panchakarma) and allied therapies, in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with low ejection fraction. Methods: This efficacy study was conducted in CHF patients (aged: 25-65 years, ejection fraction (EF) < 30%) wherein HFRT (60-75 minutes) consisting of snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy), hrudaydhara(concoction dripping treatment) and basti(enema) was administered twice daily for 7 days. During this therapy and next 30 days, patients followed the study dinarcharya and were prescribed ARJ kadha in addition to their conventional treatment. The primary endpoint of this study was evaluation of maximum aerobic capacity uptake (MAC) as assessed by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) using Cahalins equation from baseline, at end of 7 day treatment, follow-up after 30 days and 90 days. EF was assessed by 2D Echo at baseline and after 30 days of follow-up. Results: CHF patients with < 30% EF (N=52, mean [SD] age: 58.8 [10.8], 85% men) were enrolled in the study. There was a 100% compliance to study therapy. A significant improvement was observed in MAC levels (7.11%, p =0.029), at end of 7 day therapy as compared to baseline. This improvement was maintained at two follow-up visits. Moreover, ejection fraction was observed to be increased by 6.38%, p=0,012 as compared to baseline at day 7 of the therapy. Conclusions: This 90 day follow up study highlights benefit of HFRT, as a part of maintenance treatment for CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction.
194
34637
Home-Based Care with Follow-Up at Outpatient Unit or Community-Follow-Up Center with/without Food Supplementation and/or Psychosocial Stimulation of Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Bangladesh
Abstract:
Objective: To assess the effect of community-based follow up, with or without food-supplementation and/or psychosocial stimulation, as an alternative to current hospital-based follow-up of children with moderate-acute-malnutrition (WHZ < -2 to -3) (MAM). Design/methods: The study was conducted at the ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital and in four urban primary health care centers of Dhaka, Bangladesh during 2005-2007. The efficacy of five different randomly assigned interventions was compared with respect to the rate of completion of follow-up, growth and morbidity in 227 MAM children aged 6-24 months who were initially treated at ICDDR,B for diarrhea and/or other morbidities. The interventions were: 1) Fortnightly follow-up care (FFC) at the ICDDR,B’s outpatient-unit, including growth monitoring, health education, and micro-nutrient supplementation (H-C, n=49). 2) FFC at community follow-up unit (CNFU) [established in the existing urban primary health-care centers close to the residence of the child] but received the same regimen as H-C (C-C, n=53). 3) As per C-C plus cereal-based supplementary food (SF) (C-SF, n=49). The SF packets were distributed on recruitment and at every visit in CNFU [@1 packet/day for 6–11 and 2 packets/day for 12-24 month old children. Each packet contained 20g toasted rice-powder, 10g toasted lentil-powder, 5g molasses, and 3g soy bean oil, to provide a total of ~ 150kcal with 11% energy from protein]. 4) As per C-C plus psychosocial stimulation (PS) (C-PS, n=43). PS consisted of child-stimulation and parental-counseling conducted by trained health workers. 5) As per C-C plus both SF+PS (C-SF+PS, n=33). Results: A total of 227children (48.5% female), with a mean ± SD age of 12.6 ±3.8 months, and WHZ of - 2.53±0.28 enrolled. Baseline characteristics did not differ by treatment group. The rate of spontaneous attendance at scheduled follow-up visits gradually decreased in all groups. Follow-up attendance and gain in weight and length were greater in groups C-SF, C-SF+PS, and C-PS than C-C, and these indicators were observed least in H-C. Children in the H-C group more often suffered from diarrhea (25 % vs. 4-9%) and fever (28% vs. 8-11%) than other groups (p < 0.05). Children who attended at least five of the total six scheduled follow-up visits gained more in weight (median: 0.86 vs. 0.62 kg, p=0.002), length (median: 2.4 vs. 2.0 cm, p=0.009) than those who attended fewer. Conclusions: Community-based service delivery, especially including supplementary food with or without psychosocial stimulation, permits better rehabilitation of children with MAM compared to current hospital outpatients-based care. By scaling the community-based follow-up including food supplementation with or without psychosocial stimulation, it will be possible to rehabilitate a greater number of MAM children in a better way.
193
92617
The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up
Authors:
Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.
192
75958
Efficacy of Collagen Matrix Implants in Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C at One Year
Abstract:
Purpose: To assess the efficacy of collagen matrix implant (Ologen) in phacotrabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C (MMC). Methods: A biodegradable collagen matrix (Ologen) was placed in the subconjunctival and subscleral space in twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with glaucoma and cataract who underwent combined phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy augmented with MMC. All of them were examined preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. They were followed for twelve months after surgery. Any intervention needed in follow-up period was noted. Any complication was recorded. The primary outcome measure was postoperative intraocular pressure at one year follow-up. Any additional postoperative treatments needed and adverse events were noted. Results: The mean age of patients included in the study was 57.77 ± 9.68 years (range=36 to 70 years). All the patients were followed for at least one year. Three patients had history of failed trabeculectomy. Fifteen patients had chronic angle closure glaucoma with cataract, five had primary open angle glaucoma with cataract, one had uveitic glaucoma with cataract, and one had juvenile open angle glaucoma with cataract. Mean preoperative IOP was 32.63 ± 8.29 mm Hg, eighteen patients were on oral antiglaucoma medicines. The mean postoperative IOP was 10.09 ± 2.65 mm Hg at three months, 10.36 ± 2.19 mm Hg at six months and 11.36 ± 2.72 mm Hg at one year follow up. No adverse effect related to Ologen was seen. Anterior chamber reformation was done in five patients, and three needed needling of bleb. Four patients needed additional antiglaucoma medications in the follow-up period. Conclusions: Combined phacotrabeculectomy with MMC with Ologen implantation appears to be a safe and effective option in glaucoma patients needing trabeculectomy with significant cataract. Comparative studies with longer duration of follow-up in larger number of patients are needed.
191
62865
Long-Term Outcomes of Dysphagia in Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy Using Videofluoroscopic Evaluation
Abstract:
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent in children with cerebral palsy (CP). There are many studies concerning this problem, however, studies examining long term outcomes of dysphagia using videofluoroscopic study (VFSS) are very rare. The Aim of this study is to investigate long-term outcomes of dysphagia in children with severe CP using initial VFSS. It was a retrospective study and chart review was done from January 2000 to December 2013. Thirty one patients under 18 years who have been diagnosed as CP in outpatient clinic of Rehabilitation Medicine, and who did VFSS were included. Long-term outcomes such as feeding method, height percentile, weight percentile, and body mass index (BMI) were tracked up for at least 3 years by medical records. Significant differences between initial and follow-up datas were investigated. The patients consisted of 18 males and 13 females, and the mean age was 31.0±18.0 months old. 64.5% of patients were doing oral diet, and 25.8% of patients were doing non-oral diet. When comparing VFSS findings among oral feeding patients, oral and non-oral feeding patients, and non-oral feeding patients at initial period, dysphagia severity, supraglottic penetration, and subglottic aspiration showed significant differences. Most of the patients who could feed orally at initial period were found to have the same feeding method at follow-up. But among eight patients who required non-oral feeding initially, three patients became possible to feed orally, and one patient was doing oral and non-oral feeding method together at follow-up. Follow up feeding method showed correlation with dysphagia severity by initial VFSS. Weight percentile was decreased in patients with GMFCS level V at follow up, which may represent poor nutritional status due to severe dysphagia compared to other patients. Initial VFSS severity would play a significant role in making an assumption about future diet in children with severe CP. Patients with GMFCS level V seem to have serious dysphagia at follow up and have nutritional deficiency over time, therefore, more careful nutritional support is needed in children with severe CP are suggested.
190
25380
New Challenges to the Conservation and Management of the Endangered Persian Follow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) in Ashk Island of Lake Uromiyeh National Park, Iran
Abstract:
The Persian fallow deer was considered as a globally extinct species until 1956 when a small population was rediscovered from Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkheh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern parts of Iran. After long species rehabilitation process, the species was transplanted to Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge in northern Iran, and from where, follow deer was introduced to the different selected habitats such as Ashk Island in Lake Uromiyeh National Park. During 12 years, (from 1978 to 1989) 58 individuals (25 males and 33 females) were transferred to Ask Island. The main threat to the established population was related to the freshwater shortage and existing just one single trough such as high mortality rate of adult males during rutting season, snake biting and dilutional hyponatremia. Desiccation of Lake Uromiyeh in recent years raised new challenges to the conservation process, as about 80 individuals, nearly one third of the population were died in 2011. Connection of Island to the mainland caused predators’ accessibility (such as wolf and Jackal) to the Ask Island and higher mortality because of follow deer attraction to the surrounding mainland farms. Conservation team faced such new challenges that may cause introduction plan to be probably failed. Investigations about habitat affinities and carrying capacity are the main basic researches in the management and conservation of the species. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the different fresh water resources as well as Allium akaka and Pistacia atlantica are the main environmental variables affect Follow deer habitat selection. Habitat carrying capacity analysis both in summer and winter seasons indicated that Ashk Island can support 240±30 of Persian follow deer.
189
85219
Managing and Sustaining Strategic Relationships with Distributors by Electronic Agencies in Jordan
Abstract:
The electronics market in Jordan is facing extraordinary expectations from consumers, whose opinions are progressively more essential and have effective power on the overall marketing strategy preparation and execution by electronics agents. This research aimed to explore the effect of price volatile, follow-up, maintenance and warranty policy on distributor’s retention. Focus group, in-depth interviews, and self-administered questionnaire were held with a total sample of 50 electronics distribution stores who have a direct contact and purchase frequently from electronic agencies. By using descriptive statistics and multiple regression tests, the main findings of this research is that there is an impact of price volatile, follow-up, maintenance and warranty policy on distributor’s retention, and the key predictor variable was price volatile. Thus, the researcher recommended flat rate pricing strategy to ensure that all distributors will sell the product on the same pricing base, regardless of the generated margin by each one of them. Moreover, conclusion and future research were also discussed.
188
74844
The Effect of Intrathecal Adenosine in Control of Neuropathic Pain after Lumbar Discectomy in One Level
Abstract:
Adenosine has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory role and its injections are used for peri-operative pain management. We want to study efficacy of intrathecal injection of adenosine for post operative radicular pain after lumbar discectomy. 40 patients with unilevel lumbar discectomy who had radicular lower limb pain were treated by 1000 micrograms of intrathecal injection of adenosine. Pain severity, pain killer consumption per day and sleep quality were assessed during a 3 months follow up period. Radicular pain severity was significantly reduced in 3 month follow-up period in comparison to the baseline (F=19760, DF=2.53, p-value< 0.001). Further painkiller medication consumption rate in average during 3 month follow-up period after injection was significantly lower in comparison to baseline (F= 19.244, df= 1.98, p-value< 0.001). This study suggests that intrathecal injection of adenosine is a safe method in order to reduce postoperative pain after lumbar discectomy.
187
85147
Tuberculosis and Associated Transient Hyperglycaemia in Peri-Urban South Africa: Implications for Diabetes Screening in High Tuberculosis/HIV Burden Settings
Abstract:
Background: South Africa remains a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country globally and the burden of diabetes – a TB risk factor is growing rapidly. As an infectious disease, TB also induces transient hyperglycaemia. Therefore, screening for diabetes in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients may result in misclassification of transient hyperglycaemia as diabetes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR)) in TB patients and to assess the cross-sectional association between TB and hyperglycaemia at enrolment and after three months of follow-up. Methods: Consecutive adult TB and non-TB participants presenting at a TB clinic in Cape Town were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and follow-up between July 2013 and August 2015. Diabetes was defined as self-reported diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol·L⁻¹ or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%. IGR was defined as FPG 5.5– < 7.0 mmol·L⁻¹ or HbA1c 5.7– < 6.5%. TB patients initiated treatment. After three months, all participants were followed up and screened for diabetes again. The association between TB and hyperglycaemia was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, income, hypertension, waist circumference, previous prisoner, marital status, work status, HIV status. Results: Diabetes screening was performed in 852 participants (414 TB and 438 non-TB) at enrolment and in 639 (304 TB and 335 non-TB) at three-month follow-up. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 69.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 64.9–73.8 %) among TB patients, and 58.2% (95% CI, 53.5–62.8 %) among the non-TB participants. Glycaemic levels were much higher in TB patients than in the non-TB participants but decreased over time. Among TB patients, the prevalence of IGR was 65.2% (95% CI 60.1 - 69.9) at enrollment and 21.5% (95% CI 17.2-26.5) at follow-up; and was 50% (45.1 - 54.94) and 32% (95% CI 27.9 - 38.0) respectively, among non-TB participants. The prevalence of diabetes in TB patients was 12.5% (95% CI 9.69 – 16.12%) at enrolment and 9.2% (95% CI, 6.43–13.03%) at follow-up; and was 10.04% (95% CI, 7.55–13.24%) and 8.06% (95% CI, 5.58–11.51) respectively, among non-TB participants. The association between TB and IGT was significant at enrolment (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.26 (95% CI, 1.55-3.31) but disappeared at follow-up 0.84 (0.53 - 1.36). However, the TB-diabetes association remained positive and significant both at enrolment (2.41 (95% CI, 1.3-4.34)) and follow-up (OR 3.31 (95% CI, 1.5 - 7.25)). Conclusion: Transient hyperglycaemia exists during tuberculosis. This has implications on diabetes screening in TB patients and suggests a need for diabetes confirmation tests during or after TB treatment. Nonetheless, the association between TB and diabetes noted at enrolment persists at 3 months highlighting the importance of diabetes control and prevention for TB control. Further research is required to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia (transient or otherwise) on TB outcomes to ascertain the clinical significance of hyperglycemia at enrolment.
186
104995
Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country
Abstract:
Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.
185
99005
Informal Carers in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers: Characteristics, Time of Services Provided and Costs
Abstract:
Objectives: The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the burden borne by and the costs to informal caregivers of users with telemonitoring of pacemakers. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised clinical trial, with data collected from informal caregivers, five years after implantation of pacemakers. The Spanish version of the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations was used to get information on clinical and social characteristics, levels of professionalism, duration and types of care, difficulties in providing care, health status, economic and job aspects, impact on the family or leisure due to informal caregiving for patients with pacemakers. Results: After five years of follow-up, 55 users with pacemakers finished the study. Of which, 50 were helped by a caregiver, 18 were included in the telemonitoring group (TM) and 32 in the conventional follow-up group (HM). Overall, females represented 96.0% of the informal caregivers (88.89% in TM and 100.0% in HM group). The mean ages were 63.17 ± 15.92 and 63.13 ± 14.56 years, respectively (p = 0.83) in the groups. The majority (88.0%) of the caregivers declared that they had to provide their services between 6 and 7 days per week (83.33% in TM group versus 90.63% in HM group), without significant differences between both groups. The costs related to care provided by the informal caregivers were 47.04% higher in the conventional follow-up group than in the TM group. Conclusions: The results of this trial confirm that there were no significant differences between the informal caregivers regarding to baseline characteristics, workload and time worked in both groups of follow-up. The costs incurred by the informal caregivers providing care for users with pacemakers included in telemonitoring group are significantly lower than those in the conventional follow-up group. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. Funding: The PONIENTE study, has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.
184
50727
Risk Factors and Biomarkers for the Recurrence of Ovarian Endometrioma: About the Immunoreactivity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B and Nuclear Factor Kappa B.
Abstract:
Introduction: Ovarian endometrioma is one of the important causes of poor ovarian reserve and up to half of them have recurred. However, the treatment for recurrence prevention has limited efficiency and repeated surgical management makes worsen the ovarian reserve. To find better management for recurrence prevention, we investigated risk factors and biomarkers for the recurrence of ovarian endometrioma. Methods: The medical records of women with the history of surgical dissection for ovarian endometrioma were collected. After exclusion of the cases with concurrent hysterectomy, been menopaused during follow-up, incomplete medical record, and loss of follow-up, a total of 134 women were enrolled. Immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) was done with the fixed tissue blocks of their endometriomas which were collected at the time of surgery. Results: Severity of dysmenorrhea and co-existence of adenomyosis had significant correlation with recurrence of endometrioma. Increased PR-B (P = .041) and decreased NFκB (P = .036) immunoreactivity were found in recurrent group. Serum CA-125 level at the time of recurrence was higher than the highest level of CA-125 during follow-up in unrecurred group (55.6 vs. 21.3 U/mL, P = .014). Conclusion: We found that the severity of dysmenorrhea and coexistence of adenomyosis are risk factors for recurrence of ovarian endometrioma, and serial follow-up of CA-125 is effective to detect and prevent the recurrence. However, to determine the possibility of immunoreactivity of PR-B and NFκB as biomarkers for ovarian endometrioma, further studies of various races and large numbers with prospective design are needed.
183
89140
Preliminary Results of Psychiatric Morbidity for Oncology Outpatients
Abstract:
Oncology patients face a host of unique challenges, which are physical, psychological and philosophical in nature. This preliminary study aimed to explore the psychiatric morbidity of oncology patients in an outpatient setting at a major public hospital in Australia. The study found that 33 patients were referred to a Psychiatrist by a Clinical Psychologist or treating Oncologist. These patients attended an outpatient Psychiatry appointment at the Calvary Mater Hospital, Newcastle, over a 7 month period (June 2017-January 2018). Of these, 45% went on to have a follow-up appointment. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) was used to gather symptom severity scores at baseline and at follow-up. The CGI is a clinician determined instrument that provides an assessment of global functioning. It is comprised of two companion one-item measures: the CGI-Severity (CGI-S) rates mental illness severity, and the CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) rates change in condition or improvement from initiation of treatment. Patients referred to a Psychiatrist were observed to be on average in the Markedly ill approaching Severely ill range (CGI-S average of 5.5). However, those patients who attended a follow-up appointment were on average only Moderately Ill at baseline (CGI-S average of 3.9). Despite these follow patients not being severely mentally ill initially, the contact was helpful, as their CGI-S scores improved on average to the Mildly Ill range (CGI-S average of 2.8). A Mixed ANOVA revealed that there was a significant improvement in mental illness severity post-follow-up appointment (Greenhouse-Geisser .000). There was a near even proportion of males and females attending appointments (58% female), and slightly more females attended a follow-up (60% female). Males were on average more mentally ill at baseline compared to females at baseline (male average M=3.86, female average M=3.56), and males had a greater reduction in mental illness severity on average compared to females (male average M=2.71, female average 3.00). This was approaching significance (.073) and would be important to explore with a larger sample size. Change in clinical condition for follow-up patients was also recorded. It was found that more than half of patients (53%) were observed to experience Minimal improvement in attending at least one follow-up appointment. There was no change for 27% of patients, and there were no patients who were worse at follow up. As this was a preliminary study with small sample size, future research conducted could explore whether there are any significant gender differences, such as whether males experience the significantly greater reduction in symptoms of mental illness compared to females, as well as any effects of cancer stage or type on psychiatric outcomes. Future research could also investigate outcomes for those patients who concurrently access a Clinical Psychologist alongside the Psychiatrist. A limitation of the study is that the outcome measure is a brief item rating completed by the clinician.
182
81279
The Effect of a Computer-Assisted Glycemic Surveillance Protocol on Nursing Workload
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol on nursing workload in intensive care unit. The study is completed in an Education and Research Hospital in Ankara with the attendance of volunteered 19 nurse who had been worked in reanimation unit. Nurses used the written protocol and computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol for glycemic follow-up approach of the intensive care patients. Nurses used the written protocol first in the glycemic follow-up of the patient, then used the computer-assisted protocol. (Nurses used the written protocol first, then the computer-assisted protocol in the glycemic follow-up of the patient). Less time was spent in glycemic control with computerized protocol than written protocol and this difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was determined that the computerized protocol application was completed in about 10 seconds (25% shorter) than the written protocol implementation. The computer-assisted glycemic surveillance protocol was found to be more easy and appropriate by nurses and the satisfaction level of the users was higher than with written protocol. While 79% of the nurses find it confusing to implement the written protocol, 79% were satisfied with the use of computerized protocol.
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20050
Effectiveness of Cognitive and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapies on Self-Efficiency and Life Style in MS Patients
Abstract:
Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disease of the central nervous system associated with demyelination of neurons and several demyelinated parts of the disease encompasses throughout the white matter and affects the sensory and motor function. This study compared the effectiveness of two methods of cognitive therapy and supportive-expressive therapy on the efficacy and quality of life in MS patients. This is an experimental project which has used developed group pretest - posttest and follow-up with 3 groups. The study included all patients with multiple sclerosis in 2013 that were members of the MS Society of Iran in Tehran. The sample included 45 patients with MS that were selected volunteerily of members of the MS society of Iran and randomly divided into three groups and pretest, posttest, and follow-up (three months) for the three groups had been done.The dimensions of quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis scale, and general self-efficiency scale of Schwarzer and Jerusalem was used for collecting data. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of quality of life scores at pretest, posttest, and follow-up of the experimental groups. There was no significant difference between the mean of quality of life of the experimental groups which means that both groups were effective and had the same effect. There was no significant difference between the mean of self-efficiency scores in control and experimental group in pretest, posttest and follow-up. Thus, by using cognitive and supportive-expressive group therapy we can improve quality of life in MS patients and make great strides in their mental health.
180
4043
Synthesis, Investigation, DFT Study and Biologically Activity of Zirconium (IV) Complexes with Diammie Complexes
Abstract:
Zirconium diammin and triammin complexes can be possess biological activities, these complexes were synthesized via the reaction equimolar quantity of (1:10-phenanthroline){NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3} (L1) or 4-4-amino phenazone {ONC6H5(NH)CH(NH2} (L2) or diphenyl carbizon {HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)} (L3) with Zirconium Salt {ZrOCl2} in ratio (1:1) to form complexes [{NC3H3(C6H2)NC3H3}ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L1], [{(O2NC6H4(NH)(NH2)}ZrOCl2] [ZrOCl2L2] and [{HNNCO(NH)2(C6H5)ZrOCl2}] [ZrOCl2L3] respectively. The characterization of these complexes were follow by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Also a variable temperature study of these complexes has been followed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy to follow electronic transform behaviors under temperature control also DFT study calculation was follow these complexes via the information from FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopy. A coordination number of these complexes of types five and six of the geometry can be suggested. These complexes were found to shown deferent inhibition to the growth of bacterial strains of Bacillus spp & Klebsiella spp & E.coli & proteus spp & pseudomona spp) while all complexes were in deferent's concentration (0.001, 0.2 and 1M) and the result as evidenced from the presence. For better understanding these complexes were examined by using Density functional theory (DFT) calculation.
179
95792
Enhancing Coping Strategies of Student: A Case Study of 'Choice Theory' Group Counseling
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to study the effects of choice theory in group counseling on coping strategies of students. The sample consisted of 16 students at a boarding school, who had the lowest score on the coping strategies. The sample was divided into two groups by random assignment and then were assigned into the experimental group and the control group, with eight members each. The instruments were the Adolescent Coping Scale and choice theory group counseling program. The data collection procedure was divided into three phases: The pre-test, the post-test, and the follow-up. The data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance: One between-subjects and one within-subjects. The results revealed that the interaction between the methods and the duration of the experiment was found statistically significant at 0.05 level. The students in the experimental group demonstrated significantly higher at 0.05 level on coping strategies score in both the post-test and the follow-up than in the pre-test and the control group. No significant difference was found on coping strategies during the post-test phase and the follow-up phase of the experimental group.
178
8837
Randomized Trial of Tian Jiu Therapy in San Fu Days for Patients with Chronic Asthma
Abstract:
Background: Tian Jiu Therapy (a medicinal vesiculation therapy according to traditional Chinese medicine theory) in San Fu Days (the three hottest days in a year is calculated by the Chinese ancient calendar) is widely used by patients with chronic asthma in China although from modern medicine perspective there is insufficient evidence of its effectiveness and safety issues. We investigated the efficacy and safety of Tian Jiu Therapy compared with placebo in patients with chronic asthma. Methods: Patients with chronic asthma were randomly assigned to Tian Jiu treatment group (n=165), placebo control group (n=158). Registered Chinese Medicine practitioners, in Orthopedics-Traumatology, Acupuncture, and Tui-na Clinical Centre for Teaching and Research, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, administered Tian Jiu Therapy and placebo treatment in 3 times over 2 months. Patients completed questionnaires and lung function test before treatment and after treatment, 3, 6, 9, and 11 months, respectively. The primary outcome was the no of asthma-related sub-healthy symptoms and the percentage of patients with twenty-three symptoms. Results: 451 patients were recruited totally, 111 patients refused or did not participate according the appointment time and 17 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Consequently, 323 of eligible patients were enrolled. There was nothing difference between Tian Jiu Therapy group and placebo control group at the end of all treatments neither primary nor secondary outcomes. While Tian Jiu Therapy as compared with placebo significantly reduced the percentage of participants who are susceptible waken up by asthma symptoms from 27% to 14% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Similarly, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the proportion of participants who had the symptom of running nose and sneezing before onset from 18% to 8% at 2nd follow-up (P < 0.05). Additionally, Tian Jiu Therapy significantly reduced the level of asthma, the proportion of participants who don’t need to processed during asthma attack increased from 6% to 15% at 1st follow-up and 0% to 7% at 3rd follow-up (P < 0.05). Improvements also occurred with Tian Jiu Therapy group, it reduced the proportion of participants who were spontaneously sweating at 3rd follow up and diarrhea after intake of oily food at 4th follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion: When added to a regimen of foundational therapy for chronic asthma participants, Tian Jiu Therapy further reduced the need for medications to control asthma, improved the quality of participants’ life, and significantly reduced the level of asthma. What is more, this benefit seems to have an accumulative effect over time was in accordance with the TCM theory of 'winter disease is being cured in summer'.
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10820
A Follow–Up Study of Bachelor of Science Graduates in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University during the 1999-2012 Academic Years
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to follow up on the graduated students of Bachelor of Science in Applied Statistics from Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University (SSRU) during the 1999 – 2012 academic years and to provide the fundamental guideline for developing the current curriculum according to Thai Qualifications Framework for Higher Education (TQF: HEd). The sample was collected from 75 graduates by interview and online questionnaire. The content covered 5 subjects: ethics and moral, knowledge, cognitive skills, interpersonal skills and responsibility, numerical analysis as well as communication and information technology skills. Data were analyzed by using statistical methods as percentiles, means, standard deviation, t-tests, and F-tests. The findings showed that samples were mostly females younger than 26 years old. The majority of graduates had income in the range of 10,001-20,000 Baht and their experience range was 2-5 years. In addition, overall opinions from receiving knowledge to apply to work were at agree; mean score was 3.97 and standard deviation was 0.40. In terms of opinion difference, the hypothesis' testing results indicate gender only had different opinion at a significant level of 0.05.
176
98999
Evidence-Based in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers at Five Years after Implant: The Poniente Study
Abstract:
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity of patients using a telemonitoring follow-up system (TM) compared to patients followed-up through standard outpatient visits (HM) 5 years after the implantation of a pacemaker. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised, nonblinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out at 5 years after the pacemakers implant. The study was developed at Hospital de Poniente (Almeria, Spain), between October 2012 and November 2013. The same clinical outcomes were analyzed in both follow-up groups. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity was assessed through EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire and Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also analyzed. Results: 5 years after pacemaker implant, 55 of 82 initial patients finished the study. Users with pacemakers were assigned to either a conventional follow-up group at hospital (HM=34, 50 initials) or a telemonitoring system group (TM=21, 32 initials). No significant differences were found between both groups according to sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data, Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity according to medical record and EQ5D and DASI questionnaires. In addition, conventional follow-up visits to hospital were reduced in 44,84% (p < 0,001) in the telemonitoring group in relation to hospital monitoring group. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study suggest that the telemonitoring of users with pacemakers is an equivalent option to conventional follow-up at hospital, in terms of Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of cardiovascular and pacemakers-related problem events and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. The PONIENTE study has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.
175
28837
Investigating the Efficacy of HIV/AIDS Psycho-Education and Behavioural Skills Training in Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviours in a Trucking Population in Nigeria
Abstract:
Long Distance Truck Drivers (LDTDs) have been found to be a high-risk group in the spread of HIV/AIDS globally; perhaps, due to their high Sexual Risk Behaviours (SRBs). Interventions for reducing SRBs in trucking population have not been fully exploited. A quasi-experimental control group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the efficacy of psycho-education and behavioural skills training in reducing SRBs among LDTDs. Sixteen drivers rivers were randomly assigned into either experimental or control groups using balloting technique. A questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. Repeated measures t-test and independent t-test were used to test hypotheses. The intervention had a significant effect on the SRBs among LDTDs at post-test(t{7}=6.01, p
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37361
A Retrospective Study on Causes, Surgery Findings, Results and Follow up of 30 Horses with Colic in Tehran, Iran
Abstract:
A retrospective study on causes, surgery findings, results and the follow up of 30 horses with colic in Tehran, Iran. Colic is the main problem horse industry.The causes of colic are related to management like food, sport and medical care. In this study that has been done between 2012-2015 for 30 horses referred to teaching hospital of veterinary medicine faculty of the University of Tehran. Seventy percent of causes was related to management of feeding and twenty percent was for malsporting. The rest of causes was from the anti parasite in bad root. The surgery findings were as follows: 60% displacement of dorsal right and left colon, 20% in impaction of pelvic flexure,10% impaction of the cecum, and 10% impaction of the stomach.
173
57165
Synchronous Courses Attendance in Distance Higher Education: Case Study of a Computer Science Department
Authors:
Abstract:
The use of videoconferencing platforms adapted to teaching offers students the opportunity to take distance education courses in much the same way as traditional in-class training. The sessions can be recorded and they allow students the option of following the courses synchronously or asynchronously. Three typical profiles can then be distinguished: students who choose to follow the courses synchronously, students who could attend the course in synchronous mode but choose to follow the session off-line, and students who follow the course asynchronously as they cannot attend the course when it is offered because of professional or personal constraints. Our study consists of observing attendance at all distance education courses offered in the synchronous mode by the Computer Science and Software Engineering Department at Laval University during 10 consecutive semesters. The aim is to identify factors that influence students in their choice of attending the distance courses in synchronous mode. It was found that participation tends to be relatively stable over the years for any one semester (fall, winter summer) and is similar from one course to another, although students may be increasingly familiar with the synchronous distance education courses. Average participation is around 28%. There may be deviations, but they concern only a few courses during certain semesters, suggesting that these deviations would only have occurred because of the composition of particular promotions during specific semesters. Furthermore, course schedules have a great influence on the attendance rate. The highest rates are all for courses which are scheduled outside office hours.
