Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62548

200
92297
The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches
Abstract:
There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.
199
64874
Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in King Fahd Medical City: An Epidemiological Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Our study aims to estimate the characteristics & causes of TSCI at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh city in order to hypothesize strategy for primary prevention of traumatic spinal cord injury. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted on all TSCI patients who aged 14 and above and who were admitted to rehabilitation center of King Fahad Medical City from January 2012 to December 2015. Furthermore, a descriptive analysis was conducted while considering factors including age, gender, marital status, educational level and causes of injury and characteristics of injury. Results: Total of 216 patients were admitted during this period, mean age was 28.94, majority of patients were male (86.5%), 71.7% of total patients were high school level of education or less, 68% were single, RTA was the main cause with 90.7% and the main result of TSCI was complete paraplegia 37%. Furthermore, statistically, we found that males are at a low risk of having incomplete paraplegia compared to female (p = 0.035, RRR=0.35). Conclusion: The rate of TSCI related to RTA has increased in Saudi Arabia in previous years despite the government’s efforts to decrease RTA. It’s clear that we need TSCI registry data developed on the basis of international data standards to have a clear idea about the exact etiology of TSCI in Saudi Arabia. This will assist in planning for primary prevention.
198
47449
The Effects of the GAA15 (Gaelic Athletic Association 15) on Lower Extremity Injury Incidence and Neuromuscular Functional Outcomes in Collegiate Gaelic Games: A 2 Year Prospective Study
Abstract:
Background: Gaelic football, hurling and camogie are highly popular field games in Ireland. Research into the epidemiology of injury in Gaelic games revealed that approximately three quarters of the injuries in the games occur in the lower extremity. These injuries can have player, team and institutional impacts due to multiple factors including financial burden and time loss from competition. Research has shown it is possible to record injury data consistently with the GAA through a closed online recording system known as the GAA injury surveillance database. It has been established that determining the incidence of injury is the first step of injury prevention. The goals of this study were to create a dynamic GAA15 injury prevention programme which addressed five key components/goals; avoid positions associated with a high risk of injury, enhance flexibility, enhance strength, optimize plyometrics and address sports specific agilities. These key components are internationally recognized through the Prevent Injury, Enhance performance (PEP) programme which has proven reductions in ACL injuries by 74%. In national Gaelic games the programme is known as the GAA15 which has been devised from the principles of the PEP. No such injury prevention strategies have been published on this cohort in Gaelic games to date. This study will investigate the effects of the GAA15 on injury incidence and neuromuscular function in Gaelic games. Methods: A total of 154 players (mean age 20.32 ± 2.84) were recruited from the GAA teams within the Institute of Technology Carlow (ITC). Preseason and post season testing involved two objective screening tests; Y balance test and Three Hop Test. Practical workshops, with ongoing liaison, were provided to the coaches on the implementation of the GAA15. The programme was performed before every training session and game and the existing GAA injury surveillance database was accessed to monitor player’s injuries by the college sports rehabilitation athletic therapist. Retrospective analysis of the ITC clinic records were performed in conjunction with the database analysis as a means of tracking injuries that may have been missed. The effects of the programme were analysed by comparing the intervention groups Y balance and three hop test scores to an age/gender matched control group. Results: Year 1 results revealed significant increases in neuromuscular function as a result of the GAA15. Y Balance test scores for the intervention group increased in both the posterolateral (p=.005 and p=.001) and posteromedial reach directions (p= .001 and p=.001). A decrease in performance was determined for the three hop test (p=.039). Overall twenty-five injuries were reported during the season resulting in an injury rate of 3.00 injuries/1000hrs of participation; 1.25 injuries/1000hrs training and 4.25 injuries/1000hrs match play. Non-contact injuries accounted for 40% of the injuries sustained. Year 2 results are pending and expected April 2016. Conclusion: It is envisaged that implementation of the GAA15 will continue to reduce the risk of injury and improve neuromuscular function in collegiate Gaelic games athletes.
197
29922
ACL Tear Prevention Program
Abstract:
It is difficult to assess how athletes can best modify their movements to prevent non contact ACL injuries. Speaking with an athletic trainer, physical therapist, or sports medicine specialist is a good place to start. Recent research has allowed therapists and clinicians to easily identify and target weak muscle areas (e.g., weak hips, which leads to knock-kneed landing positions) and identify ways to improve strength and thus help prevent injury. In addition, other risk factors such as reduced hamstring strength and increased joint range of motion can be further assessed by a physical therapist or athletic trainer to improve performance-or rehabilitation efforts after an injury has occurred. Current studies also demonstrate that specific types of training, such as jump routines and learning to pivot properly, help athletes prevent ACL injuries. These types of exercises and training programs are more beneficial if athletes start when they are young. It may be optimal to integrate prevention programs during early adolescence, prior to when young athletes develop certain habits that increase the risk of an ACL injury. This is a 20 minute program designed to reduce the risk of tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. It should be started at least four and preferably six weeks prior to start of competition.Ideally it is done five times per week preseason and three times per week in season.The coach or trainer must constantly observe athletes during these exercises to correct and maintain proper technique. Once the athletes understand the principles, they can monitor and coach each other. Four phases: Warm-up, Strengthening, Plyometrics, Agility and Balance.
196
59944
Injury Pattern of Field Hockey Players at Different Field Position during Game and Practice
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to assess and examines the pattern of injury among the field hockey players at different field position during practice & game. It was hypothesized that the backfield might have the height rate of injury, followed by midfield. Methods: university level and national level male field hockey (N=60) are selected as a subject and requested to respond an anon questionnaire. Personal characteristics of each and individual players were also collected like (age, height, weight); field hockey professional information (level of play, year of experience, playing surface); players injury history (site, types, cause etc). The rates of injury per athlete per year were also calculated. Result: Around half of the injury occurred were to the lower limbs (49%) followed by head and face (30%), upper limbs (19%) and torso region (2%). Injuries included concussion, wounds, broken nose, ligament sprain, dislocation, fracture, and muscles strain and knee injury. The ligament sprain is the highest rate (40%) among the other types of injuries. After investigation and evaluation backfield players had the highest rate of risk of injury (1.10 injury/athletes-year) followed by midfield players (0.70 injury/athlete-year), forward players (0.45 injury/athlete-year) & goalkeeper was (0.37 injury/athlete-year). Conclusion: Due to the different field position the pattern & rate of injury were different. After evaluation, lower limbs had the highest rate of injury followed by head and face, upper limbs and torso respectively. It also revealed that not only there is a difference in the rate of injury between playing the position, but also in the types of injury sustain at a different position.
195
2256
A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Abstract:
The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.
194
63050
Predictors of Recent Work-Related Injury in a Rapidly Developing Country: Results from a Worker Survey in Qatar
Abstract:
Moderate to severe work-related injuries [WRI's] are a leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar but information on risk factors for their incidence are lacking. This study aims to document and analyze the predictive characteristics for WRI to inform the creation of targeted interventions to improve worker safety in Qatar. This study was conducted as part of the NPRP grant # 7 - 1120 - 3 - 288, titled "A Unified Registry for Occupational Injury Prevention in Qatar”. 266 workers were interviewed using a standard questionnaire, during ‘World Day for Safety and Health at Work’, a Ministry of Public Health event, none refused interview. Nurses and doctors from the Hamad Trauma Center conducted the interviews. Questions were translated into the worker’s native language when it was deemed necessary. Standard information on epidemiologic characteristics and incidence of work-related injury were collected and compared between nationalities and those injured versus those not injured. 262 males and 4 females were interviewed. 17 [6.4%] reported a WRI in the last 24 months. More than half of the injured worked in construction [59%] followed by water supply [11.8%]. Factors significantly associated with recent injury were: Working for a company with > 500 employees and speaking Hindi. Protective characteristics included: Being from the Philippines or Sri Lanka, speaking Arabic, working in healthcare, an office or trading and company size between 100-500 employees. Years of schooling and working in Qatar were not predictive factor for WRI. The findings from this survey should guide future research that will better define worker populations at an increased risk for WRI and inform recruiters and sending countries. A focus on worker language skills, interventions in the construction industry and occupational safety in large companies is needed.
193
17971
A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial on N-Acetylcysteine for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Abstract:
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with increased mortality. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol compound with antioxidant and vasodilatory properties that has been investigated for the prevention of AKI in several clinical settings. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intravenous NAC on the prevention of AKI in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, and 80 patients were recruited to receive 100 mg/kg/day NAC or placebo as intermittent intravenous infusion from day -6 to day +15. AKI was determined on the basis of the Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage renal disease and AKI Network criteria as the primary outcome. We assessed urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) on days -6, -3, +3, +9, and +15 as the secondary outcome. Moreover, transplant-related outcomes and NAC adverse reactions were evaluated during the study period. Statistical analysis was performed using appropriate parametric and non-parametric methods including Kaplan–Meier for AKI and generalized estimating equation for uNGAL. At the end of the trial, data from 72 patients were analyzed (NAC: 33 patients and placebo: 39 patients). Participants of each group were not different considering baseline characteristics. AKI was observed in 18% of NAC recipients and 15% of placebo group patients, and the occurrence pattern was not significantly different (p = 0.73). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between groups for uNGAL measures (p = 0.10). Transplant-related outcomes were similar for both groups, and all patients had successful engraftment. Three patients did not tolerate NAC because of abdominal pain, shortness of breath and rash with pruritus and were dropped from the intervention group before transplantation. However, the frequency of adverse reactions was not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, our findings could not show any clinical benefits from high-dose NAC particularly for AKI prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.
192
18742
Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs
Authors:
Abstract:
This review emphasized the effectiveness of men’s participation, and whether non-violent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of IPV prevention programs affect their involvement. Additionally, the review aimed to identify the barriers of non-engagement as well as the most effective approaches to end and prevent violence-against-women (VAW). The main goals of this assessment were to investigate 1) how NV men engage in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, 2) what are the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs 3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encourage NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review recommended expanding these programs to reach more macro settings such as workplace, faith-based and other community-based organizations. Additionally, secondary and territory prevention programs need to expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.
191
18430
Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk
Abstract:
This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.
190
60885
Using Analytics to Redefine Athlete Resilience
Abstract:
There is an overwhelming amount of athlete-centric information available for sport practitioners in this era of tech and big data, but protocols in athletic rehabilitation remain arbitrary. It is a common assumption that the rate at which tissue heals amongst individuals is the same; yielding protocols that are entirely time-based. Progressing athletes through rehab programs that lack individualization can potentially expose athletes to stimuli they are not prepared for or unnecessarily lengthen their recovery period. A 7-year aggregated and anonymous database was used to develop reliable and valid assessments to measure athletic resilience. Each assessment utilizes force plate technology with proprietary protocols and analysis to provide key thresholds for injury risk and recovery. Using a T score to analyze movement qualities, much like the Z score used for bone density from a Dexa scan, specific prescriptions are provided to mitigate the athlete’s inherent injury risk. In addition to obliging to surgical clearance, practitioners must put in place a clearance protocol guided by standardized assessments and achievement in strength thresholds. In order to truly hold individuals accountable (practitioners, athletic trainers, performance coaches, etc.), success in improving pre-defined key performance indicators must be frequently assessed and analyzed.
189
77833
A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:
Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.
188
2858
Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress
Abstract:
Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.
187
57946
A Comprehensive Review of Yoga and Core Strength: Strengthening Core Muscles as Important Method for Injury Prevention (Lower Back Pain) and Performance Enhancement in Sports
Authors:
Abstract:
The core strength is essential not only for athletes but also for everyone to perform everyday's household chores with ease and efficiency. Core strength means to strengthen the muscles deep within the abdomen which connect to the spine and pelvis which control the position and movement of the central portion of the body. Strengthening of core muscles is important for injury prevention (lower back pain) and performance enhancement in sports. The purpose of the study was to review the literature and findings on the effects of Yoga exercise as a part of sports training method and fitness programs. Fifteen papers were found to be relevant for this review. There are five simple yoga poses: Ardha Phalakasana (Low plank), Vasisthasana (side plank), Purvottanasana (inclined plane), Sarvangasana (shoulder stand), and Virabhadrasana (Warrior) are found to be very effective for strengthening core muscles. They are the most effective poses to build core strength and flexibility to the core muscles. The study suggests that sports and fitness trainers should include these yoga exercises in their programs to strengthen core muscles.
186
45740
The Relationship between Self-Injury Behavior and Social Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disability in the State of Kuwait
Abstract:
The study aimed at identifying the relationship between self-injury behavior and social skills among children with mild intellectual disability (ID) in the state of Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of 65 males and females with ID; their ages ranged between 8 to 12 years. The study used a measure for rating self-injury behavior designed by the researcher; and a measure for rating social skills was designed. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in the percentages of the two dimensions of the self-injury behavior for children with ID; the self-injury behavior by child’s own body was higher than the self-injury behavior by environmental tools, additionally the results showed that there were statistically significant differences between males and females on the dimensions and total scorer of self-injury scale favor the males, and there were statistically significant differences between them on the dimensions of the social skills and total score favor the females, It also indicated that there was statistically significant negative relationship between the dimensions of the self-injury and the dimensions of the social skills for children with intellectual disability.
185
56211
Evaluation of the Trauma System in a District Hospital Setting in Ireland
Abstract:
Importance: This research focuses on devising and improving Health Service Executive (HSE) policy and legislation and therefore improving patient trauma care and outcomes in Ireland. Objectives: The study measures components of the Trauma System in the district hospital setting of the Cavan/Monaghan Hospital Group (CMHG), HSE, Ireland, and uses the collected data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the CMHG Trauma System organisation, to include governance, injury data, prevention and quality improvement, scene care and facility-based care, and rehabilitation. The information will be made available to local policy makers to provide objective situational analysis to assist in future trauma service planning and service provision. Design, setting and participants: From 28 April to May 28, 2016 a cross-sectional survey using World Health Organisation (WHO) Trauma System Assessment Tool (TSAT) was conducted among healthcare professionals directly involved in the level III trauma system of CMHG. Main outcomes: Identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the Trauma System of CMHG. Results: The participants who reported inadequate funding for pre hospital (62.3%) and facility based trauma care at CMHG (52.5%) were high. Thirty four (55.7%) respondents reported that a national trauma registry (TARN) exists but electronic health records are still not used in trauma care. Twenty one respondents (34.4%) reported that there are system wide protocols for determining patient destination and adequate, comprehensive legislation governing the use of ambulances was enforced, however, there is a lack of a reliable advisory service. Over 40% of the respondents reported uncertainty of the injury prevention programmes available in Ireland; as well as the allocated government funding for injury and violence prevention. Conclusions: The results of this study contributed to a comprehensive assessment of the trauma system organisation. The major findings of the study identified three fundamental areas: the inadequate funding at CMHG, the QI techniques and corrective strategies used, and the unfamiliarity of existing prevention strategies. The findings direct the need for further research to guide future development of the trauma system at CMHG (and in Ireland as a whole) in order to maximise best practice and to improve functional and life outcomes.
184
29031
Did Chilling Injury of Rice Decrease under Climate Warming? A Case Study in Northeast China
Abstract:
Global warming is expected to reduce the risk of low temperature stress in rice grown in temperate regions, but this impact has not been well verified by empirical studies directly on chilling injury in rice. In this study, a case study in Northeast China was presented to investigate whether the frequencies of chilling injury declined as a result of climate change, in comprehensive consideration of the potential effects from autonomous adaptation of rice production in response to climate change, such as shifts in cultivation timing and rice cultivars. It was found that frequency of total chilling injury (either delayed-growth type or sterile-type in a year) decreased but only to a limit extent in the context of climate change, mainly owing to a pronounced decrease in frequency of the delayed-growth chilling injury, while there was no overwhelming decreasing tendency for frequency of the sterile-type chilling injury, rather, it even increased considerably for some regions. If changes in cultivars had not occurred, risks of chilling injury of both types would have been much lower, specifically for the sterile-type chilling injury for avoiding deterioration in chilling sensitivity of rice cultivars. In addition, earlier planting helped lower the risk of chilling injury but still can not overweight the effects of introduction of new cultivars. It was concluded that risks of chilling injury in rice would not necessarily decrease as a result of climate change, considering the accompanying adaptation process may increase the chilling sensitivity of rice production system in a warmer climate conditions, and thus precautions should still be taken.
183
107128
The Musician as the Athlete: Psychological Response to Injury
Abstract:
Athletes experience injuries that can have both a physical and psychological impact on the individual. In such instances, athletes are able to rely on the established field of sports psychology to facilitate holistic rehabilitation. Musicians, like athletes rely on their bodies to perform in much the same way athletes do and are also susceptible to injury. Due to the similar performative nature of succeeding as an athletes or a musician, these careers share many of the same primary psychological concerns and therefore it is reasonable that athletes and musicians may require similar rehabilitation post-injury. However, musicians face their own unique psychological challenges and understanding the needs of an injured athlete can serve as a foundation for understanding the injured musician but is not enough to fully rehabilitate an injured musician. The current research surrounding musicians and their injuries is primarily focused on physiological aspects of injury and rehabilitation; the psychological aspects have not yet received adequate attention resulting in poor musician rehabilitation post- injury. This review paper uses current models of psychological response to injury in athletes to draw parallels with the psychological response to injury in musicians. Search engines such as Medline and PsycInfo were systematically searched using specific key words, such as psychological response, injury, athlete, and musician. Studies that focused on post-injury psychology of either the musician or the athlete were included. Within the literature there is evidence to support psychological responses, unique to the musician, that are not accounted for by current models of response in athletes. The models of psychological response to injury in athletes are inadequate tools for application to the musician. Future directions for performance arts research that can fill the gaps in our understanding and modeling of musicians’ response to injury are discussed. A better understanding of the psychological impact of injuries on musicians holds significant implications for health care practitioners working with injured musicians. Understanding the unique barriers musicians face post-injury, and how support for this population must be tailored to properly suit musicians’ needs will aid in more holistic rehabilitation and a higher likelihood of musician’s returning to pre-injury performance levels.
182
28556
Illness Representations of Injury: A Comparison of Patients and Their Primary Caregivers
Abstract:
Background: Illness perceptions are developed when people face health-threatening situations. Previous research suggests that understanding discrepancies between illness perceptions of patients and caregivers may need to improve quality of health care. Objective: This study examined the differences between illness perceptions of injured patients and those of their caregivers. Methods: Comparative study design was used. The study setting was the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Participants were 127 pairs of injured patients and their caregivers. The participants completed socio-demographic data and completed the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised-Trauma, which comprises eight subscales. Clinical data of the injured patients was obtained from medical records. Results: This study found that injured patients were more pessimistic than their caregivers about the injury. There were significant differences between patients and caregivers insofar as patients perceived more physical symptoms, scored higher in terms of reasons for their injury, had more negative emotions and experienced more consequences than caregivers. Elderly caregivers and caregivers for patients who were over 65, severely injured and admitted to an ICU perceived more negative perceptions about the injury. Conclusions: This study indicated that patients and caregivers had negative illness representations several months after injury although the intensity of their perceptions was different. The interventions should highlight the need to assist patients and caregivers after injury.
181
35148
Non-linear Analysis of Spontaneous EEG After Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study
Abstract:
Spinal cord injury (SCI) brings great negative influence to the patients and society. Neurological loss in human after SCI is a major challenge in clinical. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. Here we used sample entropy as an indicator of nonlinear dynamical in the brain to quantify plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI. The results showed that the entropy values were increased after the injury during the recovery in one week. The increasing tendency of sample entropy values is consistent with that of behavioral evaluation scores. It is indicated the potential application of sample entropy analysis for the evaluation of neural plasticity in spinal cord injury rat model.
180
83383
A Risk Pathway of Distal and Proximal Factors for Self-Injury among Adolescents
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to examine possible risk pathway which initiated by the distal risk factors of insecure attachment to the mother, the father and peers and then developed by means of proximal risk factors: stressful life events and emotional distress. 275 participants (aged 13-26) from high-schools, youth groups and university were requited. Twenty-two percent participants reported at least one episode of self-injury. The relationship between paternal and peer attachment were partly mediated by stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Paternal and peer attachment influences during adolescence as contributing to risk pathway for self-injury were acknowledged.
179
70898
Effect of Rehabilitation on Outcomes for Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury: Results from a Single Center
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of neurological rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Participants were 45 consecutive adults with traumatic brain injury who were received the neurologic rehabilitation. Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, the cause of the injury, the duration of the coma and posttraumatic amnesia, the length of stay in the other inpatient clinics before rehabilitation, the time between injury and admission to the rehabilitation clinic, and the length of stay in the rehabilitation clinic were recorded. The differences in functional status between admission and discharge were determined with Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Functional Ambulation Scale (FAS) and levels of cognitive functioning determined with Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). According to admission time, there was a significant improvement identified in functional status of patients who had been given the intensive in-hospital cognitive rehabilitation program. At discharge time, the statistically significant differences were obtained in DRS, FIM, FAS and RLAS scores according to admission time. Better improvement in functional status was detected in patients with lower scores in DRS, and higher scores FIM and RLAS scores at the entry time. The neurologic rehabilitation significantly affects the recovery of functional status after traumatic brain injury.
178
16163
Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism of Remote Limb Ischemic Post Conditioning against Global Cerebral Ischemic Injury
Abstract:
Background and purpose: Recent investigations on ischemia and reperfusion injury postulate that transient ischemia of remote organs after a prolonged ischemic insult confers neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms of the remote limb ischemic post-conditioning (RIPOC) are yet to be elucidated. The current study was designed to investigate the protective mechanism of RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury using global model of stroke. Materials and methods: Global ischemic reperfusion injury (IR) was achieved by 30 minutes ischemia of cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Induction of global ischemia was followed by 4 brief episodes (30 seconds each) of ischemia and reperfusion of femoral artery to accomplish RIPOC. 5-Hydroxy Decanoic acid (5-HD), a KATP channel blocker (20 mg/kg) was administered after induction of global ischemia and RIPOC intervention. Results: IR injury ensue significant behavioural deficits as manifested by rotarod performance and spontaneous locomotor activity when compared to sham control. Furthermore, IR injury significantly increased oxidonitrative stress and infarct volume as evidenced by biochemical parameters (MDA, GSH, Nitrite, SOD) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining respectively. Moreover, RIPOC intervention ameliorated the behavioural performance, attenuated the oxidative stress and infarct volume when compared to IR injury group. However, administration of 5-HD increased the oxidative stress and infarct size while deteriorating the behavioural parameters when compared to RIPOC group. Conclusions: In a nutshell, cerebral IR injury has significantly induced the neuronal damage, whereas RIPOC intervention decreased the neuronal injury. Moreover, 5-HD abolished the neuroprotection offered by RIPOC indicating the putative role of KATP channel opening in RIPOC against cerebral ischemic injury.