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79562
Retrospective Demographic Analysis of Patients Lost to Follow-Up from Antiretroviral Therapy in Mulanje Mission Hospital, Malawi
Abstract:
Background: Long-term retention of patients on ART has become a major health challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In 2010 a systematic review of 39 papers found that 30% of patients were no longer taking their ARTs two years after starting treatment. In the same review, it was noted that there was a paucity of data as to why patients become lost to follow-up (LTFU) in SSA. This project was performed in Mulanje Mission Hospital in Malawi as part of Swindon Academy’s Global Health eSSC. The HIV prevalence for Malawi is 10.3%, one of the highest rates in the world, however prevalence soars to 18% in the Mulanje. Therefore it is essential that patients at risk of being LTFU are identified early and managed appropriately to help them continue to participate in the service. Methodology: All patients on adult antiretroviral formulations at MMH, who were classified as ‘defaulters’ (patients missing a scheduled follow up visit by more than two months) over the last 12 months were included in the study. Demographic varibales were collected from Mastercards for data analysis. A comparison group of patients currently not lost to follow up was created by using all of the patients who attended the HIV clinic between 18th-22nd July 2016 who had never defaulted from ART. Data was analysed using the chi squared (χ²) test, as data collected was categorical, with alpha levels set at 0.05. Results: Overall, 136 patients had defaulted from ART over the past 12 months at MMH. Of these, 43 patients had missing Mastercards, so 93 defaulter datasets were analysed. In the comparison group 93 datasets were also analysed and statistical analysis done using Chi-Squared testing. A higher proportion of men in the defaulting group was noted (χ²=0.034) and defaulters tended to be younger (χ²=0.052). 94.6% of patients who defaulted were taking Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz, the standard first line ART therapy in Malawi. The mean length of time on ART was 39.0 months (RR: -22.4-100.4) in the defaulters group and 47.3 months (RR: -19.71-114.23) in the control group, with a mean difference of 8.3 less months in the defaulters group (χ ²=0.056). Discussion: The findings in this study echo the literature, however this review expands on that and shows the demographic for the patient at most risk of defaulting and being LTFU would be: a young male who has missed more than 4 doses of ART and is within his first year of treatment. For the hospital, this data is important at it identifies significant areas for public health focus. For instance, fear of disclosure and stigma may be disproportionately affecting younger men, so interventions can be aimed specifically at them to improve their health outcomes. The mean length of time on medication was 8.3 months less in the defaulters group, with a p-value of 0.056, emphasising the need for more intensive follow-up in the early stages of treatment, when patients are at the highest risk of defaulting.
171
41559
A Modified Open Posterior Approach for the Fixation of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion Fractures
Abstract:
Background: The most effective treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tears and the consequence of untreated PCL injuries remain controversial. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess outcomes of fixation of tibial posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) avulsion fractures via a modified technique. Patients and Methods: From January, 2009 to March, 2012, there were 45 cases of PCL tibial avulsion fractures that were referred to our hospital and were managed through a modified open posterior approach. Fixation of Tibial PCL avulsion fractures were fixed by means of a lag screw and washer placed through our modified open posterior approach. Range of motion was begun on the first postoperative day. Clinical stability, range of motion, gastrocnemius muscle strength, radiographic investigation, and patient’s overall quality of life was analyzed at final follow up visit. Results: The average of overall musculoskeletal functional evaluation scores was 15 (range 3–35). All patients achieved union of their fracture and had clinically stable knees at the latest follow-up. The mean preoperative Lysholm score for 15 knees was 62 ± 8 (range, 50-75); the mean postoperative Lysholm score was 92± 7 (range, 75-101). A significant difference in Lysholm scores between preoperative and final follow-up evaluations was found (P < .05). At first-year follow-up, 42 (93%) patients revealed a difference of less than 10 mm in thigh circumference between their injured and healthy knees. Conclusions: The management of displaced large PCL avulsion fractures with placement of a cancellous lag screw with washer by means of the modified open posterior approach leads to satisfactory clinical, radiographic, and functional results and reduces the operation time and less blood loss. Level of evidence: IV.
170
56638
Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots
Abstract:
CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.
169
90469
Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Postpartum Depression and General Comfort Levels
Abstract:
Objective: Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) include the deliberate stretching and relaxation of the major muscle groups of the human body. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PMR applied in women on the postpartum depression and general comfort level. Methods: The study population of this quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and control group consisted of primipara women who had vaginal delivery in the obstetric service of a university hospital. The experimental and control groups consisted of 35 women each. The data were collected by questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ). The women were matched according to their age and education level and divided into the experimental and control groups by simple random selection. Postpartum depression risk and general comfort was evaluated at the 2nd and 5th days, 10th and 15th days, fourth week and eighth week after birth. The experimental group was visited at home and PMR was applied. After the first visit, women were asked to apply PMR regularly three times a week for eight weeks. During the application, the researcher called the participants twice a week to follow up the continuity of the application. No intervention was performed in the control group. For data analysis, descriptive statistics such as number, percentage, mean, standard deviation, significance test of difference between two means and ANOVA were used. Approval of the ethics committee and permission of the institution were obtained for the study. Results: There were no significant differences between the women in the experimental and control groups in terms of age, education status and employment status (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of EPDS pre-test, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-up mean scores (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between EPDS pre-test and 3rd follow-up scores of the experimental group (p< 0.05), whereas there was no such difference in the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of mean GCQ pre-test scores (p>0.05), whereas in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups there was a statistically significant difference between the mean GCQ scores (p< 0.05). It was found that there was a significant increase in the GCQ physical, psychospiritual and sociocultural comfort sub-scales, relief and relaxation levels of the experimental group between the pre-test and 3rd follow-ups scores (p< 0.05). And, a significant decrease was found between pre-test and 3rd follow-up GCQ psychospiritual, environmental and sociocultural comfort sub-scale, relief, relaxation and superiority levels (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation was effective on reducing the postpartum depression risk and increasing general comfort. It is recommended to provide progressive muscle relaxation training to women in the postpartum period as well as ensuring the continuity of this practice.
168
84121
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
167
84134
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
166
84132
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
165
84131
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
164
84129
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
163
84128
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
162
76787
Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p< 0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p< 0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p< 0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370
161
29681
Determinants of Quality of Life in Patients with Atypical Prarkinsonian Syndromes: 1-Year Follow-Up Study
Abstract:
Background: A group of atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) includes a variety of rare neurodegenerative disorders characterized by reduced life expectancy, increasing disability, and considerable impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim: In this study we wanted to answer two questions: a) which demographic and clinical factors are main contributors of HRQoL in our cohort of patients with APS, and b) how does quality of life of these patients change over 1-year follow-up period. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in hospital settings. The initial study comprised all consecutive patients who were referred to the Department of Movement Disorders, Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade (Serbia), from January 31, 2000 to July 31, 2013, with the initial diagnoses of ‘Parkinson’s disease’, ‘parkinsonism’, ‘atypical parkinsonism’ and ‘parkinsonism plus’ during the first 8 months from the appearance of first symptom(s). The patients were afterwards regularly followed in 4-6 month intervals and eventually the diagnoses were established for 46 patients fulfilling the criteria for clinically probable progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 36 patients for probable multiple system atrophy (MSA). The health-related quality of life was assessed by using the SF-36 questionnaire (Serbian translation). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of composite scores of SF-36. The importance of changes in quality of life scores of patients with APS between baseline and follow-up time-point were quantified using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. The magnitude of any differences for the quality of life changes was calculated as an effect size (ES). Results: The final models of hierarchical regression analysis showed that apathy measured by the Apathy evaluation scale (AES) score accounted for 59% of the variance in the Physical Health Composite Score of SF-36 and 14% of the variance in the Mental Health Composite Score of SF-36 (p< 0.01). The changes in HRQoL were assessed in 52 patients with APS who completed 1-year follow-up period. The analysis of magnitude for changes in HRQoL during one-year follow-up period have shown sustained medium ES (0.50-0.79) for both Physical and Mental health composite scores, total quality of life as well as for the Physical Health, Vitality, Role Emotional and Social Functioning. Conclusion: This study provides insight into new potential predictors of HRQoL and its changes over time in patients with APS. Additionally, identification of both prognostic markers of a poor HRQoL and magnitude of its changes should be considered when developing comprehensive treatment-related strategies and health care programs aimed at improving HRQoL and well-being in patients with APS.
160
69260
A Formal Approach for Instructional Design Integrated with Data Visualization for Learning Analytics
Abstract:
Most Virtual Learning Environments do not provide support mechanisms for the integrated planning, construction and follow-up of Instructional Design supported by Learning Analytic results. The present work aims to present an authoring tool that will be responsible for constructing the structure of an Instructional Design (ID), without the data being altered during the execution of the course. The visual interface aims to present the critical situations present in this ID, serving as a support tool for the course follow-up and possible improvements, which can be made during its execution or in the planning of a new edition of this course. The model for the ID is based on High-Level Petri Nets and the visualization forms are determined by the specific kind of the data generated by an e-course, a population of students generating sequentially dependent data.
159
99417
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Jamaican and Trinidadian News Articles about D/Deafness
Abstract:
Utilizing a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methodology and a theoretical framework based on disability studies, how Jamaican and Trinidadian newspapers discussed issues relating to the Deaf community were examined. The term deaf was inputted into the search engine tool of the online website for the Jamaica Observer and the Trinidad & Tobago Guardian. All 27 articles that contained the term deaf in its content and were written between August 1, 2017 and November 15, 2017 were chosen for the study. The data analysis was divided into three steps: (1) listing and analysis instances of metaphorical deafness (e.g. fall on deaf ears), (2) categorization of the content of the articles into the models of disability discourse (the medical, socio-cultural, and superscrip models of disability narratives), and (3) the analysis of any additional data found. A total of 42% of the articles pulled for this study did not deal with the Deaf community in any capacity, but rather instances of the use of idiomatic expressions that use deafness as a metaphor for a non-physical, undesirable trait. The most common idiomatic expression found was fall on deaf ears. Regarding the models of disability discourse, eight articles were found to follow the socio-cultural model, two were found to follow the medical model, and two were found to follow the superscrip model. The additional data found in these articles include two instances of the term deaf and mute, an overwhelming use of lower case d for the term deaf, and the misuse of the term translator (to mean interpreter).
158
9781
The Rehabilitation of Drug Addiction by Thai Indigenous Knowledge: A Case Study of Thamkrabok Monastery
Abstract:
Drug addiction is a serious problem in Thailand which has occurred continuously and repeatedly and enormously impacting health and economy of drug users. The indigenous wisdom and folk medicine is an attractive alternative choice, especially in detoxification and rehabilitation period. There are two objectives: First is to study about rehabilitation process and the curing for drug eaters and 2nd is to investigate the effectiveness of the curing and rehabilitation process by indigenous wisdom at Tamkrabok monastery, Pra-Puttabat district, Saraburi province. The main informants are 10 curers, 15 patients and 17 after-1-year rehabilitators. In the process, the semi-structured questionnaire is administered, the data are analyzed and proved by triangulation. The curing and rehabilitation process which use herbal remedies has a period of 15 days (5 days for detoxification and 10 days for recovery period) and the occupational training and self-consciousness awakening were delivered. The follow-up process includes twice-a-month recall for 6 months, follow-up letters and in depth interview with their families. The outcome of 1 year post-treatment was 94% (16 from 17). There are many reasons for not relapsing: the recovering patients have drawn on their inner strength, self-awareness and coping skill as well as their family and social support while rehabilitation process which includes difficulties in contacting with family members. They can void themselves from high risk situations to relapse. Recommendations: The follow-up system should be improved for continuous quality improvement, there should be the qualification standard for herbal remedies and the comparison among rehabilitation process of Tamkrabok and another methods are to be guideline for the further development.
157
57342
Application All Digits Number Benford Law in Financial Statement
Abstract:
Background: The research aims to explore if there is fraud in a financial statement, use the Act stated that Benford's distribution all digits must compare the number will follow the trend of lower number. Research methods: This research uses all the analysis number being in Benford's law. After receiving the results of the analysis of all the digits, the author makes a distinction between implementation using the scale above and below 5%, the rate of occurrence of difference. With the number which have differences in the range of 5%, then can do the follow-up and the detection of the onset of fraud against the financial statements. The findings: From the research that has been done can be drawn the conclusion that the average of all numbers appear in the financial statements, and compare the rates of occurrence of numbers according to the characteristics of Benford's law. About the existence of errors and fraud in the financial statements of PT medco Energy Tbk did not occur. Conclusions: The study concludes that Benford's law can serve as indicator tool in detecting the possibility of in financial statements to case studies of PT Medco Energy Tbk for the fiscal year 2000-2010.
156
19526
Motivation and Livelihood of Undergraduate Students Based On Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Abstract:
This research is aimed to study about motivation that students of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University follow and happily live according to Sufficiency Economy Philosophy. Having collected 394 questionnaires, the result showed that most students had great motivation to follow this philosophy in high level, especially in terms of righteousness in profession; besides, students’determination and intention to apply this philosophy in everyday lives were so impressive though students’ families were not ready enough. Each of students, in fact, consulted families for plans of any activities without tiredness and discouragement based on the saying” Where there is a will, there is a way.” On the part of universities lives, students interacted with society and created projects that supported income to the community including exercises, sports, recreational activities, and community services.
155
22666
The Ebola Virus Disease and Its Outbreak in Nigeria
Abstract:
The Ebola virus disease (EVD); also Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus as a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The first death in Nigeria was reported on 25 July 2014: a Liberian-American with Ebola flew from Liberia to Nigeria and died in Lagos soon after arrival. As part of the effort to contain the disease, possible contacts were monitored –353 in Lagos and 451 in Port Harcourt On 22 September, the World Health Organisation reported a total of 20 cases, including eight deaths. The WHO's representative in Nigeria officially declared Nigeria Ebola-free on 20 October after no new active cases were reported in the follow-up contact. This paper looks at the Ebola Virus in general and the measures taken by Nigeria to combat its spread.
154
48464
Predictors of Lost to Follow-Up among HIV Patients Attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy Treatment Centers in Nigeria
Abstract:
Background: Despite of well-verified benefits of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in prolonging life expectancy being lost to follow-up (LTFU) presents a challenge to the success of ART programs in resource limited countries like Nigeria. In several studies of ART programs in developing countries, researchers have reported that there has been a high rate of LTFU among patients receiving care and treatment at ART treatment centers. This study seeks to determine the cause of LTFU among HIV clients. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study focused on a population of 9,280 persons living with HIV/AIDS who were enrolled in nine treatment centers in Nigeria (both pre-ART and ART patients were included). Out of the total population, 1752 (18.9%) were found to be LTFU. Of this group we randomly selected 1200 clients (68.5%) their d patients’ information was generated through a database. Data on demographics and CD4 counts, causes of LTFU were analyzed and summarized. Results: Out of 1200 LTFU clients selected, 462 (38.5%) were on ART; 341 clients (73.8%) had CD4 level < 500cell/µL and 738 (61.5%) on pre-ART had CD4 level >500/µL. In our records we found telephone number for 675 (56.1%) of these clients. 675 (56.1%) were owners of a phone. The majority of the client’s 731 (60.9%) were living at not more than 25km away from the ART center. A majority were females (926 or 77.2%) while 274 (22.8%) were male. 675 (56.1%) clients were reported traced via telephone and home address. 326 (27.2%) of clients phone numbers were not reachable; 173 (14.4%) of telephone numbers were incomplete. 71 (5.9%) had relocated due to communal crises and expert client trackers reported that some patient could not afford transportation to ART centers. Conclusion: This study shows that, low health education levels, poverty, relocations and lack of reliable phone contact were major predictors of LTFU. Periodic updates of home addresses, telephone contacts including at least two next of kin, phone text messages and home visits may improve follow up. Early and consistent tracking of missed appointments is crucial. Creation of more ART decentralized centres are needed to avoid long distances.
153
57636
Long Term Follow-Up, Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Total Arterial Revascularisation versus Conventional Coronary Surgery: A Retrospective Study
Abstract:
Graft patency underpins long-term prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). The benefits of the combined use of only the left internal mammary artery and radial artery, referred to as total arterial revascularisation (TAR), on long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether there were differences in long term clinical outcomes between recipients of TAR compared to a cohort of mostly arterial revascularization involving the left internal mammary, at least one radial artery and at least one saphenous vein graft. A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent TAR or were re-vascularized with supplementary saphenous vein graft from February 1996 to December 2004. Telephone surveys were conducted to obtain clinical outcome parameters including major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey responses. A total of 176 patients were successfully contacted to obtain postop follow up results. The mean follow-up length from time of surgery in our study was TAR 12.4&plusmn;1.8 years and conventional 12.6&plusmn;2.1. PCS score was TAR 45.9&plusmn;8.8 vs LIMA/Rad/ SVG 44.9&plusmn;9.2 (p=0.468) and MCS score was TAR 52.0&plusmn;8.9 vs LIMA/Rad/SVG 52.5&plusmn;9.3 (p=0.723). There were no significant differences between groups for NYHA class 3+ TAR 9.4% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 6.6%; or CCS 3+ TAR 2.35% vs. LIMA/Rad/SVG 0%.
152
106949
A Study of the Effect of Early and Late Meal Time on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract:
Background: A vast body of research exists on the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin injections and the like in managing diabetes but no such research exists that has taken into consideration the parameter of time restricted meal intake and its positive effects in managing diabetes. The utility of this project is immense as it offers a solution to the woes of diabetics based on circadian rhythm and normal physiology of the human body. Method: 80 Diabetics, enrolled from the Out Patient Department of Endocrinology, KGMU (King George's Medical University) were randomly divided based on consent to early dinner TRM(time restricted meal) group or not (control group). Follow up was done at six months and 12 months for anthropometric measurement, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, neck size, fasting, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum urea, serum creatinine, and lipid profile. The patient was given a clear understanding of chronomedicine and how it affects their health. A single intervention was done - the timing of dinner was at or around 7 pm for TRM group. Result: 65% of TRM group and 40 %(non- TRM) had normal HbA1c after 12 months. HbA1c in TRM Group (first visit to second follow up) had a significant p value=0.017. A p value of < 0.0001 was observed on comparing the values of blood sugar (fasting) in TRM Group from the first visit and second follow up. The values of blood sugar (postprandial) in TRM Group (first visit and second follow up) showed a p-value < 0.0001 (highly significant). Values of the three parameters were non- significant in the control group. Hip size(First Visit to Second Follow Up) TRM Group showed a p-value = 0.0344 (Significant) (Difference between means=2.762 ± 1.261)Detailed results of the above parameters and a few newer ones will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Time restricted meal intake in diabetics shows promise and is worth exploring further. Time Restricted Meal intake in Type 2 diabetics has a significant effect in controlling and maintaining HbA1c as the reduction in HbA1c value was very significant in the TRM group vs. the control group. Similar highly significant results were obtained in the case of fasting and postprandial values of blood sugar in the TRM group when compared to the control group. The effects of time restricted meal intake in diabetics show promise and are worth exploring further. It is one of the first studies which have been undertaken in Indian diabetics, although the initial data obtained is encouraging yet further research and study are required to corroborate results.
151
59321
Prevalence and Genetic Determinant of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis among Patients Completing Intensive Phase of Treatment in a Tertiary Referral Center in Nigeria
Abstract:
Background: Drug resistance tuberculosis (DR-TB) continues to be a challenge in developing countries with poor resources. Routine screening for primary DR-TB before commencing treatment is not done in public hospitals in Nigeria, even with the large body of evidence that shows a high prevalence of primary DR-TB. Data on drug resistance and its genetic determinant among follow up TB patients is lacking in Nigeria. Hence the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic determinant of drug resistance among follow up TB patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional laboratory-based study conducted on 384 sputum samples collected from consented follow-up tuberculosis patients. Standard microbiology methods (Zeil-Nielsen staining and microscopy) and PCR (Line Probe Assay)] were used to analyze the samples collected. Person’s Chi-square was used to analyze the data generated. Results: Out of three hundred and eighty-four (384) sputum samples analyzed for mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and DR-TB twenty-five 25 (6.5%) were found to be AFB positive. These samples were subjected to PCR (Line Probe Assay) out of which 18(72%) tested positive for DR-TB. Mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin (rpo B) and isoniazid (katG, and or inhA) were detected in 12/18(66.7%) and 6/18(33.3%), respectively. Transmission dynamic of DR-TB was not significantly (p>0.05) dependent on demographic characteristics. Conclusion: There is a need to strengthened the laboratory capacity for diagnosis of TB and drug resistance testing and make these services available, affordable, and accessible to the patients who need them.
150
76617
The Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Exercises on Quality of Life and Lumbar Spine Position Sense in Patients with Low Back Pain: A Comparative Study with a 4-Week Follow-Up
Abstract:
Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common condition with no exact diagnosis and mechanism for its occurrence. Recently, different therapeutic exercises have taken into account to manage NSCLBP. So, the aim of this study has mainly been placed on comparing the effects of Pilates and Mackenzie exercises on quality of life (QOL) lumbar spine position sense (LSPS) in patients with NSCLBP. In this randomized clinical trial, 47 patients with NSCLBP were voluntarily divided into three groups of Pilates (n=16) (with mean age 37.1 &plusmn; 9.5 years, height 168.9 &plusmn; 7.4 cm, body mass 76.1 &plusmn; 5.9 k), McKenzie (n=15) (with mean age 42.7 &plusmn; 8.1 years, height 165.7 &plusmn; 6.8, body mass 74.1 &plusmn; 4.8 kg) and control (n=16) (with mean age 39.3 &plusmn; 9.8 years, height 168.1 &plusmn; 8.1 cm, body mass 74.2 &plusmn; 5.8 kg). Primary outcome included QOL and secondary was LSPS. Both variables were assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires and electrogoniameter, respectively. The measurements were performed at baseline, following a 6-week intervention, and after a 4-week follow-up. The ANCOVA test at P &lt; 0.05 was administrated to analyze the collected data using SPSS software. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups and the control group to improve QOL. But, no difference was seen regarding the effects of two exercises on LSPS (p &lt; 0.05). Both Pilates and Mackenzie exercises demonstrated improvement in QOL after 6-week intervention and a 4-week follow-up while none of them considerably affected LSPS. Further studies are required to establish a supporting evidence for the effectiveness of two exercises on NSCLBP.
149
1902
Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials
Abstract:
Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.
148
73589
Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: A Study Based on Data Logging Information
Abstract:
Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common disorders that presents at birth and in early childhood. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been adopted based on the assumption that with early identification of HL, children will have access to optimal amplification and intervention at younger ages, therefore, taking advantage of the brain’s maximal plasticity. One particular challenge for parents in the early years is achieving consistent hearing aid (HA) use which is critical to the child’s development and constitutes the first step in the rehabilitation process. This study examined the consistency of hearing aid use in young children based on data logging information documented during audiology sessions in the first three years after hearing aid fitting. Methodology: The first 100 children who were diagnosed with bilateral HL before 72 months of age since 2003 to 2015 in a pediatric audiology clinic and who had at least two hearing aid follow-up sessions with available data logging information were included in the study. Data from each audiology session (age of child at the session, average hours of use per day (for each ear) in the first three years after HA fitting) were collected. Clinical characteristics (degree of hearing loss, age of HA fitting) were also documented to further understanding of factors that impact HA use. Results: Preliminary analysis of the results of the first 20 children shows that all of them (100%) have at least one data logging session recorded in the clinical audiology system (Noah). Of the 20 children, 17(85%) have three data logging events recorded in the first three years after HA fitting. Based on the statistical analysis of the first 20 cases, the median hours of use in the first follow-up session after the hearing aid fitting in the right ear is 3.9 hours with an interquartile range (IQR) of 10.2h. For the left ear the median is 4.4 and the IQR is 9.7h. In the first session 47% of the children use their hearing aids ≤5 hours, 12% use them between 5 to 10 hours and 22% use them ≥10 hours a day. However, these children showed increased use by the third follow-up session with a median (IQR) of 9.1 hours for the right ear and 2.5, and of 8.2 hours for left ear (IQR) IQR is 5.6 By the third follow-up session, 14% of children used hearing aids ≤5 hours, while 38% of children used them ≥10 hours. Based on the primary results, factors like age and level of HL significantly impact the hours of use. Conclusion: The use of data logging information to assess the actual hours of HA provides an opportunity to examine the: a) challenges of families of young children with HAs, b) factors that impact use in very young children. Data logging when used collaboratively with parents, can be a powerful tool to identify problems and to encourage and assist families in maximizing their child’s hearing potential.
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95019
Parasagittal Approach to Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Abstract:
Background: The most commonly performed pain procedures in the USA is Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injections (LESI). There are three main types of these procedures: transforaminal (TF), interlaminar (IL) and caudal injections. It is expected for TF injections to have better outcomes than IL injections, based on the recently published systematic review. The studies presented in that review used a midline IL approach, but those with parasagittal IL approach were not taken into consideration. Our aim is to emphasize the efficacy of the lateral parasagittal (paramedian) IL approach in this review. Methods: We included five studies in this systematic review, which compared Parasagittal-IL (PIL) with either Midline-IL (MIL) or TF LESI. Total of 296 patients who had undergone different types of LESI were observed across the five studies, and the average pain and functional improvements were calculated and compared among groups. Results: Pain and function improvements with PIL approach is superior on 12 months follow up to MIL approach (53.4% vs. 14.7%) and (55% vs. 27.7%), respectively. A 12 months follow-up results between PIL and TF shows a near equivalent effectiveness for pain (58.9% vs. 63.2%) and function improvement (47.3% vs. 48.1%). An average follow-up of 17.1 days have shown better short-term pain relief for PIL than TF approach (45.8% vs. 19.2%), respectively. Number of repeated injections is lower for PIL injections than MIL. Number of weeks between 1st and 2nd injections: PIL averaged 15.8 weeks and MIL averaged 9.7 weeks. Third LESI injection is more common in TF group (30%) than PIL group (18.8%). Conclusion: Higher complication rates are associated with TF injections for which FDA7 issued an official warning. We have recorded better outcomes in pain and function improvement of Parasagittal-IL LESI as compared to midline-IL injection, in the presented systematic review. Parasagittal and TF injections have equivalent efficacy in Pain and Function improvements thus we advocate for Parasagittal-IL approach consideration as an alternative for TF injections.
146
34456
Lamivudine Continuation/Tenofovir Add-on Adversely Affects Treatment Response among Lamivudine Non-Responder HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients from Eastern India
Abstract:
Presently, tenofovir disoproxil fumurate (TDF) is the most effective anti-viral agent for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in individuals co-infected with HIV and HBV as TDF has activity to suppress both wild-type and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant HBV. However, suboptimal response to TDF was reported in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals with prior 3TC therapy from different countries recently. The incidence of 3TC-resistant HBV strains is quite high in HIV-HBV co-infected patients experiencing long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in eastern India. In spite of this risk, most of the patients with long-term 3TC treatment are continued with the same anti-viral agent in this country. Only a few have received TDF in addition to 3TC in the ART regimen since TDF has been available in India for the treatment of HIV-infected patients in 2012. In this preliminary study, we investigated the virologic and biochemical parameters among HIV-HBV co-infected patients who are non-responders to 3TC treatment during the continuation of 3TC or TDF add-on to 3TC in their ART regimen. Fifteen HIV-HBV co-infected patients who experienced long-term 3TC (mean duration months 36.87 ± 24.08 months) were identified with high HBV viremia ( > 20,000 IU/ml) or harbouring 3TC-resistant HBV. These patients receiving ART from School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata, the main ART centre in eastern India were followed-up semi-annually for next three visits. Different virologic parameters including quantification of plasma HBV load by real-time PCR, detection of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) by commercial ELISA and anti-viral resistant mutations by sequencing were studied. During three follow-up among study subjects, 86%, 47%, and 43% had 3TC-mono-therapy (mean treatment-duration 41.54±18.84, 49.67±11.67, 54.17±12.37 months respectively) whereas 14%, 53%, and 57% experienced TDF in addition to 3TC (mean treatment duration 4.5±2.12, 16.56±11.06, and 23±4.07 months respectively). Mean CD4 cell-count in patients receiving 3TC was tended to be lower during third follow-up as compared to the first and the second [520.67±380.30 (1st), 454.8±196.90 (2nd), and 397.5±189.24 (3rd) cells/mm3) and similar trend was seen in patients experiencing TDF in addition to 3TC [334.5±330.218 (1st), 476.5±194.25 (2nd), and 461.17±269.89 (3rd) cells/mm3]. Serum HBV load was increased during successive follow-up of patients with 3TC-mono-therapy. Initiation of TDF lowered serum HBV-load among 3TC-non-responders at the time of second visit ( < 2,000 IU/ml), interestingly during third follow-up, mean HBV viremia increased >1 log IU/ml (mean 3.56±2.84 log IU/ml). Persistence of 3TC-resistant double and triple mutations was also observed in both the treatment regimens. Mean serum alanine aminotransferase remained elevated in these patients during this follow-up study. Persistence of high HBV viraemia and 3TC-resistant mutation in HBV during the continuation of 3TC might lead to major public health threat in India. The inclusion of TDF in the ART regimen of 3TC non-responder HIV-HBV co-infected patients showed adverse treatment response in terms of virologic and biochemical parameters. Therefore, serious attention is necessary for proper management of long-term 3TC experienced HIV-HBV co-infected patients with high HBV viraemia or 3TC-resistant HBV mutants in India.
145
97807
Analyzing Apposition and the Typology of Specific Reference in Newspaper Discourse in Nigeria
Abstract:
The language of the print media is characterized by the use of apposition. This linguistic element function strategically in journalistic discourse where it is communicatively necessary to name individuals and provide information about them. Linguistic studies on the language of the print media with bias for apposition have largely dwelt on other areas but the examination of the typology of appositive reference in newspaper discourse. Yet, it is capable of revealing ways writers communicate and provide information necessary for readers to follow and understand the message. The study, therefore, analyses the patterns of appositional occurrences and the typology of reference in newspaper articles. The data were obtained from The Punch and Daily Trust Newspapers. A total of six editions of these newspapers were collected randomly spread over three months. News and feature articles were used in the analysis. Guided by the referential theory of meaning in discourse, the appositions identified were subjected to analysis. The findings show that the semantic relation of coreference and speaker coreference have the highest percentage and frequency of occurrence in the data. This is because the subject matter of news reports and feature articles focuses on humans and the events around them; as a result, readers need to be provided with some form of detail and background information in order to identify as well as follow the discourse. Also, the non-referential relation of absolute synonymy and speaker synonymy no doubt have fewer occurrences and percentages in the analysis. This is tied to a major feature of the language of the media: simplicity. The paper concludes that appositions is mainly used for the purpose of providing the reader with much detail. In this way, the writer transmits information which helps him not only to give detailed yet concise descriptions but also in some way help the reader to follow the discourse.
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56485
Nursing System Development in Patients Undergoing Operation in 3C Ward: Early Ambulation in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer
Abstract:
Background: Srinagarind Hospital Ward 3C has about 180 cases of patients with head and neck cancer per year. Almost all of these patients suffer with pain, fatigue, low self image, swallowing problem and when the tumor is larger they will have breathing problem. Many of them have complication after operation such as pressure sore, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis. Nursing activity is very important to prevent the complication especially promoting patients early ambulation. The objective of this study was to develop early ambulation protocol for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing operation. Method: this study is one part of nursing system development in patients undergoing operation in Ward 3C. It is a participation action research divided into 3 phases Phase 1 Situation review: In this phase we review the clinical outcomes, process of care, from document such as nurses note and interview nurses, patients and family about early ambulation. Phase 2 Searching nursing intervention about early ambulation from previous study then establish protocol . This phase we have picture package of early ambulation. Phase 3 implementation and evaluation. Result: Patients with head and neck cancer after operation can follow early ambulation protocol 100%, 85 % of patients can follow protocol within 2 days after operation and 100% can follow protocol within 3 days. No complications occur. Patients satisfaction in very good level is 58% and in good level is 42% Length of hospital stay is 6 days in patients with wide excision and 16 day in patients with flap coverage. Conclusion: The early ambulation protocol is appropriate for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo operation. This can restore physical health, reduce complication and increase patients satisfaction.
143
79270
Effect of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders on Adherence to Routine Prenatal Iron/Folic Acid Supplement among Pregnant Women: A Pilot Study
Abstract:
Iron and folate supplementation in pregnancy are important interventions that prevent maternal anaemia and fetal anomaly. Thus, daily oral doses of iron and folic acid are recommended throughout pregnancy as part of antenatal care. However, low adherence has been a major drawback leading to low effectiveness of these programs. The effect of mobile text message reminders to pregnant women to take their routine medications on adherence was evaluated in this study. The first 100 women who consented to the study were recruited and randomized to either receive a text message reminder on adherence to routine medications or not. Adherence was assessed using the 8-item Modified Morisky Adherence Scale (8-MMAS). The folders of successfully recruited women were tagged with the a study number assigned to each of them. The womens’ phone numbers were collected and these were used to send text messages reminders on adhering to routine drugs only to women in the intervention group. The text messages were sent three times per week for a period of four weeks with an adherence reassessment at the one month follow-up antenatal visit for recruited women. At one month follow-up, the lost to follow-up were 6 (16%) women for the intervention group and 17 (34%) for the control group. The across group mean difference in adherence score was 0.07 (-0.96 – 1.10) at baseline and 0.3 (-0.31 – 0.92) after intervention, both insignificant at p > 0.05. The within group change were increases of 0.58 (0.00 – 1.16) (p = 0.05) from baseline for the intervention group and a 0.35 (-0.51 – 1.20) (p = 0.395) for the control group. Non-significant increase in adherence scores were recorded for both groups. However, the increase in adherence scores of women in the intervention group was greater and may be potentially transformed into more positive results if the study period is increased with possibly reduced study drop-outs shows great promise for more positive results.
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27102
Neurological Complication of Bariatric Surgery: A Cross-sectional Study from Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Objective: To report on the Saudi experience (developing country) of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is reviewed. Method: This is a cross sectional study done in King Abdul Aziz Medical City Jeddah, WR, where we reviewed all charts of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery between January 1st, 2009 to December 31st , 2014. Personal and clinical data including age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, type of procedure, duration of stay in hospital, complications and postoperative follow up were collected. In addition follow up visit and remote complication if present were collected. All patients with neurological complications were reviewed in details including their clinical examination, laboratory and imaging results, treatment and prognosis. This report is essentially descriptive with no statistical analysis performed. Results: Fifteen cases were collected in this study (3%). Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complica¬tion, but cases of Wernicke syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency, Guillain-Barre syndrome and cupper deficiency were also identified. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had full recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms but unfortunately one patient died. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications. A clear education, guidelines and follow-up program should be planned and practiced. Facts should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.
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62441
Experience of Hydatid Disease of Liver at a Tertiary Care Center 7 Years Experience
Abstract:
Background: Hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus Granulosus affects liver in 70-90% of cases. Dogs are the definitive host while humans are the accidental host. Modalities used for its treatment are especially important for our population as the disease is endemic in many Asian countries. The aim of the study was to perform an audit of the various modalities used for treatment of hydatid disease of liver and the response to each modality in tertiary care center of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of patients diagnosed and treated for Hydatid disease of the liver at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2014 was completed. All patients aged 16 and above were included. Patients who had extra hepatic disease and missing records were excluded. Outcome measures were morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results: During the study period 56 patients were treated for isolated hepatic hydatid disease and were included. Mean age was 39 years with 48% being females and 52% males. Most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain seen in 53% of patients(n=41). Duration of symptoms was less than 6 months in 74% (n=38). Mostly right lobe was involved in 69% (n=38).Most common treatment modality used was surgery in 34 patients followed by PAIR in 14 patients while 8 patients were treated medically. At a median follow up of 34 months recurrence was seen in 2 patients treated with PAIR while no patient treated with surgery had recurrence with the median follow up of 20 months. While no morbidity and mortality were observed in PAIR, but in surgery 5 patients had morbidity while 1 patient had mortality. Conclusion: Our data is comparative to other studies in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence. We had adequate follow up. In our study PAIR and surgery both are effective and have less complications and recurrence rate. Surgery is still the gold standard in terms of recurrence.
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58937
Fluoride as Obturating Material in Primary Teeth
Abstract:
The primary goal of a root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is to eliminate infection and to retain the tooth in a functional state until it gets physiologically exfoliated and replaced by permanent successor. Important requisite of a root canal filling material for primary teeth is that, it should resorb at a similar rate as the roots of primary tooth, be harmless to the periapical tissue and to the permanent tooth germ, resorb readily if pushed beyond the apex, be antiseptic, radio-opaque, should not shrink, adhere to the walls, not discolor the tooth and easy to fill & remove, if required at any stage. Presently available, commonly used obturating materials for primary teeth are zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform based pastes. None of these materials so far meet the ideal requirement of root canal filling material. So in search of ideal obturating material, this study was planed, in which mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide & sodium fluoride and mixture of calcium hydroxide & sodium fluoride was compared clinically and radiographically with calcium hydroxide for the obturation of root canals of 75 carious exposed primary mandibular second molars of 59 children aged 4-9 years. All the three material shows good results, but after a follow-up of 9 months mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide powder closely follow the resorption of root, mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride follow resorption of root in the beginning but later on majority of cases shows faster resorption whereas calcium hydroxide starts depleting from the canal from the beginning even as early as 3 months. Thus mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide found to be best obturaring material for primary tooth.
139
25219
Hybrid versus Cemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Mid-Term Follow-Up
Abstract:
Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) has contributed to improvement of patient`s quality of life, although it has been associated with some complications including component loosening and polyethylene wear. To prevent these complications various fixation techniques have been employed. Hybrid TKA with cemented tibial and cementless femoral components have shown favourable outcomes, although it still lack of consensus in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of hybrid versus cemented TKA with an average 5 years follow-up and analyse the survival rates. Methods: A retrospective study of 125 TKAs performed in 92 patients at our institution, between 2006 to 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The same prosthesis was used in all knees. Hybrid TKA fixation was performed in 96 knees, with a mean follow-up of 4,8±1,7 years (range, 2–8,3 years) and 29 TKAs received fully cemented fixation with a mean follow-up of 4,9±1,9 years (range, 2-8,3 years). Selection for hybrid fixation was nonrandomized and based on femoral component fit. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS 0-48) was evaluated for clinical assessment and Knee Society Roentgenographic Evaluation Scoring System was used for radiographic outcome. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with failures defined as revision of either the tibial or femoral component for aseptic failures and all-causes (aseptic and infection). Analysis of survivorship data was performed using the log-rank test. SPSS (v22) was the computer program used for statistical analysis. Results: The hybrid group consisted of 72 females (75%) and 24 males (25%), with mean age 64±7 years (range, 50-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was osteoarthritis (OA) in 94 knees (98%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1 knee (1%) and Posttraumatic arthritis (PTA) in 1 Knee (1%). The fully cemented group consisted of 23 females (79%) and 6 males (21%), with mean age 65±7 years (range, 47-78 years). The preoperative diagnosis was OA in 27 knees (93%), PTA in 2 knees (7%). The Oxford Knee Scores were similar between the 2 groups (hybrid 40,3±2,8 versus cemented 40,2±3). The percentage of radiolucencies seen on the femoral side was slightly higher in the cemented group 20,7% than the hybrid group 11,5% p0.223. In the cemented group there were significantly more Zone 4 radiolucencies compared to the hybrid group (13,8% versus 2,1% p0,026). Revisions for all causes were performed in 4 of the 96 hybrid TKAs (4,2%) and 1 of the 29 cemented TKAs (3,5%). The reason for revision was aseptic loosening in 3 hybrid TKAs and 1 of the cemented TKAs. Revision was performed for infection in 1 hybrid TKA. The hybrid group demonstrated a 7 years survival rate of 93% for all-cause failures and 94% for aseptic loosening. No significant difference in survivorship was seen between the groups for all-cause failures or aseptic failures. Conclusions: Hybrid TKA yields similar intermediate-term results and survival rates as fully cemented total knee arthroplasty and remains a viable option in knee joint replacement surgery.
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83955
Evaluation of Cardiac Rhythm Patterns after Open Surgical Maze-Procedures from Three Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center
Abstract:
In order to optimize the efficacy of medications, the regular follow-up with long-term continuous monitoring of heart rhythmic patterns has been facilitated since clinical introduction of cardiac implantable electronic monitoring devices (CIMD). Extensive analysis of rhythmic circadian properties is capable to disclose the distributions of arrhythmic events, which may support appropriate medication according rate-/rhythm-control strategy and minimize consequent afflictions. 348 patients (69 ± 0.5ys, male 61.8%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation (AF), undergoing primary ablating therapies combined to coronary or valve operations and secondary implantation of CIMDs, were involved and divided into 3 groups such as PAAF (paroxysmal AF) (n=99, male 68.7%), PEAF (persistent AF) (n=94, male 62.8%), and LSPEAF (long-standing persistent AF) (n=155, male 56.8%). All patients participated in three-year ambulant follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation recurrence were assessed using cardiac monitor devices, whereby attacks frequencies and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Anticoagulants and regular anti-arrhythmic medications were evaluated and the last were listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Patients in the PEAF-group showed the least AF-burden after surgical ablating procedures compared to both of the other subtypes (p < 0.05). The AF-recurrences predominantly performed such attacks’ property as shorter than one hour, namely within 10 minutes (p < 0.05), regardless of AF-subtypes. Concerning circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, frequent AF-attacks were mostly recorded in the morning in the PAAF-group (p < 0.05), while the patients with predisposed PEAF complained less attack-induced discomforts in the latter half of the night and the ones with LSPEAF only if they were not physically active after primary surgical ablations. Different AF-subtypes presented distinct therapeutic efficacies after appropriate surgical ablating procedures and recurrence properties in sense of circadian distribution. An optimization of medical regimen and drug dosages to maintain the therapeutic success needs more attention to detailed assessment of the long-term follow-up. Rate-control strategy plays a much more important role than rhythm-control in the ongoing follow-up examinations.
137
99588
The Importance of Functioning and Disability Status Follow-Up in People with Multiple Sclerosis
Abstract:
Background: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major life challenge and has repercussions on all aspects of the daily functioning of those attained by it – personal activities, social participation, and quality of life. Regular follow-up of only the neurological status is not informative enough so that it could provide data on the sort of support and rehabilitation that is required. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the current level of functioning of persons attained by MS and the factors that influence it. Methods: The study was conducted in Serbia, on a sample of 108 persons with relapse-remitting form of MS, aged 20 to 53 (mean 39.86 years; SD 8.20 years). All participants were fully ambulatory. Methods applied in the study include Expanded Disability Status Scale-EDSS and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2.0 (36-item version, self-administered). Results: Participants were found to experience the most problems in the domains of Participation, Mobility, Life activities and Cognition. The least difficulties were found in the domain of Self-care. Symptom duration was the only control variable with a significant partial contribution to the prediction of the WHODAS scale score (β=0.30, p < 0.05). The total EDSS score correlated with the total WHODAS 2.0 score (r=0.34, p=0.00). Statistically significant differences in the domain of EDSS 0-5.5 were found within categories (0-1.5; 2-3.5; 4-5.5). The more pronounced a participant’s EDSS score was, although not indicative of large changes in the neurological status, the more apparent the changes in the functional domain, i.e. in all areas covered by WHODAS 2.0. Pyramidal (β=0.34, p < 0.05) and Bowel and bladder (β=0.24, p < 0.05) functional systems were found to have a significant partial contribution to the prediction of the WHODAS score. Conclusion: Measuring functioning and disability is important in the follow-up of persons suffering from MS in order to plan rehabilitation and define areas in which additional support is needed.
136
84293
Radiomics: Approach to Enable Early Diagnosis of Non-Specific Breast Nodules in Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abstract:
Purpose: To characterize, through a radiomic approach, the nature of nodules considered non-specific by expert radiologists, recognized in magnetic resonance mammography (MRm) with T1-weighted (T1w) sequences with paramagnetic contrast. Material and Methods: 47 cases out of 1200 undergoing MRm, in which the MRm assessment gave uncertain classification (non-specific nodules), were admitted to the study. The clinical outcome of the non-specific nodules was later found through follow-up or further exams (biopsy), finding 35 benign and 12 malignant. All MR Images were acquired at 1.5T, a first basal T1w sequence and then four T1w acquisitions after the paramagnetic contrast injection. After a manual segmentation of the lesions, done by a radiologist, and the extraction of 150 radiomic features (30 features per 5 subsequent times) a machine learning (ML) approach was used. An evolutionary algorithm (TWIST system based on KNN algorithm) was used to subdivide the dataset into training and validation test and to select features yielding the maximal amount of information. After this pre-processing, different machine learning systems were applied to develop a predictive model based on a training-testing crossover procedure. 10 cases with a benign nodule (follow-up older than 5 years) and 18 with an evident malignant tumor (clear malignant histological exam) were added to the dataset in order to allow the ML system to better learn from data. Results: NaiveBayes algorithm working on 79 features selected by a TWIST system, resulted to be the best performing ML system with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 78% and a global accuracy of 87% (average values of two training-testing procedures ab-ba). The results showed that in the subset of 47 non-specific nodules, the algorithm predicted the outcome of 45 nodules which an expert radiologist could not identify. Conclusion: In this pilot study we identified a radiomic approach allowing ML systems to perform well in the diagnosis of a non-specific nodule at MR mammography. This algorithm could be a great support for the early diagnosis of malignant breast tumor, in the event the radiologist is not able to identify the kind of lesion and reduces the necessity for long follow-up. Clinical Relevance: This machine learning algorithm could be essential to support the radiologist in early diagnosis of non-specific nodules, in order to avoid strenuous follow-up and painful biopsy for the patient.
135
81942
Social Media Mining with R. Twitter Analyses
Authors:
Abstract:
Tweets' analysis is part of text mining. Each document is a written text. It's possible to apply the usual text search techniques, in particular by switching to the bag-of-words representation. But the tweets induce peculiarities. Some may enrich the analysis. Thus, their length is calibrated (at least as far as public messages are concerned), special characters make it possible to identify authors (@) and themes (#), the tweet and retweet mechanisms make it possible to follow the diffusion of the information. Conversely, other characteristics may disrupt the analyzes. Because space is limited, authors often use abbreviations, emoticons to express feelings, and they do not pay much attention to spelling. All this creates noise that can complicate the task. The tweets carry a lot of potentially interesting information. Their exploitation is one of the main axes of the analysis of the social networks. We show how to access Twitter-related messages. We will initiate a study of the properties of the tweets, and we will follow up on the exploitation of the content of the messages. We will work under R with the package 'twitteR'. The study of tweets is a strong focus of analysis of social networks because Twitter has become an important vector of communication. This example shows that it is easy to initiate an analysis from data extracted directly online. The data preparation phase is of great importance.
134
25222
Online Self-Help Metacognitive Therapy for OCD: A Case Series
Authors:
Abstract:
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) are currently the most efficacious treatments for Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Many clients, however, remain symptomatic following treatment. As a result, refusal of treatment, withdrawal from treatment, and partial adherence to treatment are common amongst ERP. Such limitations have caused few professionals to actually engage in ERP therapy, which has warranted the exploration of alternative treatments. This study evaluated an online self-help treatment program for OCD (the OCD Doctor Online); a 4-week Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) program which has implemented strategies from Wells’ Metacognitive model of OCD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an online self-help treatment using MCT would reduce symptoms of OCD, reduce unhelpful metacognitions and improve quality of life. Treatment effectiveness was assessed using a case series methodology in 3 consecutively referred individuals. At post-treatment, all participants showed reductions in unhelpful metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30) and improvements in quality of life (Q-LES-Q), which were maintained through to 4 week follow-up. Two of the three participants showed reductions in OCD symptomology (OCI-R), which were further reduced at 4-week follow-up. The present study suggests that internet-based self-help treatment may be an effective means of delivering MCT to adults with OCD.
133
48209
Procyclicality of Leverage: An Empirical Analysis from Turkish Banks
Abstract:
The recent economic crisis have shown that procyclicality, which could threaten the stability and growth of the economy, is a major problem of financial and real sector. The term procyclicality refers here the cyclical behavior of banks that lead them to follow the same patterns as the real economy. In this study, leverage which demonstrate how a bank manage its debt, is chosen as bank specific variable to see the effect of changes in it over the economic cycle. The procyclical behavior of Turkish banking sector (commercial, participation, development-investment banks) is tried to explain with analyzing the relationship between leverage and asset growth. On the basis of theoretical explanations, eight different leverage ratios are utilized in eight different panel data models to demonstrate the procyclicality effect of Turkish banks leverage using monthly data covering the 2005-2014 period. It is tested whether there is an increasing (decreasing) trend in the leverage ratio of Turkish banks when there is an enlargement (contraction) in their balance sheet. The major finding of the study indicates that asset growth has a significant effect on all eight leverage ratios. In other words, the leverage of Turkish banks follow a cyclical pattern, which is in line with those of earlier literature.
132
76395
Long-Term Results of Coronary Bifurcation Stenting with Drug Eluting Stents
Abstract:
Background: Coronary bifurcation is one of the most complex lesion in patients with coronary ar-tery disease. Provisional T-stenting is currently one of the recommended techniques. The aim was to assess optimal methods of treatment in the era of drug-eluting stents (DES). Methods: The regis-try consisted of data from 1916 patients treated with coronary percutaneous interventions (PCI) using either first- or second-generation DES. Patients with bifurcation lesion entered the analysis. Major adverse cardiac and cardiovascular events (MACCE) were assessed at one year of follow-up and comprised of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), repeated PCI (re-PCI) of target ves-sel and stroke. Results: Of 1916 registry patients, 204 patients (11%) were diagnosed with bifurcation lesion >50% and entered the analysis. The most commonly used technique was provi-sional T-stenting (141 patients, 69%). Optimization with kissing-balloons technique was performed in 45 patients (22%). In 59 patients (29%) second-generation DES was implanted, while in 112 pa-tients (55%), first-generation DES was used. In 33 patients (16%) both types of DES were used. The procedure success rate (TIMI 3 flow) was achieved in 98% of patients. In one-year follow-up, there were 39 MACCE (19%) (9 deaths, 17 AMI, 16 re-PCI and 5 strokes). Provisional T-stenting resulted in similar rate of MACCE to other techniques (16% vs. 5%, p=0.27) and similar occurrence of re-PCI (6% vs. 2%, p=0.78). The results of post-PCI kissing-balloon technique gave equal out-comes with 3% vs. 16% of MACCE in patients in whom no optimization technique was used (p=0.39). The type of implanted DES (second- vs. first-generation) had no influence on MACCE (4% vs 14%, respectively, p=0.12) and re-PCI (1.7% vs. 51% patients, respectively, p=0.28). Con-clusions: The treatment of bifurcation lesions with PCI represent high-risk procedures with high rate of MACCE. Stenting technique, optimization of PCI and the generation of implanted stent should be personalized for each case to balance risk of the procedure. In this setting, the operator experience might be the factor of better outcome, which should be further investigated.
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37428
Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa
Abstract:
Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.
130
23572
Effect of Retained Posterior Horn of Medial Meniscus on Functional Outcome of ACL Reconstructed Knees
Abstract:
Background: The posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) is a secondary stabilizer against anterior translation of tibia. Cadaveric studies have revealed increased strain on the ACL graft and greater instrumented laxity in Posterior horn deficient knees. Clinical studies have shown higher prevalence of radiological OA after ACL reconstruction combined with menisectomy. However, functional outcomes in ACL reconstructed knee in the absence of Posterior horn is less discussed, and specific role of posterior horn is ill-documented. This study evaluated functional and radiological outcomes in posterior horn preserved and posterior horn sacrificed ACL reconstructed knees. Materials: Of the 457 patients who had ACL reconstruction done over a 6 year period, 77 cases with minimum follow up of 18 months were included in the study after strict exclusion criteria (associated lateral meniscus injury, other ligamentous injuries, significant cartilage degeneration, repeat injury and contralateral knee injuries were excluded). 41 patients with intact menisci were compared with 36 patients with absent posterior horn of medial meniscus. Radiological and clinical tests for instability were conducted, and knees were evaluated using subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Orthopadische Arbeitsgruppe Knie score (OAK). Results: We found a trend towards significantly better overall outcome (OAK) in cases with intact PHMM at average follow-up of 43.03 months (p value 0.082). Cases with intact PHMM had significantly better objective stability (p value 0.004). No significant differences were noted in the subjective IKDC score (p value 0.526) and the functional OAK outcome (category D) (p value 0.363). More cases with absent posterior horn had evidence of radiological OA (p value 0.022) even at mid-term follow-up. Conclusion: Even though the overall OAK and subjective IKDC scores did not show significant difference between the two subsets, the poorer outcomes in terms of objective stability and radiological OA noted in the absence of PHMM, indicates the importance of preserving this important part of the meniscus.
129
115359
Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device
Abstract:
Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.
128
117185
Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device
Abstract:
Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.
127
47400
Schema Therapy as Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Personality Disorder: A Multiple Baseline Case Series Study Testing Cognitive-Behavioral and Experiential Interventions
Abstract:
Rationale: To our knowledge treatment of personality disorder comorbidity in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is understudied and is still in its infancy: We do not know if treatment of personality disorders may be applicable to adults with ASD. In particular, it is unknown whether patients with ASD benefit from experiential techniques that are part of schema therapy developed for the treatment of personality disorders. Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of a schema mode focused treatment with adult clients with ASD and comorbid personality pathology (i.e. at least one personality disorder). Specifically, we investigate if they can benefit from both cognitive-behavioral, and experiential interventions. Study design: A multiple baseline case series study. Study population: Adult individuals (age > 21 years) with ASD and at least one personality disorder. Participants will be recruited from Sarr expertise center for autism in Rotterdam. The study requires 12 participants. Intervention: The treatment protocol consists of 35 weekly offered sessions, followed by 10 monthly booster sessions. A multiple baseline design will be used with baseline varying from 5 to 10 weeks, with weekly supportive sessions. After baseline, a 5-week exploration phase follows with weekly sessions during which current and past functioning, psychological symptoms, schema modes are explored, and information about the treatment will be given. Then 15 weekly sessions with cognitive-behavioral interventions and 15 weekly sessions with experiential interventions will be given. Finally, there will be a 10-month follow-up phase with monthly booster sessions. Participants are randomly assigned to baseline length, and respond weekly during treatment and monthly at follow-up on Belief Strength of negative core beliefs (by VAS), and fill out SMI, SCL-90 and SRS-A 7 times during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), after baseline, after exploration, after cognitive and behavioral interventions, after experiential interventions, and after 5- and 10- month follow-up. The SCID-II will be administered during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), at 5- and at 10-month follow-up. Main study parameters: The primary study parameter is negative core beliefs. Secondary study parameters include schema modes, personality disorder manifestations, psychological symptoms, and social interaction and communication. Discussion: To the best of author’s knowledge so far no study has been published on the application of schema mode focused interventions in adult patients with ASD and comorbid PD(s). This study offers the first systematic test of application of schema therapy for adults with ASD. The results of this study will provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy in treating adults with both ASD and PD(s). The study intends to provide valuable information for future development and implementation of therapeutic interventions for adults with both ASD and PD(s).
126
35228
A Preliminary Investigation on Factors that Influence Malaysian Road User’s Close Following Behaviour
Abstract:
This paper aims to look at the situation of close following behaviour from the introductory phase before conducting a profound investigation and discussion on this subject. Close following behaviour is known as behaviour during when drivers follow front vehicle with headways lower than two-second. As such, the study of close-following is important due to the degree of negative consequences this behaviour can cause commonly identified as rear-end collision especially when road safety is concerned. This paper presents a preliminary results of close-following behaviour among selected respondents (n=515) in Peninsular Malaysia at selected highways and federal roads. Respondents were interviewed with survey questions tending to examine their actual driving behaviour related to close-following and their perception towards the subject of close following. Selected findings (four selected questions) are discussed in this paper of which identified as essential for deliberation (as opposed to other questions in the survey questionnaire) as far as a preliminary discussion is concerned. Through the statistical test of one-way ANOVA, study found that gender of drivers is not significant to influence drivers to close follow but instead, type of vehicle the respondent drives had more significant to influence drivers to have tendency to perform close following behaviour.
125
42705
Use of Curcumin in Radiochemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Control Trial Study
Abstract:
Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are effective for treating malignancies but are associated with side effects like oral mucositis. Chlorhexidine gluconate is one of the most commonly used mouthwash in prevention of signs and symptoms of mucositis. Evidence shows that chlorhexidine gluconate has side effects in terms of colonization of bacteria, bad breadth and less healing properties. Thus, it is essential to find a suitable alternative therapy which is more effective with minimal side effects. Curcumin, an extract of turmeric is gradually being studied for its wide-ranging therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, antiseptic, chemo sensitizing and radio sensitizing properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical curcumin gel on radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis in cancer patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin gel in the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio chemotherapy and compare with chlorhexidine. The study was conducted in K.L.E. Society&rsquo;s Belgaum cancer hospital. 40 oral cancer patients undergoing the radiochemotheraphy with oral mucositis was selected and randomly divided into two groups of 20 each. The study group A [20 patients] was advised Cure next gel for 2 weeks. The control group B [20 patients] was advised chlorhexidine gel for 2 weeks. The NRS, Oral Mucositis Assessment scale and WHO mucositis scale were used to determine the grading. The results obtained were calculated by using SPSS 20 software. The comparison of grading was done by applying Mann-Whitney U test and intergroup comparison was calculated by Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The NRS scores observed from baseline to 1st and 2nd week follow up in both the group showed significant difference. The percentage of change in erythema in respect to group A was 63.3% for first week and for second week, changes were 100.0% with p = 0.0003. The changes in Group A in respect to erythema was 34.6% for 1st week and 57.7% in second week. The intergroup comparison was significant with p value of 0.0048 and 0.0006 in relation to group A and group B respectively. The size of the ulcer score was measured which showed 35.5% [P=0.0010] of change in Group A for 1st and 2nd week showed totally reduction i.e. 103.4% [P=0.0001]. Group B showed 24.7% change from baseline to 1st week and 53.6% for 2nd week follow up. The intergroup comparison with Wilcoxon matched pair test was significant with p=0.0001 in group A. The result obtained by WHO mucositis score in respect to group A shows 29.6% [p=0.0004] change in first week and 75.0% [p=0.0180] change in second week which is highly significant in comparison to group B. Group B showed minimum changes i.e. 20.1% in 1st week and 33.3% in 2nd week. The p value with Wilcoxon was significant with 0.0025 in Group A for 1st week follow up and 0.000 for 2nd week follow up. Curcumin gel appears to an effective and safer alternative to chlorhexidine gel in treatment of oral mucositis.
124
46308
Action Research of Local Resident Empowerment in Prambanan Cultural Heritage Area in Yogyakarta
Abstract:
The finding of this research results from three action researches conducted in three rurals, namely Bokoharjo, Sambirejo, and Tirtomartani. Those rurals are close to Prambanan, a well-known cultural heritage site located in Sleman Regency, Indonesia. This action research is conducted using participative method through observation, interview, and focus group discussion with local residents as the subjects. This research aims to (a) present identifications of potencies, obstacles, and opportunities existed in development process, which is able to give more encouragement, involvement and empowerment for local residents in maintaining the cultural heritage area, (b) present participatory empowerment programs which adjust the needs of local residents and human resources, and (c) identify potential stakeholders that can support empowerment programs. Through action research method, this research is able to present (a) potential mapping; difficulties and opportunities in the development process in each rural, (b) empowerment program planning needed by local residents as a follow-up of this action research. Moreover, this research also presents identifications of potential stakeholders who are able to do an empowerment program follow-up. It is expected that, at the end of the programs, the local residents are able to maintain Prambanan, as one of cultural heritage sites that needs to be protected, in a more sustainable way.
123
42845
Pegylated Interferon in HCV Genotype 3 Relapser to Conventional Interferon in Pakistani Population
Abstract:
Background: Estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistan is 5% of which 78 % are Genotype 3, in which Response to conventional interferon is reported to be 70%. Objective: To determine the efficacy of pegylated interferon 20 kDa (Unipeg) plus ribavirin (Ribazole) in HCV genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. Methods: This is an ongoing study of 20 enrolled patients. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg weekly with ribavirin, were administered for a period of 24 weeks. Virological Responses were measured by Qualitative HCV RNA at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 to determine Rapid Virological Response (RVR), Early Virological Response (EVR), End of Treatment (ETR) and Sustained Virological Response (SVR), respectively. EVR was done for those who didn’t achieve RVR. Results: Males were 12 (60%) and mean age was 38.5 ±7.62 years. Out of 20 recruited patients, all completed 4 weeks therapy; RVR was achieved in 8 (40%) patients. One patient was lost to follow up and one yet to visit at 12 weeks. From 10 patients, 8 (80%) patients achieved EVR. Out of intent-to-treat patients, 15 completed 24 weeks therapy, ETR was achieved in 14 (93%) patients and 9 patients completed post therapy follow-up, of which, 8 (89%) patients achieved SVR. Conclusion: Our interim data demonstrates that Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg (Unipeg) in combination with Ribavirin (Ribazole) has shown promising results in treating HCV Genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. We recommend use of Pegylated Interferon in Relapsers with Genotype 3 when financial constraints limit the use of oral antivirals.