177
61455
Heavy Vehicles Crash Injury Severity at T-Intersections
Abstract:
Heavy vehicles make a significant contribution to many developed economies, including Australia, because they are a major means of transporting goods within these countries. With the increase in road freight, there will be an increase in the heavy vehicle traffic proportion, and consequently, an increase in the possibility of collisions involving heavy vehicles. Crashes involving heavy vehicles are a major road safety concern because of the higher likelihood of fatal and serious injury, especially to any small vehicle occupant involved. The primary objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing injury severity to occupants in vehicle collisions involving heavy vehicle at T- intersection using a binary logit model in Victoria, Australia. Our results show that the factors influencing injury severity include occupants' gender, age and restraint use. Also, vehicles' type, movement, point-of-impact and damage, time-of-day, day-of-week and season, higher percentage of trucks in traffic volume, hit pedestrians, number of occupants involved and type of collisions are associated with severe injury.
176
42971
Effects of Active Muscle Contraction in a Car Occupant in Whiplash Injury
Abstract:
Whiplash Injuries are usually associated with car accidents. The sudden forward or backward jerk to head causes neck strain, which is the result of damage to the muscle or tendons. Neck pain and headaches are the two most common symptoms of whiplash. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies but the Injury mechanism is poorly understood. Neck muscles are the most important factor to study the neck Injury. This study focuses on the development of finite element (FE) model of human neck muscle to study the whiplash injury mechanism and effect of active muscle contraction on occupant kinematics. A detailed study of Injury mechanism will promote development and evaluation of new safety systems in cars, hence reducing the occurrence of severe injuries to the occupant. In present study, an active human finite element (FE) model with 3D neck muscle model is developed. Neck muscle was modeled with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Muscle active properties were represented by beam elements whereas, passive properties by solid tetrahedral elements. To generate muscular force according to inputted activation levels, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Material properties were assigned from published experimental tests. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) 50th percentile male pedestrian model. To reduce the simulation time required, THUMS lower body parts were not included. Posterior to muscle insertion, THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.
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The Experience of Applying Multi-Sensory Stimulation ICU for Arousing a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury in Intensive Care
Abstract:
Motor vehicle accident is the first cause of head injury in the world; severe head injury cases may cause conscious disturbance and death. This is a report about a case of a young adult patient suffering from motor vehicle accident leading to severe head injury who passed through three time surgical procedures, and his mother (who is the informal caregiver). This case was followed from 28th January to 15th February 2011 by using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. Patient’s cognitive-perceptual and self-perception-self-concept patterns were altered. Anxiety was also noted on his informal caregiver due to patients’ condition. During the intensive care period, maintaining patient’s vital signs and cerebral perfusion pressure were essential to avoid secondary neuronal injury. Multi-sensory stimulation, caring accompanying, supporting, listening and encouraging patient’s family involved in patient care were very important to reduce informal caregiver anxiety. Finally, the patient consciousness improved from GCS 4 to GCS 11 before discharging from ICU. Patient’s primary informal caregiver, his mother, also showed anxiety improvement. This is was successful case with traumatic brain injury recovered from coma.
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16696
Penetrating Neck Injury: No Zone Approach
Abstract:
Background: The management of patients with penetrating neck injuries in the prehospital setting and in the emergency department has evolved with regard to the use of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) imaging. Hence, there is a shift in the management of neck injuries from mandatory exploration in certain anatomic areas to more conservative approach using imaging and so-called “no zone approach”. Objective: To study the no zone approach in the management of penetrating neck injury using routine imaging in all stable patients. Methods: 137 patients with penetrating neck injury attending emergency department of level 1 trauma centre at AIIMS between 2008–2014 were retrospectively analysed. All hemodynamically stable patients were evaluated using CT scanning. Results: Stab injury is most common (55.91%) mode of pni in civilian population followed by gunshot(18.33%). The majority of patients could be managed with imaging and close observation. 39 patients (28.46%) required operative intervention. The most common indication for operative intervention was vascular followed by airway injury manifesting as hemodynamic destabilisation.There was no statistical difference between the zonal distribution of injuries in patients managed conservatively and those taken to OR. Conclusions: Study shows that patients with penetrating neck trauma who are haemodynamically stable and exhibit no “hard signs” of vascular injury or airway injury may be evaluated initially by MDCT imaging even when platysma violation is present. “No Zone” policy may be superior to traditional zone wise management.
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Cricket Injury Surveillence by Mobile Application Technology on Smartphones
Abstract:
The demands on cricketers are increasing with more matches being played in a shorter period of time with a greater intensity. A ten year report on injury incidence for Australian elite cricketers between the 2000- 2011 seasons revealed an injury incidence rate of 17.4%.1. In the 2009–10 season, 24 % of Australian fast bowlers missed matches through injury. 1 Injury rates are even higher in junior cricketers with an injury incidence of 25% or 2.9 injuries per 100 player hours reported. 2 Traditionally, injury surveillance has relied on the use of paper based forms or complex computer software. 3,4 This makes injury reporting laborious for the staff involved. The purpose of this presentation is to describe a smartphone based mobile application as a means of improving injury surveillance in cricket. Methods: The researchers developed CricPredict mobile App for the Android platforms, the world’s most widely used smartphone platform. It uses Qt SDK (Software Development Kit) as IDE (Integrated Development Environment). C++ was used as the programming language with the Qt framework, which provides us with cross-platform abilities that will allow this app to be ported to other operating systems (iOS, Mac, Windows) in the future. The wireframes (graphic user interface) were developed using Justinmind Prototyper Pro Edition Version (Ver. 6.1.0). CricPredict enables recording of injury and training status conveniently and immediately. When an injury is reported automated follow-up questions include site of injury, nature of injury, mechanism of injury, initial treatment, referral and action taken after injury. Direct communication with the player then enables assessment of severity and diagnosis. CricPredict also allows the coach to maintain and track each player’s attendance at matches and training session. Workload data can also be recorded by either the player or coach by recording the number of balls bowled or played in a day. This is helpful in formulating injury rates and time lost due to injuries. All the data are stored at a secured password protected data server. Outcomes and Significance: Use of CricPredit offers a simple, user friendly tool for the coaching or medical staff associated with teams to predict, record and report injuries. This system will assist teams to capture injury data with ease thus allowing better understanding of injuries associated with cricket and potentially optimize the performance of such cricketers.
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Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients
Abstract:
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P< 0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P< 0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.
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Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics
Abstract:
Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.
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Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.
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47859
Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice
Abstract:
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.
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81489
Role of Endotherapy vs Surgery in the Management of Traumatic Pancreatic Injury: A Tertiary Center Experience
Abstract:
Introduction: Pancreatic injury remains a complicated condition requiring an individualized case by case approach to management. In this study, we aim to analyze the varied presentations and treatment outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injury in a tertiary care center. Methods: All consecutive patients hospitalized at our center with traumatic pancreatic injury between 2013 and 2017 were included. The American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification was used to stratify patients into five grades of severity. Outcome parameters were then analyzed based on the treatment modality employed. Results: Of the 35 patients analyzed, 26 had an underlying blunt trauma with the remaining nine presenting due to penetrating injury. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. 19 of these patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the remaining 16 managed nonoperatively. Nine patients had a severe injury ( > grade 3) – of which four underwent endotherapy, three had stents placed and one underwent an endoscopic pseudocyst drainage. Among those managed nonoperatively, three underwent a radiological drainage procedure. Conclusion: Mortality rates were clearly higher in patients managed operatively. This is likely a result of significantly higher degrees of major associated non-pancreatic injuries and not just a reflection of surgical morbidity. Despite this, surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, especially in higher grades of pancreatic injury. However we would like to emphasize that endoscopic intervention definitely remains the preferred treatment modality when the clinical setting permits. This is especially applicable in cases of main pancreatic duct injury with ascites as well as pseudocysts.
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55070
The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus
Abstract:
The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.
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77043
The Protective Role of Decoy Receptor 3 Analogue on Rat Steatotic Liver against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Blocking M1/Th1 Polarization and Multiple Upstream Pathogenic Cascades
Abstract:
TNF superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and macrophage (M1)/kupffer cells (KC) polarization are important in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury in animals with hepatic steatosis (HS). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a common upstream inhibitor of the above-mentioned pathogenic cascades. The study evaluated whether modulation of these DcR3-related cascades was able to protect steatotic liver from IR injury. Serum and hepatic DcR3 levels were lower in patients and animals with HS. Accordingly, the effects of pharmacologic and genetic DcR3 replacement on the IR-related pathogenic changes were measured. Significantly, DcR3 replacement protected IR-Zucker(HS) rats and IR-DcR3-Tg(HS) mice from IR liver injury. The beneficial effects of DcR3 replacement were accompanied by decreased serum/hepatic TNF, soluble TNF-like cytokine 1A (TL1A), Fas ligand (Fas-L) and LIGHT, T-helper-cell-1 cytokine (INF) levels, neutrophil infiltration, M1 polarization, neutrophil-macrophage/KC-T-cell interaction, hepatocyte apoptosis and improved hepatic microcirculatory failure among animals with IR-injured steatotic livers. Additionally, TL1A, Fas-L, LIGHT and TLR4/NFB signals were found to mediate the DcR3-related protective effects of steatotic livers from IR injury. Using multimodal in vivo and in vitro approaches, we found that DcR3 was a potential agent to protect steatotic livers from IR injury by simultaneous blocking the multiple IR injury-related pathogenic changes.
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54465
A Rare Neck Trauma by Bicycle Handlebar in Road Traffic Accident
Abstract:
Paediatric blunt abdominal trauma associated with superficial bruise, hematoma, or laceration and internal organ damage secondary to bicycle handlebar is widely documented in the literature. In this article, we have presented a case of bicycle handlebar inflicted fatal neck laceration in a road accident. The deceased sustained a horizontally placed laceration injury over the front and both sides of the middle third of neck (13 cm x 5-8 cm x 2-3.5 cm).The margins of the wound were irregular and focally abraded. The right corner of the injury was pointed whereas the left one was ended with a skin flap. Multiple graze abrasions, contusions and lacerations were found on different parts of body. Autopsy findings and other circumstantial evidences revealed that the victim died due to exsanguination because of severance of carotid artery and jugular vein of both sides. Analysis of the wound suggests the decease sustained the wound by the revolving bicycle handle bar while he had lost the balance.
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89295
Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.
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77939
Liver Regeneration of Small in situ Injury
Abstract:
Liver is the center of detoxification and exposed to toxic metabolites all the time. It is highly regenerative after injury, with the ability to restore even after 70% partial hepatectomy. Most of the previous studies were using hepatectomy as injury models for liver regeneration study. There is limited understanding of small-scale liver injury, which can be caused by either low dose drug consumption or hepatocyte routine metabolism. Although these small in situ injuries do not cause immediate symptoms, repeated injuries will lead to aberrant wound healing in liver. Therefore, the cellular dynamics during liver regeneration is critical for our understanding of liver regeneration mechanism. We aim to study the liver regeneration of small-scale in situ liver injury in transgenic mice labeling actin (Lifeact-GFP). Previous studies have been using sample sections and biopsies of liver, which lack real-time information. In order to trace every individual hepatocyte during the regeneration process, we have developed and optimized an intravital imaging system that allows in vivo imaging of mouse liver for consecutive 5 days, allowing real-time cellular tracking and quantification of hepatocytes. We used femtosecond-laser ablation to make controlled and repeatable liver injury model, which mimics the real-life small in situ liver injury. This injury model is the first case of its kind for in vivo study on liver. We found that small-scale in situ liver injury is repaired by the coordination of hypertrophy and migration of hepatocytes. Hypertrophy is only transient at initial phase, while migration is the main driving force to complete the regeneration process. From cellular aspect, Akt/mTOR pathway is activated immediately after injury, which leads to transient hepatocyte hypertrophy. From mechano-sensing aspect, the actin cable, formed at apical surface of wound proximal hepatocytes, provides mechanical tension for hepatocyte migration. This study provides important information on both chemical and mechanical signals that promote liver regeneration of small in situ injury. We conclude that hypertrophy and migration play a dominant role at different stages of liver regeneration.
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Clinical Outcomes of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Acute Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage on Initial Emergency Ward Neuroimaging
Abstract:
Objectives: Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury in emergency ward patients with any type of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage is flexible. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury patients who had acute traumatic intracranial hemorrhage on initial emergency ward neuroimaging. Materials-Methods: From March 2011 to November 2012 in a retrospective cohort study we enrolled emergency ward patients with mild traumatic brain injury with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15 and who had stable vital signs. Patients who had any type of intracranial hemorrhage on first head CT and repeat head CT within 24 hours were included. Patients with initial GCS < 14, injury > 24 hours old, pregnancy, concomitant non-minor injuries, and coagulopathy were excluded. Primary endpoints were neurosurgical procedures and/or death and for discharged patients, return to the emergency ward during one week. Results: Among 755 patients who were referred to the emergency ward and underwent two head CTs during first 24 hours, 302 (40%) were included. The median interval between CT scans was 6 hours (ranging 4 to 8 hours). Consequently, 135 (45%) patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 124 (41%) patients had subdural hemorrhage, 15 (5%) patients had epidural hemorrhage, 28 (9%) patients had cerebral contusions, and 54 (18%) patients had intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. Six of 302 patients died within 15 days of injury. 200 patients (66%) have been discharged from the emergency ward, 25 (12%) of whom returned to the emergency ward after one week. Conclusion: Discharge of the head trauma patients after a repeat head CT and brief period of observation in the emergency ward lead to early discharge of mild traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic ICH without adverse events.
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82377
Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical Testing for Digital Nerve Injury
Abstract:
The accuracy of a diagnostic test used to classify a patient as having disease or being disease-free is a valuable piece of information to be used by the physician when making treatment decisions. Finger laceration, suspected to have nerve injury is a challenging decision for the treating surgeon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of six clinical tests in the diagnosis of digital nerve injury. The six clinical tests included light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination, Semmes Weinstein monofilament and wrinkle test. Data comparing pre-surgery examination with post-surgery results of 42 patients with 52 digital nerve injury was evaluated. The subjective examinations, light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament were not sensitive (57.6, 69.7, 42.4, 40 and 66.8% respectively) and specific (36.8, 36.8, 47.4, 42.1 and 31.6% respectively). Wrinkle test, the only objective examination, was the most sensitive (78.1%) and specific (55.6%). This result gives no pre-operative examination the ability to predict the result of explorative surgery.
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74474
Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical Testing for Digital Nerve Injury
Abstract:
The accuracy of a diagnostic test used to classify a patient as having disease or being disease-free is a valuable piece of information to be used by the physician when making treatment decisions. Finger laceration, suspected to have nerve injury is a challenging decision for the treating surgeon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of six clinical tests in the diagnosis of digital nerve injury. The six clinical tests included light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination, Semmes Weinstein monofilament and wrinkle test. Data comparing pre-surgery examination with post-surgery results of 42 patients with 52 digital nerve injury was evaluated. The subjective examinations, light touch, pin prick, static and dynamic 2-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament were not sensitive (57.6, 69.7, 42.4, 40 and 66.8% respectively) and specific (36.8, 36.8, 47.4, 42.1 and 31.6% respectively). Wrinkle test, the only objective examination, was the most sensitive (78.1%) and specific (55.6%). This result gives no pre-operative examination the ability to predict the result of explorative surgery.
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48824
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Physical Therapist's Seniors versus Internship Students
Abstract:
Background: Physical therapists are knowledgeable in treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries; however, they have occupational musculoskeletal injuries because Physical therapy profession requires effort that may lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. No previous studies among physical therapists have been reported in Egypt. We aim to assess the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapist’s seniors versus internship students. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in faculty of physical therapy Cairo university Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries were assessed using self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Seniors therapist was defined as a physical therapist with more than 5 years of work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows. Results: The study included 106 physical therapists (Junior = 72; senior = 34), the mean age of senior therapists was 30.1 (SD 6.3) years and junior therapists were 22.8 (SD 2.4). Female subjects constituted 83.9% of the studied sample. The mean hours of contact with patients was higher among junior therapists 6.4 (SD 2.6) vs. 5.7 (SD 2.1) among senior therapists. The prevalence of a musculoskeletal injury, once or more in their lifetime, was significantly higher among senior therapists (86% vs. 66.7%; p = 0.04). The highest risk factor in increasing the symptoms of the injury among junior therapists was maintaining a position for a prolonged period of time at 28% while performing manual therapy techniques was the highest risk factor among senior therapists at 32%. 53% of senior therapists have limited their patient contact time as a result of their injury in comparison to 25% of junior therapists (p = 0.09). Conclusion: the presented study shows that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, once or more in their lifetime, is significantly higher among senior therapists.
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22249
Evaluation of Traumatic Spine by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abstract:
Study Design: This prospective study was conducted at the department of Radio Diagnosis, at Pt B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak in 57 patients of spine injury on radiographs or radiographically normal patients with neurological deficits presenting within 72 hours of injury. Aims: Evaluation of the role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Spinal Trauma Patients and to compare MRI findings with clinical profile and neurological status of the patient and to correlate the MRI findings with neurological recovery of the patient and predict the outcome. Material and Methods: Neurological status of patients was assessed at the time of admission and discharge in all the patients and at long term interval of six months to one year in 27 patients as per American spine injury association classification (ASIA). On MRI cord injury was categorized into cord hemorrhage, cord contusion, cord edema only, and normal cord. Quantitative assessment of injury on MRI was done using mean canal compromise (MCC), mean spinal cord compression (MSCC) and lesion length. Neurological status at admission and neurological recovery at discharge and long term follow up was compared with various qualitative cord findings and quantitative parameters on MRI. Results: Cord edema and normal cord was associated with favorable neurological outcome. Cord contusion show lesser neurological recovery as compared to cord edema. Cord hemorrhage was associated with worst neurological status at admission and poor neurological recovery. Mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length values were higher in patients presenting with ASIA A grade injury and showed decreasing trends towards ASIA E grade injury. Patients showing neurological recovery over the period of hospital stay and long term follow up had lower mean MCC, MSCC, and lesion length as compared to patients showing no neurological recovery. The data was statistically significant with p value
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69817
The Investigation on the Status of Disaster Prevention and Reduction Knowledge in Rural Pupils in China
Abstract:
Objective: In order to investigate current status on knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction in rural pupils, to explore education method on disaster prevention and reduction for rural pupils. Method: A questionnaire was designed based on literature review. Convenient sampling was used in the survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 180 students from Huodehong town central primary school which located in Ludian county of Zhaotong city in Yunnan province, where 6.5 magnitude earthquake happened in 2014. The result indicated that the pupils’ knowledge and skills on disaster prevention and reduction relevant poor. The source for them to obtain the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction included TV (68.9%), followed by their parents (43.9%), while only 24.4% of knowledge is from the teachers. The scores about different natural disaster are ranking in descending order: earthquake (5.39 ±1.27), floods (3.77 ±1.17); debris flow (2.81 ±1.05), family fire (2.16± 0.96). And the disaster experience did not help the pupils enhance the knowledge reserves. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in knowledge scores of disaster prevention and reduction between experienced and non-experienced group. Conclusion: The local disaster experiences did not draw the attention of parents and schools. Knowledge popularization of disaster for local pupils is extremely urgent. It is necessary to take advantage of more mediums to popularize the knowledge and skills about disaster prevention and reduction, for example, family education, school education, newspapers, brochures, etc. The training courses on disaster prevention and reduction which are based on the characteristics of the local rural pupils and the characteristics of the local disasters would be useful.
156
2838
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Β Receptor/P38 Pathway May Be the Potential Liver Damage Mechanisms Caused by Saikosaponin D
Abstract:
SaikosaponinD (SSD) is a major component of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurumfalactum. Our current study was to examine the toxic effect of SSD on liver cells and explore the possible mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSD induced mouse liver injury and led to apoptosis in LO2 cells. HE staining and TUNEL analyses showed that SSD stimulated liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. Subsequent experiments showed that SSD down-regulated Bcl-2 but up-regulated Bax. In vitro, SSD-treated LO2 cells exhibited apparent down-regulated expression of p-p38. Moreover, PDGF-βR agonist PDGF-BB alone significantly upregulated p38 phosphorylation, while combined with SSD, p38 phosphorylation expression was reduced. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated PDGF-βR knockdown augmented the inactivation of p-p38 and Bcl2 but abrogated the activation of Bax, these results were more obvious when shRNA combined with SSD. These data indicated that SSD stimulated liver injury and apoptosis in hepatocytes and PDGF-βR /p38 pathway may be the potential mechanistic.
155
15653
Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats
Abstract:
The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.
154
3002
Base Deficit Profiling in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury – Correlation with Severity and Outcomes
Abstract:
Objectives: To determine the utility of base deficit in traumatic brain injury in assessing the severity and to correlate with the conventional computed tomography scales in grading the severity of head injury. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. All patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of the injury to the emergency department were included in the study. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale and base deficit values were taken at presentation, the patients were followed during their hospital stay and CT scan brain findings were recorded and graded as per the Rotterdam scale, the findings were cross-checked by a radiologist, Glasgow Outcome Scale was taken on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distributions are reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Relationship of the base deficit with GCS, GOS, CT scan brain and length of stay was calculated using Spearman`s correlation. Results: 154 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients were 30 years and 137 were males. The severity of brain injuries as per the GCS was 34 moderate and 109 severe respectively. 34 percent of the total has an unfavorable outcome with a mean of 18±14. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level with GCS on presentation and the base deficit 0.004. The correlation was not significant between the Rotterdam CT scan brain findings, length of stay and the base deficit. Conclusion: The base deficit was found to be a good predictor of severity of brain injury. There was no association of the severity of injuries on the CT scan brain as per the Rotterdam scale and the base deficit. Further studies with large sample size are needed to further evaluate the associations.
153
50961
Holistic Approach Illustrating the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain and Stress Management for Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract:
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes various practices like Ayurveda, Yoga & Meditation Acupressure Acupuncture and Reiki. These practices are frequently used by patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They have shown effectiveness in the management of pain and stress consequently improving overall quality of life post injury. Objective: The goals of the present case series were to evaluate the feasibility of 1) Using of Ayurvedic herbal oil massages in shoulder pain management, 2) Using yoga & meditation on managing the stress in spinal cord injury. Methodology: 15 SCI cases with muscular pain around shoulder were treated with Ayurvedic herbal oil massage for 10 days in CAM Department. Each session consisted of 30 min oil massage followed by 10 min hot towel fomentation. The patients continued regular therapy medications along with CAM. Another 15 SCI cases were treated with yoga and meditation for 15 days 30 min yoga (20 min Asana+ 10 min Pranayam + 15 min Meditation) in isolated yoga room of CAM department. Results: On the VAS scale the patients reported a reduction in their pain score by 70 %. On the PSS scale, the patients reported a reduction in their stress score by 80 %. Conclusion: These case series may encourage more people to explore CAM therapies.
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80039
Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Trauma Patients: Clinical Presentation and Risk Factor Analysis
Authors:
Abstract:
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients is known to be associated with multiple factors, especially shock and consequent inadequate renal perfusion, yet its clinical presentation is little known in severe trauma patients. Our aim was to investigate the clinical presentation of acute kidney injury and its outcome in severe trauma patients at a level I trauma center. A total of 93 consecutive adult trauma patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of more than 15 were analyzed retrospectively from our Level I trauma center data base. Patients with direct renal injury were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into two groups, according to the presence of AKI. Various clinical parameters were compared between two groups, with Student’s T test and Mann-Whitney’s U test. The AKI group was further dichotomized into patients who recovered within seven days, and those who required more than 7days for recovery or those who did not recover at all. Various clinical parameters associated with outcome were further analyzed. Patients with AKI (n=33, 35%) presented with significantly higher age (61.4±17.3 vs. 45.4±17.3, p < 0.0001), incidence of comorbidities (hypertension; 51.5% vs. 13.3%, OR 6.906 95%CI 2.515-18.967, diabetes; 27.3% vs. 6.7%, OR 5.250, 95%CI 1.472-18.722), odds of head and neck trauma (69.7% vs. 41.7%, OR 3.220, 95%CI 1.306-7.942) and presence of shock during emergency room care (66.7% vs 21.7% OR 7.231, 95%CI, 2.798-18.687). Among AKI patients, patients who recovered within 1 week showed lower peak lactate (4.7mmol/L, 95%CI 2.9-6.5 vs 7.3mmol/L, 95%CI 5.0-9.6, p < 0.0287), lesser units of transfusion during first 24 hours (pRBC; 20.4unit, 95%CI 12.5-28.3 vs. 58.9unit, 95%CI 39.4-78.5, p=0.0003, FFP; 16.6unit, 95%CI 6.8-26.4 vs. 56.1unit, 95%CI 26.9-85.2, p=0.0027). In severe trauma patients, patients with AKI showed different clinical presentations and worse outcomes. Initial presence of shock and higher DIC profiles may be important risk factors for AKI in severe trauma patients. In patients with AKI, peak lactate level and amounts of transfusion are related to recovery.
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55945
Factors Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Multiple Trauma Patients with Rhabdomyolysis
Abstract:
Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle constituents into the circulation. Acute kidney injury is a potential complication of severe rhabdomyolysis and the prognosis is substantially worse if renal failure develops. We try to identify the factors that were predictive of AKI in severe trauma patients with rhabdomyolysis. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the emergency department of a level Ⅰ trauma center. Patients enrolled that initial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were higher than 1000 IU with acute multiple trauma, and more than 18 years older from Oct. 2012 to June 2016. We collected demographic data (age, gender, length of hospital day, and patients’ outcome), laboratory data (ABGA, lactate, hemoglobin. hematocrit, platelet, LDH, myoglobin, liver enzyme, and BUN/Cr), and clinical data (Injury Mechanism, RTS, ISS, AIS, and TRISS). The data were compared and analyzed between AKI and Non-AKI group. Statistical analyses were performed using IMB SPSS 20.0 statistics for Window. Results: Three hundred sixty-four patients were enrolled that AKI group were ninety-six and non-AKI group were two hundred sixty-eight. The base excess (HCO3), AST/ALT, LDH, and myoglobin in AKI group were significantly higher than non-AKI group from laboratory data (p ≤ 0.05). The injury severity score (ISS), revised Trauma Score (RTS), Abbreviated Injury Scale 3 and 4 (AIS 3 and 4) were showed significant results in clinical data. The patterns of CPK level were increased from first and second day, but slightly decreased from third day in both group. Seven patients had received hemodialysis treatment despite the bleeding risk and were survived in AKI group. Conclusion: We recommend that HCO3, CPK, LDH, and myoglobin should be checked and be concerned about ISS, RTS, AIS with injury mechanism at the early stage of treatment in the emergency department.
150
34304
Health-Related QOL of Motorists with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan
Abstract:
The Japanese version of the SF-36 has been employed to assess individuals’ health-related QOL (HRQOL). This study aimed to clarify the HRQOL of motorists with a spinal cord injury, in order to compare these individuals' SF-36 scores and national standard values. A total of 100 motorists with a spinal cord injury participated in this study. Participants’ HRQOL was evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-36 (second edition). The score for each subscale was standardized based on data on the Japanese population. The average scores for NPF, NRP, NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE, and NMH were 10.9, 41.8, 45.9, 47.1, 46.1, 46.7, 46.0, and 47.4 points, respectively. Subjects showed significantly lower scores for NPF and NRP compared with national standard values, which were both ≤ 45.0 points, but relatively normal scores for the other items: NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE and NMH (> 45.0 points). The average scores for PCS, MCS and RCS were 21.9, 56.0, and 50.0 points, respectively. Subjects showed a significantly lower PCS score (≤ 20.0 points); however, the MCS score was higher (> 55.0 points) along with a relatively normal RCS score in these individuals (= 50.0 points).
149
76724
Prevention of the Post – Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS) by Implementation of an ICU Delirium Prevention Strategy (DPB)
Abstract:
In recent years, it became clear that much intensive care (ICU) survivors develop a post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) consisting of psychiatric, cognitive and physical problems for a prolonged period after their ICU stay. Physical inactivity and delirium during the ICU stay are the main determinants of the post-ICU PICS. This presentation will focus on delirium, its epidemiology, prevalence, effect on outcome, risk factors and the current standard of care for managing delirium. Because ICU delirium is a predictor of prolonged length-of-stay in the ICU and of death, the use of a delirium prevention bundle (DPB) becomes mandatory in every ICU. In this presentation, a DPB bundle will be discussed consisting of six components: pain, sedation, sleep, sensory and intellectual stimulation, early mobilization, and hydration. For every of the six components, what to do and what not to do will be discussed. The author will present his own institutional policy on pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium. The component ‘early mobilization’ will be discussed more in detail, as this component is extremely important in the prevention of delirium as well as in the prevention of the PICS. The author will conclude his presentation with the remaining areas of uncertainties/work and research to be done.
148
50115
Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents
Abstract:
This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.
147
74098
A Literature Review on Bladder Management in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract:
Background: One of the most important medical complications that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face are the neurogenic bladder. Objectives: To review methods used for management of neurogenic bladder and their effects. Methods: The study was conducted by searching CINAHL, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ULAKBİM National Databases for studies published between 2005 and 2015. Key words used during the search included ‘spinal cord injury’, ‘bladder injury’, ‘nursing care’, ‘catheterization’ and ‘intermittent urinary catheter’. After examination of 551 studies, 21 studies which met inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results: Mean age of individuals in all study samples was 42 years. The most commonly used bladder management method was clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Compliance with CIC was found to be significantly related to spasticity, maximum cystometric capacity, and the person performing catheterization (p < .05). The main reason for changing the existing bladder management method was urinary tract infections (UTI). Individuals who performed CIC by themselves and who voided spontaneously had better life quality. Patient age, occupation status and whether they performed CIC by themselves or not were found to be significantly associated with depression level (p ≤ .05). Conclusion: As the most commonly used method for bladder management, CIC is a reliable and effective method, and reduces the risk of UTI development. Individuals with neurogenic bladder have a higher prevalence of depression symptoms than the normal population.
146
39430
Financial Burden of Occupational Slip and Fall Incidences in Taiwan
Abstract:
Slip &Fall are common in Taiwan. They could result in injuries and even fatalities. Official statistics indicate that more than 15% of all occupational incidences were slip/fall related. All the workers in Taiwan are required by the law to join the worker’s insurance program administered by the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI). The BLI is a government agency under the supervision of the Ministry of Labor. Workers claim with the BLI for insurance compensations when they suffer fatalities or injuries at work. Injuries statistics based on worker’s compensation claims were rarely studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the injury statistics and financial cost due to slip-fall incidences based on the BLI compensation records. Compensation records in the BLI during 2007 to 2013 were retrieved. All the original application forms, approval opinions, results for worker’s compensations were in hardcopy and were stored in the BLI warehouses. Xerox copies of the claims, excluding the personal information of the applicants (or the victim if passed away), were obtained. The content in the filing forms were coded in an Excel worksheet for further analyses. Descriptive statistics were performed to analyze the data. There were a total of 35,024 claims including 82 deaths, 878 disabilities, and 34,064 injuries/illnesses which were slip/fall related. It was found that the average losses for the death cases were 40 months. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was 86,913,195 NTD. For the disability cases, the average losses were 367.36 days. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was almost 2.6 times of those for the death cases (233,324,004 NTD). For the injury/illness cases, the average losses for the illness cases were 58.78 days. The total dollar amount for these cases paid was approximately 13 times of those of the death cases (1134,850,821 NTD). For the applicants/victims, 52.3% were males. There were more males than females for the deaths, disability, and injury/illness cases. Most (57.8%) of the female victims were between 45 to 59 years old. Most of the male victims (62.6%) were, on the other hand, between 25 to 39 years old. Most of the victims were in manufacturing industry (26.41%), next the construction industry (22.20%), and next the retail industry (13.69%). For the fatality cases, head injury was the main problem for immediate or eventual death (74.4%). For the disability case, foot (17.46%) and knee (9.05%) injuries were the leading problems. The compensation claims other than fatality and disability were mainly associated with injuries of the foot (18%), hand (12.87%), knee (10.42%), back (8.83%), and shoulder (6.77%). The slip/fall cases studied indicate that the ratios among the death, disability, and injury/illness counts were 1:10:415. The ratios of dollar amount paid by the BLI for the three categories were 1:2.6:13. Such results indicate the significance of slip-fall incidences resulting in different severity. Such information should be incorporated in to slip-fall prevention program in industry.
145
19618
Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) Mediated Neuroprotective Effect against Ischemia Reperfusion (I/R) Injury in Cerebral Stroke
Abstract:
Free radical damage has been entailed as the major culprit in the ischemic stroke contributing for oxidative damage. Recent investigations on Hydroxy Safflower Yellow A (HSYA) suggested its role in cerebral ischemia and various neurodegenerative disorders with unidentified molecular mechanisms. The current study was designed to investigate putative therapeutic role and possible molecular mechanisms of HSYA administration during the onset of reperfusion in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in cerebral stroke. Cerebral stroke was achieved by focal ischemic model. HSYA (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously via the tail vein 5 minutes before reperfusion. Losses of sensorimotor abilities were evaluated by neurological scoring, spontaneous locomotor activity, and rotarod performance. Extent of oxidative stress was evaluated by biochemical parameters i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. The infarct volume of brain was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique. Increased cerebral injury (I/R) was evidenced by motor impairment, increased infarct volume and elevation of MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e.,MDA levels along with significant reduction in antioxidant i.e., GSH, SOD and catalase levels when compared to sham control. However, post conditioning with HSYA (10 mg/kg, i.v.) at the onset of reperfusion has significantly ameliorated sensorimotor abilities, attenuated MDA levels and reduced the infarct volume as compared with vehicle treated I/R injury group. Moreover, HSYA treatments improved antioxidant enzyme levels as compared with vehicle treated I/R-injury group. In conclusion, it may be suggested that HSYA post conditioning could be novel therapeutic approach against I/R injury in cerebral stroke possibly through its anti-oxidant mechanism.
144
6289
Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Arsenic-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats
Abstract:
The protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) was investigated in rats exposed to testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally, for two days). TQ treatment (10mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) was applied for five days, starting three day before arsenic administration. TQ significantly attenuated the arsenic-induced decreases of serum testosterone, and testicular reduced glutathione level, and significantly decreased the elevations of testicular malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels resulted from arsenic administration. Also, TQ ameliorated the arsenic-induced testicular tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, TQ decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that TQ may represent a potential candidate to protect against arsenic-induced testicular injury.
143
63220
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patient with Triple-Vessel Disease in Limited Resources Hospital: A Case Report
Abstract:
Myocardial reperfusion injury is defined as the cellular damage that results from a period of ischemia, followed by the reestablishment of the blood supply to the infarcted tissue. Ventricular tachycardia is one of the most commonly encountered reperfusion arrhythmia as one of the types of myocardial perfusion injury. Prompt and early treatment can reduce mortality, despite limited resources of the hospital in high risk patients with history of triple vessel disease. Case report, Male 53 years old has been diagnosed with NSTEMI with 3VD and comorbid disease of Hypertension and has undergone revascularization management with Percutaneous coronary intervention. Ventricular tachycardia leading to cardiac arrest occurred right after the stent was inserted. Resuscitation was performed for almost 2 hours until spontaneous circulation returned. Patient admitted in ICU with refractory cardiac shock despite using combination of ionotropic and vasopressor agents under standard non-invasive monitoring due to the limitation of the hospital. Angiography was performed again 5 hours later to exclude other possibilities of blockage of coronary arteries and conclude diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Patient continually managed with combination of antiplatelet agents and maintenance dose of anti-arrhythmia agents. The handling of the patient was to focus more on supportive and preventive from further deteriorating of the condition. Patient showed clinically improvement and regained consciousness within 24 hours. Patient was successfully discharged from ICU within 3 days without any neurological sequela and was discharge from hospital after 3 days observation in general ward. Limited Resource of hospital did not refrain the physician from attaining a good outcome for this myocardial reperfusion injury case and angiography alone can be used to confirm the diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury.
142
21815
Nutrition Intervention for Spinal Cord Injury in Critical Care
Authors:
Abstract:
Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested.
141
117811
Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention
Abstract:
Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.
140
3076
Predictive Value of Coagulopathy in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort of Pakistani Population
Abstract:
Objective: To determine the value of aPTT, platelets and INR as the predictor of unfavorable outcomes in patients with blunt isolated traumatic brain injury. Methods: This was an observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2012. All the patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of injury were included in the study. Coagulation parameters at presentation were recorded and Glasgow Outcome Scale calculated on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Relationship of coagulopathy with GOS and unfavorable outcomes was calculated using Spearman`s correlation and area under curve ROC analysis. Results: 121 patients were included in the study. The incidence of coagulopathy was found to be 6 %. aPTT was found to a significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes with an AUC = 0.702 (95%CI = 0.602-0.802). Predictive value of platelets and INR was not found to be significant. Conclusion: Incidence of coagulopathy was found to be low in current population compared to data from the West. aPTT was found to be a good predictor of unfavorable outcomes compared with other parameters of coagulation.
139
67879
Finite Element Modeling of a Lower Limb Based on the East Asian Body Characteristics for Pedestrian Protection
Abstract:
Current vehicle safety standards and human body injury criteria were established based on the biomechanical response of Euro-American human body, without considering the difference in the body anthropometry and injury characteristics among different races, particularly the East Asian people with smaller body size. Absence of such race specific design considerations will negatively influence the protective performance of safety products for these populations, and weaken the accuracy of injury thresholds derived. To resolve these issues, in this study, we aim to develop a race specific finite element model to simulate the impact response of the lower extremity of a 50th percentile East Asian (Chinese) male. The model was built based on medical images for the leg of an average size Chinese male and slightly adjusted based on the statistical data. The model includes detailed anatomic features and is able to simulate the muscle active force. Thirteen biomechanical tests available in the literature were used to validate its biofidelity. Using the validated model, a pedestrian-car impact accident taking place in China was re-constructed computationally. The results show that the newly developed lower leg model has a good performance in predicting dynamic response and tibia fracture pattern. An additional comparison on the fracture tolerance of the East Asian and Euro-American lower limb suggests that the current injury criterion underestimates the degree of injury of East Asian human body.
138
27012
Pattern of External Injuries Sustained during Bomb Blast Attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007
Abstract:
Objective: Terrorism and suicidal bomb blast attacks are commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan. During the years 2000 to 2007, there were over 60 bomb explosions resulting in more than 1500 casualties. These explosions produce a wide variety of external injuries. We undertook this study to evaluate pattern of external injury produced after bomb blast attacks and to compare injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional, study was conducted to review injuries sustained after bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2000 to October 2007. Emergency medical records and medico legal certificates of patients presented to three major public sector hospitals of Karachi were evaluated using self-design proforma. Results: Data of 481 victims meet inclusion criteria and were incorporated for final analysis. Of these, 63.6% were injured in open spaces and 36.4% were injured in semi-confined blast environments. Lacerations were commonly encountered as external injury (47.7%) followed by penetrating wounds (15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were most commonly affected (38.6% and 19% respectively). Open and semi-confined blast environments produced a specific injury pattern and profile (p=< 0.001). Conclusions: Bomb blast attacks in Karachi produce an external injury pattern consistent with other studies, with exception of an increased frequency in penetrating wounds. Semi-confined blast environments were associated with severe injuries. Further studies are required to better classify injuries and their severity based on standardized scoring systems. Effective emergency response systems must be designed to cope with mass causalities following bomb explosions.
137
48142
Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis
Abstract:
This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 &mu;g/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&amp;E), periodic acid&ndash;Schif (PAS), Mallory&#39;s trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p&lt;0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.
136
112060
Psychological Intervention for Partners Post-Stroke: A Case Study
Abstract:
Background and Aims: Relationship breakdown is typical when one partner lives with an acquired brain injury caused by issues like a stroke. Research has found that the perception of relationship satisfaction decreases following such an injury among non-injured partners. Non-injured partners also are found to experience caregiver stress/burden as they immediately have to take the role of a caregiver along with being a partner of the injured. Research has also found that the perception of a continuous relationship, i.e. the perception of the relationship to be essentially the same as it was before the injury, also changes among those caregiving partners. However, there is a lack of available intervention strategies that can help those partners with both individual and relationship difficulties. The aim of this case study was to conduct a pilot test of an intervention aimed to explore whether it is possible to support a partner to experience greater continuity within the relationship poststroke, and what benefits such a change might have. Method: A couple, where one partner experienced an acquired brain injury poststroke were provided with Integrated Behavioural Couples Therapy for 3-months. The intervention addressed goals identified as necessary by the couple and by the formulation of their individual and relationship difficulties, alongside the goal of promoting relationship continuity. Before and after measures were taken using a battery of six questionnaires to evaluate changes in perceptions of continuity, stress, and other aspects of the relationship. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative data showed that relationship continuity was improved after the therapy, as were the measures of stress and other aspects of the relationship. The stress felt by the person with the acquired brain injury also showed some evidence of improvement. Conclusion: The study found that perceptions of relationship continuity can be improved by therapy and that improving these might have a beneficial impact on the stress felt by the carer, their satisfaction with the relationship and overall levels of conflict and closeness within the relationship. The study suggested the value of further research on enhancing perceptions of continuity in the relationship after an acquired brain injury. Currently, the findings of the study have been used to develop a pilot feasibility study to collect substantive evidence on the impact of the intervention on the couples and assess its feasibility and acceptability, which will help in further developing a specific generalized relationship continuity intervention, that will be beneficial in preventing relationship breakdown in the future.
135
9537
Heuristic Approaches for Injury Reductions by Reduced Car Use in Urban Areas
Abstract:
The aim of the paper is to estimate and forecast road traffic injuries in the coming 10-15 years given new targets in urban transport policy and shifts of mode of transport, including injury cross-effects of mode changes. The paper discusses possibilities and limitations in measuring and quantifying possible injury reductions. Injury data (killed and seriously injured road users) from six urban areas in Norway from 1998-2012 (N= 4709 casualties) form the basis for estimates of changing injury patterns. For the coming period calculation of number of injuries and injury rates by type of road user (categories of motorized versus non-motorized) by sex, age and type of road are made. A prognosticated population increase (25 %) in total population within 2025 in the six urban areas will curb the proceeded fall in injury figures. However, policy strategies and measures geared towards a stronger modal shift from use of private vehicles to safer public transport (bus, train) will modify this effect. On the other side will door to door transport (pedestrians on their way to/from public transport nodes) imply a higher exposure for pedestrians (bikers) converting from private vehicle use (including fall accidents not registered as traffic accidents). The overall effect is the sum of these modal shifts in the increasing urban population and in addition diminishing return to the majority of road safety countermeasures has also to be taken into account. The paper demonstrates how uncertainties in the various estimates (prediction factors) on increasing injuries as well as decreasing injury figures may partly offset each other. The paper discusses road safety policy and welfare consequences of transport mode shift, including reduced use of private vehicles, and further environmental impacts. In this regard, safety and environmental issues will as a rule concur. However pursuing environmental goals (e.g. improved air quality, reduced co2 emissions) encouraging more biking may generate more biking injuries. The study was given financial grants from the Norwegian Research Council’s Transport Safety Program.
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71484
Altered Lower Extremity Biomechanical Risk Factor Related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Athlete with Functional Ankle Instability
Abstract:
Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most important risk factor of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Also, functional ankle instability (FAI) population has alterations in lower extremity sagittal plane biomechanics during landing task. We want to examine whether biomechanical alterations demonstrated by FAI patients are associated with the mechanism of ACL injury during high risk and sport related tasks. Methods: Sixteen basketball player with FAI and 16 non-injured control performed a single-leg cross drop landing. Knee sagittal and frontal (ATSF) was calculated. Independent t-tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson correlation were used for analysis data. Result: Subject with FAI showed more peak ATFS, posterior ground reaction force (GRF) and less knee flexion, compared to the controls (P= 0.001, P= 0.004, P= 0.011). Knee flexion (r= −0.824, P = 0.011) and posterior GRF (r= 0.901, P = .001) were correlated with ATSF; Posterior GRF was factor that most explained the variance in ATSF (R2= 0.645; P = .001) in the FAI group. Conclusions: Result of our study showed there is a potential biomechanical relationship between the presence of FAI and risk factors associated with ACL injury mechanism.
133
111415
The Impact of Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury upon the Biological Function of Mesenteric Lymph
Abstract:
Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury drives systemic inflammation and organ failure following trauma/haemorrhagic shock (T/HS), through the release of pro-inflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML). However, changes in the biological function of ML are not fully understood, and therefore, a specific model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury is required to obtain ML for the study of its biological function upon inflammatory cells. ML obtained from a model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury was used to assess biological function upon inflammatory cells and investigate changes in the biological function of individual ML components. An additional model was used to determine the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) upon biological function. Rat ML was obtained by mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulation before and after occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMAO). ML was incubated with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes and lymphocytes, and the biological function of these cells was assessed. ML was then separated into supernatant, exosome and micro-vesicle components, and biological activity was compared in monocytes. A model with an additional VNS phase was developed, in which the right cervical vagal nerve was exposed and stimulated, and ML collected for comparison of biological function with the conventional model. The biological function of ML was altered by intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury, increasing PMN activation, monocyte activation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased monocyte activation was only induced by the exosome component of ML, with no significant changes induced by the supernatant or micro-vesicle components. VNS partially attenuated monocyte activation, but no attenuation of PMN activation was observed. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury induces changes in the biological function of ML upon both innate and adaptive inflammatory cells, supporting the role of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in driving systemic inflammation following T/HS. The exosome component of ML appears to be critical to the transport of pro-inflammatory mediators in ML. VNS partially attenuates changes in innate inflammatory cell biological activity observed, presenting possibilities for future novel treatment development in multiple organ failure patients.
132
60448
Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry
Abstract:
Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.