122
29709
Success of Trabeculectomy: May Not Always Depend on Mitomycin C
Abstract:
Introduction and aim: One of the major causes for failure of trabeculectomy is fibrosis and scarring of subconjunctival tissue around the bleb, and hence intra operative usage of anti-fibrotic agents like Mitomycin C (MMC) has become very popular. However, the long term effects of MMC like thin, avascular bleb, hypotony, bleb leaks and late onset endophthalmitis cannot be ignored, and may preclude its usage in routine trabeculectomy. In this particular study we aim to study the outcomes of trabeculectomy with and without MMC in uncomplicated glaucoma patients. Methods: Retrospective study of series of patients that underwent trabeculectomy with or without cataract surgery in glaucoma department of a tertiary eye care centre by a single surgeon for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), angle closure glaucoma (PACG), Pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXF glaucoma). Patients with secondary glaucoma, juvenile and congenital glaucoma were excluded; also patients undergoing second trabeculectomy were excluded. The outcomes were studied in terms of IOP control at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year and were analyzed separately for surgical outcomes with and without MMC. Success was considered if IOP was < 16 mmHg on applanation tonometry. Further, the necessity of medication, 5 fluorouracil (5FU) postoperative injections, needling post operatively was noted. Results: Eighty nine patient’s medical records were reviewed, of which 58 patients had undergone trabeculectomy without MMC and 31 with MMC. Mean age was 62.4 (95%CI 61- 64), 34 were females and 55 males. MMC group (n=31): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.1mmHg (95% CI: 17.6 -24.6), and 22 patients had IOP > 16. Three out of 33 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=27) mean IOP was 12.4 mmHg (CI: 10.7-14), and 31/33 had success. At 6 months (n=18) mean IOP was 13mmHg (CI: 10.3-14.6) and 16/18 had good outcome, however at 1 year only 11 patients were available for follow up and 91% (10/11) had success. Overall, 3 patients required medication and one patient required postoperative injection of 5 FU. No MMC group (n=58): Preoperative mean IOP was 21.9 mmHg (CI: 19.8-24.2), and 42 had IOP > 16 mmHg. 12 out of 58 patients were on single medication and rests were on multiple drugs. At 1 month (n=52) mean IOP was14.6mmHg (CI: 13.2-15.9), and 45/ 58 had IOP < 16mmHg. At 6 months (n=31) mean IOP was 13.5 mmHg (CI: 11.9-15.2) and 26/31 had success, however at 1 year only 23 patients came for follow up and of these 87% (20/23) patients had success. Overall, 1 patient required needling, 5 required 5 FU injections and 5 patients required medication. The success rates at each follow up visit were not significantly different in both the groups. Conclusion: Intra-operative MMC usage may not be required in all patients undergoing trabeculectomy, and the ones without MMC also have fairly good outcomes in primary glaucoma.
121
123570
Posterior Thigh Compartment Syndrome Associated with Hamstring Avulsion and Antiplatelet Therapy
Abstract:
Aim of study: Scientific literature is scarce of studies and reviews valuing the pros and cons of the paratricipital approach for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures; the lateral paratricipital approach is a valid alternative to the classical posterior approach to the humeral shaft as it preserves both the triceps muscle and the elbow extensor mechanisms; based on our experience, this retrospective analysis aims at analyzing outcome, risks and benefits of the lateral paratricipital approach for humeral shaft fractures. Methods: Our study includes 14 patients treated between 2018 and 2019 for unilateral humeral shaft fractures: 13 with a B1 or B2 and a patient with a C fracture type (according to the AO/ATO Classification); 6 of our patients identified as male while 8 as female; age average was 57.8 years old (range 21-73 years old). A lateral paratricipital approach was performed on all 14 patients, sparing the triceps muscle by avoiding the olecranon osteotomy and by assessing the integrity and the preservation of the radial nerve; the humeral shaft fracture osteosynthesis was performed by means of plates and screws. After surgery all patients have started elbow functional rehabilitation with acceptable pain management. Post-operative follow-up has been carried out by assessing radiographs, MEPS (Mayo Elbow Performance Score) and DASH (Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand) functional assessment and ROM of the affected joint. Results: All 14 patients had an optimal post-operative follow-up with an adequate osteosynthesis and functional rehabilitations by entirely preserving the operated elbow joint; the mean elbow ROM was 0-118.6 degree (range of 0-130) while the average MEPS score was 86 (range75-100) and 79.9 for the DASH (range 21.7-86.1). Just 2 patients suffered of temporary radial nerve apraxia, healed in the subsequent follow-ups. CONCLUSION: The lateral paratricipital approach preserve both the integrity of the triceps muscle and the elbow biomechanism but we do strongly recommend additional studies to be carried out to highlight differences between it and the classical posterior approach in treating humeral shaft fractures.
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77815
Characteristics of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Elderly Patients Attended in the Emergency Department
Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) in elderly patients attended in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Observational and cohort study with prospective follow-up including patients with ABP presenting to the ED from January-December 2012. Data were collected for demographic variables, comorbidities, clinical and microbiological findings, treatment, outcome, and reconsultation at 30 days follow up. Findings were compared between patients ≥ 75 years (study group) and < 75 years (control group). Results: During the study period 241 episodes of ABP were included for analysis. Mean age was 62,9 ± 16 years, and 64 (26.5%) were ≥ 75 years old. A history of prostate adenoma was reported in 54 cases (22,4%), diabetes mellitus in 47 patients (19,5%) and prior manipulation of the lower urinary tract in 40 (17%). Mean symptoms duration was 3.38 ± 4.04 days, voiding symptoms were present in 176 cases (73%) and fever in 154 (64%). From 216 urine cultures, 128 were positive (59%) and 24 (17,6%) out of 136 blood cultures. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen in 58.6% of urine cultures and 64% of blood cultures (with resistant strains to fluoroquinolones in 27,7%, cotrimoxazole in 22,9% and amoxicillin/clavulanic in 27.7% of cases). Seventy patients (29%) were admitted to the hospital, and 3 died. At 30-day follow-up, 29 patients (12%) returned to the ED. In the bivariate analysis previous manipulation of the urinary tract, history of cancer, previous antibiotic treatment, resistant E. coli strains to amoxicillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, renal impairment, and admission to the hospital were significantly more frequent (p < 0.05) among patients ≥ 75 years compared to those younger than 75 years. Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate appear not to be good options for the empiric treatment of ABP for patients ≥ 75 years given the drug-resistance pattern in our series, and the proportion of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli should be taken into account. Awaiting bacteria identification and antibiogram from urine and/or blood cultures, treatment on an inpatient basis should be considered in older patients with ABP.
119
32138
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students
Abstract:
Social Avoidance is one of the most important problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others. Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12 students) who went through the intervention program, with a control group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention. We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling, cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, self-monitoring, assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the experimental group and the control group after the intervention and also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance. Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.
118
53471
Acupuncture Reduces Pain Disability, Stress, and Depression in United States Military Veterans with Chronic Pain
Abstract:
The Washington, DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DC VAMC) offers complementary and integrative health (CIH) services such as acupuncture, yoga, meditation, and nutrition education through a coordinated outpatient clinic. The primary population utilizing CIH services are veterans with chronic pain. Acupuncture is one of the most popular of the CIH services available at the DC VAMC. As interest and availability grows, it is important to measure health outcomes associated with CIH service utilization. The purpose of this study was to investigate pain and mental health outcomes for veterans with chronic pain enrolled in individual acupuncture services in the DC VAMC. Veterans at the DC VAMC with self-identified chronic pain and no prior acupuncture experience were recruited for the study (n=70). Veterans were referred for services by a medical provider and completed baseline assessments at the program orientation prior to participating in any CIH services. Veterans received four individual, full-body acupuncture appointments within four weeks of study enrollment. After the first month, participants were scheduled for six appointments that occurred every two weeks and then eight more sessions that were scheduled one month apart. Follow-up assessments were administered at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months. The findings reported will include completed time points at two and four months. Measures include a demographics survey, the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile-2 (MYMOP-2), The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Defense Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS), and the Pain Disability Questionnaire (PDQ). In this sample, 67% identified a pain condition as their primary health concern. Between baseline and two-month follow-up, there were significant improvements in participants’ primary health concern (MYMOP-2 p=0.010), general wellbeing (MYMOP-2 p=0.011), and a significant decrease in the use of medication (MYMOP-2 p< 0.000). Between 2 and 4-month follow-up, pain disability (PDQ p=0.035), pain rating (DVPRS p=0.027), and depression (BDI-II p=0.003) significantly improved. Preliminary findings indicate that individual acupuncture therapy can be effective at improving health outcomes, well-being, and decreasing medication use in U.S. military veterans with chronic pain. Findings also suggest that individual acupuncture therapy can improve pain ratings, pain disability, and depression in veterans with chronic pain.
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98255
Late Payment Issues Faced by Subcontractors in the Malaysian Construction Industry
Abstract:
Late payment is a common issue in the construction industry and the subcontractors are not spared from it. This study has been carried out with the objectives to identify the implications of late payment issues toward the subcontractors and the strategies adopted by them to overcome the late payment issues. In terms of the strategies which can be adopted in overcoming the late payment, the subcontractors may suspend or slow down the construction process, making periodic follow up with the client, demand the rights to interest on late payment or the issuance of a promissory note by the client. The focus of the study is primarily on Grade 4 to Grade 7 contractors in Johor Bahru, Malaysia who carried out subcontracting works and registered under Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB). Employing survey as the main research method for data collection, the analysis would therefore mainly be adopting Likert Scale Analysis, Ranking Analysis and Frequency Distribution Analysis. This research showed the main implication of late payment issues towards subcontractors is created financial hardship to them. Besides, the most effective strategy adopted by the subcontractors to overcome the late payment issues is follow-up with client using formal procedure. From the findings, most of the subcontractors had low level of experiences and frequency in the adoption of Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication Act (CIPAA) 2012 to solve the payment disputes in the construction industry. In a nutshell, it is hoped that these findings will become guidance to the subcontractors to overcome the late payment issues in their future projects.
116
71485
The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey
Abstract:
The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education. As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section. In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017. In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.
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105591
Preventable Stress and Trauma, and Menstrual Health Management: Experiences of Adolescent Girls from India
Abstract:
Background and significance of the study: Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is poor in many Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) such as India. Poor and inadequate menstrual hygiene has an adverse effect on the health and social life of adolescent girls and women. There are many well-known barriers to adequate Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM); e.g., lack of awareness, lack of WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) facilities, lack of affordable menstrual absorbents, etc. But, there is a unique barrier which is very much avoidable; i.e., lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation. Menstruation is associated with various social and cultural restrictions and taboos and being a taboo topic; often there is no discussion in the society on this topic. Thus, many adolescent girls encounter the menarche with a lot of unnecessary and avoidable trauma, stress and awkwardness. This trauma, stress, and anxiety are even more prevalent among adolescent girls residing in rural areas. This study argues that this unnecessary stress and anxiety of the adolescent girls can be alleviated by reinforcing social support and adequate information and guidance about MHM and eliminating the futile socio-cultural restrictions during menstruation. Methodology: A qualitative study was conducted in a North-eastern State of India where 45 adolescent girls were interviewed both from rural and urban areas. The adolescent girls were asked about their experiences of stress and anxiety on their first menstruation, their preparedness for menarche, their source of information and guidance, their hygiene-practices, and the various restrictions they follow. Findings: Maximum number of girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. Most of them reported that they were terrified about their first menstruation as they were unprepared. Among those who were aware before menarche, reported that they did not receive proper guidance to manage their menstruation in a hygienic manner. Hygiene-related practices are also influenced by their knowledge about MHM. In maximum cases, girls are bound to follow certain cultural and religious restrictions even if they don’t want to follow which created additional stress in managing their menstruation with dignity. Conclusion: Lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation and MHM along with an array of socio-cultural restrictions can enhance a negative attitude in adolescent girls towards menstruation due to which they have to go through an extra and unnecessary burden of stress and trauma. This stress and trauma is preventable by improving the provisions of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation in a supportive environment.
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84764
Evaluation of Cryoablation Procedures in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation from 3 Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center
Abstract:
Cryoablation is evermore applied for interventional treatment of paroxysmal (PAAF) or persistent atrial fibrillation (PEAF). In the cardiac surgery, this procedure is often combined with coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) and valve operations. Three different methods are feasible in this sense in respect to practicing extents and mechanisms such as lone left atrial cryoablation, Cox-Maze IV and III in our heart center. 415 patients (68 ± 0.8ys, male 68.2%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation who initially required either coronary or valve operations were enrolled and divided into 3 matched groups according to deployed procedures: CryoLA-group (cryoablation of lone left atrium, n=94); Cox-Maze-IV-group (n=93) and Cox-Maze-III-group (n=8). All patients additionally received closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and regularly underwent three-year ambulant follow-up assessments (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation were assessed directly by means of cardiac monitor (Reveal XT, Medtronic) or of 3-day Holter electrocardiogram. Herewith, attacks frequencies of AF and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Furthermore, anticoagulants and regular rate-/rhythm-controlling medications were evaluated and listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Concerning PAAF treatment, Cox Maze IV procedure provided therapeutically acceptable effect as lone left atrium (LA) cryoablation did (5.25 ± 5.25% vs. 10.39 ± 9.96% AF-burden, p > 0.05). Interestingly, Cox Maze III method presented a better short-term effect in the PEAF therapy in comparison to lone cryoablation of LA and Cox Maze IV (0.25 ± 0.23% vs. 15.31 ± 5.99% and 9.10 ± 3.73% AF-burden within the first year, p < 0.05). But this therapeutic advantage went lost during ongoing follow-ups (26.65 ± 24.50% vs. 8.33 ± 8.06% and 15.73 ± 5.88% in 3rd follow-up year). In this way, lone LA-cryoablation established its antiarrhythmic efficacy and 69.5% patients were released from the Vit-K-antagonists, while Cox Maze IV liberated 67.2% patients from continuous anticoagulant medication. The AF-recurrences mostly performed such attacks property as less than 60min duration for all 3 procedures (p > 0.05). In the sense of the circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, weighted by ongoing follow-ups, lone LA cryoablation achieved and stabilized the antiarrhythmic effects over time, which was especially observed in the treatment of PEAF, while Cox Maze IV and III had their antiarrhythmic effects weakened progressively. This phenomenon was likewise evaluable in the therapy of circadian rhythm of reverting AF-attacks. Furthermore, the strategy of rate control was much more often applied to support and maintain therapeutic successes obtained than the one of rhythm control. Derived from experiences in our heart center, lone LA cryoablation presented equivalent effects in the treatment of AF in comparison to Cox Maze IV and III procedures. These therapeutic successes were especially investigable in the patients suffering from persistent AF (PEAF). Additional supportive strategies such as rate control regime should be initialized and implemented to improve the therapeutic effects of the cryoablations according to appropriate criteria.
113
115002
The Comparison of the Effect of Mindfulness-Based Relaxation Training and Trans Cranial Electrical Stimulation and Their Combination on Decreasing Physiological Distress in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes
Abstract:
The present study was a randomized three-group double-blind clinical trial with repeated measures designs which aimed to determine the pure effect and combined effect of mindfulness based-relaxation (MBR) technique and Transcranial Electrical Simulation (tCES) on psychological distress decreasing of patients with type-2 diabetes. The sample of the study consisted of 30 patients with type-2 diabetes who were selected from the Diabetes Association of Bonab city in Iran. The participants were matched and then randomly assigned to the three groups of 10 subjects (MBR, CES, MBR+CES). The subjects received interventions related to their group in 10 individual sessions. Pre-test, post-test, and one-month follow-up were conducted using DASS-42. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant change in psychological distress. Multivariate covariance analysis and the paired interpersonal comparative test of Ben Foruni indicated that both interventions of MBR and CES have a similar effect on psychological distress decreasing in the post-test and follow-up phase. But, the combined therapy of MBR+CES was more efficient, and it had a more stable effect. However, all three interventions, especially combined intervention of MBR+CES, as efficient and stable treatment, are suggested for improving the psychological status of diabetic patients.
112
85692
Ankle Fracture Management: A Unique Cross Departmental Quality Improvement Project
Abstract:
Introduction: In light of recent BOAST 12 (August 2016) published guidance on management of ankle fractures, the project aimed to highlight key discrepancies throughout the care trajectory from admission to point of discharge at a district general hospital. Wide breadth of data covering three key domains: accident and emergency, radiology, and orthopaedic surgery were subsequently stratified and recommendations on note documentation, and outpatient follow up were made. Methods: A retrospective twelve month audit was conducted reviewing results of ankle fracture management in 37 patients. Inclusion criterion involved all patients seen at Darent Valley Hospital (DVH) emergency department with radiographic evidence of an ankle fracture. Exclusion criterion involved all patients managed solely by nursing staff or having sustained purely ligamentous injury. Medical notes, including discharge summaries and the PACS online radiographic tool were used for data extraction. Results: Cross-examination of the A & E domain revealed limited awareness of the BOAST 12 recent publication including requirements to document skin integrity and neurovascular assessment. This had direct implications as this would have changed the surgical plan for acutely compromised patients. The majority of results obtained from the radiographic domain were satisfactory with appropriate X-rays taken in over 95% of cases. However, due to time pressures within A & E, patients were often left without a post manipulation XRAY in a backslab. Poorly reduced fractures were subsequently left for a long period resulting in swollen ankles and a time-dependent lag to surgical intervention. This had knocked on implications for prolonged inpatient stay resulting in hospital-acquired co-morbidity including pressure sores. Discussion: The audit has highlighted several areas of improvement throughout the disease trajectory from review in the emergency department to follow up as an outpatient. This has prompted the creation of an algorithm to ensure patients with significant fractures presenting to the emergency department are seen promptly and treatment expedited as per recent guidance. This includes timing for X-rays taken in A & E. Re-audit has shown significant improvement in both documentation at time of presentation and appropriate follow-up strategies. Within the orthopedic domain, we are in the process of creating an ankle fracture pathway to ensure imaging and weight bearing status are made clear to the consulting clinicians in an outpatient setting. Significance/Clinical Relevance: As a result of the ankle fracture algorithm we have adapted the BOAST 12 guidance to shape an intrinsic pathway to not only improve patient management within the emergency department but also create a standardised format for follow up.
111
63937
Outcomes Following Overcorrecting Minus Lens Therapy for Intermittent Distance Exotropia
Abstract:
Aim: To ascertain the efficacy of overcorrecting minus lens therapy in intermittent distance exotropia. Methods: Retrospective audit of all intermittent distance exotropia patients seen in the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital pediatric eye clinic between 1st January 2014 and 1st March 2016. Change in LogMAR visual acuity, stereopsis, near and distance angles of deviation, as well as the proportions of patients converting to exophoria or undergoing strabismus surgery, were recorded. Results: 22 patients were identified, 45% male, mean age 5 years (range 0.6 to 18.5 years). The median overminus prescription was -1.0 dioptres (range -0.5 to -1.75 dioptres) and mean follow-up was 15 months (range 3 to 54 months). Visual acuity, near and distance angles of deviation improved but were not statistically significant: -0.15 LogMAR, -0.2 prism dioptres and -1.2 prism dioptres respectively (p>0.05). However, a significant change in stereopsis was observed: -74'' (p< 0.01). 27% underwent strabismus surgery and 36% converted to exophoria whilst wearing their overminus prescription. Conclusions: Overcorrecting minus lens therapy is an effective therapy for intermittent distance exotropia. There was no deterioration in visual acuity and a significant improvement in stereopsis was seen in our cohort, with many patients converting to an exophoria. The proportion of patients requiring strabismus surgery was comparable to other studies. Further, follow-up is needed to ascertain long-term outcomes.
110
92388
Family Caregiver Transitions and Health in Old Age: A Longitudinal Perspective
Abstract:
The conditions of increased morbidity in an aging population cause the need for family care to become more common at an advanced age. The role of family caregivers may well last for a long time but may also change over time, from being caregivers to being non-caregivers or vice versa. Although demands associated with family caring change as individuals enter into, engage with, and exit from this role, the evidence regarding the impact of family caregiving transitions on the health of older carers is still limited. This study comprised individuals (n=2294, 60+years) from the southern part of Sweden included in the project Swedish National study of Aging and Care. Caregiving transitions are discussed in the categories: enter, exit, and continuing during a six-year period. Individuals who exited caregiving during the time were older than those who continued or entered into the role of caregiving. At the six-year follow-up, caregivers who were continuing or had exited caregiving were more often worried about their own health compared to baseline. Resembling findings were not found in those who entered caregiving. Family caregiving transitions of exiting, entering or continuing had no effect on the individuals’ functional, physical and mental health expect for participants who entered in caregiving. For them, entering the role of family caregiving was associated with an improvement in physical health during the six years follow up period. Conclusion: Although the health impact of different caregiving transitions in late life does not differ, individual conditions and health at baseline are important parameters to take into consideration to improve long-term health in family caregivers.
109
51329
The Relevance of the U-Shaped Learning Model to the Acquisition of the Difference between C'est and Il Est in the English Learners of French Context
Authors:
Abstract:
A U-shaped learning curve entails a three-step process: a good performance followed by a bad performance followed by a good performance again. U-shaped curves have been observed not only in language acquisition but also in various fields such as temperature face recognition object permanence to name a few. Building on previous studies of the curve child language acquisition and Second Language Acquisition this empirical study seeks to investigate the relevance of the U-shaped learning model to the acquisition of the difference between cest and il est in the English Learners of French context. The present study was developed to assess whether older learners of French in the ELF context follow the same acquisition pattern. The empirical study was conducted on 15 English learners of French which lasted six weeks. Compositions and questionnaires were collected from each subject at three time intervals (after one week after three weeks after six weeks) after which students work were graded as being either correct or incorrect. The data indicates that there is evidence of a U-shaped learning curve in the acquisition of cest and il est and students did follow the same acquisition pattern as children in regards to rote-learned terms and subject clitics. This paper also discusses the need to introduce modules on U-shaped learning curve in teaching curriculum as many teachers are unaware of the trajectory learners undertake while acquiring core components in grammar. In addition this study also addresses the need to conduct more research on the acquisition of rote-learned terms and subject clitics in SLA.
108
74847
Ultrasound Guided Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Abstract:
Introduction: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome has numerous nonsurgical treatments including splint, physical therapy and corticosteroid injections. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an ultrasound guided treatment procedure, for individuals with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Materials and Method: 20 patients with an electrodiagnostic evidence of severe carpal tunnel syndrome were treated by an office-based ultrasound guided procedure (combination of percutaneous needle release of carpal tunnel and corticosteroid injection). Electrodiagnostic (nerve conduction study), clinical (Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, grip strength) and ultrasonic (median nerve and carpal tunnel cross-sectional area) measurements were recorded at baseline and one month after intervention. Results: Our preliminary data analysis showed that in one month follow up, patients had a significantly smaller cross-sectional area of the median nerve compared to pretreatment values (mean difference 0.06; 95%CI: 0.02-0.1; p < 0.001). In addition, patients had significantly less functional impairment (mean difference 35; 95% CI:28.7-43.4 ; p < 0.001), and an improved hand grip strength in one month follow up (mean difference 5.4; 95%CI: 3.1-7.8; p < 0.001;). There were no significant complications. Conclusion: Patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome, who are candidates for surgical intervention, can consider office-based ultrasound guided needle release of carpal tunnel as an alternative safe treatment.
107
22634
A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract:
A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.
106
23462
Temporal Profile of T2 MRI and 1H-MRS in the MDX Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Abstract:
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked, lethal muscle wasting disease for which there are currently no treatment that effectively prevents the muscle necrosis and progressive muscle loss. DMD is among the most common of inherited diseases affecting around 1/3500 live male births. MDX (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially encapsulate the disease in humans and display weakness in muscles, muscle damage and edema during a period deemed the “critical period” when these mice go through cycles of muscular degeneration and regeneration. Although the MDX mutant mouse model has been extensively studied as a model for DMD, to-date an extensive temporal, non-invasive imaging profile that utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has not been performed.. In addition, longitudinal imaging characterization has not coincided with attempts to exacerbate the progressive muscle damage by exercise. In this study we employed an 11.7 T small animal MRI in order to characterize the MRI and MRS profile of MDX mice longitudinally during a 12 month period during which MDX mice were subjected to exercise. Male mutant MDX mice (n=15) and male wild-type mice (n=15) were subjected to a chronic exercise regime of treadmill walking (30 min/ session) bi-weekly over the whole 12 month follow-up period. Mouse gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were profiled with baseline T2-MRI and 1H-MRS at 6 weeks of age. Imaging and spectroscopy was repeated again at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months of age. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) level measurements were coincided with time-points for T2-MRI and 1H-MRS, but also after the “critical period” at 10 weeks of age. The results obtained from this study indicate that chronic exercise extends dystrophic phenotype of MDX mice as evidenced by T2-MRI and1H-MRS. T2-MRI revealed extent and location of the muscle damage in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles as hyperintensities (lesions and edema) in exercised MDX mice over follow-up period.. The magnitude of the muscle damage remained stable over time in exercised mice. No evident fat infiltration or cumulation to the muscle tissues was seen at any time-point in exercised MDX mice. Creatine, choline and taurine levels evaluated by 1H-MRS from the same muscles were found significantly decreased in each time-point, Extramyocellular (EMCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) did not change in exercised mice supporting the findings from anatomical T2-MRI scans for fat content. Creatine kinase levels were found to be significantly higher in exercised MDX mice during the follow-up period and importantly CK levels remained stable over the whole follow-up period. Taken together, we have described here longitudinal prophile for muscle damage and muscle metabolic changes in MDX mice subjected to chronic exercised. The extent of the muscle damage by T2-MRI was found to be stable through the follow-up period in muscles examined. In addition, metabolic profile, especially creatine, choline and taurine levels in muscles, was found to be sustained between time-points. The anatomical muscle damage evaluated by T2-MRI was supported by plasma CK levels which remained stable over the follow-up period. These findings show that non-invasive imaging and spectroscopy can be used effectively to evaluate chronic muscle pathology. These techniques can be also used to evaluate the effect of various manipulations, like here exercise, on the phenotype of the mice. Many of the findings we present here are translatable to clinical disease, such as decreased creatine, choline and taurine levels in muscles. Imaging by T2-MRI and 1H-MRS also revealed that fat content or extramyocellar and intramyocellular lipids, respectively, are not changed in MDX mice, which is in contrast to clinical manifestation of the Duchenne’s muscle dystrophy. Findings show that non-invasive imaging can be used to characterize the phenotype of a MDX model and its translatability to clinical disease, and to study events that have traditionally been not examined, like here rigorous exercise related sustained muscle damage after the “critical period”. The ability for this model to display sustained damage beyond the spontaneous “critical period“ and in turn to study drug effects on this extended phenotype will increase the value of the MDX mouse model as a tool to study therapies and treatments aimed at DMD and associated diseases.
105
7231
Effectiveness of Buteyko Method in Asthma Control and Quality of Life of School-Age Children
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Buteyko Method in asthma control and quality of life of school-age children wherein a pretest-posttest design was utilized to measure the changes after the administration of Buteyko Method. Fourteen (14) subjects with bronchial asthma, aged 7-11 participated in the study. They were equally divided into two groups: the control group received no intervention while the experimental group was asked to attend sessions of Buteyko Method lecture and demonstration. The experimental group was visited for three (3) consecutive weeks to monitor their progress and compliance. Both groups were asked to answer ACQ pre- and post-intervention and PAQLQ before the start of the intervention phase and every week during the follow-up visits. In comparing the asthma control pre-test and post-test mean scores of the control group, no significant difference was noted (p=0.177) while the experimental group showed a significant difference after the administration of Buteyko Method (p=0.002). Moreover, the quality of life pre-test and post-test mean scores of the control group showed no significant difference in any week within one month of follow-up (p=0.736, 0.604, 0.689) while the experimental group showed a significant difference on the third week (p = 0.035) and fourth week (p=0.002) but no significant difference on the second week (p=0.111). Therefore, the use of Buteyko Method within 3-4 weeks as an adjunct to conventional management of asthma helps in improving asthma control and quality of life of school-age children.
104
5890
Biochemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Ice Cream Prepared from Fresh Cream
Abstract:
The objective of our work is to develop an ice cream from a fermented cream, skim milk and other ingredients and follow the evolution of its physicochemical properties, biochemical and microstructure of the products obtained. Our cream is aerated with the manufacturing steps start with a homogenizing follow different ingredients by heating to 40°C emulsion, the preparation is then subjected to a heat treatment at 65°C for 30 min, before being stored in the cold at 4°C for a few hours. This conservation promotes crystallization of the material during the globular stage of maturation of the cream. The emulsifying agent moves gradually absorbed on the surface of fat globules homogeneous, which results in reduced protein stability. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilizing fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilized fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. The stabilizing agent increases the viscosity of the aqueous phase and the drainage limit interaction with the proteins of the aqueous phase and the protein absorbed on fat globules. The cutting improved organoleptic property of our cream is made by the use of three dyes and aromas. The products obtained undergo physicochemical analyses (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, % dry matter and fat in %), and finally in the microscopic observation of the microstructure and the results obtained by analysis of the image processing software. The results show a remarkable evolution of physicochemical properties (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, fat and non-fat) and microstructure of the products developed in relation to the raw material (skim milk) and the intermediate product (fermented cream).
103
38053
Contribution to the Study of Reproduction of Water Birds (Case of Marsh Bouessdra, North East Algeria)
Abstract:
The Gulf of Annaba, located at the extreme north eastern Algerian; our site of study is a marsh administratively it is part of the wilaya of Annaba, municipality of El-Bouni; extends on a surface from 55 hectare, the maximum depth is of less 2m. A scheme of work was adopted for an evaluation and characterization of the reproduction of the water nicheurs birds in the marsh of Boussedra. Some important parameters described by the scientific literature; According to standardized methods, variables were the object of a regular follow-up during the period of reproduction. These parameters were taken into account: the installation date of the nests, the vegetable support; blossoming of eggs, causes of the failure of the blossomings (predation or abandonment), characteristics of the nests (composition, internal diameter, external diameter, depth and heightening), measurements of the distances nest-nest nearest, Depth of water, the measurement of eggs, size of laying, size of laying. The follow-up in the marsh was carried out between March 2013 until the month of July 2014 at a rate of two outputs per weeks, one located and noted the nests to control them each week. The study on the reproduction of the water birds enables us to note that this site plays a very important part in the wintering and the reproduction of certain species important. This study opens broad prospects for study of several phenomena related to the ecology of the water birds, and the conservation of the wetlands.