131
82624
Preventive Effects of Motorcycle Helmets on Clinical Outcomes in Motorcycle Crashes
Abstract:
Background: Injuries caused by motorcycle crashes are one of the major public health burdens leading to high mortality, functional disability. The risk of death among motorcyclists is 30 times greater than that among car drivers, with head injuries the leading cause of death. The motorcycle helmet is crucial protective equipment for motorcyclists. Aims: This study aimed to measure the protective effect of motorcycle helmet use on intracranial injury and mortality and to compare the preventive effect in drivers and passengers. Methods: This is a cross-sessional study based on the Emergency Department (ED)–based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 23 EDs in Korea. All of the trauma patients injured in motorcycle crashes between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016 were eligible, excluding cases with unknown helmet use and outcomes. The primary and secondary outcomes were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of helmet use for study outcomes after adjusting for potential confounders. Using interaction models, we compared the protective effect of helmet use on outcomes across driving status (driver and passenger). Results: Among 17,791 eligible patients, 10,668 (60.0%) patients were wearing helmets at the time of the crash, 2,128 (12.0%) patients had intracranial injuries and 331 (1.9%) patients had in-hospital death. 16,381 (92.1%) patients were drivers and 1410 (7.9%) patients were passengers. 62.6% of drivers and 29.1% of passengers were wearing helmets at the time of the crash. Compared to un-helmeted group, the helmeted group was less likely to have an intracranial injury(8.0% vs. 17.9%, AOR: 0.43 (0.39-0.48)) and in-hospital mortality (1.0% vs. 3.2%, AOR: 0.29 (0.22-0.37)).In the interaction model, AORs (95% CIs) of helmet use for intracranial injury were 0.42 (0.38-0.47) in drivers and 0.61(0.41-0.90) in passengers, respectively. There was a significant preventive effect of helmet use on in-hospital mortality in drivers (AOR: 0.26(0.21–0.34)). Discussion and conclusions: Wearing helmets in motorcycle crashes reduced intracranial injuries and in-hospital mortality. The preventive effect of motorcycle helmet use on intracranial injury was stronger in drivers than in passengers. There was a significant preventive effect of helmet use on in-hospital mortality in driver but not in passengers. Public health efforts to increase motorcycle helmet use are needed to reduce health burden from injuries caused by motorcycle crashes.
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81324
The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation
Abstract:
Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.
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93335
Computational Study on Traumatic Brain Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based 3D Viscoelastic Model
Abstract:
Head is the most vulnerable part of human body and may cause severe life threatening injuries. As the in vivo brain response cannot be recorded during injury, computational investigation of the head model could be really helpful to understand the injury mechanism. Majority of the physical damage to living tissues are caused by relative motion within the tissue due to tensile and shearing structural failures. The present Finite Element study focuses on investigating intracranial pressure and stress/strain distributions resulting from impact loads on various sites of human head. This is performed by the development of the 3D model of a human head with major segments like cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and skull from patient specific MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The semi-automatic segmentation of head is performed using AMIRA software to extract finer grooves of the brain. To maintain the accuracy high number of mesh elements are required followed by high computational time. Therefore, the mesh optimization has also been performed using tetrahedral elements. In addition, model validation with experimental literature is performed as well. Hard tissues like skull is modeled as elastic whereas soft tissues like brain is modeled with viscoelastic prony series material model. This paper intends to obtain insights into the severity of brain injury by analyzing impacts on frontal, top, back, and temporal sites of the head. Yield stress (based on von Mises stress criterion for tissues) and intracranial pressure distribution due to impact on different sites (frontal, parietal, etc.) are compared and the extent of damage to cerebral tissues is discussed in detail. This paper finds that how the back impact is more injurious to overall head than the other. The present work would be helpful to understand the injury mechanism of traumatic brain injury more effectively.
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5072
Application of the Tripartite Model to the Link between Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Risk
Abstract:
Objectives: The current study applies and expands the Tripartite Model to elaborate the link between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior. We propose a structural model of NSSI and suicidal risk, in which negative affect (NA) predicts both anxiety and depression, positive affect (PA) predicts depression only, anxiety is linked to NSSI, and depression is linked to suicidal risk. Method: Four hundreds and eighty seven undergraduates participated. Data were collected by administering self-report questionnaires. We performed hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling to test the proposed structural model. Results: The results largely support the proposed structural model, with one exception: anxiety was strongly associated with NSSI and to a lesser extent with suicidal risk. Conclusions: We conclude that the co-occurrence of NSSI and suicidal risk is due to NA and anxiety, and suicidal risk can be differentiated by depression. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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34284
Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf
Abstract:
Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.
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49474
A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?
Abstract:
Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children
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59418
Developing a South African Model of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation for Adults After Acquired Brain Injury
Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of this poster presentation is to examine cultural contextual understandings of ABI that could aid conceptualisation and the development of a model for neuropsychological rehabilitation in this context. Characteristics of the South African context that make the implementation of international NR practices difficult include socioeconomic disparities, sociocultural influences, lack of accessibility to healthcare services, and poverty and unemployment levels. NR services in the developed world have characteristics such as low staff-to-patient ratios and interdisciplinary teams that make them unsuitable for the resource-constrained South African context. Methods: An exploratory, descriptive research design based on programme theory is being followed in the development of a South African model of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Results: The incorporation of African traditional understandings and practices, such as beliefs about ancestral spirits in the etiology of Acquired Brain Injury are relevant to the planning of rehabilitation interventions. Community-Based Rehabilitation workers, psychoeducation, and cooperation among the different systemic levels especially in rural settings is also needed to improve services offered to patients living with ABI. Conclusions. The preliminary model demonstrated in this poster will attempt to build on the strengths of South African communities, incorporating valuable evidence from international models to serve those affected with brain injury in this context.
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23026
Utility of Thromboelastography to Reduce Coagulation-Related Mortality and Blood Component Rate in Neurosurgery ICU
Abstract:
Background: Patients with head and spinal cord injury frequently have deranged coagulation profiles and require blood products transfusion perioperatively. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a ‘bedside’ global test of coagulation which may have role in deciding the need of transfusion in such patients. Aim: To assess the usefulness of TEG in department of neurosurgery in decreasing transfusion rates and coagulation-related mortality in traumatic head and spinal cord injury. Method and Methodology: A retrospective comparative study was carried out in the department of neurosurgery over a period of 1 year. There are two groups in this study. ‘Control’ group constitutes the patients in whom data was collected over 6 months (1/6/2009-31/12/2009) prior to installation of TEG machine. ‘Test’ group includes patients in whom data was collected over 6months (1/1/2013-30/6/2013) post TEG installation. Total no. of platelet, FFP, and cryoprecipitate transfusions were noted in both groups along with in hospital mortality and length of stay. Result: Both groups were matched in age and sex of patients, number of head and spinal cord injury cases, number of patients with thrombocytopenia and number of patients who underwent operation. Total 178 patients (135 head injury and 43 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted in neurosurgery department during time period June 2009 to December 2009 i.e. prior to TEG installation and after TEG installation a total of 243 patients(197 head injury and 46 spinal cord injury patents) were admitted. After TEG introduction platelet transfusion significantly reduced (p=0.000) compare to control group (67 units to 34 units). Mortality rate was found significantly reduced after installation (77 patients to 57 patients, P=0.000). Length of stay was reduced significantly (Prior installation 1-211days and after installation 1-115days, p=0.02). Conclusion: Bedside TEG can dramatically reduce platelet transfusion components requirement in department of neurosurgery. TEG also lead to a drastic decrease in mortality rate and length of stay in patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries. We recommend its use as a standard of care in the patients with traumatic head and spinal cord injuries.
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92109
The Severity of Electric Bicycle Injuries Compared to Classic Bicycle Injuries in Children: A Retrospective Review
Abstract:
Background: Electric bicycles (E-bikes) are one of a wide range of light electric vehicles that provide convenient local transportation and attractive recreational opportunities. Along with their growing use worldwide, the E-bike related injury rate increases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically compare E-bike with classic bicycle related injuries in children. Methods: Data of all pediatric ( < 16 years of age) bicycle related injuries presenting to an urban level I trauma center between 2014 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. The recorded data included age, gender, details of the accident, as well severity of injury, medical diagnosis, and the outcome. Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were calculated for each patient. Data of E-bike related injuries and classic bicycle were then compared. Results: A total of 124 bicycle related injuries and 97 E-bike related injuries presented to the emergency department. Once pedestrians and bicycle passengers were removed, the groups of riders consisted of 111 bikers and 85 E-bikers. The mean age of bikers was 9.9 years (range 3-16 years) and of E-bikers was 13.7 years (range 7.5-16 years). Injuries to the head and the extremities were common in both groups. Compared to bikers, E-bikers had significantly more injuries to intra-abdominal organs (p = 0.04). Twenty patients (16%) with bicycle related injuries were admitted, and 13 (15%) patients with E-bike related injuries, of the latter group four underwent surgical intervention. ISS scores were low overall, but the injuries of higher severity (ISS > 9) were among the E-bikers. Conclusions: This study provides unique information which suggests that injuries in E-bikers tend to be more severe than in classic bikers. There is a need for regulation regarding the use of E-bikes to enhance the safety of both bikers and other road and pavement users.
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98329
Modelling the Effect of Physical Environment Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis
Abstract:
Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behavior along with physical and social environment factors. The present study examined the effect between the collisions severity and physical environment factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2487 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. A multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environment factors. The results showed that eight contributing factors influence the probability of an injury road surface material, traffic system, road marking, control type, lighting condition, type of location, land use and road surface condition. Understanding the effect of physical environment factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.
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2426
Prevention of Corruption in Public Purchases
Abstract:
The results of dissertation research "Preventing and combating corruption in public procurement" are presented in this publication. The study was conducted 2011 till 2013 in a Member State of the European Union, in the Republic of Latvia. Goal of the thesis is to explore corruption prevention and combating issues in public procurement sphere, to identify the prevalence rates, determinants and contributing factors and prevention opportunities in Latvia. In the first chapter the author analyses theoretical aspects of understanding corruption in public procurement, with particular emphasis on corruption definition problem, its nature, causes and consequences. A separate section is dedicated to the public procurement concept, mechanism and legal framework. In the first part of this work the author presents cognitive methodology of corruption in public procurement field, based on which the author has carried out an analysis of corruption situation in public procurement in Republic of Latvia. In the second chapter of the thesis, the author analyzes the problem of corruption in public procurement, including its historical aspects, typology and classification of corruption subjects involved, corruption risk elements in public procurement and their identification. During the development of the second chapter author's practical experience in public procurements was widely used. The third and fourth chapter deals with issues related to the prevention and combating corruption in public procurement, namely the operation of the concept, principles, methods and techniques, subjects in Republic of Latvia, as well as an analysis of foreign experience in preventing and combating corruption. The fifth chapter is devoted to the corruption prevention and combating perspectives and their assessment. In this chapter the author has made the evaluation of corruption prevention and combating measures efficiency in Republic of Latvia, assessment of anti-corruption legislation development stage in public procurement field in Latvia.
120
62806
Outcome of Bowel Management Program in Patient with Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract:
Background: Neurogenic bowel is common condition after spinal cord injury. Most of spinal cord injured patients have motor weakness, mobility impairment which leads to constipation. Moreover, the neural pathway involving bowel function is interrupted. Therefore, the bowel management program should be implemented in nursing care in the earliest time after the onset of the disease to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the outcome of bowel management program of the patients with spinal cord injury who admitted for rehabilitation program. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Rehabilitation ward in Srinagarind Hospital. Populations: patients with subacute to chronic spinal cord injury who admitted at rehabilitation ward, Srinagarind hospital, aged over 18 years old. Instrument: The neurogenic bowel dysfunction score (NBDS) was used to determine the severity of neurogenic bowel. Procedure and statistical analysis: All participants were asked to complete the demographic data; age gender, duration of disease, diagnosis. The individual bowel function was assessed using NBDS at admission. The patients and caregivers were trained by nurses about the bowel management program which consisted of diet modification, abdominal massage, digital stimulation, stool evacuation including medication and physical activity. The outcome of the bowel management program was assessed by NBDS at discharge. The chi-square test was used to detect the difference in severity of neurogenic bowel at admission and discharge. Results: Sixteen spinal cord injured patients were enrolled in the study (age 45 ± 17 years old, 69% were male). Most of them (50%) were tetraplegia. On the admission, 12.5%, 12.5%, 43.75% and 31.25% were categorized as very minor (NBDS 0-6), minor (NBDS 7-9), moderate (NBDS 10-13) and severe (NBDS 14+) respectively. The severity of neurogenic bowel was decreased significantly at discharge (56.25%, 18.755%, 18.75% and 6.25% for very minor, minor, moderate and severe group respectively; p < 0.001) compared with NBDS at admission. Conclusions: Implementation of the effective bowel program decrease the severity of the neurogenic bowel in patient with spinal cord injury.
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13543
The Relation Between Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neopterin in the Paraquat-Induced Lung Toxicity
Abstract:
Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known quaternary nitrogen herbicide. The major target organ in PQ poisoning is the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage by interferon g and other cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the utility of neopterin as a diagnostic marker in PQ-induced lung toxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham and PQ), administered intraperitoneally 1 mL saline and PQ (15 mg/kg/mL) respectively. Blood samples and lungs were collected for analyses. Lung injury and fibrosis were seen in the PQ group. Serum total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lung transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) levels were significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p< 0.001). In addition, in the PQ group, serum neopterin and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p 1/4 0.001). Serum neopterin levels were correlated with LDH activities, lung MDA, lung TGF-1 levels, and the degree of lung injury. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress, reduction of antioxidant capacity, and inflammation play a crucial role in the PQ-induced lung injury. Elevated serum neopterin levels may be a prognostic parameter to determine extends of PQ-induced lung toxicity. Further studies may be performed to clarify the role of neopterin by different doses of PQ.
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59907
Retrospective Data Analysis of Penetrating Injuries Admitted to Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital (JDWNRH), Thimphu, Bhutan, Due to Traditional Sports over a Period of 3 Years
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: Penetrating injuries as a result of traditional sports (Archery and Khuru) are commonly seen in Bhutan. To our knowledge, there is no study carried out looking into the data of penetrating injuries due to traditional sports. Aim: This is a retrospective analysis of cases of penetrating injuries as a result of traditional sports admitted to JDWNRH over the last 3 years to draw an inference on the pattern of injury and associated morbidity and mortality. Method: Data on penetrating injuries related to traditional sports (Archery and Khuru) were collected and reviewed over the period of 3 years. Assault cases were excluded. For each year we analysed age, sex, parts of the body affected, agent of injury and whether admission was required or not. Results: Out of the total 44 victims of penetrating injury by traditional sports (Archery and Khuru) between 2013 and 2015 (average of 15 cases of penetrating injuries per year). Eighty-five percent were male and 15% were female. Their age ranged from 4 yrs to 62 years. Sixty-one percent of the victims were in the working age group of 19-58 years; 30% of the victims were referred from various district hospitals; 38% of the victims needed admission; 42 % of the victims suffered injury to the head; and 54% of the injuries were caused by Khuru. Conclusion: Penetrating injuries due to traditional sports admitted to JDWNRH, Thimphu, remained same over the three years period despite safety regulations in place. Although there were no deaths during the last three years, morbidity still remains high.
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65927
Relationship between Pain, Social Support and Socio-Economic Indicators in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract:
Research Objectives: Chronic pain is one of the common problems associated with spinal cord injuries (SCI), which causes many complications. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the relationship between pain and demographic, injury characteristics, socio-economic and social support in individuals with spinal cord Injury in Iran. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between 2012 and 2013. Participants: The participants were 140 individuals with SCI, 101 (72%) men and 39 (28%) women, with mean age of 29.4 ±7.9 years. Main Outcome Measure: The Persian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used to measure the pain, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure social support. Results: About 50.7% complained about having pain, which 79.3% had bilateral pain. The most common locations of pain were lower limbs and back. The most quality of pain was described as aching (41.4%), and tingling (32.9%). Patients with a medium level of education had the least pain compared to high and low level of education. SCI individuals with good economic situation reported higher frequency of having pain. There was no significant relationship between pain and social support. There was positive correlation between pain and impairment of mood, normal work, relations with other people and lack of sleep (P < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings revealed the importance of socioeconomic factors such as economic situation and educational level in understanding chronic pain in people with SCI and provide further support for the bio-psychosocial model. Hence, multidisciplinary evaluations and treatment strategies are advocated, including biomedical, psychological, and psycho-social interventions.
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65476
The Impact of Psychiatric Symptoms on Return to Work after Occupational Injury
Abstract:
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptom or depressive symptoms on return to work (RTW) after occupational injury. The original articles of clinical trials and observational studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO between January 1980 and November 2016 were retrieved. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified by the search criteria for full-text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to use either intervention or observational study design to examine the association between psychiatric symptoms and RTW. A modified checklist designed by Downs & Black and Crombie was used to assess the methodological quality of included study. A total of 58 articles were identified from the electronic databases after duplicate removed. Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were critically reviewed. The rates of RTW in the included studies were reported to be 6% to 63.6% among workers after occupational injuries. This review found that post-traumatic stress symptom and depressive symptoms were negatively associated with RTW. Although the impact of psychiatric symptoms on RTW after occupational injury remains poorly understood, this review brought up the important information that injured workers with psychiatric symptoms had poor RTW outcome. Future work should address the effective management of psychiatric factors affecting RTW among workers.
115
107143
Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness Assessment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Global efforts are being made to combat child maltreatment (CM); however, in 2011 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s (KSA) response to this issue was found to be mediocre. Several developments have been implemented in KSA since then, and reevaluation is now necessary. The aim of this study is to assess the CM-prevention readiness (CMPR) of KSA in regard to implementing large-scale, evidence-based CM-prevention programs. Participants were decision makers and senior managers in the field of CM. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the participants’ offices. This was a cross-sectional study. We used the multi-dimensional tool “Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment - short version,” which examines ten dimensions concerning this topic. Comparison between the results of this study and those of the 2011 examination was performed to determine how the situation in KSA has changed. Sixty informants were interviewed; the majority being females (57%) and from governmental institutions (56%). The average total score for the ten dimensions was 47.4%, an increase from the 43.7% reported in 2011. The strongest dimensions were legislations and mandates (8.3/10), followed by knowledge (7.1/10) and institutional links and resources (5.8/10). The lowest scores concerned human and technical resources (1.7/10) and attitude towards CM (2.8/10). Compared to the 2011 results, some dimensions showed significant improvements, but the majority had remained consistent. Time and commitment are necessary to secure CMPR improvement. Periodic assessment of CMPR is required to provide proper recommendations to the government regarding the progress of CM-prevention strategies.
114
2039
Study on Disaster Prevention Plan for an Electronic Industry in Thailand
Abstract:
In this article, a study of employee&rsquo;s opinion to the factors that affect to the flood preventive and the corrective action plan in an electronic industry at the Sharp Manufacturing (Thailand) Co., Ltd. has been investigated. The surveys data of 175 workers and supervisors have, however, been selected for data analysis. The results is shown that the employees emphasize about the needs in a subsidy at the time of disaster at high levels of 77.8%, as the plan focusing on flood prevention of the rehabilitation equipment is valued at the intermediate level, which is 79.8%. Demonstration of the hypothesis has found that the different education levels has thus been affected to the needs factor at the flood disaster time. Moreover, most respondents give priority to flood disaster risk management factor. Consequently, we found that the flood prevention plan is valued at high level, especially on information monitoring, which is 93.4% for the supervisor item. The respondents largely assume that the flood will have impacts on the industry, up to 80%, thus to focus on flood management plans is enormous.
113
10213
Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases
Abstract:
This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.
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72225
Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract:
Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.
111
117211
Antioxidant Mediated Neuroprotective Effects of Allium Cepa Extract Against Ischemia Reperfusion Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain Damage in Mice
Abstract:
Oxidative stress has been identified as an underlying cause of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) related cognitive dysfunction and brain damage. Therefore, antioxidant based therapies to treat IR injury are being investigated. Allium cepa L. (onion) is used as culinary medicine and is documented to have marked antioxidant effects. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of A. cepa outer scale extract (ACE) against IR induced cognition and biochemical deficit in mice. ACE was prepared by maceration with 70% methanol and fractionated into ethylacetate and aqueous fractions. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 10 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion, was used to induce cerebral IR injury. Following IR injury, ACE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to animals for 7 days once daily. Behavioral outcomes (memory and sensorimotor functions) were evaluated using Morris water maze and neurological severity score. Cerebral infarct size, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined. Treatment with ACE significantly ameliorated IR mediated deterioration of memory and sensorimotor functions and rose in brain oxidative stress in animals. The results of the present investigation revealed that ACE improved functional outcomes after cerebral IR injury which may be attributed to its antioxidant properties.
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98471
Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models
Abstract:
Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.
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23072
Nutritional Benefits of Soy: An Implication for Health Education
Abstract:
Soybeans, like other legumes are rich in nutrients. However, the nutrient profile of soybeans differs in some important ways from most other legumes. Among other nutrients, soy is high in protein, carbohydrates, and fibers, is rich in vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids and is low in saturated fatty acids. Because of its high nutritional value, it has been rated to be equivalent to meats, eggs and milk. Soy has many health benefits including prevention of coronary heart disease, prevention of cancer growth, improvement of cognitive function, promotion of bone health, prevention of obesity, prevention of type II diabetes and promotion of growth of normal floras in the colon. Soybean consumption is also associated with some side effects which include allergy, flatulence and abdominal discomfort. Nurses/health care providers should therefore, educate clients on the precautionary measures to be taken in preparing soy food products in order to reduce to the barest minimum the side effects, while encouraging them to include soy as part of their daily meals for optimal health and vitality.
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74993
Auto Rickshaw Impacts with Pedestrians: A Computational Analysis of Post-Collision Kinematics and Injury Mechanics
Abstract:
Motor vehicle related pedestrian road traffic collisions are a major road safety challenge, since they are a leading cause of death and serious injury worldwide, contributing to a third of the global disease burden. The auto rickshaw, which is a common form of urban transport in many developing countries, plays a major transport role, both as a vehicle for hire and for private use. The most common auto rickshaws are quite unlike &lsquo;typical&rsquo; four-wheel motor vehicle, being typically characterised by three wheels, a non-tilting sheet-metal body or open frame construction, a canvas roof and side curtains, a small drivers&rsquo; cabin, handlebar controls and a passenger space at the rear. Given the propensity, in developing countries, for auto rickshaws to be used in mixed cityscapes, where pedestrians and vehicles share the roadway, the potential for auto rickshaw impacts with pedestrians is relatively high. Whilst auto rickshaws are used in some Western countries, their limited number and spatial separation from pedestrian walkways, as a result of city planning, has not resulted in significant accident statistics. Thus, auto rickshaws have not been subject to the vehicle impact related pedestrian crash kinematic analyses and/or injury mechanics assessment, typically associated with motor vehicle development in Western Europe, North America and Japan. This study presents a parametric analysis of auto rickshaw related pedestrian impacts by computational simulation, using a Finite Element model of an auto rickshaw and an LS-DYNA 50th percentile male Hybrid III Anthropometric Test Device (dummy). Parametric variables include auto rickshaw impact velocity, auto rickshaw impact region (front, centre or offset) and relative pedestrian impact position (front, side and rear). The output data of each impact simulation was correlated against reported injury metrics, Head Injury Criterion (front, side and rear), Neck injury Criterion (front, side and rear), Abbreviated Injury Scale and reported risk level and adds greater understanding to the issue of auto rickshaw related pedestrian injury risk. The parametric analyses suggest that pedestrians are subject to a relatively high risk of injury during impacts with an auto rickshaw at velocities of 20 km/h or greater, which during some of the impact simulations may even risk fatalities. The present study provides valuable evidence for informing a series of recommendations and guidelines for making the auto rickshaw safer during collisions with pedestrians. Whilst it is acknowledged that the present research findings are based in the field of safety engineering and may over represent injury risk, compared to "Real World" accidents, many of the simulated interactions produced injury response values significantly greater than current threshold curves and thus, justify their inclusion in the study. To reduce the injury risk level and increase the safety of the auto rickshaw, there should be a reduction in the velocity of the auto rickshaw and, or, consideration of engineering solutions, such as retro fitting injury mitigation technologies to those auto rickshaw contact regions which are the subject of the greatest risk of producing pedestrian injury.
107
50064
An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs
Abstract:
The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.
106
106380
Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse
Abstract:
Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.
105
106376
Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse
Abstract:
Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.
104
106378
Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse
Abstract:
Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.
103
106189
Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse
Abstract:
Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.
102
112026
Reaching New Levels: Using Systems Thinking to Analyse a Major Incident Investigation
Abstract:
The significance of high consequence, workplace failures within construction continues to resonate with a combined average of 12 fatal incidents occurring daily throughout Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within the Australian construction domain, more than 35 serious, compensable injury incidents are reported daily. These alarming figures, in conjunction with the continued occurrence of fatal and serious, occupational injury incidents globally suggest existing approaches to incident analysis may not be achieving required injury prevention outcomes. One reason may be that, incident analysis methods used in construction have not kept pace with advances in the field of safety science and are not uncovering the full range system-wide contributory factors that are required to achieve optimal levels of construction safety performance. Another reason underpinning this global issue may also be the absence of information surrounding the construction operating and project delivery system. For example, it is not clear who shares the responsibility for construction safety in different contexts. To respond to this issue, to the author’s best knowledge, a first of its kind, control structure model of the construction industry is presented and then used to analyse a fatal construction incident. The model was developed by applying and extending the Systems Theoretic and Incident Model and Process method to hierarchically represent the actors, constraints, feedback mechanisms, and relationships that are involved in managing construction safety performance. The Causal Analysis based on Systems Theory (CAST) method was then used to identify the control and feedback failures involved in the fatal incident. The conclusions from the Coronial investigation into the event are compared with the findings stemming from the CAST analysis. The CAST analysis highlighted additional issues across the construction system that were not identified in the coroner’s recommendations, suggested there is a potential benefit in applying a systems theory approach to incident analysis in construction. The findings demonstrate the utility applying systems theory-based methods to the analysis of construction incidents. Specifically, this study shows the utility of the construction control structure and the potential benefits for project leaders, construction entities, regulators, and construction clients in controlling construction performance.
101
40751
Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.
100
34367
Management of Nutritional Strategies in Prevention of Autism Before and During Pregnancy
Abstract:
Objectives: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that has negative effects on verbal, mental and behavioral development. Studies have shown the role of a maternal dietary pattern before and during pregnancy. The relation of exerting of nutritional management programs in prevention of Autism has been approved. This review article has been made to investigate the role of nutritional management strategies before and during pregnancy in the prevention of Autism. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 67 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 20 article with criteria such as including maternal lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies and Autism prevention were selected. Results: Maternal dietary pattern and health before and during pregnancy have important roles in the incidence of Autism. Studies have suggested that high dietary fat intake and obesity can increase the risk of Autism in offspring. Maternal metabolic condition specially gestational diabetes (GDM) (p-value < 0.04) and folate deficiency (p-value = 0.04) is associated with risk of Autism. Studies have shown that folate intake in mothers with autistic children is less than mothers who have typically developing children (TYP) (p-value< 0.01). As folate is an essential micronutrient for fetus mental development, consumption of average 600 mcg/day especially in P1 phase of pregnancy results in significant reduction in incidence of Autism (OR:1.53, 95%CI=0.42-0.92, p-value = 0.02). furthermore, essential fatty acid deficiency especially omega-3 fatty acid increases the rate of Autism and consumption of supplements and food sources of omega-3 can decrease the risk of Autism up to 34% (RR=1.53, 95%CI=1-2.32). Conclusion: regards to nutritional deficiency and maternal metabolic condition before and during pregnancy in prevalence of Autism, carrying out the appropriate nutritional strategies such as well-timed folate supplementation before pregnancy and healthy lifestyle adherence for prevention of metabolic syndrome (GDM) seems to help Autism prevention.
99
21258
Rasagiline Improves Metabolic Function and Reduces Tissue Injury in the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal In-Vivo Advanced MRI Study
Abstract:
Objective: To quantify cellular injury in the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to examine the effect of rasagiline of tissue injury in the SN in patients with PD. Background: N-acetylaspartate (NAA) quantified with MRS is a reliable marker of neuronal metabolic function. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) obtained with DTI, characterize tissue alignment and integrity. Rasagline, has been shown to exert anti-apototic effect. We applied these advanced MRI techniques to examine: (i) the effect of rasagiline on cellular injury and metabolism in patients with early PD, and (ii) longitudinal changes seen over time in PD. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in patients with mild PD, naive to dopaminergic treatment. The imaging protocol included multi-voxel proton-MRS and DTI of the SN, acquired on a 3T scanner. Scans were performed at baseline and month 3, during which the patient was on no treatment. At that point, rasagiline 1 mg orally daily was initiated and MRI scans are were obtained at 6 and 12 months after starting rasagiline. The primary objective was to compare changes during the 3-month period of “no treatment” to the changes observed “on treatment” with rasagiline at month 12. Age-matched healthy controls were also imaged. Image analysis was performed blinded to treatment allocation and period. Results: 25 patients were enrolled in this study. Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in the NAA “on treatment” period (-3.04 % vs +10.95 %, p= 0.0006). Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in following 12 month in the FA “on treatment” (-4.8% vs +15.3%, p< 0.0001). The MD increased during “no treatment” and decreased in “on treatment” (+2.8% vs -7.5%, p=0.0056). Further analysis and clinical correlation are ongoing. Conclusions: Advanced MRI techniques quantifying cellular injury in the SN in PD is a feasible approach to investigate dopaminergic neuronal injury and could be developed as an outcome in exploratory studies. Rasagiline appears to have a stabilizing effect on dopaminergic cell loss and metabolism in the SN in PD, that warrants further investigation in long-term studies.
98
90080
An Unexpected Hand Injury with Pluridigital Fractures Due to Premature Explosion of a Ramadan Cannon
Authors:
Abstract:
Purpose: The use of firecrackers (i.e., Ramadan Cannon) during the month of Ramadan is a traditional way of indicating that the fasting period is over in Muslim countries. Here, we report the rehabilitation of a case of hand injury with pluridigital fractures due to premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. Materials and Methods: A 48-year old man admitted to the Emergency Department due to left hand injury as a result of a premature explosion of a Ramadan cannon. The patient was immediately taken to operation room because of the multiple fractures, tendon loss, and soft tissue loss in the left hand. Range of motion (ROM) of joints was measured with goniometer, pain and oedema were measured and splinting was performed. Results: Rehabilitation team took over the patient at postoperative 9th week. During the 3 month rehabilitation, range of motion increased, oedema was taken under control, pain was reduced, the colour of the skin turned to the normal tone. According to the visual analog scale (VAS), pain decreased from 9 to 4. Oedema, around the metacarpofalangeal (MCP) joints, decreased from 27,5 cm to 23,5 cm. Total active range of motion of the wrist increased from 5 degrees to 50 degrees.Total active range of motion of supination and pronation increased from 55 degrees to 70 degrees. Discussion: The rehabilitation of multiple hand injury is quite difficult. Different aspects of trauma should be taken into consideration when rehabilitation is planned. Factors such as waiting for the bone union, wound healing, and use of external fixators may delay rehabilitation process. Joint mobilization, massage for reducing oedema and preventing scar tissue, exercise within the range of motion are efficient measures. Poor patient compliance to treatment may lead to poor outcome. First of all, oedema and scar formation must be taken under control. Removing fixators should not be delayed depending on the bone union, and exercise within the range of motion should be started.
97
6140
Good Functional Outcome after Late Surgical Treatment for Traumatic Rotator Cuff Tear, a Retrospective Cohort Study
Abstract:
Recommended treatment for traumatic rotator cuff tear (TRCT) is surgery within a few weeks after injury if the diagnosis is made early, especially if a functional impairment of the shoulder exists. This may lead to the assumption that a poor outcome then can be expected in delayed surgical treatment, when the patient is diagnosed at a later stage. The aim of this study was to investigate if a surgical repair later than three months after injury may result in successful outcomes and patient satisfaction. There is evidence in literature that good results of treatment can be expected up to three months after the injury, but little is known of later treatment with cuff repair. 73 patients (75 shoulders), 58 males/17 females, mean age 59 (range 34-­‐72), who had undergone surgical intervention for TRCT between January 1999 to December 2011 at our clinic, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by MRI investigation, clinical examination, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index (WORC), Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant-­‐Murley Score, EQ-­‐5D and patient subjective satisfaction at follow-­‐up. The patients treated surgically within three months ( < 12 weeks) after injury (39 cases) were compared with patients treated more than three months ( ≥ 12 weeks) after injury (36 cases). WORC was used as the primary outcome measure and the other variables as secondary. A senior consultant radiologist, blinded to patient category and clinical outcome, evaluated all MRI-­‐images. Rotator cuff integrity, presence of arthritis, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy was evaluated in all cases. The average follow-­‐up time was 56 months (range 14-­‐149) and the average time from injury to repair was 16 weeks (range 3-­‐104). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the assessed parameters or scores between the two groups. The mean WORC score was 77 (early group, range 25-­‐ 100 and late group, range 27-­‐100) for both groups (p= 0.86), Constant-­‐Murley Score (p= 0.91), Oxford Shoulder Score (p= 0.79), EQ-­‐5D index (p= 0.86). Re-­‐tear frequency was 24% for both groups, and the patients with re-­‐tear reported less satisfaction with outcome. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that surgical repair of TRCT performed later than three months after injury may result in good functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, this does not motivate an intentional delay in surgery when there is an indication for surgical repair as that delay may adversely affect the possibility to perform a repair. Our results show that surgeons may safely consider surgical repair even if a delay in diagnosis has occurred. A retrospective cohort study on 75 shoulders shows good functional result after traumatic rotator cuff tear (TRCT) treated surgically up to one year after the injury.
96
13015
Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement Protects Heart against Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in Wistar Rats
Abstract:
Zincovit tablets have been used as nutritional food supplement over a prolonged period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effect of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats. Following 21 days of pre-treatment, combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury in terms of increased coronary flow rate (p < 0.01), decreased creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent (p < 0.05), decreased MDA (p < 0.001), 4-HNE (p < 0.001) and increased protein thiol content (p < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated (control) group. This study opens an avenue to clinical studies to demonstrate the validity of this paradigm as a nutritional food supplement, which could improve the clinical outcome of patients subjected to percutaneous angioplasty.
95
87931
General Principles of Accident Prevention in Built Environment Rehabilitation
Abstract:
Rehabilitation in construction or built environment is a particular type of operations when concerning prevention of accidents. In fact, it is also a different type of task in construction itself. Therefore, due to the complex characteristics of construction rehabilitation tasks and due to the intrinsic difficulty of preventing accidents in construction, a major challenge faces the responsibility for implementing adequate safety levels in this type of safety management. This paper addresses a set of proposed generic measures to face the unknown characteristics of built environment in terms of stability, materials and actual performance of buildings or other constructions. It is also addressed the necessary adaptation of preventive guidelines to this type of delicate refurbishing and renovating of existing facilities. Training, observation and reflective approaches are necessary to perform this safety management in the rehabilitation of built environment.
94
67412
Description of the Process Which Determine the Criterion Validity of Semi-Structured Interview PARA-SCI.CZ
Abstract:
The people with spinal cord injury are one of the least sport active members of our society. Their hypoactivity is determined by primary injury, i.e., the loss of motor function, the injured part of the body is connected with health complications and social handicap. Study performs one part of the standardization process of semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ (Czech version of the Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury), which measures the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. The study focused on persons with paraplegia who use a wheelchair as their primary mode of mobility. The aim of this study was to perform a process to determine the criterion validity of PARA-SCI.CZ. The actual physical activity of wheelchair users was monitored during three days by using accelerometers Actigraph GT3X fixed on the non-dominant wrist, and semi-structured interview PARA-SCI.CZ. During the PARA-SCI.CZ interview, participants were asked to recall activities they had done over the past 3 days, starting with the previous day. PARA-SCI.CZ captured frequency, duration, and intensity (low, moderate, and heavy) of two categories of physical activity (leisure time physical activity and activities of a usual day). Accelerometer Actigraph GT3X captured duration and intensity (low and moderate + heavy) of physical activity during three days and nights. The study presented three potential recalculations of measured data. Standardization process of PARA-SCI.CZ is essential to critically approach issues of health and active lifestyle of persons with spinal cord injury in the Czech Republic. Standardized PARA-SCI.CZ can be used in practice by physiotherapists and sports pedagogues from the field of adapted physical activities.
93
79687
Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Abstract:
Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.
92
50872
Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model
Abstract:
In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.
91
95559
Perception of Nurses and Caregivers on Fall Preventive Management for Hospitalized Children Based on Ecological Model
Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify hospitalized children's fall risk factors, fall prevention status and fall prevention strategies recognized by nurses and caregivers of hospitalized children and present an ecological model for fall preventive management in hospitalized children. Method: The participants of this study were 14 nurses working in medical institutions and having more than one year of child care experience and 14 adult caregivers of children under 6 years of age receiving inpatient treatment at a medical institution. One to one interview was attempted to identify their perception of fall preventive management. Transcribed data were analyzed through latent content analysis method. Results: Fall risk factors in hospitalized children were 'unpredictable behavior', 'instability', 'lack of awareness about danger', 'lack of awareness about falls', 'lack of child control ability', 'lack of awareness about the importance of fall prevention', 'lack of sensitivity to children', 'untidy environment around children', 'lack of personalized facilities for children', 'unsafe facility', 'lack of partnership between healthcare provider and caregiver', 'lack of human resources', 'inadequate fall prevention policy', 'lack of promotion about fall prevention', 'a performanceism oriented culture'. Fall preventive management status of hospitalized children were 'absence of fall prevention capability', 'efforts not to fall', 'blocking fall risk situation', 'limit the scope of children's activity when there is no caregiver', 'encourage caregivers' fall prevention activities', 'creating a safe environment surrounding hospitalized children', 'special management for fall high risk children', 'mutual cooperation between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'implementation of fall prevention policy', 'providing guide signs about fall risk'. Fall preventive management strategies of hospitalized children were 'restrain dangerous behavior', 'inspiring awareness about fall', 'providing fall preventive education considering the child's eye level', 'efforts to become an active subject of fall prevention activities', 'providing customed fall prevention education', 'open communication between healthcare providers and caregivers', 'infrastructure and personnel management to create safe hospital environment', 'expansion fall prevention campaign', 'development and application of a valid fall assessment instrument', 'conversion of awareness about safety'. Conclusion: In this study, the ecological model of fall preventive management for hospitalized children reflects various factors that directly or indirectly affect the fall prevention of hospitalized children. Therefore, these results can be considered as useful baseline data for developing systematic fall prevention programs and hospital policies to prevent fall accident in hospitalized children. Funding: This study was funded by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (grant number NRF-2016R1A2B1015455).
90
67821
Elevated Creatinine Clearance and Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Systemic Lupus erythematosus
Abstract:
Background: The creatinine clearance is a widely used value to estimate the GFR. Increased creatinine clearance is often called hyperfiltration and is usually seen during pregnancy, patients with diabetes mellitus preceding the diabetic nephropathy. It may also occur with large dietary protein intake or with plasma volume expansion. Renal injury in lupus nephritis is known to affect the glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular compartment. However high creatinine clearance has not been found in patients with SLE, Target: Follow-up of creatinine clearance values in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without history of kidney injury. Material and methods: We observed the creatinine, creatinine clearance, GFR and dipstick protein values of 7 women (with a mean age of 42.71 years) with systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with active lupus have been monthly tested in the period of 13 months. Creatinine clearance has been estimated by Cockcroft-Gault Equation formula in ml/sec. GFR has been estimated by MDRD formula (The Modification of Diet in renal Disease) in ml/min/1.73 m2. Proteinuria has been defined as present when dipstick protein > 1+.Results: In all patients without history of kidney injury we found elevated creatinine clearance levels, but GFRremained within the reference range. Two of the patients were in remission while the other five patients had clinically and immunologically active Lupus. Three of the patients had a permanent presence of high creatinine clearance levels and proteinuria. Two of the patients had periodically elevated creatinine clearance without proteinuria. These results show that kidney disturbances may be caused by the vascular changes typical for SLE. Glomerular hyperfiltration can be result of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis caused by a reduction in renal mass. Probably lupus nephropathy is preceded not only by glomerular vascular changes, but also by tubular vascular changes. Using only the GFR is not a sufficient method to detect these primary functional disturbances. Conclusion: For early detection of kidney injury in patients with SLE we determined that the follow up of creatinine clearance values could be helpful.
89
16256
Smart Helmet for Two-Wheelers
Abstract:
A helmet is a protective layer that is worn in order to prevent head injury. Helmet is the most important safety gear for two wheeler riders. However, due to carelessness of people, less importance toward safety, lot of causalities is every year. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) two wheelers claimed 92 lives every day out of which most were due to helmetless drive. The system design will be such that without wearing the helmet the rider cannot start two wheelers. The helmet will be connected to vehicle key ignition systems which will be electronically controlled. The smart helmet will be having proximity sensor fitted inside it, which will act as our switch for ignition and further with wireless connection the helmet sensor circuit will be connected to the vehicle ignition system.
88
21746
An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.
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89892
Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) in Cloud Computing Using Anomaly-Based and Signature-Based Detection Techniques
Abstract:
Virtualization and cloud computing are among the fast-growing computing innovations in recent times. Organisations all over the world are moving their computing services towards the cloud this is because of its rapid transformation of the organization’s infrastructure and improvement of efficient resource utilization and cost reduction. However, this technology brings new security threats and challenges about safety, reliability and data confidentiality. Evidently, no single security technique can guarantee security or protection against malicious attacks on a cloud computing network hence an integrated model of intrusion detection and prevention system has been proposed. Anomaly-based and signature-based detection techniques will be integrated to enable the network and its host defend themselves with some level of intelligence. The anomaly-base detection was implemented using the local deviation factor graph-based (LDFGB) algorithm while the signature-based detection was implemented using the snort algorithm. Results from this collaborative intrusion detection and prevention techniques show robust and efficient security architecture for cloud computing networks.
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76548
Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury; Incidence, Prognosis and the Time-Course of Clinical Outcomes: A 12 Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Korea
Authors:
Abstract:
Objective: To describe the incidence of complication, according to the stage of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) which was treated at Asan Medical Center (AMC), Korea. Hereafter, it should be developed in nursing management protocol of traumatic SCI. Methods. Retrospectively reviewed hospital records about the patients who were admitted AMC Patients with traumatic spinal cord injury until January 2005 and December 2016 were analyzed (n=97). AMC is a single institution of 2,700 beds where patients with trauma and severe trauma can be treated. Patients who were admitted to the emergency room due to spinal cord injury and who underwent intensive care unit, general ward, and rehabilitation ward. To identify long-term complications, we excluded patients who were operated on to other hospitals after surgery. Complications such as respiratory(pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism, and others), cardiovascular (hypotension), urinary (autonomic dysreflexia, urinary tract infection (UTI), neurogenic bladder, and others), and skin systems (pressure ulcers) from the time of admission were examined through medical records and images. Results: SCI was graded according to ASIA scale. The initial grade was checked at admission. (grade A 55(56.7%), grade B 14(14.4)%, grade C 11(11.3%), grade D 15(15.5%), and grade E 2(2.1%). The grade was rechecked when the patient was discharged after treatment. (grade A 43(44.3%), grade B 15(15.5%), grade C 12(12.4%), grade D 21(21.6%), and grade E 6(6.2%). The most common complication after SCI was UTI 24cases (mean 36.5day), sore 24cases (40.5day), and Pneumonia which was 23 cases after 10days averagely. The other complications after SCI were neuropathic pain 19 cases, surgical site infection 4 cases. 53.6% of patient who had SCI were educated about intermittent catheterization at discharge from hospital. The mean hospital stay of all SCI patients was 61days. Conclusion: The Complications after traumatic SCI were developed at various stages from acute phase to chronic phase. Nurses need to understand fully the time-course of complication in traumatic SCI to provide evidence-based practice.
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89768
Utility of Thromboelastography Derived Maximum Amplitude and R-Time (MA-R) Ratio as a Predictor of Mortality in Trauma Patients
Abstract:
Coagulopathy of trauma is an early endogenous coagulation abnormality that occurs shortly resulting in high mortality. In emergency trauma situations, viscoelastic tests may be better in identifying the various phenotypes of coagulopathy and demonstrate the contribution of platelet function to coagulation. We aimed to determine thrombin generation and clot strength, by estimating a ratio of Maximum amplitude and R-time (MA-R ratio) for identifying trauma coagulopathy and predicting subsequent mortality. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of acutely injured trauma patients of the adult age groups (18- 50 years), admitted within 24hrs of injury, for one year at a Level I trauma center and followed up on 3rd day and 5th day of injury. Patients with h/o coagulation abnormalities, liver disease, renal impairment, with h/o intake of drugs were excluded. Thromboelastography was done and a ratio was calculated by dividing the MA by the R-time (MA-R). Patients were further stratified into sub groups based on the calculated MA-R quartiles. First sampling was done within 24 hours of injury; follow up on 3rd and 5thday of injury. Mortality was the primary outcome. Results: 100 acutely injured patients [average, 36.6±14.3 years; 94% male; injury severity score 12.2(9-32)] were included in the study. Median (min-max) on admission MA-R ratio was 15.01(0.4-88.4) which declined 11.7(2.2-61.8) on day three and slightly rose on day 5 13.1(0.06-68). There were no significant differences between sub groups in regard to age, or gender. In the lowest MA-R ratios subgroup; MA-R1 (19.3; n = 26) had no difference between their admission laboratory investigations, however slight decline was observed in hemoglobin, red blood cell count and platelet counts compared to the other subgroups. Also significantly prolonged R time, shortened alpha angle and MA were seen in MA-R1. Elevated incidence of mortality also significantly correlated with on admission low MA-R ratios (p 0.003). Temporal changes in the MA-R ratio did not correlated with mortality. Conclusion: The MA-R ratio provides a snapshot of early clot function, focusing specifically on thrombin burst and clot strength. In our observation, patients with the lowest MA-R time ratio (MA-R1) had significantly increased mortality compared with all other groups (45.5% MA-R1 compared with
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123560
Suicide Risk Assessment of UM Tagum College Students: Basis for Intervention Program
Abstract:
The study dealt on suicide risk level of college students in UM Tagum College. The primary goal of the study was to assess the level of suicide risk among students at the UM Tagum College in terms of perceived burdensomeness, low belongingness/social alienation and acquired ability to enact lethal self-injury utilizing quantitative non- experimental study with 380 students in UM Tagum College as respondents of the study. Mean was the statistical tools used for the data treatment. Moreover, the study aims to determine the mean of the level of the suicide risk assessment in terms of program, type of student, age, year level, civil status and gender, and lastly, to design an intervention program for those identified students with high suicide risk. Results showed a low level of suicide risk in terms of perceived burdensomeness, low belongingness/social alienation and acquired ability to enact lethal self-injury.