102
80353
Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study
Abstract:
To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p< 0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).
101
57590
Contribution of Upper Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Performance
Abstract:
Tennis serve is characterized as one of the most prominent techniques pertaining to the success of winning a point. The study was aimed to explore the contributions of the upper body kinematics on the tennis performance during Davis Cup (Oceania Group). Four Indian International tennis players who participated in the Davis Cup held at Indore, India were inducted as the subjects for this study, with mean age 27 ± 4.79 Years, mean weight 186 ± 6.03 cm, mean weight 81.25 ± 7.41kg, respectively. The tennis serve was bifurcated into three phases viz, preparatory phase, force generation phase and follow through phase. The kinematic data for the study was recorded through the high speed canon camcorder having a shuttle speed of 1/2000, at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The data was analysed with the motion analysis software. The descriptive statistics and F-test was employed through SPSS version 17.0 for the determination of the undertaken kinematic parameters of the study, and was computed at a 0.05 level of significance with 46 degrees of freedom. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient also employed to find out the relationship among the upper body kinematic parameter and performance. In the preparatory phase, the analysis revealed that no significant difference exists among the kinematic parameters of the players on the performance. However, in force generation phase, wrist velocity (r= 0.47), torso velocity (r= -0.53), racket velocity r= 0.60), and in follow through phase, torso acceleration r= 0.43), elbow angle (r= -0.48) play a significant role on the performance of the tennis serve. Therefore, players should ponder upon the velocities of the above segments at the time of preparation for the competitions.
100
61619
Randomized, Controlled Blind Study Comparing Sacroiliac Intra-Articular Steroid Injection to Radiofrequency Denervation for Management of Sacroiliac Joint Pain
Authors:
Abstract:
Background and objective: Sacroiliac joint pain is a common cause for chronic axial low back pain, with up to 20% prevalence rate. To date, no effective long-term treatment intervention has been embarked on yet. The aim of our study was to compare steroid block to radiofrequency ablation for SIJ pain conditions. Methods: A randomized, blind, study was conducted in 30 patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Fifteen patients received radiofrequency denervation of L4-5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral sacral branch, and 15 patients received steroid under fluoroscopy. Those in the steroid group who did not respond to steroid injections were offered to cross over to get radiofrequency ablation. Results: At 1-, 3- and 6-months post-intervention, 73%, 60% and 53% of patients, respectively, gained ≥ 50 % pain relief in the radiofrequency (RF) ablation group. In the steroid group, at one month post intervention follow up, only 20% gained ≥ 50 % pain relief, but failed to show any improvement at 3 months and 6 months follow up. Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation at L4 and L5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral sacral branch may provide effective and longer pain relief compared to the classic intra-articular steroid injection, in properly selected patients with suspected sacroiliac joint pain. Larger studies are called for to confirm our results and lay out the optimal patient selection and treatment parameters for this poorly comprehended disorder.
99
116500
Assessing the Use of Fractional Radiofrequency for the Improvement of Skin Texture in Asian Patients
Abstract:
Fractional radiofrequency devices have shown to improve skin texture such as smoothness, rhytides, brightness as well as atrophic acne scars by increasing dermal thickness, dermal collagen content and dermal fibrillin content. The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of this device on Asian patients with skin textural changes. In this study, 20 Chinese patients (ranging from 21-60 years old) with irregularities of skin texture, rhytides and acne scars were recruited. Patients received six treatments at 2-4 week intervals. Treatment was initiated with maximum energy tolerated and was adjustable during treatment if patients felt excessive discomfort. A total of two passes were delivered at each session. Physician assessment and standardized photographs were taken at baseline, all treatment visits and at one, two, and six month after final treatment. As a result, 17 patients were recruited and completed the study according to the study protocol. One patient withdrew after the first treatment due to reaction to local anesthesia and two patients were lost to follow-up. At six months follow-up, 71% of the patients were satisfied and 24% were very satisfied, while treatment physician reported various degrees of improvement based on the global assessment scale in 60% of the subjects. Anticipated side effects including erythema, edema, pinpoint bleeding, scabs formation and flare of acne were recorded, but there were no serious adverse effects noted. Conclude up, the use of fractional radiofrequency improves skin texture and appears to be safe in Asian patients. No long-term serious adverse effect was noted.
98
90493
Effects of Turkish Classical Music on Cognitive Function, Depression and Quality of Life in Elderly
Abstract:
According to 2015 statistics, in Turkey, 46% of older people live alone in their homes, 55% have poor health perceptions, 18% face poverty, and 43% are unhappy. Prevalence of depression is between 14% and 20%. In 2013, rate of suicide was 6.5. However, the most of older people prefer to live in their community although they are lonely, they face poverty, and face limitations as a result of chronic diseases and disabilities. Community based care for older people is also encouraged by Ministry of Health as it is more cost-effective. Music therapy is a simple, effective, safe, and nonpharmacologic intervention that may be used to decrease depression and to improve cognition, and health related quality of life (HRQOL). In Turkish culture, music is typically described as ‘food for soul’. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music songs in 32 community dwelling older people. Participants were received interventions two or three times per week, 50-60 min per session, for 8 weeks at a day health center. Each intervention session started listening music for 15-20 min to get remember songs, then followed singing songs as a group. Participants were assessed at baseline (week 0), and two follow-up at month 1 and month 2. Compared to baseline, at two follow-up, we observed that cognition improved, depression decreased, and SF-36 scores, including 8 domains and two summary scores increased. We conclude that an intervention comprising listening and singing Turkish classical music improve cognition, depression and HRQOL in older people.
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The Associations between Self-Determined Motivation and Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease
Abstract:
Purpose: To examine the associations between self-determined motivation and physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a longitudinal study. Methods: Patients with CHD were recruited for this study. Their motivations for exercise were measured by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall questionnaire. Duration and energy expenditure of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used in data analysis. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 12 months follow up. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results: The results of the 45 participants (mean age 60.24 yr; 90.2% male) revealed that there were significant negative correlations between amotivation at baseline and duration (r=-.295, p=.049) and energy expenditure (r=-.300, p=.045) of MVPA at 12 months. In contrast, there were significant positive correlations between calculated relative autonomy index (RAI) at baseline and duration (r=.377, p=.011) and energy expenditure (r=.382, p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months. There was no significant correlation between other subscales of the BREQ-2 and duration or energy expenditure of MVPA. Regression analyses revealed that RAI was a significant predictor of duration (p=.011) and energy expenditure (p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months follow-up. Conclusions: These results suggest that the relative degree of self-determined motivation could predict long-term MVPA behaviors in CHD patients. Physical activity interventions are recommended to target enhancing one’s identified and intrinsic motivation to increase the likelihood of physical activity participation in this population.
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Development of a Telemedical Network Supporting an Automated Flow Cytometric Analysis for the Clinical Follow-up of Leukaemia
Abstract:
In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treatment response is increasingly evaluated with minimal residual disease (MRD) analyses. Flow Cytometry (FCM) is a fast and sensitive method to detect MRD. However, the interpretation of these multi-parametric data requires intensive operator training and experience. This paper presents a pipeline-software, as a ready-to-use FCM-based MRD-assessment tool for the daily clinical practice for patients with ALL. The new tool increases accuracy in assessment of FCM-MRD in samples which are difficult to analyse by conventional operator-based gating since computer-aided analysis potentially has a superior resolution due to utilization of the whole multi-parametric FCM-data space at once instead of step-wise, two-dimensional plot-based visualization. The system developed as a telemedical network reduces the work-load and lab-costs, staff-time needed for training, continuous quality control, operator-based data interpretation. It allows dissemination of automated FCM-MRD analysis to medical centres which have no established expertise for the benefit of an even larger community of diseased children worldwide. We established a telemedical network system for analysis and clinical follow-up and treatment monitoring of Leukaemia. The system is scalable and adapted to link several centres and laboratories worldwide.
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68960
Performance of the New Laboratory-Based Algorithm for HIV Diagnosis in Southwestern China
Abstract:
The Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) issued a new laboratory-based algorithm for HIV diagnosis on April 2016, which initially screens with a combination HIV-1/HIV-2 antigen/antibody fourth-generation immunoassay (IA) followed, when reactive, an HIV-1/HIV-2 undifferentiated antibody IA in duplicate. Reactive specimens with concordant results undergo supplemental tests with western blots, or HIV-1 nucleic acid tests (NATs) and non-reactive specimens with discordant results receive HIV-1 NATs or p24 antigen tests or 2-4 weeks follow-up tests. However, little data evaluating the application of the new algorithm have been reported to date. The study was to evaluate the performance of new laboratory-based HIV diagnostic algorithm in an inpatient population of Southwest China over the initial 6 months by compared with the old algorithm. Plasma specimens collected from inpatients from May 1, 2016, to October 31, 2016, are submitted to the laboratory for screening HIV infection performed by both the new HIV testing algorithm and the old version. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithms and the difference of the categorized numbers of plasmas were calculated. Under the new algorithm for HIV diagnosis, 170 of the total 52 749 plasma specimens were confirmed as positively HIV-infected (0.32%). The sensitivity and specificity of the new algorithm were 100% (170/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively; while 167 HIV-1 positive specimens were identified by the old algorithm with sensitivity 98.24% (167/170) and 100% (52 579/52 579), respectively. Three acute HIV-1 infections (AHIs) and two early HIV-1 infections (EHIs) were identified by the new algorithm; the former was missed by old procedure. Compared with the old version, the new algorithm produced fewer WB-indeterminate results (2 vs. 16, p = 0.001), which led to fewer follow-up tests. Therefore, the new HIV testing algorithm is more sensitive for detecting acute HIV-1 infections with maintaining the ability to verify the established HIV-1 infections and can dramatically decrease the greater number of WB-indeterminate specimens.
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18814
Tracing Digital Traces of Phatic Communion in #Mooc
Abstract:
This paper meddles with the notion of phatic communion introduced 90 years ago by Malinowski, who was a Polish-born British anthropologist. It explores the phatic in Twitter within the contents of tweets related to moocs (massive online open courses) as a topic or trend. It is not about moocs though. It is about practices that could easily be hidden or neglected if we let big or massive topics take the lead or if we simply follow the computational or secret codes behind Twitter itself and third party software analytics. It draws from media and cultural studies. Though at first it appears data-driven as I submitted data collection and analytics into the hands of a third party software, Twitonomy, the aim is to follow how phatic communion might be practised in a social media site, such as Twitter. Lurking becomes its research method to analyse mooc-related tweets. A total of 3,000 tweets were collected on 11 October 2013 (UK timezone). The emphasis of lurking is to engage with Twitter as a system of connectivity. One interesting finding is that a click is in fact a phatic practice. A click breaks the silence. A click in one of the mooc website is actually a tweet. A tweet was posted on behalf of a user who simply chose to click without formulating the text and perhaps without knowing that it contains #mooc. Surely, this mechanism is not about reciprocity. To break the silence, users did not use words. They just clicked the ‘tweet button’ on a mooc website. A click performs and maintains connectivity – and Twitter as the medium in attendance in our everyday, available when needed to be of service. In conclusion, the phatic culture of breaking silence in Twitter does not have to submit to the power of code and analytics. It is a matter of human code.
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To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh
Abstract:
Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with 10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.
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66111
Application Difference between Cox and Logistic Regression Models
Abstract:
The logistic regression and Cox regression models (proportional hazard model) at present are being employed in the analysis of prospective epidemiologic research looking into risk factors in their application on chronic diseases. However, a theoretical relationship between the two models has been studied. By definition, Cox regression model also called Cox proportional hazard model is a procedure that is used in modeling data regarding time leading up to an event where censored cases exist. Whereas the Logistic regression model is mostly applicable in cases where the independent variables consist of numerical as well as nominal values while the resultant variable is binary (dichotomous). Arguments and findings of many researchers focused on the overview of Cox and Logistic regression models and their different applications in different areas. In this work, the analysis is done on secondary data whose source is SPSS exercise data on BREAST CANCER with a sample size of 1121 women where the main objective is to show the application difference between Cox regression model and logistic regression model based on factors that cause women to die due to breast cancer. Thus we did some analysis manually i.e. on lymph nodes status, and SPSS software helped to analyze the mentioned data. This study found out that there is an application difference between Cox and Logistic regression models which is Cox regression model is used if one wishes to analyze data which also include the follow-up time whereas Logistic regression model analyzes data without follow-up-time. Also, they have measurements of association which is different: hazard ratio and odds ratio for Cox and logistic regression models respectively. A similarity between the two models is that they are both applicable in the prediction of the upshot of a categorical variable i.e. a variable that can accommodate only a restricted number of categories. In conclusion, Cox regression model differs from logistic regression by assessing a rate instead of proportion. The two models can be applied in many other researches since they are suitable methods for analyzing data but the more recommended is the Cox, regression model.
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75961
Role of Ologen in Previously Failed Trabeculectomy in Advanced Glaucoma
Abstract:
Purpose: Advanced Glaucoma with Failed trab is not an uncommon sight in glaucoma clinic, and such cases usually tend to present with high intraocular pressure (IOP) and advanced cupping, or even glaucomatous atrophy stage. Re-surgery is needed for such cases, and wound modulation poses a major challenge in these cases. We share our experience in this case series with the use of Ologen (collagen matrix implant) along with MMC 0.04% used in surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of collagen matrix implant in re-trabeculectomy in advanced glaucoma cases. Methodology: Eleven eyes of 11 patients (one eye of one patient) underwent re-trabeculectomy surgery with MMC and Ologen. Ologen implant was used in sub scleral and subconjunctival space, as a spacer and wound modulator. In five cases, triple modulation with implant soaked in anti-VEGF was used. Results: All patients had cupping more than 0.9, and one case was GOA. All cases were on maximal medication at presentation and majority were on systemic anti-glaucoma therapy also. Post-surgery, follow-up ranged from 13 – 34 months, and all cases had a follow longer than the gap between previous surgery (which was failed) and re-trab. One case needed AC reformation and one needling was done. Phaco was done at same sitting in four cases. All cases had their IOP lowered post surgery, and vision was maintained in all, however one case was considered as failed re-surgery case. Topical medication was needed in seven cases post-surgery also. Conclusion: Ologen as adjuvant should be considered in all re-trab cases and all high risk and advanced cases, and triple modulation can be next step in these cases. Aggressive IOP control and non- reluctance to continue topical medications post second surgery should be considered in such cases, to give them best possible vision.
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52339
Clinical and Radiological Outcome in 300 Patients with Non-Aneurysmal Sah
Abstract:
Background: Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) accounts for approximately 5% of all strokes. Patients with spontaneous SAH (as shown by CT or lumbar puncture) undergo investigations to identify or exclude an underlying structural cause, typically cerebral aneurysm. However in 10 - 20% of cases, no structural cause is found. This includes more than one imaging modality (intracranial MRA, CTA, 4DCTA and/or DSA) and in some spinal MRI. Objective: To determine; 1) If an underlying structural or vascular cause can be identified in non-aneurysmal SAH patients by comparing different imaging modalities at presentation and at follow-up. 2) If MRI spine in patients with non-aneurysmal SAH reveals an underlying SAH cause. 3)The functional outcome at discharge. Results: We performed a retrospective analysis of all non-traumatic SAH patients admitted to the Walton centre from January 2009 to December 2015. There were 1457 patients with non-traumatic SAH admitted to the Walton centre of whom 21.8% (n=300) patients were diagnosed with non-aneurysmal SAH. Males were 65.6% and females were 43.3%. The presenting symptoms were sudden onset headache (93.6%), the focal neurological deficit (12%), loss of consciousness (10.6%) and others (6%). About 285 patients received 2 modalities of imaging (CTA & DSA), 192 received 3 modalities of imaging (CTA, MRA & DSA) and 137 received MRI spine (51/137 whole spine). The modified Rankin Score at discharge were: mRS 0 = 292 (97.33%), mRS 1-2 = 6, mRS 6 = 1 (cardiac arrest in IHD patient) and unknown in 1. Follow-up imaging at 3 to 6 months in 190 (63.3%) patients did not identify an underlying cause. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis concludes that non-aneurysmal SAH has a good functional outcome. A single imaging modality (CTA (4DCTA) or MRA or DSA) was adequate to exclude an underlying cause of SAH and a delayed imaging failed to identify a cause. Routinely performing MRI spine in this group of patients appears not to be necessary according to this evidence.
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23466
AAV-Mediated Human Α-Synuclein Expression in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease –Further Characterization of PD Phenotype, Fine Motor Functional Effects as Well as Neurochemical and Neuropathological Changes over Time
Abstract:
Targeted over-expression of human α-synuclein using viral-vector mediated gene delivery into the substantia nigra of rats and non-human primates has been reported to lead to dopaminergic cell loss and the formation of α-synuclein aggregates reminiscent of Lewy bodies. We have previously shown how AAV-mediated expression of α-synuclein is seen in the chronic phenotype of the rats over 16 week follow-up period. In the context of these findings, we attempted to further characterize this long term PD related functional and motor deficits as well as neurochemical and neuropathological changes in AAV-mediated α-synuclein transfection model in rats during chronic follow-up period. Different titers of recombinant AAV expressing human α-synuclein (A53T) were stereotaxically injected unilaterally into substantia nigra of Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to recover for 3 weeks prior to initial baseline behavioral testing with rotational asymmetry test, stepping test and cylinder test. A similar behavioral test battery was applied again at weeks 5, 9,12 and 15. In addition to traditionally used rat PD model tests, MotoRater test system, a high speed kinematic gait performance monitoring was applied during the follow-up period. Evaluation focused on animal gait between groups. Tremor analysis was performed on weeks 9, 12 and 15. In addition to behavioral end-points, neurochemical evaluation of dopamine and its metabolites were evaluated in striatum. Furthermore, integrity of the dopamine active transport (DAT) system was evaluated by using 123I- β-CIT and SPECT/CT imaging on weeks 3, 8 and 12 after AAV- α-synuclein transfection. Histopathology was examined from end-point samples at 3 or 12 weeks after AAV- α-synuclein transfection to evaluate dopaminergic cell viability and microglial (Iba-1) activation status in substantia nigra by using stereological analysis techniques. This study focused on the characterization and validation of previously published AAV- α-synuclein transfection model in rats but with the addition of novel end-points. We present the long term phenotype of AAV- α-synuclein transfected rats with traditionally used behavioral tests but also by using novel fine motor analysis techniques and tremor analysis which provide new insight to unilateral effects of AAV α-synuclein transfection. We also present data about neurochemical and neuropathological end-points for the dopaminergic system in the model and how well they correlate with behavioral phenotype.
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62510
Enhancing Inservice Education Training Effectiveness Using a Mobile Based E-Learning Model
Abstract:
This study focuses on the addressing the enhancement of in-service training programs as a tool of transforming the existing traditional approaches of formal lectures/contact hours. This will be supported with a more versatile, robust, and remotely accessible means of mobile based e-learning, as a support tool for the traditional means. A combination of various factors in education and incorporation of the eLearning strategy proves to be a key factor in effective in-service education. Key factor needs to be factored in so as to maintain a credible co-existence of the programs, with the prevailing social, economic and political environments. Effective in-service education focuses on having immediate transformation of knowledge into practice for a good time period, active participation of attendees, enable before training planning, in training assessment and post training feedback training analysis which will yield knowledge to the trainers of the applicability of knowledge given out. All the above require a more robust approach to attain success in implementation. Incorporating mobile technology in eLearning will enable the above to be factored together in a more coherent manner, as it is evident that participants have to take time off their duties and attend to these training programs. Making it mobile, will save a lot of time since participants would be in position to follow certain modules while away from lecture rooms, get continuous program updates after completing the program, send feedback to instructors on knowledge gaps, and a wholly conclusive evaluation of the entire program on a learn as you work platform. This study will follow both qualitative and quantitative approaches in data collection, and this will be compounded incorporating a mobile eLearning application using Android.
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74438
Managing Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Appropriately and Safely: A Retrospective Case Series Review
Abstract:
Introduction: Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign fibrous proliferation of breast stroma affecting predominantly premenopausal women with no significant increased risk of breast cancer. Informal recommendations for management have continued to evolve over recent years from surgical excision to observation, although there are no specific national guidelines. This study assesses the safety of a non-surgical approach to PASH management by review of cases at a single centre. Methods: Retrospective case series review (January 2011 – August 2016) was conducted on consecutive PASH cases. Diagnostic classification (clinical, radiological and histological), management outcomes, and breast cancer incidence were recorded. Results: 43 patients were followed up for median of 25 months (3-64) with 75% symptomatic at presentation. 12% of cases (n=5) had a radiological score (BIRADS MMG or US) ≥ 4 of which 3 were confirmed malignant. One further malignancy was detected and proven radiologically occult and contralateral. No patients were diagnosed with a malignancy during follow-up. Treatment evolved from 67% surgical in 2011 to 33% in 2016. Conclusions: The management of PASH has transitioned in line with other published experience. The preliminary findings suggest this appears safe with no evidence of missed malignancies; however, longer follow up is required to confirm long-term safety. Recommendations: PASH with suspicious radiological findings ( ≥ U4/R4) warrants multidisciplinary discussion for excision. In the absence of histological or radiological suspicion of malignancy, PASH can be safely managed without surgery.
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51750
Translation Skills and Language Acquisition
Authors:
Abstract:
The field of Translation Studies includes both descriptive and applied aspects, one of which is developing curricula. Within this topic there are theories dealing with curricula aimed at translator training, and theories meant to explore teaching translation as means through which awareness to language is developed in order to enhance language knowledge. An example of the latter is a unique study program in Israeli high schools – Teaching Translation Skills Program (TTSP). This study program has been taught in Israel for more than two decades and is aimed at raising students' meta-linguistic awareness as well as their language proficiency in both source language and target language in order to enable them become better language learners. The objective of the current research was to examine whether the goals of this program are achieved – increase in students' metalinguistic awareness and language proficiency. A follow-up case study was aimed at examining the level of proficiency which would develop most by this way of teaching English. The study was conducted in two stages – before and after participating in the program. 400 subjects took part in the first stage, and 100 took part in the second. In both parts of the study, participants were given the same five tasks in both Hebrew and English in addition to a questionnaire, in which they were asked about their own knowledge of Hebrew and in comparison to that of their peers. Their teachers were asked about the success of the program and about the methodology they use in class. Findings show significant change in the level of meta-linguistic awareness of the students as well as their language proficiency. A comparison between their answers before and after the program shows that their meta-linguistic awareness increased, as did their ability to recognize linguistic mistakes. These findings serve as strong evidence for the positive effect such study program has on the development of meta-linguistic awareness and linguistic knowledge. The follow-up case study tests the change among weaker language learners.
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21228
The Management of Care by People with Type 2 Diabetes versus the Professional Care at Primary Health Care in Brazil
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) prevalence, is increasing on the world, in Brazil is considered a public health problem. Treatment focuses on glycemic control depending primarily of lifestyle changes - not drug treatment (NDT), may involve drug therapy (DT) and requires continuous health monitoring. In Brazil this monitoring is performed by the Unified Health System (SUS) through Primary Health Care (PHC), which stimulate people with DM2 empowerment for care management. SUS was approved in 1988 and the PHC operationalization was strengthened with the creation of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in 1994. Our aim was to analyze the people with DM2 participation in front of the care management health monitoring in the FHS. Qualitative research was carried out through non-participant observation of attendance of 25 people with DM2 in the FHS and interviewed at home. Ethical guidelines were followed. It was found that people with DM2 only follow professionals’ recommendations that make sense according to their own conceptions of health/disease; most of them emphasize the importance of (DT) with little emphasis on the NDT, was found great difficulty in the NDT and lack of knowledge about the disease and care. As regards monitoring the FHS, were observed therapeutic practices based on the bio medical model, although the APS search for another care perspective; NDT is not systematically accompanied by the health team and takes place a few educational activities on the DM2 in the FHS, with low user adoption. The work of the FHS is done by multidisciplinary teams, but we see the need for greater participation of nurses in clinical-care follow-up of this population and may also act in adapting to the NDT. Finally we emphasize the need for professional practices that consider the difficulties to care management by people with DM2, especially because of the NDT. It is noticed that the measures recommended by the FHS professionals are not always developed by people with DM2. We must seek the empowerment of people with DM2 to manage the form of care associated with the FHS team, seeking to reduce the incidence of complications and higher quality of life.
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9184
Conducting Quality Planning, Assurance and Control According to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) Standards and Benchmarking Data for Kuwait Food Industries
Abstract:
For the past few decades or so, Kuwait's local food industry has grown remarkably due to increase in demand for processed or semi processed food products in the market. It is important that the ever increasing food manufacturing/processing units maintain the required quality standards as per regional and to some extent international quality requirements. It has been realized that all Kuwait food manufacturing units should understand and follow the international standard practices, and moreover a set of guidelines must be set for quality assurance such that any new business in this area is aware of the minimum requirements. The current study has been undertaken to identify the gaps in Kuwait food industries in following the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in terms of quality planning, control and quality assurance. GMP refers to Good Manufacturing Practices, which are a set of rules, laws or regulations that certify producing products within quality standards and ensuring that it is safe, pure and effective. The present study therefore reports about a ‘case study’ in a reputed food manufacturing unit in Kuwait; starting from assessment of the current practices followed by diagnosis, report of the diagnosis and road map and corrective measures for GMP implementation in the unit. The case study has also been able to identify the best practices and establish a benchmarking data for other companies to follow, through measuring the selected company's quality, policies, products and strategies and compare it with the established benchmarking data. A set of questionnaires and assessment mechanism has been established for companies to identify their ‘benchmarking score’ in relation to the number of non-conformities and conformities with the GMP standard requirements.
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52563
The Risk of Post-stroke Pneumonia and Its One-Year Disability in Taiwan
Abstract:
Background: Evidence exists that pneumonia is a frequently encountered complication after stroke which is associated with a higher rate of mortality and increased long-term disability Purpose: To determine the predictors associated with the risk of one-year disability in acute stroke. Methods: Data for this longitudinal follow-up study were extracted from a tertiary referral medical center’s stroke registry database in Northern Taipei. Eligible patients with acute stroke admitted to the hospital and completed a one-year follow up were recruited for analysis. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2. SAS version 9.2 was used for the multivariable regression analyses to examine the factors correlated with the one-year disability in stroke patients. Results: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1373 (mean age: 70.49±15.4 years, 913(66.5%) males) consecutively administered acute stroke patients were recruited. Overall, the rate of one-year disability was 37.20%(404/1086) in those without post-stroke pneumonia. It increased to 82.93 %(238/287) in patients developed post-stroke pneumonia. Factors associated with increased risk of disability were age ≧ 75(OR= 4.845, p
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48006
Psychological Wellbeing of Caregivers: Findings from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults
Abstract:
As Thais live longer, caregivers will become even more important to social and healthcare systems. Commonly reported in many low and middle‐income countries in Asia, formal social welfare services to support caregivers are lacking and informal family support will be required for all levels of care. In 2005, 87,151 open‐university adults were recruited to the Thai Cohort Study, with the majority aged between 25 and 39 years, and residing nationwide. At the 4‐year follow up in 2009 (n=60569) and the 8‐year follow‐up in 2013 (n=42785), prospective cohort participants were asked if they provide care for chronically ill, disabled, or frail family members. Among Thai cohort members reporting between 2009 and 2013, approximately 56% were not caregivers in either year, 24.5% reported providing care in 2009 only, 8.6% in 2013 only, and 10.6% reported providing care at both time points. Caregivers in the cohort reported providing financial support, help with shopping, emotional support, and assist with daily activities. Kessler 6 psychological distress scale, measured in both 2009 and 2013, was used as the primary outcome of a relationship between caregiving status and mental health. Using multivariate logistic regression, our 4‐year longitudinal findings revealed that cohort members who reported providing care at both time points were 1.4 to 1.6 times more likely to report high psychological distress than non‐caregivers, after accounting for potential covariates. With increasing needs for informal care provided by family members, the future health and social welfare system will need to provide adequate support to caregivers (e.g., respite care, clinical support and information for the family, and awareness of mental health among caregivers).
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39488
Whole Body Vibration and Low Back Disorder among Saskatchewan Farmers: A Prospective Cohort Study
Abstract:
Background: Low back disorder (LBD) is the most common musculoskeletal problem among farmers, with higher prevalence than other occupations. Operators of tractors and other farm machinery such as combines or all-terrain vehicles (ATV) can have considerable cumulative exposure to whole body vibration (WBV). Although there appears to be an association between LBD and WBV, lack of prospective studies makes the relationship between LBD and WBV unclear. Purpose: This study investigates the association between WBV and LBD among Saskatchewan farmers using a prospective cohort study Methods: The Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study Phase I (2007) and II (2013) data were used. Baseline data were collected via postal questionnaire on accumulated yearly tractor, combine, and ATV use as well as several covariates to support a biopsychosocial model of LBD. Follow-up data on musculoskeletal symptoms were collected for the 6-year with sample size of 1149. Questions on ‘low back trouble’ (ache, pain, discomfort) experienced in the last 12 months answered by farmer participants as ‘yes’ or ‘no’. A GEE-modified Poisson approach was performed using SPSS 22 and SAS 9.4. Results: Twelve-month Prevalence of LBD was 59.8%. In multivariate analysis of the 6-year follow-up, LBD was associated with ATV operation and tractor operation, with a dose-response relationship for annual accumulated tractor operation. Although combine operation ≥ 61 hrs/year was related to LBD in bivariate analysis, this difference did not persist after adjustment for confounder. Age was found to be a confounder in relationship between WBV and LBD and no interactions were found. Conclusion: Longer annual tractor operation and older age are important predictors of LBD symptoms in farmers. Future research involving direct measurement can help identify appropriate prevention strategies.