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41455
Possible Role of Fenofibrate and Clofibrate in Attenuated Cardioprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning in Hyperlipidemic Rat Hearts
Abstract:
Objective: The present study has been designed to investigate the beneficial role of Fenofibrate & Clofibrate in attenuated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Materials & Methods: Experimental hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding high fat diet to rats for a period of 28 days. Isolated langendorff’s perfused normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. The myocardial infarct size was assessed macroscopically using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB release to assess the extent of cardiac injury. Moreover, the oxidative stress in heart was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide anion generation and reduced form of glutathione. Results: The ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been noted to induce oxidative stress by increasing TBARS, superoxide anion generation and decreasing reduced form of glutathione in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Moreover, I/R produced myocardial injury, which was assessed in terms of increase in myocardial infarct size, LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent and decrease in coronary flow rate in normal and hyperlipidemic rat hearts. In addition, the hyperlipidemic rat hearts showed enhanced I/R-induced myocardial injury with high degree of oxidative stress as compared with normal rat hearts subjected to I/R. Four episodes of IPC (5 min each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury in normal rat hearts as assessed in terms of improvement in coronary flow rate and reduction in myocardial infarct size, LDH, CK-MB and oxidative stress. On the other hand, IPC mediated myocardial protection against I/R-injury was abolished in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. However, Treatment with Fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.), Clofibrate (300mg/kg/day, i.p.) as a agonists of PPAR-α have not affected the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat hearts, but its treatment markedly restored the cardioprotective potentials of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Conclusion: It is noted that the high degree of oxidative stress produced in hyperlipidemic rat heart during reperfusion and consequent down regulation of PPAR-α may be responsible to abolish the cardioprotective potentials of IPC.
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22236
Analysis study According Some of Physical and Mechanical Variables for Joint Wrist Injury
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to conduct a comparative study according analysis of programmed to some of physical and mechanical variables for joint wrist injury. As it can be through this research to distinguish between the amount of variation in the work of the joint after sample underwent rehabilitation program to improve the effectiveness of the joint and naturally restore its effectiveness. Supposed researcher that there is statistically significant differences between the results of the tests pre and post the members research sample, as a result of submission the sample to the program of rehabilitation, which led to the development of muscle activity that are working on wrist joint and this is what led to note the differences between the results of the tests pre and post. The researcher used the descriptive method. The research sample included (6) of injured players in the wrist joint, as the average age (21.68) and standard deviation (1.13) either length average (178cm) and standard deviation (2.08). And the sample as evidenced homogeneous among themselves. And where the data were collected, introduced in program for statistical processing to get to the most important conclusions and recommendations and that the most important: 1-The commitment of the sample program the qualifying process variables studied in the search for the heterogeneity of study activity and effectiveness of wrist joint for injured players. 2-The analysis programmed a high accuracy in the measurement of the research variables, and which led to the possibility of discrimination into account differences in motor ability camel and injured in the wrist joint. To search recommendations including: 1-The use of computer systems in the scientific research for the possibility of obtaining accurate research results. 2-Programming exercises rehabilitation according to an expert system for possible use by patients without reference to the person processor.
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42975
Development of 3D Neck Muscle to Analyze the Effect of Active Muscle Contraction in Whiplash Injury
Abstract:
Whiplash Injuries are mostly experienced in car accidents. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies, neck pain and headaches are two most common symptoms observed. The whiplash Injury mechanism is poorly understood. In present study, hybrid neck muscle model were developed with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Solid tetrahedral elements represents passive part of the muscle whereas, 1D beam elements represents active part. To simulate the active behavior of the muscle, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.
80
84823
Developmental Differences of Elementary School Children in Knowledge Acquisition Following a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program
Abstract:
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in Greece is a highly prevalent phenomenon and yet remains largely underreported. CSA can negatively impact cognitive, emotional and psychosocial development, as well as personality formation and capacity for initiation and maintenance of healthy interpersonal relationships. It is particularly important for school-based prevention programs to be implemented early in elementary school, as they are reportedly effective in lowering abuse incidences and providing knowledge for coping in threatening environments. The purpose of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a school-based CSA prevention program (Safe-Touches) on Greek elementary school students (grades 1-3, N=272) and explore the effect of age and time of testing (academic term). There was a significant effect of age in the knowledge of Inappropriate Touch, when comparing pre and post-intervention assessments, with third graders showing greatest gains in knowledge, followed by second and first graders. Time of testing during the academic year also had a significant effect, as first graders tested later in the school year, scored higher on knowledge of Inappropriate Touch. The findings of the current study provide insight into the optimal timing to implement CSA prevention programs. Exposure to such programs and incorporation in the school curricula could largely benefit children of the Greek community in terms of safety and awareness.
79
55186
Implementing a Prevention Network for the Ortenaukreis
Abstract:
The Prevention Network Ortenaukreis, PNO, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, aims to promote physical and mental health as well as the social inclusion of 3 to 10 years old children and their families in the Ortenau district. Within a period of four years starting 11/2014 a community network will be established. One regional and five local prevention representatives are building networks with stakeholders of the prevention and health promotion field bridging the health care, educational and youth welfare system in a multidisciplinary approach. The regional prevention representative implements regularly convening prevention and health conferences. On a local level, the 5 local prevention representatives implement round tables in each area as a platform for networking. In the setting approach, educational institutions are playing a vital role when gaining access to children and their families. Thus the project will offer 18 month long organizational development processes with specially trained coaches to 25 kindergarten and 25 primary schools. The process is based on a curriculum of prevention and health promotion which is adapted to the specific needs of the institutions. Also to ensure that the entire region is reached demand oriented advanced education courses are implemented at participating day care centers, kindergartens and schools. Evaluation method: The project is accompanied by an extensive research design to evaluate the outcomes of different project components such as interview data from community prevention agents, interviews and network analysis with families at risk on their support structures, data on community network development and monitoring, as well as data from kindergarten and primary schools. The latter features a waiting-list control group evaluation in kindergarten and primary schools with a mixed methods design using questionnaires and interviews with pedagogues, teachers, parents, and children. Results: By the time of the conference pre and post test data from the kindergarten samples (treatment and control group) will be presented, as well as data from the first project phase, such as qualitative interviews with the prevention coordinators as well as mixed methods data from the community needs assessment. In supporting this project, the Federal Ministry aims to gain insight into efficient components of community prevention and health promotion networks as it is implemented and evaluated. The district will serve as a model region, so that successful components can be transferred to other regions throughout Germany. Accordingly, the transferability to other regions is of high interest in this project.
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82796
Coping Strategies Used by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Rehabilitation Hospital Based Qualitative Study
Abstract:
Sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe disruption of all aspects of a person’s life, resulting in the difficult process of coping with the distressing effects of paralysis affecting their ability to lead a meaningful life. These persons are hospitalized in the acute stage of injury and subsequently for rehabilitation and the treatment of complications. The purpose of this study was to explore coping strategies used by persons with SCI during their rehabilitation period. A qualitative study was conducted among persons with SCI, undergoing rehabilitation at the Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Hospitals, Ragama and Digana Sri Lanka. Twelve participants were selected purposively to represent both males and females, with cervical, thoracic or lumbar levels of injuries due to traumatic and non-traumatic causes as well as from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Informed consent was taken from the participants. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide to collect data. Probes were used to get more information and to encourage participants. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was conducted. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Ethics Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya. Five themes were identified in the content analysis: social support, religious beliefs, determination, acceptance and making comparisons. Participants indicated that the support from their family members had been an essential factor in coping, after sustaining an SCI and they expressed the importance of emotional support from family members during their rehabilitation. Many participants had a strong belief towards the God, who had a personal interest in their lives, played an important role in their ability to cope with the injury. They believed that what happens to them in this life results from their actions in previous lives. They expressed that determination was essential as a factor that helps them cope with their injury. They indicated their focus on the positive aspects of the life and accepted the disability. They made comparisons to other persons who were worse off than them to help lift them out of unpleasant experience. Even some of the most severely injured and disabled participants presented evidence of using this coping strategy. Identification of coping strategies used by persons with SCI will help nurses and other health-care professionals in reinforcing the most effective coping strategies among persons with SCI. The findings recommend that engagement coping positively influences psychosocial adaptation.
77
36627
Bayesian Networks Scoping the Climate Change Impact on Winter Wheat Freezing Injury Disasters in Hebei Province, China
Abstract:
Many studies report the winter is getting warmer and the minimum air temperature is obviously rising as the important climate warming evidences. The exacerbated air temperature fluctuation tending to bring more severe weather variation is another important consequence of recent climate change which induced more disasters to crop growth in quite a certain regions. Hebei Province is an important winter wheat growing province in North of China that recently endures more winter freezing injury influencing the local winter wheat crop management. A winter wheat freezing injury assessment Bayesian Network framework was established for the objectives of estimating, assessing and predicting winter wheat freezing disasters in Hebei Province. In this framework, the freezing disasters was classified as three severity degrees (SI) among all the three types of freezing, i.e., freezing caused by severe cold in anytime in the winter, long extremely cold duration in the winter and freeze-after-thaw in early season after winter. The factors influencing winter wheat freezing SI include time of freezing occurrence, growth status of seedlings, soil moisture, winter wheat variety, the longitude of target region and, the most variable climate factors. The climate factors included in this framework are daily mean and range of air temperature, extreme minimum temperature and number of days during a severe cold weather process, the number of days with the temperature lower than the critical temperature values, accumulated negative temperature in a potential freezing event. The Bayesian Network model was evaluated using actual weather data and crop records at selected sites in Hebei Province using real data. With the multi-stage influences from the various factors, the forecast and assessment of the event-based target variables, freezing injury occurrence and its damage to winter wheat production, were shown better scoped by Bayesian Network model.
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47264
Risking Injury: Exploring the Relationship between Risk Propensity and Injuries among an Australian Rules Football Team
Abstract:
Australian Rules Football (ARF) is an invasion based, contact field sport with over one million participants. The contact nature of the game increases exposure to all injuries, including head trauma. Evidence suggests that both concussion and sub-concussive traumas such as head knocks may damage the brain, in particular the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex may not reach full maturity until a person is in their early twenties with males taking longer to mature than females. Repeated trauma to the pre-frontal cortex during maturation may lead to negative social, cognitive and emotional effects. It is also during this period that males exhibit high levels of risk taking behaviours. Risk propensity and the incidence of injury is an unexplored area of research. Little research has considered if the level of player’s (especially younger players) risk propensity in everyday life places them at an increased risk of injury. Hence the current study, investigated if a relationship exists between risk propensity and self-reported injuries including diagnosed concussion and head knocks, among male ARF players aged 18 to 31 years. Method: The study was conducted over 22 weeks with one West Australian Football League (WAFL) club during the 2015 competition. Pre-season risk propensity was measured using the 7-item self-report Risk Propensity Scale. Possible scores ranged from 9 to 63, with higher scores indicating higher risk propensity. Players reported their self-perceived injuries (concussion, head knocks, upper body and lower body injuries) fortnightly using the WAFL Injury Report Survey (WIRS). A unique ID code was used to ensure player anonymity, which also enabled linkage of survey responses and injury data tracking over the season. A General Linear Model (GLM) was used to analyse whether there was a relationship between risk propensity score and total number of injuries for each injury type. Results: Seventy one players (N=71) with an age range of 18.40 to 30.48 years and a mean age of 21.92 years (±2.96 years) participated in the study. Player’s mean risk propensity score was 32.73, SD ±8.38. Four hundred and ninety five (495) injuries were reported. The most frequently reported injury was head knocks representing 39.19% of total reported injuries. The GLM identified a significant relationship between risk propensity and head knocks (F=4.17, p=.046). No other injury types were significantly related to risk propensity. Discussion: A positive relationship between risk propensity and head trauma in contact sports (specifically WAFL) was discovered. Assessing player’s risk propensity therefore, may identify those more at risk of head injuries. Potentially leading to greater monitoring and education of these players throughout the season, regarding self-identification of head knocks and symptoms that may indicate trauma to the brain. This is important because many players involved in WAFL are in their late teens or early 20’s hence, may be at greater risk of negative outcomes if they experience repeated head trauma. Continued education and research into the risks associated with head injuries has the potential to improve player well-being.
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107630
Making a Resilient Livable City: Explorations of Smart Management Mechanism for Aging Society’s Disaster Prevention
Abstract:
In the coming of an aging society, the issues of living quality, health care, and social security for the elderly have been gradually taken seriously. In order to maintain favorable living condition, urban societies are also facing the challenge of disasters caused by extreme climate change. However, in the practice of disaster prevention, elderly people are always weak due to their physiological conditions. That is to say, in the planning of resilient urbanism, the aging society is relatively in need of more care. Thus, this research aims to map areas where have high-density elderly population and fragile environmental condition in Taiwan, and to understand the actual situation of disaster prevention management in these areas, so as to provide suggestions for the development of intellectual resilient urban management. The research takes the cities of Taoyuan and Taichung as examples for explorations. According to GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential, the communities of Sihai and Fuyuan in Taoyuan and the communities of Taichang and Nanshih in Taichung are highlighted. In these communities, it can be found that there are more elderly population and less labor population with high-density living condition. In addition, they are located in the areas where they have experienced severe flooding in the recent past. Based on a series of interviews with community organizations, there is only one community out of the four using flood information mobile app and Line messages for the management of disaster prevention, and the others still rely on the traditional approaches that manage the works of disaster prevention by their community security patrol teams and community volunteers. The interview outcome shows that most elderly people are not interested in learning the use of intellectual devices. Therefore, this research suggests to keep doing the GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential for grasping the high-risk communities and to help develop smart monitor and forecast systems for disaster prevention practice in these areas. Based on case-study explorations, the research also advises that it is important to develop easy-to-use bottom-up and two-way immediate communication mechanism for the management of aging society’s disaster prevention.
74
125538
The Issue of Online Fake News and Disinformation: Criminal and Criminological Aspects of Prevention
Abstract:
The problem of 'fake news' and 'hoaxes' has dominated in recent years the field of news, politics, economy, safety, and security as dissemination of false information can intensively affect and mislead public discourse and public opinion. The widespread use of internet and social media platforms can substantially intensify these effects, which often include public fear and insecurity. Misinformation, malinformation, and disinformation have also been blamed for affecting election results in multiple countries, and since then, there have been efforts to tackle the phenomenon both on national and international level. The presentation will focus on methods of prevention of disseminating false information on social media and on the internet and will discuss relevant criminological views. The challenges that have arisen for criminal law will be covered, taking into account the potential need for a multi-national approach required in order to mitigate the extent and negative impact of the fake news phenomenon. Finally, the analysis will include a discussion on the potential usefulness of non-legal modalities of regulation and crime prevention, especially situational and social measures of prevention and the possibility of combining an array of methods to achieve better results on national and international level. This project has received funding from the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (HFRI) and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT), under grant agreement No 80529.
73
63274
Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation
Abstract:
Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.
72
24421
Possible Protective Role of Angiotensin II Antagonist on Bacterial Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury: Morphological Study on Adult Male Albino Rat
Abstract:
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the major challenges in intensive care medicine. The most common extrapulmonary cause of ALI is sepsis, accounting more than 30% of the cases in humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has gained wide acceptance as a clinically relevant model of ALI. Lipopolysaccharide is a glycoprotein forming the major constituent of bacterial endotoxin. Losartan is angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists. It is widely used for management of hypertension. It was recently suggested that losartan protects against septic ALI. It would thereby prevent LPS-induced ALI. Aim of the work and design of the experiment: This work investigated the injurious effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ALI on adult male albino rat at 24 hours and 14 days of LPS administration and the possible protective role of losartan pretreatment. LPS has deteriorated animal survival and behavior. It increased lung weight and induced lung histological damage. These changes could be much reduced by the losartan pretreatment. Conclusion: Administration of losartan before LPS could largely reduce these LPS/ ALI induced short and long term alterations. It could be recommended that patients susceptible to developing ALI, as in ICU, should receive a protective dose of angitensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker as losartan.
71
94743
Prevention of Student Radicalism in School through Civic Education
Authors:
Abstract:
Radicalism poses a real threat to Indonesia's future. The target of radicalism is the youth of Indonesia. This is proven by the majority of terrorists are young people. Radicalization is not only a repressive act but also requires educational action. One of the educational efforts is civic education. This study discusses the prevention of radicalism for students through civic education and its constraints. This is qualitative research. Data were collected through literature studies, observations and in-depth interviews. Data were validated by triangulation. The sample of this research is 30 high school students in Surakarta. Data were analyzed by the interactive model of analysis from Miles & Huberman. The results show that (1) civic education can be a way of preventing student radicalism in schools in the form of cultivating the values of education through learning in the classroom and outside the classroom; (2) The obstacles encountered include the lack of learning facilities, the limited ability of teachers and the low attention of students to the civic education.
70
14459
Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival
Abstract:
We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.
69
50422
Anti-Ulcer Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn Bark in Experimental Rats
Abstract:
The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats and pylorus ligation gastric secretion in rats. Five groups of adult wistar rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solution (ulcer control group), Omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group), and 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract in CMC solution (experimental groups), one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Rats were sacrificed and the ulcer index, gastric volume, gastric pH, free acidity, total acidity of the gastric content was determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosal injury in both model. Histological studies revealed that ulcer control group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract which showed gastric mucosal protection, reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The present finding suggests that F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically compared to the ulcer control group.
68
36467
Management of Tibial Bone Defects Following Grade Three Injury in Adults
Abstract:
Background; Massive bone gaps are common following road side accidents and injury to the tibia, specially open grade three fractures. It has been seen that the diaphyseal fractures in the tibia are prone to non-union, there are certain reasons known very well, like less soft tissues around the lower third tibia, less vascularity, less options of fixation of the fractures after trauma and prolonged surgical time, operation theatre time and special surgical means. Aim of study; To know the suitability of the ilizarov ring fixators in staged treatment of the fracture of the both bones leg, including tibia, we wish to see the role of ilizarov in management of open grade three fractures which have been operated and debrided, for getting the length use of ilizaorv ring in a tertiary canter is the aim of the study.
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95087
A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE
Abstract:
Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.
66
110358
Patient-Reported Adverse Reactions to Adolescent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disclosures and Implications for Clinical Practice
Abstract:
Current research on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) provides ample insights on best practices for caregivers and clinicians to address and reduce NSSI behavior among adolescents. However, the efficacy of evidenced-based NSSI interventions and their delivery from the perspective of adolescent patients does not receive significant attention, creating a gap between the efficacy of research-based NSSI interventions and adolescent perceptions of NSSI treatment and adolescent willingness to engage in NSSI interventions. To address the gap between practice and patient perspectives and inform more effective treatment outcomes, the current survey aims to identify major patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures from caregivers, treating mental health clinicians, and medical professionals using a mixed methods survey of 2,500 people with a history of NSSI completed by editors at a consumer-facing health publication. Based on the analyzed results of the survey, a majority of adolescents with a history of NSSI found parents and caregivers ineffective at empathetically addressing NSSI, and a significant number of participants reported at least one treating mental health professional inadequately responded to NSSI behaviors, in addition to other findings of adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures that serve as a barrier to treatment. NSSI is a significant risk factor for future suicide attempts. Addressing patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures in the adolescent population can remove barriers to the effectiveness of caregiver and clinician NSSI interventions and reduce the risk of NSSI-related harm and lower the risk of future suicide attempts or completions.
65
19811
An Inherent Risk to Damage the Popliteus Tendon by Some Femoral Component Designs: A Pilot Study in Indian Knees
Abstract:
Femoral components with inbuilt rotation require thicker flexion resection of the lateral femoral condyle and could potential risk to damage the popliteus tendon especially in the smaller Asian knees. We prospectively evaluated 10 patients with bilateral varus osteoarthritis knee to size the cuts and their location in relation to the popliteus tendon. Two different types of implant were used on either side, one side requires resection in 3° external rotation (group A) and other side femoral component with inbuilt external roation (group B). We had popliteus tendon injury in 3 knees all from group B. Risk of damaging the popliteus tendon was found higher in group B.
64
33019
The Possible Role of the Endoneurial Fibroblast-like Cells in Resolution of the Endoneurial Edema Following Nerve Crush Injury
Abstract:
Forty-two albino male rats aged between 30 and 40 days (weighted 200 g to 250 g) were used in the present study. The left sural nerves of 36 rats were subjected to crush injury at 1 to 6 weeks intervals using 6 animals at each interval. The right and left sural nerves of the rest 6 rats were used as a control. After 2 weeks of the crush injury, the endoneurium showed channel-like spaces that were lined by the fibroblast-like cells and collagen bundles. These channels contained degenerated myelin and were connected with the perivascular and subperineurial spaces. Some of the flattened fibroblast-like cells were arranged in several layers in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces, forming barrier-like cellular sheets localizing the endoneurial edema in these spaces. Fibroblast-like cells also wrapped the regenerating nerve fibers by their branching cytoplasmic processes. At the end of the third week, the flattened fibroblasts formed nearly continuous sheets in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces. Macrophages were frequently noticed between these cellular barrier-like sheets and in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces. Conclusion: it could be concluded that the endoneurial fibroblast-like cells form barrier-like cellular sheets that localized the endoneurial edema in the subperineurial and perivascular spaces and create also the endoneurial channel-like spaces containing degenerated myelin and endoneurial edema helping the resolution of such edema.
63
15361
Influence of HIV Testing on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission among Undergraduate Youths in North-West University, Mafikeng
Abstract:
This study examines factors influencing knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission (KHAPPT) among young undergraduate students (15-24 years). Knowledge composite index was computed for 820 randomly selected students. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression were used for the analyses (α=.05). The overall mean knowledge score was 16.5±3.4 out of a possible score of 28. About 83% of the students have undergone HIV test, 21.0% have high KHAPPT, 18% said there is cure for the disease, 23% believed that asking for condom is embarrassing and 11.7% said it is safe to share unsterilized sharp objects with friends or family members. The likelihood of high KHAPPT was higher among students who have had HIV test (OR=3.314; C.I=1.787-6.145, p< 0.001) even when other variables were used as control. The identified predictors of high KHAPPT were; ever had HIV test, faculty, and ever used any HIV/AIDS prevention services. North-West University Mafikeng should intensify efforts on the HIV/AIDS awareness program on the campus.
62
58980
The Optimization of Sexual Health Resource Information and Services for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury
Abstract:
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), many individuals experience anxiety in adjusting to their lives, and its impacts on their sexuality. Research has demonstrated that regaining sexual function is a very high priority for individuals with SCI. Despite this, sexual health is one of the least likely areas of focus in rehabilitating individuals with SCI. There is currently a considerable gap in appropriate education and resources that address sexual health concerns and needs of people with spinal cord injury. Furthermore, the determinants of sexual health in individuals with SCI are poorly understood and thus poorly addressed. The purpose of this study was to improve current practices by informing a service delivery model that rehabilitation centers can adopt for appropriate delivery of their services. Methodology: We utilized qualitative methods in the form of a semi-structured interview containing open-ended questions to assess 1) sexual health concerns, 2) helpful strategies in current resources, 3) unhelpful strategies in current resources, and 4) Barriers to obtaining sexual health information. In addition to the interviews, participants completed surveys to identify socio-demographic factors. Data gathered was coded and evaluated for emerging themes and subthemes through a ‘code-recode’ technique. Results: We have identified several robust themes that are important for SCI sexual health resource development. Through analysis of these themes and their subthemes, several important concepts have emerged that could provide agencies with helpful strategies for providing sexual health resources. Some of the important considerations are that services be; anonymous, accessible, frequent, affordable, mandatory, casual and supported by peers. Implications: By incorporating the perspectives of individuals with SCI, the finding from this study can be used to develop appropriate sexual health services and improve access to information through tailored needs based program development.
61
3989
Design an Architectural Model for Deploying Wireless Sensor Network to Prevent Forest Fire
Abstract:
The fires have become the most serious disasters to forest resources and the human environment. In recent years, due to climate change, human activities and other factors the frequency of forest fires has increased considerably. The monitoring and prevention of forest fires have now become a global concern for forest fire prevention organizations. Currently, the methods for forest fire prevention largely consist of patrols, observation from watch towers. Thus, software like deployment of the wireless sensor network to prevent forest fire is being developed to get a better estimate of the temperature and humidity prospects. Now days, wireless sensor networks are beginning to be deployed at an accelerated pace. It is not unrealistic to expect that in coming years the world will be covered with wireless sensor networks. This new technology has lots of unlimited potentials and can be used for numerous application areas including environmental, medical, military, transportation, entertainment, crisis management, homeland defense, and smart spaces.
60
47927
Formulation of a Stress Management Program for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants
Abstract:
As for any nuclear power plant, human error is one of the most dreaded factors that may result in unexpected accidents. Thus, for accident prevention, it is quite indispensable to analyze and to manage the influence of any factor which may raise the possibility of human errors. Among lots factors, stress has been reported to have significant influence on human performance. Stress level of a person may fluctuate over time. To handle the possibility over time, robust stress management program is required, especially in nuclear power plants. Therefore, to overcome the possibility of human errors, this study aimed to develop a stress management program as a part of Fitness-for-Duty (FFD) Program for the workers in nuclear power plants. The meaning of FFD might be somewhat different by research objectives, appropriate definition of FFD was accomplished in this study with special reference to human error prevention, and diverse stress factors were elicited for management of human error susceptibility. In addition, with consideration of conventional FFD management programs, appropriate tests and interventions were introduced over the whole employment cycle including selection and screening of workers, job allocation, job rotation, and disemployment as well as Employee-Assistance-Program (EAP). The results showed that most tools mainly concentrated their weights on common organizational factors such as Demands, Supports, and Relationships in sequence, which were referred as major stress factors.
59
20764
The Modern Era in the Cricket World: How Far Have We Really Come?
Abstract:
History of Cricket: Cricket has a known history spanning from the 16th century till present, with international matches having been played since 1844. The game of cricket arrived in Australia as soon as colonization began in 1788. Cricketers started playing on turf wickets in the late 1800’s and dimensions for both the boundary and pitch later became assimilated. As the years evolved, cricket bats and balls, protective equipment, playing surfaces and the three formats of the game adapted to the playing conditions and laws of cricket. Business of Cricket: During the late 1900's, the shorter version of the game (T20) was introduced in order to attract the crowds to stadiums and television viewers for broadcasting rights. One could argue if this was merely a business venture or a platform for enhancing the performance of cricketers. Between the 16th and 20th century, cricket was a common sport played for passion and pure enjoyment. Industries saw a potential in diversified business ventures in the game (as well as other sports played globally) and cricket subsequently became a career for players, administrators and coaches, the media, health professionals, managers and the corporate world. Pros and Cons of Cricket Developments: At present, the game has significantly gained from the use of technology, sports sciences and varied mechanisms to optimize the performances and forecast frameworks for injury prevention in cricket players. Unfortunately, these had not been utilized in the earlier times of cricket and it would prove interesting to observe how the greats of the game would have benefited with such developments. Cricketers in the 21st century are faced with many overwhelming commitments. One of these is playing cricket for 11 months in a year, making it more than 250 days away from home and their families. As the demand of player contracts increase, the supply of commitment and performances from players increase. Way Forward and Future Implications: The questions are: Are such disadvantages contributing to the overload and injury risks of players? How far have we really come in the cricketing world or has everything since the game’s inception become institutionalized with a business model? These are the fundamental questions which need to be addressed and legislation, policies and ethical considerations need to be drafted and implemented. These will ensure that there is equilibrium of effective transitions and management of not only the players, but also the credibility of the wonderful game.
58
29311
Brain-Motor Disablement: Using Virtual Reality-Based Therapeutic Simulations
Abstract:
Virtual-reality-based technology, i.e. video-game-like simulations (collectively, VRSims) are used in therapy for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on criteria for selecting VRSims to augment treatment of survivors of acquired brain injury. Specifically, for treatments to improve or restore brain motor function in upper extremities affected by paresis or paralysis. Six uses of virtual reality are reviewed video games for entertainment, training simulations, unassisted or device-assisted movements of affected or unaffected extremities displayed in virtual environments and virtual anatomical interactivity.
57
90794
Caring for a Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy Receiving Hospice Palliative Care
Abstract:
Patients with spinal cord injury combined with diabetic nephropathy may under a lot of painful conditions due to complications related to the illness itself or treatments, such as recurrent pressure ulcers, autonomic and peripheral neuropathy, as well as dialysis, for long term. This case report illustrated the nursing experience of transferring a spine cord injure patient who received hemodialysis due to adverse lifestyle-induced diabetic nephropathy to the hospice ward. Nursing care was provided in this patient from July 25th to August 30th, 2015. The tool of 'Gordon’s 11-item functional health assessment' and clinical observation, interviews as well as physical examination were used as data collections. Based on results of health assessment as above, the patient’s health problems were identified as the following: impaired skin integrity, chronic pain, and hopeless. Besides to relieve the symptom of pain due to disease or the treatment of hemodialysis and provide wound care, the first author also played a role to assist the patient to achieve his goal of receiving the hospice palliative care. Finally, with much effort of nurses to communicate with medical teams between the surgical and hospice wards, the patient was transferred to the hospice ward to have fulfilled his last wish of having a good death. We hope this nursing experience can be applied to other similar cases in the future.
56
34398
Place and Situational Management in Crime Prevention
Authors:
Abstract:
Doctrines associated with situational prevention considers 'place of committing crime' as one of the fundamental elements of a crime. Meanwhile, with regard to causing or having effect on a crime situation, 'place' can be one of the pivotal indices in situational prevention analyses. This study aims at examining the role of place in construction of a crime situation and explaining the relationship between 'place' and situational preventive measures and procedures. Also, how to identify high-crime places, types of high-crime places and the factors influencing their creation are among the most important secondary objectives of this article. Concerning the purpose, it is a practical study whose material has been written through a documentary method using original sources (English), books and written and translated articles etc. This article is written in two main parts. In the first section, cognitive-conceptual issues about 'place' as one of the main causes of crime situation, and its effective interaction with situational preventive measures will be reviewed. The second part of this paper will focus on criminological examination of places and critical locations of crime and provide situational preventive measures to deal with the situation. 'Crime displacement' and 'geographical distribution of benefits'are also considered as the possible consequences of implementing preventive strategies. The results of the study suggest that the inventory of offenses is distributed according to the spatial characteristics. Moreover, according to the criminological characteristics governing region or location, offenders choose the place of crime based on a logical calculation. Therefore, some locations, regions or neighborhoods are permanent places of occurring lots of crimes. As a result, considering "place", preventive measures and procedures can be systematically directed, and using the most effective ways, limited preventive resources are utilized in the most critical places. Finally, some suggestions for further research and application are provided in line with more favorable promotion of situational preventive measures.
55
83414
Concussion: Clinical and Vocational Outcomes from Sport Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:
There is an increasing incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases throughout sport and with this, a growing interest from governing bodies to ensure these are managed appropriately and player welfare is prioritised. The Berlin consensus statement on concussion in sport recommends a multidisciplinary approach when managing those patients who do not have full resolution of mTBI symptoms. There are as of yet no standardised guideline to follow in the treatment of complex cases mTBI in athletes. The aim of this project was to analyse the outcomes, both clinical and vocational, of all patients admitted to the mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) service at the UK’s Defence Military Rehabilitation Centre Headley Court between 1st June 2008 and 1st February 2017, as a result of a sport induced injury, and evaluate potential predictive indicators of outcome. Patients were identified from a database maintained by the mTBI service. Clinical and occupational outcomes were ascertained from medical and occupational employment records, recorded prospectively, at time of discharge from the mTBI service. Outcomes were graded based on the vocational independence scale (VIS) and clinical documentation at discharge. Predictive indicators including referral time, age at time of injury, previous mental health diagnosis and a financial claim in place at time of entry to service were assessed using logistic regression. 45 Patients were treated for sport-related mTBI during this time frame. Clinically 96% of patients had full resolution of their mTBI symptoms after input from the mTBI service. 51% of patients returned to work at their previous vocational level, 4% had ongoing mTBI symptoms, 22% had ongoing physical rehabilitation needs, 11% required mental health input and 11% required further vestibular rehabilitation. Neither age, time to referral, pre-existing mental health condition nor compensation seeking had a significant impact on either vocational or clinical outcome in this population. The vast majority of patients reviewed in the mTBI clinic had persistent symptoms which could not be managed in primary care. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of mTBI has resulted in excellent clinical outcomes in these complex cases. High levels of symptom resolution suggest that this referral and treatment pathway is successful and is a model which could be replicated in other organisations with consultant led input. Further understanding of both predictive and individual factors would allow clinicians to focus treatments on those who are most likely to develop long-term complications following mTBI. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary service ensures a large number of patients will have complete resolution of mTBI symptoms after sport-related mTBI. Further research is now required to ascertain the key predictive indicators of outcome following sport-related mTBI.
54
115125
Impact of Transgenic Adipose Derived Stem Cells in the Healing of Spinal Cord Injury of Dogs
Abstract:
The primary spinal cord injury (SCI) causes mechanical damage to the neurons and blood vessels. It leads to secondary SCI, which activates multiple pathological pathways, which expand neuronal damage at the injury site. It is characterized by vascular disruption, ischemia, excitotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death. It causes nerve demyelination and disruption of axons, which perpetuate a loss of impulse conduction through the injured spinal cord. It also leads to the production of myelin inhibitory molecules, which with a concomitant formation of an astroglial scar, impede axonal regeneration. The pivotal role regarding the neuronal necrosis is played by oxidation and inflammation. During an early stage of spinal cord injury, there occurs an abundant expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to defective mitochondrial metabolism and abundant migration of phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils). ROS cause lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane, and cell death. Abundant migration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes collectively produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidases which synergize neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, it is crucial to control inflammation and oxidation injury to minimize the nerve cell death during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, in response to oxidation and inflammation, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by the resident cells to ameliorate the milieu. In the meanwhile, neurotrophic factors are induced to promote neuroregeneration. However, it seems that anti-stress enzyme (HO-1) and neurotrophic factor (BDNF) do not significantly combat the pathological events during secondary spinal cord injury. Therefore, optimum healing can be induced if anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are administered in a higher amount through an exogenous source. During the first experiment, the inflammation and neuroregeneration were selectively targeted. HO-1 expressing MSCs (HO-1 MSCs) and BDNF expressing MSCs (BDNF MSC) were co-transplanted in one group (combination group) of dogs with subacute spinal cord injury to selectively control the expression of inflammatory cytokines by HO-1 and induce neuroregeneration by BDNF. We compared the combination group with the HO-1 MSCs group, BDNF MSCs group, and GFP MSCs group. We found that the combination group showed significant improvement in functional recovery. It showed increased expression of neural markers and growth-associated proteins (GAP-43) than in other groups, which depicts enhanced neuroregeneration/neural sparing due to reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-6 and COX-2; and increased expression of anti-inflammatory markers such as IL-10 and HO-1. Histopathological study revealed reduced intra-parenchymal fibrosis in the injured spinal cord segment in the combination group than in other groups. Thus it was concluded that selectively targeting the inflammation and neuronal growth with the combined use of HO-1 MSCs and BDNF MSCs more favorably promote healing of the SCI. HO-1 MSCs play a role in controlling the inflammation, which favors the BDNF induced neuroregeneration at the injured spinal cord segment of dogs.
53
43202
Health Education and Information: A Panacea to Tuberculosis Prevention and Eradication in Nigeria
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Nigeria, being one of the ten leading causes of hospital admissions and a leading cause of death in adults, especially among the economically productive age group. This paper critically examined the importance of health education towards the eradication and prevention of tuberculosis in Nigeria. It was reviewed and discussed under the following subheadings; Global burden of tuberculosis in Nigeria, concept, definition and etiology of tuberculosis, Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis, causative agent, modes of infection and incubation period, risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis Dots and stop TB programmes in Nigeria Treatment and prevention of tuberculosis TB treatment strategies, Dealing with treatment problems in Nigeria Stigmatization against Tuberculosis Patients Health education as a tool for achieving free tuberculosis country. Emphasis for Tb control has been placed on the development of improved vaccines, diagnostic and treatment courses but less on health education and awareness. Although the need for these tools is indisputable, the obstacle facing the spread of TB go beyond technological. The findings of this study may stimulate health system policy makers, Government and non- governmental organizations, donor agencies and other stakeholders in planning and designing health education intervention programs on the control and eradication of tuberculosis. It therefore recommended that Government should implement health education as part of the DOTs, this will thus empower the tuberculosis patients on ways to live healthy, lifestyle, in doing this, they will recover fast and prevent them from spreading the disease.
52
78396
Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska
Abstract:
As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.
51
37481
The Use of Venous Glucose, Serum Lactate and Base Deficit as Biochemical Predictors of Mortality in Polytraumatized Patients: Acomparative with Trauma and Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evalution IV
Abstract:
Aim of the work: To evaluate the effectiveness of venous glucose, levels of serum lactate and base deficit in polytraumatized patients as simple parameters to predict the mortality in these patients. Compared to the predictive value of Trauma and injury severity (TRISS) and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV). Introduction: Trauma is a serious global health problem, accounting for approximately one in 10 deaths worldwide. Trauma accounts for 5 million deaths per year. Prediction of mortality in trauma patients is an important part of trauma care. Several trauma scores have been devised to predict injury severity and risk of mortality. The trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) was most common used. Regardless of the accuracy of trauma scores, is based on an anatomical description of every injury and cannot be assigned to the patients until a full diagnostic procedure has been performed. So we hypothesized that alterations in admission glucose, lactate levels and base deficit would be an early and easy rapid predictor of mortality. Patient and Method: a comparative cross-sectional study. 282 Polytraumatized patients attended to the Emergency Department(ED) of the Suez Canal university Hospital constituted. The period from 1/1/2012 to 1/4/2013 was included. Results: We found that the best cut off value of TRISS probability of survival score for prediction of mortality among poly-traumatized patients is = 90, with 77% sensitivity and 89% specificity using area under the ROC curve (0.89) at (95%CI). APACHE IV demonstrated 67% sensitivity and 95% specificity at 95% CI at cut off point 99. The best cutoff value of Random Blood Sugar (RBS) for prediction of mortality was>140 mg/dl, with 89%, sensitivity, 49% specificity. The best cut off value of base deficit for prediction of mortality was less than -5.6 with 64% sensitivity, 93% specificity. The best cutoff point of lactate for prediction of mortality was > 2.6 mmol/L with 92%, sensitivity, 42% specificity. Conclusion: According to our results from all evaluated predictors of mortality (laboratory and scores) and mortality based on the estimated cutoff values using ROC curves analysis, the highest risk of mortality was found using a cutoff value of 90 in TRISS score while with laboratory parameters the highest risk of mortality was with serum lactate > 2.6 . Although that all of the three parameter are accurate in predicting mortality in poly-traumatized patients and near with each other, as in serum lactate the area under the curve 0.82, in BD 0.79 and 0.77 in RBS.
50
95035
Healthcare Professionals' Utilization of Physical Exercise as a Strategy to Prevent Non-Communicable Diseases in Ethiopian Public Sector Hospitals
Abstract:
Background: Despite the recognized benefits of physical exercise, including a reduction of health risk factor indicators, illness and deaths related to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, the extent of its recognition and use as a prevention strategy by healthcare professionals working in Ethiopian referral hospitals is unknown. Objective: This study explored healthcare professionals’ use of physical exercise as a non-communicable disease prevention strategy in the Ethiopian public sector healthcare system. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was conducted after being piloted to ensure validity and reliability. For the study, 312 participants were selected from 13 purposively selected Ethiopian referral hospitals, these being 99 physicians who were purposively selected and 213 nurses who were proportionately and randomly selected. Results: The results indicated that three-quarters (78%) of healthcare professionals working in Ethiopian hospitals are not using physical exercise as a strategy to prevent NCDs. Increased specialization (AOR = 20.203, p < 0.001), longer service years (AOR = 0.041, p = 0.014), young age (AOR = 19.871, p < 0.001), and being male (AOR = 0.269, p < 0.001), were predictors of using physical exercise as a strategy for the prevention of NCDs. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals’ utilization of physical exercise as a strategy for NCDs prevention was inadequate in Ethiopia. Given the increasing burden of NCD disease in Ethiopia, training nurses, physicians and medical managers have to acknowledge the use of physical exercise as an NCD prevention strategy. The results of this study highlight the importance of formulating physical exercise intervention strategies for NCDs patients, and the need to incorporate training for healthcare professionals on the type, intensity, duration, and frequency of physical exercise to prevent NCDs in the Ethiopian healthcare system.
49
32173
Intrusion Detection Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Review
Abstract:
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the (MANETS) prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in (MANETs). The authentication and encryption is considered the first solution of the MANETs problem where as now these are not sufficient as MANET use is increasing. In this paper we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in MANET and aim to comparing in some important fields.
48
11037
Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Abstract:
The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.
47
22194
Injury Characteristics and Outcome of Road Traffic Accident among Victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abstract:
Background: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world’s roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the Africa. Methods: A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims’ ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Long-distance travelling Minibus (16.5%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic crash followed by followed by Taxi (14.8%) and pedestrians (62.6%) accounted for the majority of road traffic accident. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Treatment of fracture was the most common procedure performed in 57.7 % of the victims. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4 %. A significant higher proportion of victims aged 14-55 years were had less likelihood of death compared to those victims aged more than 55 years of age [Adjusted OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.82)]. Conclusions: This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings reflect that road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.
46
99646
Waste Prevention and Economic Policy: Policy Tools for Increasing Resource Efficiency and Savings
Abstract:
Waste related environmental problems are not only exploding but are also spotlighted for capacity shortages in recycling, as China announced its ban on waste imports. According to the waste hierarchy, prevention is the primary solution for waste, and also the cheapest. Waste related environmental pollution as externality puts an ever-growing burden on communities bearing the social costs. Economic policies often claim to be pro-environment, this often appears only theoretically, or at the level of principles. There are few concrete occurrences of tools in economic policies, such as green taxes, that are truly effective in stimulating the shift towards waste reduction. The paper presents theoretical economic policy tools based on literature review, and case studies on applied economic policy tools by analyzing policy papers, strategies in force, in line with ‘polluter pays’ and ‘extended producer responsibility’ principles. The study also emphasizes the differences between the broader notion of waste reduction and that of waste minimization, parallel to the difference between resource efficiency and resource savings. It also puts the issue in the context of neoclassical environmental economics and ecological economics, to present alternatives in approach. The research concludes in identifying effective economic policy tools that support the reduction of material use, and the prevention of waste. Consumer and producer awareness of waste problems and consciousness related to their choices are inevitable to make economic policy tools work effectively.
45
18435
The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia
Abstract:
This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.
44
81747
Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study
Abstract:
Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.
43
42346
Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting
Abstract:
The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.
42
120676
Net Work Meta Analysis to Identify the Most Effective Dressings to Treat Pressure Injury
Abstract:
Background and objectives: There are many topical treatments available for Pressure Injury (PI) treatment, yet there is a lack of evidence with regards to the most effective treatment. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of various topical treatments and identify the best treatment choice(s) for PI healing. Methods: Network meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials that compared the two or more of the following dressing groups: basic, foam, active, hydroactive, and other wound dressings. The outcome complete healing following treatment and the generalised pair-wise modelling framework was used to generate mixed treatment effects against hydroactive wound dressing, currently the standard of treatment for PIs. All treatments were then ranked by their point estimates. Main Results: 40 studies (1,757 participants) comparing 5 dressing groups were included in the analysis. All dressings groups ranked better than basic (i.e. saline gauze or similar inert dressing). The foam (RR 1.18; 95%CI 0.95-1.48) and active wound dressing (RR 1.16; 95%CI 0.92-1.47) ranked better than hydroactive wound dressing in terms of healing of PIs when the latter was used as the reference group. Conclusion & Recommendations: There was considerable uncertainty around the estimates, yet, the use of hydroactive wound dressings appear to perform better than basic dressings. Foam and active wound dressing groups show promise and need further investigation. High-quality research on clinical effectiveness of the topical treatments are warranted to identify if foam and active wound dressings do provide advantages over hydroactive dressings.