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21054
Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities: Employment Rates, Job Persistence and Wages
Abstract:
Research indicates gaps in education, employment rates and wages between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. One of the main tools available to reduce these gaps is vocational rehabilitation. In order to examine the effects of vocational rehabilitation, a follow-up study, based on comprehensive administrative data, was conducted. The study included 88,286 people with disabilities who participated in vocational rehabilitation of the National Insurance Institute of Israel (NII), and completed the process between 1999 and 2012. Research variables included: employment rates, job persistence and wage levels. This research, the first of its kind in Israel, has several unique aspects: a)a long-range follow-up study on people who completed vocational rehabilitation; b) examination of a broad population spectrum, including also people that are not eligible to disability pensions ; c) a comparison among those with work-related injuries, those injured in hostile acts and those injured in other circumstances; and finally d) the identification of the characteristics of those who are entitled to vocational rehabilitation but who do not participate in any vocational rehabilitation plan. The most notable results include: 1. Vocational rehabilitation contributed to employment, job persistence and wage levels. Participation in vocational rehabilitation resulted in an employment rate of 65% within two years after completing the program, and 73% eventually. Participation in a vocational rehabilitation plan also contributed to job persistence and wage levels. 2. Vocational rehabilitation plans aimed at integration in universal frameworks increased the chances of being employed, persisting at the job and receiving a higher wage than did the vocational rehabilitation aimed at selective frameworks (such as sheltered workshops). 3. The type of disability affected the chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan and in the labor market. People with a disability from birth had greater chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan, while the type of disability and its severity affected the chances of the person with disabilities to find employment.
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21314
Effect of vr Based Wii Fit Training on Muscle Strength, Sensory Integration Ability and Walking Abilities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Control Trial
Abstract:
Background: Virtual reality (VR) systems are proved to increase motor performance in stroke and elderly. However, the effects have not been established in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Purpose: To examine the effects of VR based training in improving muscle strength, sensory integration ability and walking abilities in patients with PD by a randomized controlled trial. Method: Thirty six participants with diagnosis of PD were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (n=12 for each group). Participants received VR-based Wii Fit exercise (VRWii group) or traditional exercise (TE group) for 45 minutes, followed by treadmill training for another 15 minutes for 12 sessions in 6 weeks. Participants in the control group received no structured exercise program but fall-prevention education. Outcomes included lower extremity muscle strength, sensory integration ability, walking velocity, stride length, and functional gait assessment (FGA). All outcomes were assessed at baseline, after training and at 1-month follow-up. Results: Both VRWii and TE groups showed more improvement in level walking velocity, stride length, FGA, muscle strength and vestibular system integration than control group after training and at 1-month follow-up. The VRWii training, but not the TE training, resulted in more improvement in visual system integration than the control. Conclusions: VRWii training is as beneficial as traditional exercise in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted at least for 1 month. The VRWii training is then suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.
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15214
Relationship among Teams' Information Processing Capacity and Performance in Information System Projects: The Effects of Uncertainty and Equivocality
Abstract:
Uncertainty and equivocality are defined in the information processing literature as two task characteristics that require different information processing responses from managers. As uncertainty often stems from a lack of information, addressing it is thought to require the collection of additional data. On the other hand, as equivocality stems from ambiguity and a lack of understanding of the task at hand, addressing it is thought to require rich communication between those involved. Past research has provided weak to moderate empirical support to these hypotheses. The present study contributes to this literature by defining uncertainty and equivocality at the project level and investigating their moderating effects on the association between several project information processing constructs and project performance. The information processing constructs considered are the amount of information collected by the project team, and the richness and frequency of formal communications among the team members to discuss the project’s follow-up reports. Data on 93 information system development (ISD) project managers was collected in a questionnaire survey and analyzed it via the Fisher Test for correlation differences. The results indicate that the highest project performance levels were observed in projects characterized by high uncertainty and low equivocality in which project managers were provided with detailed and updated information on project costs and schedules. In addition, our findings show that information about user needs and technical aspects of the project is less useful to managing projects where uncertainty and equivocality are high. Further, while the strongest positive effect of interactive use of follow-up reports on performance occurred in projects where both uncertainty and equivocality levels were high, its weakest effect occurred when both of these were low.
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95087
A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE
Abstract:
Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.
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27528
Effectiveness, Safety, and Tolerability Profile of Stribild® in HIV-1-infected Patients in the Clinical Setting
Abstract:
Objectives: The efficacy of Stribild®, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) -based STR, has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials and it has demonstrated durable capability in terms of achieving sustained suppression of HIV-1 RNA-levels. However, differences in monitoring frequency, existing selection bias and profile of patients enrolled in the trials, may all result in divergent efficacy of this regimen in routine clinical settings. The aim of this study was to assess the virologic outcomes, safety and tolerability profile of Stribild® in a routine clinical setting. Methods: This was a retrospective monocentric analysis on HIV-1-infected patients, who started with or were switched to Stribild®. Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed HIV-RNA>50 copies/ml. The minimum time of follow-up was 24 weeks. The percentage of patients remaining free of therapeutic failure was estimated using the time-to-loss-of-virologic-response (TLOVR) algorithm, by intent-to-treat analysis. Results: We analyzed the data of 197 patients (56 ART-naïve and 141 treatment-experienced patients), who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Majority (95.9%) of patients were male. The median time of HIV-infection at baseline was 2 months in treatment-naïve and 70 months in treatment-experienced patients. Median time [IQR] under ART in treatment-experienced patients was 37 months. Among the treatment-experienced patients 27.0% had already been treated with a regimen consisting of two NRTIs and one INSTI, whereas 18.4% of them experienced a VF. The median time [IQR] of virological suppression prior to therapy with Stribild® in the treatment-experienced patients was 10 months [0-27]. At the end of follow-up (median 33 months), 87.3% (95% CI, 83.5-91.2) of treatment-naïve and 80.3% (95% CI, 75.8-84.8) of treatment-experienced patients remained free of therapeutic failure. Considering only treatment-experienced patients with baseline VL
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110841
Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment
Abstract:
Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).
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88621
Coping with the Stress and Negative Emotions of Care-Giving by Using Techniques from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius
Authors:
Abstract:
There are many challenges that a caregiver faces in average everyday life. One such challenge is coping with the stress and negative emotions of caregiving. The Stoics (i.e. Lucius Annaeus Seneca [4 B.C.E. - 65 C.E.], Epictetus [50-135 C.E.], and Marcus Aurelius [121-180 C.E.]) have provided coping techniques that are useful for dealing with stress and negative emotions. This paper lists and explains some of the fundamental coping techniques provided by the Stoics. For instance, some Stoic coping techniques thus follow (the list is far from exhaustive): a) mindfulness: to the best of your ability, constantly being aware of your thoughts, habits, desires, norms, memories, likes/dislikes, beliefs, values, and of everything outside of you in the world (b) constantly adjusting one’s expectations in accordance with reality, c) memento mori: constantly reminding oneself that death is inevitable and that death is not to be seen as evil, and d) praemeditatio malorum: constantly detaching oneself from everything that is so dear to one so that the least amount of suffering follows from the loss, damage, or ceasing to be of such entities. All coping techniques will be extracted from the following original texts by the Stoics: Seneca’s Letters to Lucilius, Epictetus’ Discourses and the Encheiridion, and Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations. One major finding is that the usefulness of each Stoic coping technique can be empirically tested by anyone in the sense of applying it one’s own life especially when one is facing real-life challenges. Another major finding is that all of the Stoic coping techniques are predicated upon, and follow from, one fundamental principle: constantly differentiate what is and what is not in one’s control. After differentiating it, one should constantly habituate oneself in not controlling things that are beyond one’s control. For example, the following things are beyond one’s control (all things being equal): death, certain illnesses, being born in a particular socio-economic family, etc. The conclusion is that if one habituates oneself by practicing to the best of one’s ability both the fundamental Stoic principle and the Stoic coping techniques, then such a habitual practice can eventually decrease the stress and negative emotions that one experiences by being a caregiver.
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4195
Effects of Virtual Reality Treadmill Training on Gait and Balance Performance of Patients with Stroke: Review
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: Impairment of walking and balance skills has negative impact on functional independence and community participation after stroke. Gait recovery is considered a primary goal in rehabilitation by both patients and physiotherapists. Treadmill training coupled with virtual reality technology is a new emerging approach that offers patients with feedback, open and random skills practice while walking and interacting with virtual environmental scenes. Objectives: To synthesize the evidence around the effects of the VR treadmill training on gait speed and balance primarily, functional independence and community participation secondarily in stroke patients. Methods: Systematic review was conducted; search strategy included electronic data bases: MEDLINE, AMED, Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, Web of Science, and unpublished literature. Inclusion criteria: Participant: adult >18 years, stroke, ambulatory, without severe visual or cognitive impartments. Intervention: VR treadmill training alone or with physiotherapy. Comparator: any other interventions. Outcomes: gait speed, balance, function, community participation. Characteristics of included studies were extracted for analysis. Risk of bias assessment was performed using Cochrane's ROB tool. Narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken and summary of findings in each outcome was reported using GRADEpro. Results: Four studies were included involving 84 stroke participants with chronic hemiparesis. Interventions intensity ranged (6-12 sessions, 20 minutes-1 hour/session). Three studies investigated the effects on gait speed and balance. 2 studies investigated functional outcomes and one study assessed community participation. ROB assessment showed 50% unclear risk of selection bias and 25% of unclear risk of detection bias across the studies. Heterogeneity was identified in the intervention effects at post training and follow up. Outcome measures, training intensity and durations also varied across the studies, grade of evidence was low for balance, moderate for speed and function outcomes, and high for community participation. However, it is important to note that grading was done on few numbers of studies in each outcome. Conclusions: The summary of findings suggests positive and statistically significant effects (p< 0.05) of VR treadmill training compared to other interventions on gait speed, dynamic balance skills, function and participation directly after training. However, the effects were not sustained at follow up in two studies (2 weeks-1 month) and other studies did not perform follow up measurements. More RCTs with larger sample sizes and higher methodological quality are required to examine the long term effects of VR treadmill effects on function independence and community participation after stroke, in order to draw conclusions and produce stronger robust evidence.
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18917
Long-Term Follow-Up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty
Abstract:
Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel unsatisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively in group I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months post-operatively in group I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.
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58280
Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
Abstract:
Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.
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67821
Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus
Abstract:
Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.
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23943
Introduction of a Multimodal Intervention for People with Autism: 'ReAttach'
Abstract:
Autism treatment evaluation is crucial for monitoring the development of an intervention at an early stage. ‘ReAttach’ is a new intervention based on the principles of attachment and social cognitive training. Practical research suggests promising results on a variety of developmental areas. Five years after the first ReAttach sessions these findings can be extended with qualitative research by means of follow-up interviews. The potential impact of this treatment on daily life functioning and well-being of autistic persons becomes clear.
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100604
Closed Mitral Commissurotomy: A Safe and Promising Procedure
Abstract:
Objective: Rheumatic mitral stenosis continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. When the left atrium (LA) is unable to fill the left ventricle (LV) at normal LA pressures due to impaired relaxation and impaired compliance, diastolic dysfunction occurs. The assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and filling pressures is of clinical importance to identify underlying cardiac disease, its treatment and to assess prognosis. Two D echocardiography can detect diastolic dysfunction with excellent sensitivity and minimal risk when compared to the gold standard of invasive pressure-volume measurements. The aim of this study is echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function after closed mitral commissurotomy in cases of rheumatic mitral stenosis. Material and Method: This was a one-year study consisting of twenty nine patients of isolated rheumatic severe mitral stenosis. Data was analyzed preoperative and post operative (at one month follow up). Transthoracic 2D echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function are transmitral flow, pulmonary venous flow, mitral annular tissue doppler, and color M-mode doppler. In our study mitral valve orifice area, ejection fraction, deceleration time, E/A-wave, E/E’-wave, myocardial performance index of left ventricle (Tei index) and Mitral inflow propagation velocity were included for echocardiographic evaluation. The statistical analysis was performed on SPSS Version 15.0 statistical analysis software. Result: Twenty nine patients underwent successful closed mitral commissurotomy for isolated mitral stenosis. The outcome measures were observed pre operatively and at 1 month follow up. Majority of patients were in NYHA (New York Heart Association) grade III (69.0%) in pre operative period which improved to New York Heart Association grade I (48.3%) after closed mitral commissurotomy. Post surgery mitral valve area increased from 0.77 ± 0.13 to 2.32 ± 0.26 cm, ejection fraction increased from 61.38 ± 4.61 to 64.79 ± 3.22. There was decrease in deceleration time from 231.55 ± 49.31 to 168.28 ± 14.30 ms, E/A ratio from 1.70 ± 0.54 from 0.89 ± 0.39, E/E’ ratio from 14.59 ± 3.34 to 8.86 ± 3.03. In addition there was improvement in TIE index from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 0.39 ± 0.06 and mitral inflow propagation velocity from 47.28 ± 3.71 to 57.86 ± 3.19 cm/sec. In peri-operative and follow up, there was no incidence of severe mitral regurgitation (MR). There was no thromboembolic incident and no mortality. Conclusion: Closed mitral commissurotomy is a forgotten procedure for mitral stenosis, but it produces excellent and comparable improvement in early hemodynamic, clinical stage of disease and diastolic function. Closed mitral commissurotomy remains a simple, safe, and effective means for treating mitral stenosis in regions where incidence of rheumatic heart disease is still high and resources for its treatment are limited. There is still a place for this procedure.
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96777
Integrated Livestock and Cropping System and Sustainable Rural Development in India: A Case Study
Abstract:
Integrated livestock and cropping system is very old agricultural practice since antiquity. It is an eco-friendly and sustainable farming system in which both the resources are optimally and rationally utilized through the recycling and re-utilization of their by-products. Indian farmers follow in- farm integrated farming system unlike in developed countries where both farm and off-farm system prevailed. The data on different components of the integrated farming system is very limited and that too is not widely available in published form. The primary source is the only option for understanding the mechanism, process, evaluation and performance of integrated livestock cropping system. Researcher generated data through the field survey of sampled respondents from sampled villages from Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. The present paper aims to understand the component group of system, degree, and level of integration, level of generation of employment, income, improvement in farm ecology, the economic viability of farmers and check in rural-urban migration. The study revealed that area witnessed intra farm integration in which both livestock and cultivation of crops take place on the same farm. Buffalo, goat, and poultry are common components of integration. Wheat, paddy, sugarcane and horticulture are among the crops. The farmers are getting 25% benefit more than those who do not follow the integrated system. Livestock husbandry provides employment and income through the year, especially during agriculture offseason. 80% of farmers viewed that approximately 35% of the total expenditure incurred is met from the livestock sector. Landless, marginal and small farmers are highly benefited from agricultural integration. About 70% of farmers acknowledged that using wastes of animals and crops the soil ecology is significantly maintained. Further, the integrated farming system is helpful in reducing rural to urban migration. An incentive with credit facilities, assured marketing, technological aid and government support is urgently needed for sustainable development of agriculture and farmers.
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89188
Integrated Safety Net Program for High-Risk Families in New Taipei City
Authors:
Abstract:
New Taipei city faces increasing number of migrant families, in which the needs of children are sometimes neglected due to insufficient support from communities. Moreover, the traditional mindset of disengagement discourages citizens from preemptively identifying families in need in their communities, resulting in delay of prompt intervention from authorities concerned. To safeguard these vulnerable families, New Taipei city develops the 'Integrated Safety-Net Program for High-Risk Families' from 2011 by implementing the following measures: (A) New attitude and action: Instead of passively receiving reported case of high-risk families, the program takes proactive and preemptive approach to detect and respond at early stage, so the cases are prevented from worsening. In addition, cross-departmental integration mechanism is established to meet multiple needs of high-risk families. The children number added to the government care network is greatly increased to over 10,000, which is around 4.4 times the original number before the program. (B) New service points: 2000 city-wide convenience stores are added as service stations so that children in less privileged families can go to any of 24-hour convenience stores across the city to pick up free meals. This greatly increases the approachability to high-risk families. Moreover, the social welfare institutes will be notified with information left in convenience stores by children and follow up with further assistance, greatly enhancing chances of less privileged families being identified. (C) New Key Figures: Mobilize community officers and volunteers to detect and offer on-site assistance. Volunteer organizations within communities are connected to report and offer follow-up services in a more active manner. In total, from 2011 to 2015, 54,789 cases are identified through active care, benefiting 82,124 children. In addition, 87.49% family-cases in the program receiving comprehensive social assistance are no longer at high risk.
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21416
The Impact of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) and the Perceived Moral Intensity on the Intention of Ethical Investment
Abstract:
This study seeks to examine perceived environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR) with a focus on negative environmental questions, related to intention of ethical investment intention after a environmental failure recovery. An empirical test was employed to test the hypotheses. We manipulated the information on negative ECSR activities of a hypothetical firm in a experimental design with a failure recovery treatment. The company’s negative ECSR recovery was depicted in a positive perspective (depicting a follow-up strong social action), whereas in the negative ECSR treatment it was described in a negative perspective (depicting a follow-up non social action). In both treatments, information about other key characteristics of the focal company were kept constant. Investors’ intentions to invest in the company’s stock were evaluated by multi-item scales. Results indicate that positive ECSR recovery information about a firm enhances investors’ intentions to invest in the company’s stock. In addition, perceived moral intensity has a significant impact on the intention of ethical investment and that perceived moral intensity also serves as a key moderating variable in the relationship between negative ECSR and the intention of ethical investment. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed. Practical implications: The results suggest that managers may need to be aware of perceived moral intensity as a key variable in restoring the intention of ethical investment. The results further suggest that perceived moral intensity has a direct, and it also has an moderating influence between ECSR and the intention of ethical investment. Originality/value: In an attempt to deepen the understanding of how investors perceptions of firm environmental CSR are connected with other investor‐related outcomes through ECSR recovery, the present research proposes a comprehensive model which encompasses ECSR and other key relationship constructs after a ECSR failure and recovery.
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110278
Leisure, Domestic or Professional Activities so as to Prevent Cognitive Decline: Results FreLE Longitudinal Study
Abstract:
Background: Previous cohorts have been notably criticized for not studying the different type of physical activity and not investigating household activities. The objective of this work was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and cognitive decline in older people living in the community. Impact of type of physical activity on the results has been realised. Methods: The study used data from the longitudinal and observational study , FrèLE (FRagility: Longitudinal Study of Expressions). The collected data included: socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, and health status (frailty, comorbidities, cognitive status, depression). Cognitive decline was assessed by using: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). This tool is structured in three sections: the leisure activity, domestic activity, and professional activity. Logistic regressions and proportional hazards regression models (Cox) were used to estimate the risk of cognitive disorders. Results: At baseline, the prevalence of cognitive disorders was 6.9% according to MMSE. In total, 1167 participants without cognitive disorders were included in the analysis. The mean age was 77.4 years, and 52.1% of the participants were women. After a 2 years long follow-up, we found cognitive disorders on 53 participants (4.5%). Physical activity at baseline is lower in older adults for whom cognitive decline was observed after two years of follow-up. Subclass analyses showed that leisure and domestic activities were associated with cognitive decline, but not professional activities. Conclusions: Analysis showed a relationship between cognitive disorders and type of physical activity. The current study will be completed by the MoCA for mild cognitive impairment. These findings compared to other ongoing studies, will contribute to the debate on the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition.
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12483
Early and Mid-Term Results of Anesthetic Management of Minimal Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using One Lung Ventilation
Abstract:
Introduction: Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) provides many anesthetic challenges including one lung ventilation (OLV), managing myocardial ischemia, and pain. We present an early and midterm result of the use of this technique with OLV. Method: We enrolled 62 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Patients were anesthetized and left endobronchial tube was placed. During the procedure left lung was isolated and one lung ventilation was maintained through right lung. Operation was performed utilizing off pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Postoperative ventilation was done with single lumen endotracheal tube. Median follow-up is 2.5 years (6 months to 4 years). Results: Median age was 58.5 years (41-77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 36, double vessel in 24 and triple vessel disease in 2 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. In 2 cases difficulty were encounter in placement of endobronchial tube. In 1 case cuff of endobronchial tube was ruptured during intubation. High airway pressure was developed on OLV in 1 case and surgery was accomplished with two lung anesthesia with low tidal volume. Mean postoperative ventilation time was 14.4 hour (11-22). There was no perioperative and 30 day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 3.23% (2 out of 62 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction postoperatively and there were no deaths during follow-up. Conclusion: MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization with OLV in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting.
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125674
Effectiveness of Educational and Supportive Interventions for Primiparous Women on Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Abstract:
Background: Breastmilk is the most nutritious food for infants to support their growth and protect them from infection. Therefore, breastfeeding promotion is an important topic for infant health; whereas, different educational and supportive approaches to interventions have been prompted and targeted at antenatal, postnatal, or both periods to promote and sustain exclusive breastfeeding. This systematic review aimed to identify the effective approaches of educational and supportive interventions to improve breastfeeding. Outcome measures were exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and breastfeeding self-efficacy, being analyzed in terms of ≤ 2 months, 3-5 months, and ≥ 6 months postpartum. Method: Eleven electronic databases and the reference lists of eligible articles were searched. English or Chinese articles of randomized controlled trials on educational and supportive intervention with the above breastfeeding outcomes over recent 20 years were searched. Quality appraisal and risk of bias of the studies were checked by Effective Public Health Practice Project tool and Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, respectively. Results: 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included; and they had acceptable quality and risk of bias. The optimal structure, format, and delivery of the interventions significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at ≤ 2 months and ≥ 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy at ≤ 2 months included: (a) delivering from antenatal to postnatal period, (b) multicomponent involving antenatal group education, postnatal individual breastfeeding coaching and telephone follow-ups, (c) both individual and group basis, (d) being guided by self-efficacy theory, and (e) having ≥ 3 sessions. Conclusion: The findings showed multicomponent theory-based interventions with ≥ 3 sessions that delivered across antenatal and postnatal period; using both face-to-face teaching and telephone follow-ups can be useful to enhance exclusive breastfeeding rate for more than 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy over the first two months of postpartum.
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22249
Evaluation of Traumatic Spine by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abstract:
Study Design: This prospective study was conducted at the department of Radio Diagnosis, at Pt B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak in 57 patients of spine injury on radiographs or radiographically normal patients with neurological deficits presenting within 72 hours of injury. Aims: Evaluation of the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Spinal Trauma Patients and to compare MRI findings with clinical profile and neurological status of the patient and to correlate the MRI findings with neurological recovery of the patient and predict the outcome. Material and Methods: Neurological status of patients was assessed at the time of admission and discharge in all the patients and at long term interval of six months to one year in 27 patients as per American spine injury association classification (ASIA). On MRI cord injury was categorized into cord hemorrhage, cord contusion, cord edema only, and normal cord. Quantitative assessment of injury on MRI was done using mean canal compromise (MCC), mean spinal cord compression (MSCC) and lesion length. Neurological status at admission and neurological recovery at discharge and long term follow up was compared with various qualitative cord findings and quantitative parameters on MRI. Results: Cord edema and normal cord was associated with favorable neurological outcome. Cord contusion show lesser neurological recovery as compared to cord edema. Cord hemorrhage was associated with worst neurological status at admission and poor neurological recovery. Mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length values were higher in patients presenting with ASIA A grade injury and showed decreasing trends towards ASIA E grade injury. Patients showing neurological recovery over the period of hospital stay and long term follow up had lower mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length as compared to patients showing no neurological recovery. The data was statistically significant with p value
60
34758
The Follower Robots Tested in Different Lighting Condition and Improved Capabilities
Abstract:
In this study, two types of robot were examined as being pioneer robot and follower robot for improving of the capabilities of tracking robots. Robots continue to tracking each other and measurement of the follow-up distance between them is very important for improvements to be applied. It was achieved that the follower robot follows the pioneer robot in line with intended goals. The tests were applied to the robots in various grounds and environments in point of performance and necessary improvements were implemented by measuring the results of these tests.
59
110980
Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects
Abstract:
Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.
58
33579
Towards an Indigenous Language Policy for National Integration
Abstract:
The paper is about the need for an indigenous language in order to meaningfully harness both our human and material resources for the nation’s integration. It then examines the notty issue of the national language question and advocates a piece meal approach in solving the problem. This approach allows for the development and use of local languages in minority areas, especially in Benue State, as a way of preparing them for consideration as possible replacement for English language as Nigeria’s national or official language. Finally, an arrangement to follow to prepare the languages for such competition at the national level is presented.
57
91959
Postpartum Depression Screening and Referrals for Lower-Income Women in North Carolina, USA
Abstract:
Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a leading cause of postpartum morbidity. PPD affects 7.1% of postpartum women and 19.2% of postpartum women when including minor depression. Lower-income women and ethnic minorities are more at risk for developing PPD and face multiple attitudinal and institutional barriers to receiving care. This study aims to identify PPD among low-income women and connect them to appropriate services in order to reduce the illness burden and enhance access to care. Screenings were conducted in two Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, from April 2017 to April 2018. WIC is a supplemental nutrition program that provides healthcare and nutrition to low-income pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children under the age of 5. Additionally, a qualitative study was conducted to better understand the PPD continuum of care in order to identify opportunities for improvement. Mothers with infants were screened for depression risk using the PHQ-2. Mothers who scored ≥ 2 completed two additional standardized screening tools (PHQ-7, to complete the PHQ-9, and the Edinburgh) to assess depressive symptomatology. If indicated they may be suffering from depression, women were referred for case management services. Open-ended questions were used to understand treatment barriers. Four weeks after the initial survey, a follow-up telephone call was made to see if women had received care. Seven focus groups with WIC staff and managers, referral agency staff, local behavioral health professionals, and students examining the screenings, are being conducted March - April, 2018 to gather information related to current screening practices, referrals, follow up and treatment. Mothers (n = 231 as of February, 2018) were screened in English (65%) or Spanish (35%). According to preliminary results, 29% of mothers screened were at risk for postpartum depression (PHQ-2 ≥ 2). There were significant differences in preliminary screening results based on survey language (
56
65584
The Review and Contribution of Taiwan Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment to Water Recycling
Abstract:
Because of inborn natural conditions and man-made sabotage, the water resources insufficient phenomenon in Taiwan is a very important issue needed to face immediately. The regulations and law of water resources protection and recycling are gradually completed now but still lack of specific water recycling effectiveness checking method. The research focused on the industrial parks that already had been certificated with EIA to establish a professional checking system, carry through and forge ahead to contribute one’s bit in water resources sustainable usage. Taiwan Government Policies of Environmental Impact Assessment established in 1994, some development projects were requested to set certain water recycling ratio for water resources effective usage. The water covers and contains everything because all-inclusive companies enter and be stationed. For control the execution status of industrial park water and waste water recycling ratio about EIA commitment effectively, we invited experts and scholars in this filed to discuss with related organs to formulate the policy and audit plan. Besides, call a meeting to set public version water equilibrium diagrams and recycles parameter. We selected nine industrial parks that were requested set certain water recycling ratio in EIA examination stage and then according to the water usage quantity, we audited 340 factories in these industrial parks with spot and documents examination and got fruitful results – the average water usage of unit area per year of all these examined industrial parks is 31,000 tons/hectare/year, the value is just half of Taiwan industries average. It is obvious that the industrial parks with EIA commitment can decrease the water resources consumption effectively. Taiwan government policies of Environmental Impact Assessment took follow though tracking function into consideration at the beginning. The results of this research verify the importance of the implementing with water recycling to save water resources in EIA commitment. Inducing development units to follow EIA commitment to get the balance between environmental protection and economic development is one of the important EIA value.
55
79495
The Review and Contribution of Taiwan Government Policies on Environmental Impact Assessment to Water Recycling
Abstract:
Because of inborn natural conditions and man-made sabotage, the water resources insufficient phenomenon in Taiwan is a very important issue needed to face immediately. The regulations and law of water resources protection and recycling are gradually completed now but still lack of specific water recycling effectiveness checking method. The research focused on the industrial parks that already had been certificated with EIA to establish a professional checking system, carry through and forge ahead to contribute one’s bit in water resources sustainable usage. Taiwan Government Policies of Environmental Impact Assessment established in 1994, some development projects were requested to set certain water recycling ratio for water resources effective usage. The water covers and contains everything because all-inclusive companies enter and be stationed. For control the execution status of industrial park water and waste water recycling ratio about EIA commitment effectively, we invited experts and scholars in this filed to discuss with related organs to formulate the policy and audit plan. Besides, call a meeting to set public version water equilibrium diagrams and recycles parameter. We selected nine industrial parks that were requested set certain water recycling ratio in EIA examination stage and then according to the water usage quantity, we audited 340 factories in these industrial parks with spot and documents examination and got fruitful results – the average water usage of unit area per year of all these examined industrial parks is 31,000 tons/hectare/year, the value is just half of Taiwan industries average. It is obvious that the industrial parks with EIA commitment can decrease the water resources consumption effectively. Taiwan government policies of Environmental Impact Assessment took follow though tracking function into consideration at the beginning. The results of this research verify the importance of the implementing with water recycling to save water resources in EIA commitment. Inducing development units to follow EIA commitment to get the balance between environmental protection and economic development is one of the important EIA value.
54
28186
Mode of Suicide and Alcohol Use Pattern among Female Commercial Sex Workers
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of alcohol use, mode of suicide and extent of depression among 150 female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Bangalore, India. After going through a short detoxification programme of two weeks, Karma yoga principles of Shrimad Bhagavad Gita were used as a tool for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for a period of four weeks to maintain abstinence and help with their depression. A six month follow up indicated that they had maintained abstinence over that period and had not attempted suicide, either.
53
100206
Factors Associated with Recurrence and Long-Term Survival in Younger and Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer death among women. This study aims to determine factors potentially predicting recurrence and long-term survival after the first recurrence in surgically treated patients between postmenopausal and younger women. Methods and Analysis: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 498 Thai women with invasive breast cancer, who had undergone mastectomy and been followed-up at Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Hospital, Thailand. We collected based on a systematic chart audit from medical records and pathology reports between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. The last follow-up time point for surviving patients was December 31, 2016. A Cox regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios of recurrence and death. Findings: The median age was 49 (SD ± 9.66) at the time of diagnosis, 47% was post-menopausal women ( ≥ 51years and not experienced any menstrual flow for a minimum of 12 months), and 53 % was younger women ( ˂ 51 years and have menstrual period). Median time from the diagnosis to the last follow-up or death was 10.81 [95% CI = 9.53-12.07] years in younger cases and 8.20 [95% CI = 6.57-9.82] years in postmenopausal cases. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) for younger estimates at 1, 5 and 10 years of 95.0 %, 64.0% and 58.93% respectively, appeared slightly better than the 92.7%, 58.1% and 53.1% for postmenopausal women [HRadj = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.95-1.64]. Regarding overall survival (OS) for younger at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.7%, 72.7 % and 52.7% respectively, for postmenopausal patients, OS at 1, 5 and 10 years were 95.7%, 70.0% and 44.5 respectively, there were no significant differences in survival [HRadj = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.94 -1.64]. Multivariate analysis identified five risk factors for negatively impacting on survival were triple negative [HR= 2.76, 95% CI = 1.47-5.19], Her2-enriched [HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.37-4.91], luminal B [HR = 2.29, 95 % CI=1.35-3.89], not free margin [HR = 1.98, 95%CI=1.00-3.96] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 3.75, 95% CI = 2.00-7.04]. Statistically significant risks of overall cancer recurrence were Her2-enriched [HR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.75-9.80], triple negative [HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.98-7.59], luminal B [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-4.54,] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-5.66]. Discussion and Implications: Outcomes from this studies have shown that postmenopausal women have been associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality. As the results, it provides useful information for planning the screening and treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the future.
52
105951
The Effects of Parent Psycho-Education Program on Problem-Solving Skills of Parents
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the psycho-education program on problem-solving skills of parents of high school students in the risk group for Internet addiction. A quasi-experimental design based on the pre-test, post-test and follow up test including experimental and control groups was used in the research. The independent variable of the study was the parent psycho-education program on problem-solving skills; the dependent variable was the problem-solving skills of parents. The research was conducted with the parents of 52 tenth-grade students in the risk group for Internet addiction from two high schools and volunteer to participate research on evaluation of the effectiveness of internet addiction prevention psycho-education program within the scope of another study. In this study, as 26 students were in the experimental groups in the first-high school, the parents of these 26 students were asked if they would like to participate in the parent psycho-education program on parental problem-solving skills. The parents were volunteer to participate in parent psycho-education program assigned experimental group (n=13), the other parents assigned control group 1 (n=13) in the first high school. The parents of the 26 students were randomly assigned to the control group 2 (n=13) and control group 3 (n=13) in the second high school. The data of the research was obtained via the problem behavior scale - coping - parents form and demographic questionnaire. Four-session parent psycho-education program to cope with Internet addiction and other problem behaviors in their children was applied to the experimental group. No program was applied to the control group 1, control group 2 and control group 3. In addition, an internet addiction prevention psycho-education program was applied to the children of the parents in experimental group and control group 1 within the scope of another study. In the analysis of the obtained data, two-factor variance analysis for repeated measures on one factor was used. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to find the source of intergroup difference. According to the findings, the psycho-education program significantly increases parents’ problem-solving abilities, and the increase has continued throughout the follow-up test.
51
94789
Still Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Despite Proper Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis
Abstract:
Chronic viral hepatitis B, C, and D can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and death. The proper treatment reduce the risk of development of HCC importantly, but not to zero point. Materials and Methods: We analysed retrospectively our chronic viral hepatitis B, C and D patients who attended to our Infectious Diseases policlinic between 2004-2018. From 589 biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis patients 3 have hepatocellular carcinoma on our follow up. First case is 74 years old patient. His HCV infection diagnosis was made 8 years ago. First treatment was pegylated interferon plus ribavirin only 28 weeks, because of HCV RNA breakthrough under treatment. In 2013 he was retreated with telaprevir, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin 24 weeks. But at the end of the therapy HCV RNA was found 1.290.000 IU/mL. He has abdominal ultrasonography (US) controls and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6 months intervals. All seemed normal until 2015 then he has an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and found HCC by chance. His treatment began in Oncology Clinic after verified with biopsy of HCC. And then sofosbuvir/ledipasvir was given to him for HCV 24 weeks. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was obtained. He is on cure for HCV infection and under control of Oncology for HCC. Second patient is 36 years old man. He knows his HBV infection since 2008. HBsAg and HBeAg positive; HDV RNA negative. Liver biopsy revealed grade:4, stage 3-4 according modified Knodell scoring system. In 2010 tenofovir treatment was began. His abdominal US and AFP were normal. His controls took place at 6 months intervals and HBV DNA negative, US, and AFP were normal until 2016 continuously. AFP found 37 above the normal range and then HCC was found in MRI. Third patient is 57 years old man. As hepatitis B infection was first diagnosed; he has cirrhosis and was began tenofovir as treatment. In short time he has HCC despite normal AFP values. Conclusion: In Mediterranian countries including Turkey naturally occurring pre-S/S variants are more than 75% of all chronic hepatitis B patients. This variants may contribute to the development of progressive liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV-induced development of HCC is a gradual process and is affected by the duration of disease and viral genotype. All the chronic viral hepatitis patients should be followed up in 6 months intervals not only with US and AFP for HCC. Despite they have proper treatment there is always the risk development of HCC. Chronic hepatitis patients cannot be dropped from follow up even treated well.
Keywords:
50
123395
Different Approaches to Teaching a Database Course to Undergraduate and Graduate Students
Authors:
Abstract:
Database Design is a fundamental part of the Computer Science and Information technology curricula in any school, as well as in the study of management, business administration, and data analytics. In this study, we compare the performance of two groups of students studying the same database design and implementation course at Sacred Heart University in the fall of 2018. Both courses used the same textbook and were taught by the same professor, one for seven graduate students and one for 26 undergraduate students (juniors). The undergraduate students were aged around 20 years old with little work experience, while the graduate students averaged 35 years old and all were employed in computer-related or management-related jobs. The textbook used was 'Database Systems, Design, Implementation, and Management' by Coronel and Morris, and the course was designed to follow the textbook roughly a chapter per week. The first 6 weeks covered the design aspect of a database, followed by a paper exam. The next 6 weeks covered the implementation aspect of the database using SQL followed by a lab exam. Since the undergraduate students are on a 16 week semester, we spend the last three weeks of the course covering NoSQL. This part of the course was not included in this study. After the course was over, we analyze the results of the two groups of students. An interesting discrepancy was observed: In the database design part of the course, the average grade of the graduate students was 92%, while that of the undergraduate students was 77% for the same exam. In the implementation part of the course, we observe the opposite: the average grade of the graduate students was 65% while that of the undergraduate students was 73%. The overall grades were quite similar: the graduate average was 78% and that of the undergraduates was 75%. Based on these results, we concluded that having both classes follow the same time schedule was not beneficial, and an adjustment is needed. The graduates could spend less time on design and the undergraduates would benefit from more design time. In the fall of 2019, 30 students registered for the undergraduate course and 15 students registered for the graduate course. To test our conclusion, the undergraduates spend about 67% of time (eight classes) on the design part of the course and 33% (four classes) on the implementation part, using the exact exams as the previous year. This resulted in an improvement in their average grades on the design part from 77% to 83% and also their implementation average grade from 73% to 79%. In conclusion, we recommend using two separate schedules for teaching the database design course. For undergraduate students, it is important to spend more time on the design part rather than the implementation part of the course. While for the older graduate students, we recommend spending more time on the implementation part, as it seems that is the part they struggle with, even though they have a higher understanding of the design component of databases.
49
68742
Preliminary Short-Term Results of a Population of Patients Treated with Mitraclip Therapy: One Center Experience
Abstract:
Objectives: This retrospective analysis sought to evaluate 1-month outcomes and therapy effectiveness of a population of patients treated with MitraClip therapy. We describe in this article the preliminary results of primary effectiveness endpoint. Background: Percutaneous Mitral Repair is being developed to treat severe mitral regurgitation (MR), with increasing real-world cases of functional MR (FMR). In the EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair Study)II trial, the percutaneous device showed superior safety but less reduction in MR at 1year. 4-year outcomes from EVEREST II trial showed no difference in the prevalence of moderate-severe and severe MR or mortality at 4years between surgical mitral repair and percutaneous approach. Methods: We analysed retrospectively collected data from one center experience in Italy enrolled from January 2011 to December 2016. The study included 62 patients [mean age 74±11years, 43 men (69%)] with MR of at least grade3+. Most of the patients had functional MR, were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV, with a large portion (78%) of mild-to-moderate Tricuspid Regurgitation (TR). One or more clips were implanted in 67 procedures (62 patients). Results and Conclusions: Severity of MR was reduced in all successfully treated patients,54(90%) were discharged with MR≤2+ (primary effectiveness endpoint). Clinical 1-month follow-up data showed an improvement in NYHA functional class (42 patients (70%) in NYHA class I-II). 60 of 62 (97 %) successfully treated patients were free from death and mitral valve surgery at 1-month follow-up. MitraClip therapy reduces functional MR with acute MR reduction to
48
50099
Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities
Authors:
Abstract:
This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.
47
59303
Modelling Asymmetric Magnetic Recording Heads with an Underlayer Using Superposition
Abstract:
This paper analyses and calculates the head fields of asymmetrical 2D magnetic recording heads when the soft-underlayer is present using the appropriate Green's function to derive the surface potential/field by utilising the surface potential for asymmetrical head without underlayer. The results follow closely the corners, while the gap region shows a linear behaviour for d/g < 0.5 compared with the calculated fields from finite-element.
46
25546
Autonomy Supportive Coaching to Achieve Health Literacy
Abstract:
Health Literacy is defined as the degree to which people have the capacity to obtain and understand information to make health decisions. Illustrated are three levels of health literacy: (1) Functional literacy refers to the transmission of information about e. g. physical activity and nutrition; (2) interactive literacy implies the development of personal and social skills to adopt health-related behaviour and (3) critical health literacy indicates advanced cognitive skills connected with personal empowerment to critically analyse health information, to define self-determined goals and taking action in various situations accordingly. The achievement of the third level refers to self-determination and autonomy which should be outcomes of exercise programs for overweight children as health-related behaviour change will occur and persist if it is autonomously motivated. Method: We adopted a quasi-experimental design with group (autonomy supportive coaching, control) and session (pre-test, intervention, post-test, and follow-up-test). Overweight and obese children and adolescents at the age of 8-14 years (N=40) received a 6-month (20 sessions) exercise program with autonomy supportive coaching implemented by the coaches and sandwiched between pre-test and post-test. All participants (N=92) completed the German version of the Basic Needs Satisfaction Scale Sport and Exercise. Additionally, we assessed the engagement in the exercise program by the MVPA (Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity) and by the adherence and drop-out-rate. Results: Participants in the intervention group perceived their autonomy as moderate in the post-test and the follow-up-test. However, the psychological intervention failed to develop a high autonomy, as both groups show moderate perceived autonomy from the pre-test to the post-test. Participants in the intervention group were higher engaged in MVPA in the exercise program and they attend the program more regularly. Discussion: Young overweight and obese children and adolescents can acquire autonomy using autonomy supporting coaching. However, research identifying the extent they achieve critical health literacy is required to implement an autonomy-supportive coaching style into exercise programs for this target group.
45
6811
Occupational Health Services (OHS) in Hong Kong Hospitals and the Experience of Nurses: A Mixed Methods Study
Abstract:
Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance (OS&HO) (Chap 509) was enacted in 1997, OHS in HK should be growing and maturing, with a holistic approach to occupational health and safety in the workplace including physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being. The question is “How effective are OHSPs in meeting the current needs of HK health workers?” This study was designed to explore the issue for the first time, to empirically analyse the views of those who work in the system. The study employed a mixed method approach to collect various data from Occupational Health Service Providers (OHSPs), Occupational Health Service Consumers (OHSC): Registered nurses working in the hospital setting. This study was designed in two phases and two stages. Phase I Stage I was a paper survey to collect the data on OHSP. Then Phase I Stage II was a follow-up interview. Phase II Stage I was a paper survey to collect the data on OHSC. Then Phase II Stage II was a follow-up focus group study on OHSC for further clarification of the Phase II and Stage I result. The Phase I result reflects HK OHSPs point of view and their experience in the existing OHS practice in the local hospitals. It reflects various styles of reporting systems, staff profiles background and resource in providing OHS in HK hospitals. However, the basic OHS concern is similar between hospitals. In general, the OHS policies and procedures are available on site even though they may have different foci. The Phase II result is reflecting the HKs OHSCs echoes the OHSP feedback at providing of OHS, OHS concern and related policies and procedure are available on site. However, the most significant feedback from the OHSC at Phase II Stage II shows, nurses experienced various OHS concern most commonly work stress, workplace harassment and back strain without formal or official report to the related parties. The lack of reporting was due to the management handling attitude, stakeholders’ compliance and term of definition still have room to be improved even the related policies and procedures are available on site.
44
50176
Resistance to Change as a Lever of Innovation: Case of Tangier, Tetouan and Hoceima Region, Morocco
Abstract:
For any company or organization, change must be natural and binding in order to evolve its business, protect its durability and remain competitive. &quot;Adapt or disappear&quot;. But how often managers, leaders or employees develop astonishing ideas that could improve several aspects of the organization and the feedback is less that encouraging and people give unrealistic judgments just to escape change. In this paper, we are going to discuss what we do know about change and resistance to change and what we can do to tame this phenomenon and, above all, the main steps that can follow an idea man in the delicate and decisive implementation of innovations.
43
92386
Fabric Softener Deposition on Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cotton Fibers
Abstract:
Fabric softeners are aqueous formulations that contain ~10 wt. % double tailed cationic surfactants. Here, a formulation in which 50% surfactant was replaced with low quantities of natural guar polymers was developed. Thanks to the reduced surfactant quantity this product has less environmental impact while the guars presence was found to maintain the product’s performance. The objective of this work is to elucidate the effect of the guar polymers on the softener deposition and the adsorption mechanism on the cotton surface. The surfactants in these formulations are assembled into large distributed (0.1 – 1 µm) vesicles that are stable in the presence of guars and upon dilution. The effect of guars on the vesicles adsorption on cotton was first estimated by using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a stand-in for cotton. The dispersion of CNC in water permits to follow the interaction between the vesicles, guars, and CNC in the bulk. It was found that guars enhance the deposition on CNC and that the vesicles are deposited intactly on the fibers driven by electrostatics. The mechanism of the vesicles/guars adsorption on cellulose fibers was identified by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. It was found that the guars increase the surfactant deposited quantity, in agreement with the results in the bulk. Also, the structure of the adsorbed surfactant on the fibers' surfaces (vesicle or bilayer) was influenced by the guars presence. Deposition studies on cotton fabrics were also conducted. Attenuated total reflection and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the effect of the polymers on this deposition. Finally, fluorescent microscopy was used to follow the adsorption of surfactant vesicles, labeled with a fluorescent dye, on cotton fabrics in water. It was found that, in the presence or not of polymers, the surfactant vesicles are adsorbed on fiber maintaining their vesicular structure in water (supported vesicular bilayer structure). The guars influence this process. However, upon drying the vesicles are transformed into bilayers and eventually wrap the fibers (supported lipid bilayer structure). This mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of vesicular conditioner on cotton fiber and can be affected by the presence of polymers.
42
111884
Case Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Methods of Treatment for a Professional Driver
Abstract:
This study evaluates obstructive sleep apnea treatment through a case study involving a 67-year-old male driver who had a successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment at home but experienced difficulties with traveling and dental care. There are many cheap sleep apnea and snoring devices available, but there is little professional advice on what kind of devices can help. Professional drivers receive yearly specialized medical care follow-up.
41
63156
A Study of Various Ontology Learning Systems from Text and a Look into Future
Abstract:
With the large volume of unstructured data that increases day by day on the web, the motivation of representing the knowledge in this data in the machine processable form is increased. Ontology is one of the major cornerstones of representing the information in a more meaningful way on the semantic Web. The goal of Ontology learning from text is to elicit and represent domain knowledge in the machine readable form. This paper aims to give a follow-up review on the ontology learning systems from text and some of their defects. Furthermore, it discusses how far the ontology learning process will enhance in the future.
40
17130
CMMI Key Process Areas and FDD Practices
Abstract:
The development of information technology during the past few years resulted in designing of more and more complex software. The outsourcing of software development makes a higher requirement for the management of software development project. Various software enterprises follow various paths in their pursuit of excellence, applying various principles, methods and techniques along the way. The new research is proving that CMMI and Agile methodologies can benefit from using both methods within organizations with the potential to dramatically improve business performance. The paper describes a mapping between CMMI key process areas (KPAs) and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) communication perspective, so as to increase the understanding of how improvements can be made in the software development process.
39
111322
Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital
Abstract:
This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.
38
23494
Mean Reversion in Stock Prices: Evidence from Karachi Stock Exchange
Authors:
Abstract:
This study provides a complete examination of the stock prices behavior in the Karachi stock exchange. It examines that whether Karachi stock exchange can be described as mean reversion or not. For this purpose daily, weekly and monthly index data from Karachi stock exchange ranging from period July 1, 1997 to July 2, 2011 was taken. After employing the Multiple variance ratio and unit root tests it is concluded that stock market follow mean reversion behavior and hence have reverting trend which opens the door for the active invest management. Thus technical analysis may be help to identify the potential areas for value creation.
37
37062
Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking
Authors:
Abstract:
Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.
36
22405
Factors Associated with Death during Tuberculosis Treatment of Patients Co-Infected with HIV at a Tertiary Care Setting in Cameroon: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study (2006-2013)
Abstract:
Background: Contributors to fatal outcomes in patients undergoing tuberculosis (TB) treatment in the setting of HIV co-infection are poorly characterized, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study’s aim was to assess factors associated with death in TB/HIV co-infected patients during the first 6 months their TB treatment. Methods: We conducted a tertiary-care hospital-based retrospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2013 at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We reviewed medical records to identify hospitalized co-infected TB/HIV patients aged 15 years and older. Death was defined as any death occurring during TB treatment, as per the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with death. Magnitudes of associations were expressed by adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The 337 patients enrolled had a mean age of 39.3 (+/- 10.3) years and more (54.3%) were women. TB treatment outcomes included: treatment success in 60.8% (n=205), death in 29.4% (n=99), not evaluated in 5.3% (n=18), loss to follow-up in 5.3% (n=14), and failure in 0.3% (n=1) . After exclusion of patients lost to follow-up and not evaluated, death in TB/HIV co-infected patients during TB treatment was associated with: a TB diagnosis made before national implementation of guidelines regarding initiation of antiretroviral therapy (aOR = 2.50 [1.31-4.78]; p = 0.006), the presence of other AIDS-defining infections (aOR = 2.73 [1.27-5.86]; p = 0.010), non-AIDS comorbidities (aOR = 3.35 [1.37-8.21]; p = 0.008), not receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (aOR = 3.61 [1.71-7.63]; p = 0.001), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aOR = 2.45 [1.18-5.08]; p = 0.016), and CD4 cell counts < 50 cells/mm3 (aOR = 16.43 [1.05-258.04]; p = 0.047). Conclusions: The success rate of anti-tuberculosis treatment among hospitalized TB/HIV co-infected patients in our setting is low. Mortality in the first 6 months of treatment was high and strongly associated with specific clinical factors including states of greater immunosuppression, highlighting the urgent need for targeted interventions, including provision of anti-retroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in order to enhance patient outcomes.
35
117792
Ethics and Military Defections in Nonviolent Resistance Campaigns
Authors:
Abstract:
Military and security personnel defections during nonviolent resistance (NVR) campaigns are recognized as an effective way of undermining the regime’s power, but they also may generate moral dilemmas that contradict the moral standing of NVR tactics. NVR campaigns have been primarily praised for their adherence to moral and legal norms, yet some of NVR tactics raise serious ethical concerns. This paper focuses on NVR tactics that seek to promote defections and disobedience within military and security personnel to sustain their campaign. Academic literature regarding NVR tactics indicates that compared to violent forms of resistance, defections are more likely to occur when security forces confront nonviolent activists. Indeed, defections play a strategically fundamental role in nonviolent campaigns, particularly against authoritarian regimes, as it enables activists to undermine the regime’s central pillars of support. This study examines the events of the Arab Spring and discusses the ethical problems that arise in nonviolent activists’ promotion of defections and disobedience. The cases of Syria and Egypt suggest that the strategic promotion of defections and disobedience was significantly effective in sustaining the campaign. Yet, while such defections enhance nonviolent activists’ resilience, how they are promoted can be morally contentious and the consequences can be dire. Defections are encouraged by social, moral and emotional appeals that use the power disparities between unarmed civilians and powerful regimes to affect soldiers and security personnel’s process of decision-making. In what is commonly referred to as dilemma action, nonviolent activists deliberately entangle security forces in a moral dilemma that compels them to follow a moral code to protect unarmed civilians. In this way, activists sustain their struggle and even gain protection. Nonviolent activists are likely to be completely defeated when confronted with armed forces. Therefore they rely on the military and security personnel’s moral conscious of convincing them to refrain from using force against them. While this is effective, it also leaves soldiers and security forces exposed to the implications and punishments that might follow their disobedience or defection. As long as they remain nonviolent, activists enjoy civilian immunity despite using morally contentious tactics. But the severe implications brought upon defectors. As a result, demand a deep examination of this tactic’s moral permissibility and a discussion that assesses culpability for the moral implications of its application.
34
3470
Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution: A Generalization of the Weibull Probability Distribution
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.
33
8099
Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand
Abstract:
This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28 %) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %) .The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7 μm, 0.7 – 1.1 μm, 1.1 – 2.1 μm, 2.1 – 3.3 μm, 3.3 – 4.7 μm, 4.7 – 5.8 μm, 5.8 – 9.0 μm, 9.0 – 10.0 μm, were 41.56 – 217.62 μg/m3 (175.86 ± 32.25 μg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 μg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 μg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 μg/m3 (180.95 ± 18.71 μg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 μg/m3 (183.22 ± 19.94 μg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 μg/m3 (181.85 ± 17.57 μg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 μg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 μg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 μg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 μg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 μg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 μg/m3), repectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)
32
2135
Electrochemical Studies of Some Schiff Bases on the Corrosion of Steel in H2SO4 Solution
Abstract:
The influence of three Schiff bases (SB-I, SB-II, and SB-III) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the Schiff bases and follow the trend: SB-III > SB-II > SB-I. Tafel polarization measurements revealed that the three tested inhibitors function as anodic inhibitors. The thermodynamic parameters Kads and ΔGºads are calculated and discussed. The Langmuir isotherm equation was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behaviour of the investigated Schiff bases. Depending on the results, the inhibitive mechanism was proposed.
31
7254
What are the Factors Underlying the Differences between Young Saudi Women in Traditional Families that Choose to Conform to the Society Norms, and Young Saudi Women who do not Conform?
Authors:
Abstract:
This research suggests that women in traditional families of Saudi Arabia are divided into two groups, the one who conform to the society and the new type of women that has been emerged due to the changing and development of the culture, who do not want to conform to the rules. The factors underlying the differences were explored by using a test and an interview. That concluded some of the main factors that were a real effect of why some women still want to follow the society and traditional rules, and other want to break free.
30
48954
Design-Based Elements to Sustain Participant Activity in Massive Open Online Courses: A Case Study
Abstract:
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are increasingly popular learning hubs that are boasting considerable participant numbers, innovative technical features, and a multitude of instructional resources. Still, there is a high level of evidence showing that almost all MOOCs suffer from a declining frequency of participant activity and fairly low completion rates. In this paper, we would like to share the lessons learned in implementing several design patterns that have been suggested in order to foster participant activity. Our conclusions are based on experiences with the ‘Dr. Internet’ MOOC, which was created as an xMOOC to raise awareness for a more critical approach to online health information: participants had to diagnose medical case studies. There is a growing body of recommendations (based on Learning Analytics results from earlier xMOOCs) as to how the decline in participant activity can be alleviated. One promising focus in this regard is instructional design patterns, since they have a tremendous influence on the learner’s motivation, which in turn is a crucial trigger of learning processes. Since Medieval Age storytelling, micro-learning units and specific comprehensible, narrative structures were chosen to animate the audience to follow narration. Hence, MOOC participants are not likely to abandon a course or information channel when their curiosity is kept at a continuously high level. Critical aspects that warrant consideration in this regard include shorter course duration, a narrative structure with suspense peaks (according to the ‘storytelling’ approach), and a course schedule that is diversified and stimulating, yet easy to follow. All of these criteria have been observed within the design of the Dr. Internet MOOC: 1) the standard eight week course duration was shortened down to six weeks, 2) all six case studies had a special quiz format and a corresponding resolution video which was made available in the subsequent week, 3) two out of six case studies were split up in serial video sequences to be presented over the span of two weeks, and 4) the videos were generally scheduled in a less predictable sequence. However, the statistical results from the first run of the MOOC do not indicate any strong influences on the retention rate, so we conclude with some suggestions as to why this might be and what aspects need further consideration.
29
29798
Working Improvement of Modern Finance in Millennium World
Abstract:
Financing activities involve long-term liabilities, stockholders' equity (or owner's equity), and changes to short-term borrowings. Finance is very important for every business activities. To perform the finance we have to follow the accounting languages bases on the nature of the business. If all are one package in the software, it is easy to handle, monitor, control, plan, organize, direct and budget the finance. Let us make a challenge in the computer software for the whole finance packages of every business related activities. In this article, it mentioned about the finance functions in the various levels of the business activities and how it should be maintained properly to avoid the unethical events.
28
113686
Network Based Speed Synchronization Control for Multi-Motor via Consensus Theory
Abstract:
This paper addresses the speed synchronization control problem for a network-based multi-motor system from the perspective of cluster consensus theory. Each motor is considered as a single agent connected through fixed and undirected network. This paper presents an improved control protocol from three aspects. First, for the purpose of improving both tracking and synchronization performance, this paper presents a distributed leader-following method. The improved control protocol takes the importance of each motor’s speed into consideration, and all motors are divided into different groups according to speed weights. Specifically, by using control parameters optimization, the synchronization error and tracking error can be regulated and decoupled to some extent. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. In practical engineering, the simplified models are unrealistic, such as single-integrator and double-integrator. And previous algorithms require the acceleration information of the leader available to all followers if the leader has a varying velocity, which is also difficult to realize. Therefore, the method focuses on an observer-based variable structure algorithm for consensus tracking, which gets rid of the leader acceleration. The presented scheme optimizes synchronization performance, as well as provides satisfactory robustness. What’s more, the existing algorithms can obtain a stable synchronous system; however, the obtained stable system may encounter some disturbances that may destroy the synchronization. Focus on this challenging technological problem, a state-dependent-switching approach is introduced. In the presence of unmeasured angular speed and unknown failures, this paper investigates a distributed fault-tolerant consensus tracking algorithm for a group non-identical motors. The failures are modeled by nonlinear functions, and the sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the angular speed and nonlinear failures. The convergence and stability of the given multi-motor system are proved. Simulation results have shown that all followers asymptotically converge to a consistent state when one follower fails to follow the virtual leader during a large enough disturbance, which illustrates the good performance of synchronization control accuracy.
27
4103
Supply Air Pressure Control of HVAC System Using MPC Controller
Abstract:
In this paper, supply air pressure of HVAC system has been modeled with second-order transfer function plus dead-time. In HVAC system, the desired input has step changes, and the output of proposed control system should be able to follow the input reference, so the idea of using model based predictive control is proceeded and designed in this paper. The closed loop control system is implemented in MATLAB software and the simulation results are provided. The simulation results show that the model based predictive control is able to control the plant properly.
26
91689
Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Urbanization on Land Surface Temperature in the United Arab Emirates
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the changes in the Land Surface Temperature (LST) as a function of urbanization, particularly land use/land cover changes, in three cities in the UAE, mainly Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Al Ain. The scale of this assessment will be at the macro- and micro-levels. At the macro-level, a comparative assessment will take place to compare between the four cities in the UAE. At the micro-level, the study will compare between the effects of different land use/land cover on the LST. This will provide a clear and quantitative city-specific information related to the relationship between urbanization and local spatial intra-urban LST variation in three cities in the UAE. The main objectives of this study are 1) to investigate the development of LST on the macro- and micro-level between and in three cities in the UAE over two decades time period, 2) to examine the impact of different types of land use/land cover on the spatial distribution of LST. Because these three cities are facing harsh arid climate, it is hypothesized that (1) urbanization is affecting and connected to the spatial changes in LST; (2) different land use/land cover have different impact on the LST; and (3) changes in spatial configuration of land use and vegetation concentration over time would control urban microclimate on a city scale and control macroclimate on the country scale. This study will be carried out over a 20-year period (1996-2016) and throughout the whole year. The study will compare between two distinct periods with different thermal characteristics which are the cool/cold period from November to March and warm/hot period between April and October. The best practice research method for this topic is to use remote sensing data to target different aspects of natural and anthropogenic systems impacts. The project will follow classical remote sensing and mapping techniques to investigate the impact of urbanization, mainly changes in land use/land cover, on LST. The investigation in this study will be performed in two stages. Stage one remote sensing data will be used to investigate the impact of urbanization on LST on a macroclimate level where the LST and Urban Heat Island (UHI) will be compared in the three cities using data from the past two decades. Stage two will investigate the impact on microclimate scale by investigating the LST and UHI using a particular land use/land cover type. In both stages, an LST and urban land cover maps will be generated over the study area. The outcome of this study should represent an important contribution to recent urban climate studies, particularly in the UAE. Based on the aim and objectives of this study, the expected outcomes are as follow: i) to determine the increase or decrease of LST as a result of urbanization in these four cities, ii) to determine the effect of different land uses/land covers on increasing or decreasing the LST.
25
4322
Usability Guidelines for Arab E-Government Websites
Abstract:
The website developer and designer should follow usability guidelines to provide a user-friendly interface. Many guidelines and heuristics have been developed by previous studies to help both the developer and designer in this task, but E-government websites are special cases that require specialized guidelines. This paper introduces a set of eighteen guidelines for evaluating the usability of e-government websites in general and Arabic e-government websites specifically, along with a check list of how to apply them. The validity and effectiveness of these guidelines were evaluated against a variety of user characteristics. The results indicated that the proposed set of guidelines can be used to identify qualitative similarities and differences with user testing and that the new set is best suited for evaluating general and e-governmental usability.
24
16933
The Role of Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthosis on Temporo-Spatial Parameters of Gait and Balance in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis: Six-Months Follow Up
Abstract:
Background: Recently a supramalleolar type of dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) has been increasingly used to support all of the dynamic arches of the foot and redistribute the pressure under the plantar surface of the foot to reduce the muscle tone. DAFO helps to maintain balance and postural control by providing stability and proprioceptive feedback in children with disease like Cerebral Palsy, Muscular Dystrophies, Down syndrome, and congenital hypotonia. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) on temporo-spatial parameters of gait and balance in three children with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). Material Method: 13, 14, and 8 years old three children with HSP were included in the study. To provide correction on weight bearing and to improve gait, DAFO was made. Lower extremity spasticity (including gastocnemius, hamstrings and hip adductor muscles) using modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) (0-5), The temporo-spatial gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, base of support, step length) and Timed Up & Go test (TUG) were evaluated. All of the assessments about gait were compared with (with DAFO and shoes) and without DAFO (with shoes only) situations. Also after six months follow up period, assessments were repeated by the same physical therapist. Results: MAS scores for lower extremity were between “2-3” for the first child, “0-2” for the second child and “1-2” for the third child. TUG scores (sec) decreased from 20.2 to 18 for case one, from 9.4 to 9 for case two and from 12,4 to 12 for case three in the condition with shoes only and also from 15,2 to 14 for case one, from 7,2 to 7,1 for case two and from 10 to 7,3 for case three in the condition with DAFO and shoes. Gait speed (m/sec) while wearing shoes only was similar but while wearing DAFO and shoes increased from 0,4 to 0,5 for case one, from 1,5 to 1,6 for case two and from 1,0 to 1,2 for case three. Base of support scores (cm) wearing shoes only decreased from 18,5 to 14 for case one, from 13 to 12 for case three and were similar as 11 for case two. While wearing DAFO and shoes, base of support decreased from 10 to 9 for case one, from 11,5 to 10 for case three and was similar as 8 for case two. Conclusion: The use of a DAFO in a patient with HSP normalized the temporo-spatial gait parameters and improved balance. Walking speed is a gold standard for evaluating gait quality. With the use of DAFO, walking speed increased in this three children with HSP. With DAFO, better TUG scores shows that functional ambulation improved. Reduction in base of support and more symmetrical step lengths with DAFO indicated better balance. These encouraging results warrant further study on wider series.
23
74909
Speed Power Control of Double Field Induction Generator
Abstract:
This research paper aims to reduce the chattering phenomenon due to control by sliding mode control applied on a wind energy conversion system based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Our goal is to offset the effect of parametric uncertainties and come as close as possible to the dynamic response solicited by the control law in the ideal case and therefore force the active and reactive power generated by the DFIG to accurately follow the reference values which are provided to it. The simulation results using Matlab / Simulink demonstrate the efficiency and performance of the proposed technique while maintaining the simplicity of control by first order sliding mode.
22
39354
Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems
Abstract:
Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes web application for evaluating tests using expert system in distance learning systems. Proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. Web application works with test questions and uses expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation the results are visualized and shown to student.
21
89243
Expression of Ki-67 in Multiple Myeloma: A Clinicopathological Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Ki-67 can be a useful marker in determining proliferative activity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, using Ki-67 alone results in the erroneous inclusion of non-myeloma cells leading to false high counts. We have used Dual IHC (immunohistochemistry) staining with Ki-67 and CD138 to enhance specificity in assessing proliferative activity of bone marrow plasma cells. Aims and objectives: To estimate the proportion of proliferating (Ki-67 expressing) plasma cells in patients with MM and correlation of Ki-67 with other known prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods: Fifty FFPE (formalin fixed paraffin embedded) blocks of trephine biopsies of cases diagnosed as MM from 2010 to 2015 are subjected to H & E staining and Dual IHC staining for CD 138 and Ki-67. H & E staining is done to evaluate various histological parameters like percentage of plasma cells, pattern of infiltration (nodular, interstitial, mixed and diffuse), routine parameters of marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Clinical data is collected from patient records from Medical Record Department. Each of CD138 expressing cells (cytoplasmic, red) are scored as proliferating plasma cells (containing a brown Ki¬67 nucleus) or non¬proliferating plasma cells (containing a blue, counter-stained, Ki-¬67 negative nucleus). Ki-67 is measured as percentage positivity with a maximum score of hundred percent and lowest of zero percent. The intensity of staining is not relevant. Results: Statistically significant correlation of Ki-67 in D-S Stage (Durie & Salmon Stage) I vs. III (p=0.026) and ISS (International Staging System) Stage I vs. III (p=0.019), β2m (p=0.029) and percentage of plasma cells (p < 0.001) is seen. No statistically significant correlation is seen between Ki-67 and hemoglobin, platelet count, total leukocyte count, total protein, albumin, S. calcium, S. creatinine, S. LDH, blood urea and pattern of infiltration. Conclusion: Ki-67 index correlated with other known prognostic parameters. However, it is not determined routinely in patients with MM due to little information available regarding its relevance and paucity of studies done to correlate with other known prognostic factors in MM patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in India using Dual IHC staining for Ki-67 and CD138 in MM patients. Routine determination of Ki-67 will help to identify patients who may benefit with more aggressive therapy. Recommendation: In this study follow up of patients is not included, and the sample size is small. Studying with larger sample size and long follow up is advocated to prognosticate Ki-67 as a marker of survival in patients with multiple myeloma.
20
20256
Markov-Chain-Based Optimal Filtering and Smoothing
Abstract:
This paper describes an optimum filter and smoother for recovering a Markov process message from noisy measurements. The developments follow from an equivalence between a state space model and a hidden Markov chain. The ensuing filter and smoother employ transition probability matrices and approximate probability distribution vectors. The properties of the optimum solutions are retained, namely, the estimates are unbiased and minimize the variance of the output estimation error, provided that the assumed parameter set are correct. Methods for estimating unknown parameters from noisy measurements are discussed. Signal recovery examples are described in which performance benefits are demonstrated at an increased calculation cost.
19
15864
Hull Detection from Handwritten Digit Image
Abstract:
In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm for recognizing hulls in a hand written digits. This is an extension to the work on “Digit Recognition Using Freeman Chain code”. In order to find out the hulls in a user given digit it is necessary to follow three steps. Those are pre-processing, Boundary Extraction and at last apply the Hull Detection system in a way to attain the better results. The detection of Hull Regions is mainly intended to increase the machine learning capability in detection of characters or digits. This can also extend this in order to get the hull regions and their intensities in Black Holes in Space Exploration.
18
67987
The Impact of Physical Activity for Recovering Cancer Patients
Abstract:
Rationale: There is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of physical activity during and after cancer treatment. However, activity levels for patients remain low. As more cancer patients are treated successfully, and treatment costs continue to escalate, physical activity may be a promising adjunct to a person-centred healthcare approach to recovery. Aim: The aim was to further understand how physical activity may enhance the recovery process for a group of mixed-site cancer patients. Objectives: The research investigated longitudinal changes in physical activity and perceived the quality of life between two and six month’s post-exercise interventions. It also investigated support systems that enabled patients to sustain these perceived changes. Method: The respondent cohort comprised 14 mixed-site cancer patients aged 43-70 (11 women, 3 men), who participated in a two-phase physical activity intervention that took place at a university in the South West of England. Phase 1 consisted of an eight-week structured physical activity programme; Phase 2 consisted of four months of non-supervised physical activity. Semi-structured interviews took place three times over six months with each participant. Grounded theory informed the data collection and analysis which, in turn, facilitated theoretical development. Findings: Our findings propose three theories on the impact of physical activity for recovering cancer patients: 1) Knowledge gained through a structured exercise programme can enable recovering cancer patients to independently sustain physical activity to four-month follow-up. 2) Sustaining physical activity for six months promotes positive changes in the quality of life indicators of chronic fatigue, self-efficacy, the ability to self-manage and energy levels. 3) Peer support from patients facilitates adherence to a structured exercise programme and support from a spouse, or life partner facilitates independently sustained physical activity to four-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that qualitative research can provide an evidence base that could be used to support future care plans for cancer patients. Findings also demonstrate that a physical activity intervention can be effective at helping cancer patients recover from the side effects of their treatment, and recommends that physical activity should become an adjunct therapy alongside traditional cancer treatments.
17
64454
[Keynote Speech]: Evidence-Based Outcome Effectiveness Longitudinal Study on Three Approaches to Reduce Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Schoolchildren: Group CBT, Moral Education, Bioneurological Intervention
Abstract:
While aggression had high stability throughout developmental stages and across generations, it should be the top priority of researchers and frontline helping professionals to develop prevention and intervention programme for aggressive children and children at risk of developing aggressive behaviours. Although there is a substantial amount of anti-bullying programmes, they gave disappointingly small effect sizes. The neglectful practical significance could be attributed to the overly simplistic categorisation of individuals involved as bullies or victims. In the past three decades, the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression has been well-proved. As children displaying reactively aggressive behaviours have distinct social-information processing pattern with those showing proactively aggressive behaviours, it is critical to identify the unique needs of the two subtypes accordingly when designing an intervention. The onset of reactive aggression and proactive aggression was observed at earliest in 4.4 and 6.8 years old respectively. Such findings called for a differential early intervention targeting these high-risk children. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the author was the first to establish an evidence-based intervention programme against reactive and proactive aggression. With the largest samples in the world, the author, in the past 10 years, explored three different approaches and their effectiveness against aggression quantitatively and qualitatively with longitudinal design. The three approaches presented are (a) cognitive-behavioral approach, (b) moral education, with Chinese marital arts and ethics as the medium, and (c) bioneurological measures (omega-3 supplementation). The studies adopted a multi-informant approach with repeated measures before and after the intervention, and follow-up assessment. Participants were recruited from primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. In the cognitive-behavioral approach, 66 reactive aggressors and 63 proactive aggressors, aged from 11 to 17, were identified from 10,096 secondary-school children with questionnaire and subsequent structured interview. Participants underwent 10 group sessions specifically designed for each subtype of aggressor. Results revealed significant declines in aggression levels from the baseline to the follow-up assessment after 1 year. In moral education through the Chinese martial arts, 315 high-risk aggressive children, aged 6 to 12 years, were selected from 3,511 primary-school children and randomly assigned into four types of 10-session intervention group, namely martial-skills-only, martial-ethics-only, both martial-skills-and-ethics, and physical fitness (placebo). Results showed only the martial-skills-and-ethics group had a significant reduction in aggression after treatment and 6 months after treatment comparing with the placebo group. In the bioneurological approach, 218 children, aged from 8 to 17, were randomly assigned to the omega-3 supplement group and the placebo group. Results revealed that compared with the placebo group, the omega-3 supplement group had significant declines in aggression levels at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All three approaches were effective in reducing proactive and reactive aggression. Traditionally, intervention programmes against aggressive behaviour often adapted the cognitive and/or behavioural approach. However, cognitive-behavioural approach for children was recently challenged by its demanding requirement of cognitive ability. Traditional cognitive interventions may not be as beneficial to an older population as in young children. The present study offered an insightful perspective in aggression reduction measures.
16
56197
Uses and Gratification with the Website Secret-thai.com
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to study about the uses and gratification of the sample who use the website that named secret-thai.com which provides moral contents, inspires, and builds up the spirit. The study found that the samples mainly use this website to follow up on the dharma activities. They also use the space as the web board to discuss about dharma issues. Moreover, the contents help readers to relax and also provides the guidelines to deal with stress and uncomfortable situations properly. The samples found to be most satisfied. In other words, the samples found the contents of the website are complete, and can cover their needs. Moreover, they found that contents useful in their ways of living. In addition, they are satisfied with the beautiful and interesting design of the website and well classification of the contents that readers can easily find the information that they want.
15
91728
Comparison of Parametric and Bayesian Survival Regression Models in Simulated and HIV Patient Antiretroviral Therapy Data: Case Study of Alamata Hospital, North Ethiopia
Abstract:
Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia and heavily affecting people of productive and reproductive age. We aimed to compare the performance of Parametric Survival Analysis and Bayesian Survival Analysis using simulations and in a real dataset application focused on determining predictors of HIV patient survival. Methods: A Parametric Survival Models - Exponential, Weibull, Log-normal, Log-logistic, Gompertz and Generalized gamma distributions were considered. Simulation study was carried out with two different algorithms that were informative and noninformative priors. A retrospective cohort study was implemented for HIV infected patients under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Alamata General Hospital, North Ethiopia. Results: A total of 320 HIV patients were included in the study where 52.19% females and 47.81% males. According to Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for the two sex groups, females has shown better survival time in comparison with their male counterparts. The median survival time of HIV patients was 79 months. During the follow-up period 89 (27.81%) deaths and 231 (72.19%) censored individuals registered. The average baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells count for HIV/AIDS patients were 126.01 but after a three-year antiretroviral therapy follow-up the average cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells counts were 305.74, which was quite encouraging. Age, functional status, tuberculosis screen, past opportunistic infection, baseline cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells, World Health Organization clinical stage, sex, marital status, employment status, occupation type, baseline weight were found statistically significant factors for longer survival of HIV patients. The standard error of all covariate in Bayesian log-normal survival model is less than the classical one. Hence, Bayesian survival analysis showed better performance than classical parametric survival analysis, when subjective data analysis was performed by considering expert opinions and historical knowledge about the parameters. Conclusions: Thus, HIV/AIDS patient mortality rate could be reduced through timely antiretroviral therapy with special care on the potential factors. Moreover, Bayesian log-normal survival model was preferable than the classical log-normal survival model for determining predictors of HIV patients survival.
14
92114
One Year Follow up of Head and Neck Paragangliomas: A Single Center Experience
Abstract:
Background: Head and neck paragangliomas are a rare group of tumors with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations. The approach to evaluate and treat these lesions has evolved over the last years. Surgery was the standard for the approach of these patients, but nowadays new techniques of imaging and radiation therapy changed that paradigm. Despite advances in treating, the growth potential and clinical outcome of individual cases remain largely unpredictable. Objectives: Characterization of our institutional experience with clinical management of these tumors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients followed in our institution between 01 January and 31 December 2017 with paragangliomas of the head and neck and cranial base. Data on tumor location, catecholamine levels, and specific imaging modalities employed in diagnostic workup, treatment modality, tumor control and recurrence, complications of treatment and hereditary status were collected and summarized. Results: A total of four female patients were followed between 01 January and 31 December 2017 in our institution. The mean age of our cohort was 53 (± 16.1) years. The primary locations were at the level of the tympanic jug (n=2, 50%) and carotid body (n=2, 50%), and only one of the tumors of the carotid body presented pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis. None of the lesions were catecholamine-secreting. Two patients underwent genetic testing, with no mutations identified. The initial clinical presentation was variable highlighting the decrease of visual acuity and headache as symptoms present in all patients. In one of the cases, loss of all teeth of the lower jaw was the presenting symptomatology. Observation with serial imaging, surgical extirpation, radiation, and stereotactic radiosurgery were employed as treatment approaches according to anatomical location and resectability of lesions. As post-therapeutic sequels the persistence of tinnitus and disabling pain stands out, presenting one of the patients neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal. Currently, all patients are under regular surveillance with a median follow up of 10 months. Conclusion: Ultimately, clinical management of these tumors remains challenging owing to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, the existence of multiple treatment alternatives, and potential to cause serious detriment to critical functions and consequently interference with the quality of life of the patients.
13
12864
Ethic Society of Tengger Tribe in Indonesia as a Nation Strength to Make Good Character to Advance Country
Abstract:
Indonesia is a multicultural society. A wide variety of arts and culture spread throughout in all of part of Indonesia with natural appearance will cause the social behavior differentiation. Similarly, with Tengger people's lives also have different social behaviors that distinguish them from other ethnic groups spread across the Indonesian archipelago. Tengger tribe has an appropriate ethic to build nation character. If all the people of Indonesia who heterogeneous and multicultural can understand, and follow the example of ethical behavior of Tengger tribe, it will be a force in the development of the character of the nation in this modern and globalization era.
12
41382
Ecolabelling : Normative Power or Corporate Strategy? : A Study Case of Textile Company in Indonesia
Abstract:
Textile is one of buyer-driven industry which rely on label trust from the consumers. Most of textile manufacturers produce textile and textile products based on consumer demands. The company’s policy is highly depend on the dynamic evolution of consumers behavior. Recently, ecofriendly has become one of the most important factor of western consumers to purchase the textile and textile product (TPT) from the company. In that sense, companies from developing countries are encouraged to follow western consumers values. Some examples of ecolabel certificate are ISO (International Standard Organisation), Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (Indonesian Ecolabel Instution) and Global Ecolabel Network (GEN). The submission of national company to international standard raised a critical question whether this is a reflection towards the legitimation of global norms into national policy or it is actually a practical strategy of the company to gain global consumer. By observing one of the prominent textile company in Indonesia, this research is aimed to discuss what kind of impetus factors that cause a company to use ecolabel and what is the meaning behind it. Whether it comes from normative power or the strategy of the company. This is a qualitative research that choose a company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia as a case study in explaining the pratice of ecolabelling by textitle company. Some deep interview is conducted with the company in order to get to know the ecolabelling process. In addition, this research also collected some document which related to company’s ecolabelling process and its impact to company’s value. The finding of the project reflected issues that concerned several issues: (1) role of media as consumer information (2) role of government and non-government actors as normative agency (3) role of company in social responsibility (4) the ecofriendly consciousness as a value of the company. As we know that environmental norms that has been admitted internationally has changed the global industrial process. This environmental norms also pushed the companies around the world, especially the company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia to follow the norm. The neglection toward the global norms will remained the company in isolated and unsustained market that will harm the continuity of the company. So, in buyer-driven industry, the characteristic of company-consumer relations has brought a fast dynamic evolution of norms and values. The creation of global norms and values is circulated by passing national territories or identities.
11
75458
An Evaluation of ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 9001:2015 Standard Changes in Quality Management System
Abstract:
The objective of this study provides an insight into enterprises, who need to carry on their sustainability in harmony with the changing competition conditions, technology and laws, regarding the ISO 9001:2015. In the study, ISO 9001:2015, which is planned to be put in force and exists as a draft, was studied and its differences from the previous standard, ISO 9001:2008, were determined. To find out the differences, a survey was conducted among enterprises that implement a quality system. According to the findings obtained at the end of the study, it was observed that the enterprises attach importance to quality and follow the developments about quality management system, and they find the changes in the new draft document necessary.
10
81558
Role of Dedicated Medical Social Worker in Fund Mobilisation and Economic Evaluation in Ovarian Cancer: Experience from a Tertiary Referral Centre in Eastern India
Abstract:
Background: Tata Medical Centre (TMC), Kolkata is a major cancer referral centre in Eastern India and neighbouring countries providing state of the art facilities; however, it is a non-profit organisation with patients requiring to pay at subsidised rates. Although a system for social assessment and applying for governmental/ non-governmental (NGO) funds is in place, access is challenging. Amongst gynaecological cancers (GC), ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with the highest treatment cost; majority of which is required at the beginning when complex surgery is performed and funding arrangements cannot be made in time. We therefore appointed a dedicated Medical Social Worker (MSW) in 2016, supported by NGO for GC patients in order to assist patients/family members to access/avail these funds more readily and assist in economic evaluation for both direct and opportunity costs. Objectives: To reflect on our experience and challenges in collecting data on economic evaluation of cancer patients and compare success rates in achieving fund mobilization after introduction of MSW. Methods: A Retrospective survey. Patients with OC and their relatives were seen by the MSW during the initial outpatients department visit and followed though till discharge from the hospital and during follow-up visits. Assistance was provided in preparing the essential documents/paperwork/contacts for the funding agencies including both governmental (Chief-Minister/Prime-Minister/President) and NGO sources. In addition, a detailed questionnaire was filled up for economic assessment of direct/opportunity costs during the entire treatment and 12 months follow up period which forms a part of the study called HEPTROC (Health economic evaluation of primary treatment for ovarian cancer) developed in collaboration with economics departments of Universities. Results: In 2015, 102 patients were operated for OC; only 16 patients (15.68 %) had availed funding of a total sum of INR 1640000 through the hospital system for social assessment. Following challenges were faced by majority of the relatives: 1. Gathering important documents/proper contact details for governmental funding bodies and difficulty in following up the current status 3. Late arrival of funds. In contrast in 2016, 104 OC patients underwent surgery; the direct cost of treatment was significantly higher (median, INR 300000- 400000) compared to other GCs (n=274). 98/104 (94.23%) OC patients could be helped to apply for funds and 90/104(86.56%) patients received funding amounting to a total of INR 10897000. There has been a tenfold increase in funds mobilized in 2016 after the introduction of dedicated MSW in GC. So far, in 2017 (till June), 46/54(85.18%) OC patients applied for funds and 37/54(68.51%) patients have received funding. In a qualitative survey, all patients appreciated the role of the MSW who subsequently became the key worker for patient follow up and the chief portal for patient reported outcome monitoring. Data collection quality for the HEPTROC study was improved when questionnaires were administered by the MSW compared to researchers. Conclusion: Introduction of cancer specific MSW can expedite the availability of funds required for cancer patients and it can positively impact on patient satisfaction and outcome reporting. The economic assessment will influence fund allocation and decision for policymaking in ovarian cancer. Acknowledgement: Jivdaya Foundation Dallas, Texas.
9
2184
Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing
Abstract:
We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.
8
79485
Incidence of Vulval, Vaginal and Cervical Disease in Rapid Access Clinic in a London Tertiary Hospital Setting
Abstract:
NHS constitution gives rights to the patient with suspected cancer to be seen by a cancer specialist within 2 weeks of referral. Guys and St Thomas Hospital (GSTT) is one of the largest cancer centres in London. NICE guidelines have provided guidance for health professionals to refer patients appropriately to RAC. In GSTT suspected gynae cancer referrals are mostly by NHS e-Referral Service with some fax, emails as well as paper referrals. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with 2-week referral pathway with emphasis on one stop diagnostic service with supporting efficient pathways. A prospective evaluation over 3 months (1 Jan 2017 to 31 Mar 2017) was undertaken. There were 26 clinics, 761 patients were booked in the clinics with a DNA rate of 13% (n=101) hence 606 patients were seen. Majority of referrals were for post menopausal bleeding (PMB) 25% (n=194) followed by cervical, vaginal, vulval reasons 23% (n=179) (abnormal cytology excluded as patients directly referred to colposcopy unit in GSTT), ovarian 7% (n=54) and endometrial 5% (n=41). Women with new or previous established diagnosis of cancer were 24, cervical (n=17), vulva (n=6) and vagina (n=1). Multifocal preinvasive disease vulva (VIN), vagina (VAIN) and cervix (CIN) was confirmed in twenty-six patients 4% (high prevalence in HIV patients). Majority of cervical referrals: PCB (n=14), cervical erosion (n=7), polyps (n=9) and cervical cyst were benign. However, two women with PMB had cervical cancer. Only 2 out of 13 referrals with vaginal concerns had VAIN. One case with non-cervical glandular cytology was confirmed to have endometrial cancer. One stop service based on the diagnostic support of ultrasound, colposcopy and hysteroscopy was achieved in 54% (n=359). Patients were discharged to GP, benign gynaecology, endometriosis, combined vulval/dermatology clinic or gynae oncology. 33% (n=202) required a second visit, 12% (n=70) third visit, 3% (n=19) fourth visit, 1% (n=4) fifth visit and 1% (n=6) sixth visit. Main reasons for follow ups were the unavailability of diagnostic slots, patient choice, need for interpreters, the discussion following gynae MDM review for triage to benign gynae, delay in availability of diagnostic results like histology/MRI/CT. Recommendations following this study are multi disciplinary review of pathways with the availability of additional diagnostic procedure slots to aim for one stop service. Furthermore, establishment of virtual and telephone consultations to reduce follow ups.
7
32569
Motivating the Independent Learner at the Arab Open University, Kuwait Branch
Abstract:
Academicians at the Arab Open University have always voiced their concern about the efficacy of the blended learning process. Based on 75% independent study and 25% face-to-face tutorial, it poses the challenge of the predisposition to adjustment. Being used to the psychology of traditional educational systems, AOU students cannot be easily weaned from being spoon-fed. Hence they lack the motivation to plunge into self-study. For better involvement of AOU students into the learning practices, it is imperative to diagnose the factors that impede or increase their motivation. This is conducted through an empirical study grounded upon observations and tested hypothesis and aimed at monitoring and optimizing the students’ learning outcome. Recommendations of the research will follow the findings.
6
80504
Sukh Initiative: A Family Planning Reproductive Health Project for Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract:
Background: Sukh Initiative is a multi-donor funded, family planning and reproductive health project, primed by Aman Healthcare Services; implemented through a consortium of local and international organizations, in a selected one million underserved peri-urban population of Karachi, Sindh; which aims at increasing modern contraceptive prevalence rate by 15 percentage point. Objective: To empower women to access contraception by increasing knowledge, improving quality of services and expanding the basket of choices; contributing to the goals of FP2020. Methods: A five years project has a multi-pronged approach with door to door services by LHWs and CHWs in an LHWs covered population and provision of quality FP/RH services both at public and private health care facilities. The project engages youth (12-16 years) both with community and at secondary schools to mentor them for responsible adulthood with life skilled base initiative. A 24/7 availability of youth and FP helpline service provides counselling, referrals in addition with a follow-up mechanism. Results: 131,810 MWRAs were reached by 191 community health workers through 29,693 of community support group meetings and 166,775 house hold visits. These MWRAs were counselled on FP related myths and misconception and referred to 216 providers trained for quality family planning services and maintaining average 64% quality scores in 43 public health and 35 private facilities in the project area. Of those referred 26% MWRAs opted modern contraception with 17.56% in LARCs and 41% PPFP as compared to baseline. Aman TeleHealth is linked with 24/7 counselling, referrals and post services follow-ups to clients, showing 14% proportion of FP call volume. Sukh has a unique role in engaging all partners on youth SRHR issues through family life education sessions, 30 higher sec. schools in Sukh area have been provided LSBE to 16,000 students (aged 15-17), and in community approximately 10, 496 girls and boys have received SRHR information. Conclusion: Through individual counselling, access to quality family planning services and involvement of stakeholders, Suk created an enabling environment to rapid increase in family planning in the project intervention area.
5
13592
A Tool to Measure the Usability Guidelines for Arab E-Government Websites
Abstract:
The website developer and designer should follow usability guidelines to provide a user-friendly interface. Using tools to measure usability, the evaluator can evaluate automatically hundreds of links within few minutes. It has the advantage of detecting some violations that only machines can detect. For that using usability evaluating tool is important to find as many violations as possible. There are many websites usability testing tools, but none is developed to measure the usability of e-government website nor Arabic e-government websites. To measure the usability of the Arabic e-government websites, a tool is developed and tested in this paper. A comparison of using a tool specifically developed for e-government websites and general usability testing tool is presented.
4
49726
Teaching Method in Situational Crisis Communication Theory: A Literature Review
Abstract:
Crisis management strategies could be found in various curriculums, not only in schools of business, but also schools of communication. Young students, such as freshmen and sophomores of undergraduate schools, may not care about learning crisis management strategies. Moreover, crisis management strategies are not a topic art students are familiar with. The current paper discusses a way to adapt entertainment media into a crisis management lesson, and the importance of learning crisis management strategies in the school of animation. Students could learn crisis management strategies by watching movies with content about a crisis and responding to crisis responding. The students should then participate in follow up discussions related to the strategies that were used to address the crisis, as well as their success in solving the crisis.
3
78773
Estimation of Population Mean under Random Non-Response in Two-Phase Successive Sampling
Abstract:
In this paper, we have considered the problem of estimation for population mean, on current (second) occasion in the presence of random non response in two-occasion successive sampling under two phase set-up. Modified exponential type estimators have been proposed, and their properties are studied under the assumptions that numbers of sampling units follow a distribution due to random non response situations. The performances of the proposed estimators are compared with linear combinations of two estimators, (a) sample mean estimator for fresh sample and (b) ratio estimator for matched sample under the complete response situations. Results are demonstrated through empirical studies which present the effectiveness of the proposed estimators. Suitable recommendations have been made to the survey practitioners.
2
1417
Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence
Abstract:
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers ( Rλ ) in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75 mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14 and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Rλ does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number,Rλ,ϲ below which the scaling breaks down is around 25.
1
67680
Analyzing the Impact of Bariatric Surgery in Obesity Associated Chronic Kidney Disease: A 2-Year Observational Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction. Our aims were: (1) evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on renal function; (2) clarify the factors determining the postoperative evolution of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR); (3) access the occurrence of oxalate-mediated renal complications. Methods: We investigated a cohort of 1448 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Those with basal GFR (GFR0) < 30mL/min or without information about the GFR 2-year post-surgery (GFR2) were excluded. Results: We included 725 patients, of whom 647 (89.2%) women, with 41 (IQR 34-51) years, a median weight of 112.4 (IQR 103.0-125.0) kg and a median BMI of 43.4 (IQR 40.6-46.9) kg/m2. Of these, 459 (63.3%) performed gastric bypass (RYGB), 144 (19.9%) placed an adjustable gastric band (AGB) and 122 (16.8%) underwent vertical gastrectomy (VG). At 2-year post-surgery, excess weight loss (EWL) was 60.1 (IQR 43.7-72.4) %. There was a significant improve of metabolic and inflammatory status, as well as a significant decrease in the proportion of patients with diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia (p < 0.0001). At baseline, 38 (5.2%) of subjects had hyperfiltration with a GFR0 ≥ 125mL/min/1.73m2, 492 (67.9%) had a GFR0 90-124 mL/min/1.73m2, 178 (24.6%) had a GFR0 60-89 mL/min/1.73m2, and 17 (2.3%) had a GFR0 < 60 mL/min/1.73m2. GFR decreased in 63.2% of patients with hyperfiltration (ΔGFR=-2.5±7.6), and increased in 96.6% (ΔGFR=22.2±12.0) and 82.4% (ΔGFR=24.3±30.0) of the subjects with GFR0 60-89 and < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively ( p < 0.0001). This trend was maintained when adjustment was made for the type of surgery performed. Of 321 patients, 10 (3.3%) had a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 300 mg/dL (A3), 44 (14.6%) had a UAE 30-300 mg/dL (A2) and 247 (82.1%) has a UAE < 30 mg/dL (A1). Albuminuria decreased after surgery and at 2-year follow-up only 1 (0.3%) patient had A3, 17 (5.6%) had A2 and 283 (94%) had A1 (p < 0,0001). In multivariate analysis, the variables independently associated with ΔGFR were BMI (positively) and fasting plasma glucose (negatively). During the 2-year follow-up, only 57 of the 725 patients had transient urinary excretion of calcium oxalate crystals. None has records of oxalate-mediated renal complications at our center. Conclusions: The evolution of GFR after BS seems to depend on the initial renal function, as it decreases in subjects with hyperfiltration, but tends to increase in those with renal dysfunction. Our results suggest that BS is associated with improvement of renal outcomes, without significant increase of renal complications. So, apart the clear benefits in metabolic and inflammatory status, maybe obese adults with nondialysis-dependent CKD should be referred for bariatric surgery evaluation.