41
96389
Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation in Pediatric Population with Acquired Brain Injury: A Pilot Study
Abstract:
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any physical and functional injury secondary to events that affect the brain tissue. It is one of the biggest causes of disability in the world and it has a high annual incidence in the pediatric population. There are several causes of ABI such as traumatic brain injury, central nervous system infection, stroke, hypoxia, tumors and others. The consequences can be cognitive, behavioral, emotional and functional. The cognitive rehabilitation is necessary to achieve the best outcomes for pediatric people with ABI. Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) is an individualized client-centered, performance-based, problem-solving approach that focuses on the strategy used to support the acquisition of three client-chosen goals. It has demonstrated improvements in the pediatric population with other neurological disorder but not in Spanish speakers with ABI. Aim: The main objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of cognitive orientation to daily occupational performances (CO-OP) adapted to Spanish speakers, in the level of independence and behavior in a pediatric population with ABI. Methods: Case studies with measure pre/post-treatment were used in three children with ABI, sustained at least before 6 months assessment, in school, aged 8 to 16 years, age ABI after 6 years old and above average intellectual ability. Twelve sessions of CO-OP adapted to Spanish speakers were used and videotaped. The outcomes were based on cognitive, behavior and functional independence measurements such as Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VINELAND, Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS) and others neuropsychological measures. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Universidad del Norte in Colombia. Informed parental written consent was obtained for all participants. Results: children were able to identify three goals and use the global strategy ‘goal-plan-do-check’ during each session. Verbal self-instruction was used by all children. CO-OP showed a clinically significant improvement in goals regarding with independence level and behavior according to parents and teachers. Conclusion: The results indicated that CO-OP and the use of a global strategy such as ‘goal-plan-do-check’ can be used in children with ABI in order to improve their specific goals. This is a preliminary version of a big study carrying in Colombia as part of the experimental design.
40
93187
The Effects of Smoking Prevention Intervention on Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficiency among Adolescent Students
Abstract:
Objectives: Smoking is a common addictive behavior in teenagers. Long-term smoking is hazardous to health, causes family and social expenditure, and is an important topic that should not be overlooked by academia or the government. The aims of this study are to examine the effectiveness of these courses in terms of teenagers’ knowledge and attitudes towards the hazards of smoking and the effectiveness of their self-efficacy in rejecting smoking. Methods: This study adopted a pre-test post-test design and selected 7th, 8th, 10th, and 11th graders from two junior high schools. Total of 1073 valid questionnaires were collected. The self-completed questionnaire included background information, smoking status of relatives staying with the subject, attitudes of parents towards child smoking, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, and anti-smoking self-efficacy. Results and clinical applications: Subjects in the experimental group underwent course interventions, which are 'smoking prevention courses,' in the semester. After course intervention, it was found that the intervention showed significant efficacy in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in rejecting smoking in senior high school students but no efficacy in junior high school. We recommend that this course can be used in normal senior high schools. With regards to junior high schools, smoking prevention courses should be designed to be gamified, or combined with activities with both anti-smoking messages and entertainment at the same time, so that knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy can be subconsciously cultivated.
39
92063
A Literature Review on Sexual Abuse Prevention for People with Intellectual Disability
Abstract:
People with intellectual disability are at high risk for sexual abuse. The reasons may originate from their communication skills deficits, lack of skills and knowledge to protect themselves from sexual abuse, or limited access to sexual abuse prevention programs. This article aims to present a systematic review about strategies for preventing sexual abuse for young people with intellectual disability. A range of articles in 10 years from 2009 to 2018 are searched by using online database. 5 papers are included for the final review. The results of this comprehensive literature review showed that there are two main strategies used: programs designed for people with intellectual, including evaluation on sex education programs; and sexual education program for parents of children with intellectual disability. However, none of the papers were conducted in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, cautions should be taken when it comes to interpret these findings. The findings of studies showed that participants increased their awareness and skills for protecting themselves from sexual abuse after participating in the programs. It is also recommended that more effective evidence-based programs should be developed.
38
56701
Trauma Scores and Outcome Prediction After Chest Trauma
Abstract:
Background: Early assessment of severity of chest trauma, either blunt or penetrating is of critical importance in prediction of patient outcome. Different trauma scoring systems are widely available and are based on anatomical or physiological parameters to expect patient morbidity or mortality. Up till now, there is no ideal, universally accepted trauma score that could be applied in all trauma centers and is suitable for assessment of severity of chest trauma patients. Aim: Our aim was to compare various trauma scoring systems regarding their predictability of morbidity and mortality in chest trauma patients. Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective study including 400 patients with chest trauma who were managed at Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Egypt during a period of 2 years (March 2014 until March 2016). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the mode of trauma: blunt or penetrating. The collected data included age, sex, hemodynamic status on admission, intrathoracic injuries, and associated extra-thoracic injuries. The patients outcome including mortality, need of thoracotomy, need for ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome were also recorded. The relevant data were used to calculate the following trauma scores: 1. Anatomical scores including abbreviated injury scale (AIS), Injury severity score (ISS), New injury severity score (NISS) and Chest wall injury scale (CWIS). 2. Physiological scores including revised trauma score (RTS), Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score. 3. Combined score including Trauma and injury severity score (TRISS ) and 4. Chest-Specific score Thoracic trauma severity score (TTSS). All these scores were analyzed statistically to detect their sensitivity, specificity and compared regarding their predictive power of mortality and morbidity in blunt and penetrating chest trauma patients. Results: The incidence of mortality was 3.75% (15/400). Eleven patients (11/230) died in blunt chest trauma group, while (4/170) patients died in penetrating trauma group. The mortality rate increased more than three folds to reach 13% (13/100) in patients with severe chest trauma (ISS of >16). The physiological scores APACHE II and RTS had the highest predictive value for mortality in both blunt and penetrating chest injuries. The physiological score APACHE II followed by the combined score TRISS were more predictive for intensive care admission in penetrating injuries while RTS was more predictive in blunt trauma. Also, RTS had a higher predictive value for expectation of need for mechanical ventilation followed by the combined score TRISS. APACHE II score was more predictive for the need of thoracotomy in penetrating injuries and the Chest-Specific score TTSS was higher in blunt injuries. The anatomical score ISS and TTSS score were more predictive for prolonged hospital stay in penetrating and blunt injuries respectively. Conclusion: Trauma scores including physiological parameters have a higher predictive power for mortality in both blunt and penetrating chest trauma. They are more suitable for assessment of injury severity and prediction of patients outcome.
37
91909
Understanding Neuronal and Glial Cell Behaviour in Multi-Layer Nanofibre Systems to Support the Development of an in vitro Model of Spinal Cord Injury and Personalised Prostheses for Repair
Abstract:
Aligned electrospun nanofibres act as effective neuronal and glial cell scaffolds that can be layered to contain multiple sheets harboring different cell populations. This allows personalised biofunctional prostheses to be manufactured with both acellular and cellularised layers for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Additionally, the manufacturing route may be configured to produce in-vitro 3D cell based model of spinal cord injury to aid drug development and enhance prosthesis performance. The goal of this investigation was to optimise the multi-layer scaffold design parameters for prosthesis manufacture, to enable the development of multi-layer patient specific implant therapies. The work has also focused on the fabricating aligned nanofibre scaffolds that promote in-vitro neuronal and glial cell population growth, cell-to-cell interaction and long-term survival following trauma to mimic an in-vivo spinal cord lesion. The approach has established reproducible lesions and has identified markers of trauma and regeneration marked by effective neuronal migration across the lesion with glial support. The investigation has advanced the development of an in-vitro model of traumatic spinal cord injury and has identified a route to manufacture prostheses which target the repair spinal cord injury. Evidence collated to investigate the multi-layer concept suggests that physical cues provided by nanofibres provide both a natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM) like environment and controls cell proliferation and migration. Specifically, aligned nanofibre layers act as a guidance system for migrating and elongating neurons. On a larger scale, material type in multi-layer systems also has an influence in inter-layer migration as cell types favour different material types. Results have shown that layering nanofibre membranes create a multi-level scaffold system which can enhance or prohibit cell migration between layers. It is hypothesised that modifying nanofibre layer material permits control over neuronal/glial cell migration. Using this concept, layering of neuronal and glial cells has become possible, in the context of tissue engineering and also modelling in-vitro induced lesions.
36
105103
Work-Related Shoulder Lesions and Labor Lawsuits in Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study on Worker Health Actions Developed by Employers
Abstract:
Introduction: The present study had the objective to present the profile of workers with shoulder disorders related to labor lawsuits in Brazil. The study analyzed the association between the worker&rsquo;s health and the actions performed by the companies related to injured professional. The research method performed a retrospective, cross-sectional and quantitative database analysis. The documents of labor lawsuits with shoulder injury registered at the Regional Labor Court in the 15th region (Campinas - S&atilde;o Paulo) were submitted to the medical examination and evaluated during the period from 2012 until 2015. The data collected were age, gender, onset of symptoms, length of service, current occupation, type of shoulder injury, referred complaints, type of acromion, associated or related diseases, company actions as CAT (workplace accident communication), compliance of NR7 by the organization (Environmental Risk Prevention Program - PPRA and Medical Coordination Program in Occupational Health - PCMSO). Results: From the 93 workers evaluated, there was a prevalence of men (58.1%), with a mean age of 42.6 y-o, and 54.8% were included in the age group 35-49 years. Regarding the length of work time in the company, 66.7% have worked for more than 5 years. There was an association between gender and current occupational status (p &lt; 0.005), with predominance of women in household occupation (13 vs. 2) and predominance of unemployed men in job search situation (24 vs. 10) and reintegrated to work by judicial decision (8 vs. 2). There was also a correlation between pain and functional limitation (p &lt; 0.01). There was a positive association of PPRA with the complaint of functional limitation and negative association with pain (p &lt; 0.04). There was also a correlation between the sedentary lifestyle and the presence of PCMSO and PPRA (p &lt; 0.04), and the absence of CAT in the companies (p &lt; 0.001). It was concluded that the appearance or aggravation of osseous and articular shoulder pathologies in workers who have undertaken labor law suits seem to be associated with individual habits or inadequate labor practices. These data can help preventing the occurrence of these lesions by implementing local health promotion policies at work.
35
63465
Meld of Lactobacillus and Rangiferinus for Emendation of Endotoxemia in Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats
Abstract:
Oxidative stress has been increasingly associated with the induction and progression of liver damage. The current study was conducted to record the effect of combination of Lactobacillus and Lichen rangiferinus extract (LRE + Lac) on the severity of injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease and how it affects plasma levels of prostaglandin E2, endotoxin, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene B4. Male Wistar rats were grouped into five comprising six animals in each group. Group 1 served as negative control. Groups 2-5 were administered 10% ethanol for six weeks. Group 3 was administered with extract (200 mg/kg), group 4 received the diet containing 10% ethanol plus a bolus of lactobacilli GG (1010 CFU), and group 5 animals were given silymarin along with alcohol and it served as positive control. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein content, γ-glutamyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress markers, glutathione, malondialdehyde and glutathione reductase were determined using standard diagnostic kits. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also made. A positive relation was found between plasma endotoxin levels and degree of liver injury. The pathology records were also related positively with leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2. But a negative correlation was obtained with PgE2 levels. This study led us to hypothesize that the increased endotoxin levels modulate liver metabolism of eicosanoid, which gradually leads to liver injury. Endotoxemia increases leukotriene and thromboxane levels in plasma.
34
93915
Chronic Cognitive Impacts of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Aging
Abstract:
To the extent of our knowledge, there has been little interest in the chronic effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on cognition during normal aging. This is rather surprising considering the impacts on daily and social functioning. In addition, sustaining a mTBI during late adulthood may increase the effect of normal biological aging in individuals who consider themselves normal and healthy. The objective of this study was to characterize the persistent neuropsychological repercussions of mTBI sustained during late adulthood, on average 12 months prior to testing. To this end, 35 mTBI patients and 42 controls between the ages of 50 and 69 completed an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment lasting three hours. All mTBI patients were asymptomatic and all participants had a score ≥ 27 at the MoCA. The evaluation consisted of 20 standardized neuropsychological tests measuring memory, attention, executive and language functions, as well as information processing speed. Performance on tests of visual (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised) and verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and WMS-IV Logical Memory subtest), lexical access (Boston Naming Test) and response inhibition (Stroop) revealed to be significantly lower in the mTBI group. These findings suggest that a mTBI sustained during late adulthood induces lasting effects on cognitive function. Episodic memory and executive functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to enduring mTBI effects.
33
59107
The Differences and Similarities in Neurocognitive Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression
Authors:
Abstract:
Depression is the most common mood disorder experienced by patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with poorer cognitive functional outcomes. However, in some cases, similar cognitive impairments can also be observed in depression. There is not enough information about the features of the cognitive deficit in patients with TBI in relation to patients with depression. TBI patients without depressive symptoms (TBInD, n25), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (TBID, n31), and 28 patients with bipolar II disorder (BP) were included in the study. There were no significant differences in participants in respect to age, handedness and educational level. The patients clinical status was determined by using Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All participants completed a cognitive battery (The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A)). Additionally, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) was used to assess visuospatial construction abilities and visual memory, as well as planning and organizational skills. Compared to BP, TBInD and TBID showed a significant impairments in visuomotor abilities, verbal and visual memory. There were no significant differences between BP and TBID groups in working memory, speed of information processing, problem solving. Interference effect (cognitive inhibition) was significantly greater in TBInD and TBID compared to BP. Memory bias towards mood-related information in BP and TBID was greater in comparison with TBInD. These results suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with impairments some executive functions in combination at decrease of speed of information processing.
32
63016
Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats
Abstract:
Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.
31
65698
Study of Age-Dependent Changes of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Apoptotic Properties
Abstract:
Aging has a suppressive influence on human immune cells. Apoptosis may play important role in age-dependent immunosuppression and lymphopenia. Prevention of apoptosis may be promoted by BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent manner. BCL2 is an antiapoptotic factor that has an antioxidative role by locating the glutathione at mitochondria and repressing oxidative stress. STAT3 may suppress apoptosis in BCL2-independent manner and promote cell survival blocking cytochrome-c release and reducing ROS production. The aim of our study was to estimate the influence of aging on BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis via measurement of BCL2 and STAT3 mRNAs expressions. The study was done on Armenian population (2 groups: 37 healthy young (mean age±SE; min/max age, male/female: 37.6±1.1; 20/54, 15/22), 28 healthy aged (66.7±1.5; 57/85, 12/16)). mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was determined by RT-PCR using PSMB2 as the reference gene. Statistical analysis was done with Graph-Pad Prism 5; P < 0.05 considered as significant. The expression of BCL2 mRNA was lower in aged group (0.199) compared with young ones (0.643)(p < 0.01). Decrease expression was also recorded for female and male subgroups (p < 0.01). The expression level of STAT3 mRNA was increased (young, 0.228; aged, 0.428) (p < 0.05) during aging (in the whole age group and male/female subgroups). Decreased level of BCL2 mRNA may indicate about the suppression of BCL2-dependent prevention of apoptosis during aging in peripheral blood leukocytes. At the same time increased the level of STAT3 may suggest about activation of BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis during aging.
30
115520
Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana
Abstract:
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.
29
115519
Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana
Abstract:
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.
28
114999
Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana
Abstract:
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.
27
115517
Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana
Abstract:
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.
26
115518
Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana
Abstract:
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.
25
78165
Muslim Husbands’ Participation in Women’s Health and Illness: A Descriptive Exploratory Study Applied to Muslim Women in Indonesia
Abstract:
Muslim husbands have significant roles in the family including their roles in women’s health and illness. However, studies that explore Muslim husbands’ participation in women’s health is limited. The objective of this study was to uncover Muslim husbands’ participation in women’ health and illness including cancer prevention and screening. A descriptive exploratory approach was used involving 20 Muslim women from urban and rural areas of West Java Province, Indonesia. Muslim women shared experience related to their husbands support and activities in women’s health and illness. The data from the interviews were analyzed using the Comparative Analysis for Interview (CAI). Women perceived that husbands fully supported their health by providing opportunities for activities, and reminding them about healthy food, their workloads, and family planning. Husbands actively involved when women faced health issues including sharing knowledge and experience, discussing any health problems, advising for medical check-ups, and accompanying them for treatments. The analysis also found that husbands were less active and offered less advice regarding prevention and early detection of cancer. This study highlights the significant involvement of Muslim husbands in women’s health and illness, yet a lack of support from husbands related to screening and cancer prevention. This condition could be a burden for Muslim women to participate in health programs related to cancer prevention and early detection. Health education programs to improve Muslim husbands’ understanding of women’s health is needed.
24
97571
The Trend of Injuries in Building Fire in Tehran from 2002 to 2012
Abstract:
Analysis of fire data is a way for the implementation of any plan to improve the level of safety in cities. Such an analysis is able to reveal signs of changes in a given period and can be used as a measure of safety. The information of about 66,341 fires (from 2002 to 2012) released by Tehran Safety Services and Fire-Fighting Organization and data on the population and the number of households provided by Tehran Municipality and the Statistical Yearbook of Iran were extracted. Using the data, the fire changes, the rate of injuries, and mortality rate were determined and analyzed. The rate of injuries and mortality rate of fires per one million population of Tehran were 59.58% and 86.12%, respectively. During the study period, the number of fires and fire stations increased by 104.38% and 102.63%, respectively. Most fires (9.21%) happened in the 4th District of Tehran. The results showed that the recorded fire data have not been systematically planned for fire prevention since one of the ways to reduce injuries caused by fires is to develop a systematic plan for necessary actions in emergency situations. To determine a reliable source for fire prevention, the stages, definitions of working processes and the cause and effect chains should be considered. Therefore, a comprehensive statistical system should be developed for reported and recorded fire data.
23
125230
The Long – Term Effects of a Prevention Program on the Number of Critical Incidents and Sick Leave Days: A Decade Perspective
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: This study explores the effectiveness of refresher training sessions of an intervention program at reducing the employees’ risk of injury due to patient violence in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Methods: The original safety intervention program that consisted of a 3 days’ workshop was conducted in the maximum-security ward of a psychiatric hospital in Israel. Ever since the original intervention, annual refreshers were conducted, highlighting one of the safety elements covered in the original intervention. The study examines the effect of the intervention program along with the refreshers over a period of 10 years in four wards. Results: Analysis of the data demonstrates that beyond the initial reduction following the original intervention, refreshers seem to have an additional positive long-term effect, reducing both the number of violent incidents and the number of actual employee injuries in a forensic psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: We conclude that such an intervention program followed by refresher training would promote employees’ wellbeing. A healthy work environment is part of management’s commitment to improving employee wellbeing at the workplace.
22
107488
Effects of Repetitive Strain/Stress Injury on the Human Body
Authors:
Abstract:
This review describes some of the effects of repetitive strain/stress injury (RSI) on the human body especially among computer professionals today that spend extended hours of prolonged sitting in front of a computer day in and day out. The review briefly introduces the main factors that contribute to an increase of RSI among such computer professionals. The review briefly discusses how the human spinal column and knees are mainly affected by the onset of RSI resulting in poor posture. The root and secondary causes and effects of RSI are reviewed. The importance and value of the various breathing techniques are reviewed in an attempt to alleviate some of the effects of RSI. The review concludes with a small sample of suggested office stretches and poses geared towards at reducing RSI follows in this review. Readers will learn about the effects of RSI, as well as ways to cope with it. A better understanding of coping strategies may lead to well-being and a healthier overall lifestyle. Ultimately, the investment of time to connect with oneself with the poses and the power of the breath would promote a well-being that is overall healthier thus resulting in a better ability to cope/manage life stresses.
21
103240
A Study on Occupational Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Bhubaneswar City Odisha
Authors:
Abstract:
In India, construction industry plays a vital role in the development of infrastructures. It is one of the most hazardous industries. Construction workers are a group that is particularly vulnerable to health risks because they have few legal protection. India has the world’s highest accident rate among construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occupation injury among construction workers and to find out the factors responsible for such injuries. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire among 305 construction workers in Bhubaneswar city. In this study, it was found that the overall prevalence of injury was 43.28% in the previous one year period. Majority of the construction workers were less experience in the construction work. Factors responsible for injuries are fall of the object followed by striking, and majority of the workers reported their injuries to have occurred in the summer season. And most of the construction workers are not using personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusion: Given the occupational injuries, the majority of the construction workers are injured in this study; there is a need to address this issue to ensure necessary step for the safety and well-being of construction workers.
20
107927
Women's Perceptions of Zika Virus Prevention Recommendations: A Tale of Two Cities within Fortaleza, Brazil
Abstract:
Zika virus (ZIKV) reemerged as a global threat in 2015 with Brazil at its epicenter. Brazilians have a long history of combatting Aedes aegypti mosquitos as it is a common vector for dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. As a response to the epidemic, public health authorities promoted ZIKV prevention behaviors such as mosquito bite prevention, reproductive counseling for women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy, pregnancy avoidance, and condom use. Most prevention efforts from Brazil focused on the mosquito vector- utilizing recycled dengue approaches without acknowledging the context in which women were able to adhere to these prevention messages. This study used qualitative methods to explore how women in Fortaleza, Brazil perceive ZIKV, the Brazilian authorities’ ZIKV prevention recommendations, and the feasibility of adhering to these recommendations. A core study aim was to look at how women perceive their physical, social, and natural environment as it impacts women’s ability to adhere to ZIKV prevention behaviors. A Rapid Anthropological Assessment (RAA) containing observations, informational interviews, and semi-structured in-depth interviews were utilized for data collection. The study utilized Grounded Theory as the systematic inductive method of analyzing the data collected. Interviews were conducted with 35 women of reproductive age (15-39 years old), who primarily utilize the public health system. It was found that women’s self-identified economic class was associated with how strongly women felt they could prevent ZIKV. All women interviewed technically belong to the C-class, the middle economic class. Although all members of the same economic class, there was a divide amongst participants as to who perceived themselves as higher C-class versus lower C-class. How women saw their economic status was dictated by how they perceived their physical, social, and natural environment. Women further associated their environment and their economic class to their likelihood of contracting ZIKV, their options for preventing ZIKV, their ability to prevent ZIKV, and their willingness to attempt to prevent ZIKV. Women’s perceived economic status was found to relate to their structural environment (housing quality, sewage, and locations to supplies), social environment (family and peer norms), and natural environment (wetland areas, natural mosquito breeding sites, and cyclical nature of vectors). Findings from this study suggest that women’s perceived environment and economic status impact their perceived feasibility and desire to attempt behaviors to prevent ZIKV. Although ZIKV has depleted from epidemic to endemic status, it is suggested that the virus will return as cyclical outbreaks like that seen with similar arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. As the next ZIKV epidemic approaches it is essential to understand how women perceive themselves, their abilities, and their environments to best aid the prevention of ZIKV.
19
21901
Hepatic Regenerative Capacity after Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mouse Model
Abstract:
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic that is safe at therapeutic doses. The mouse model of APAP has been extensively used for studies on pathogenesis and intervention of drug induced liver injury based on the CytP450 mediated formation of N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinoneimine and, more recently, as model for mechanism based biomarkers. Delay of the fasted CD1 mice to rebound to the basal level of hepatic GSH compare to fed mice is reported in this study. Histologically, 15 hours fasted mice prior to APAP treatment leading to overall more intense cell loss with no evidence of apoptosis as compared to non-fasted mice, where the apoptotic cells were clearly seen on cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining. After 15 hours post APAP administration, hepatocytes underwent stage of recovery with evidence of mitotic figures in fed mice and return to completely no histological difference to control at 24 hours. On the contrary, the evidence of ongoing cells damage and inflammatory cells infiltration are still present on fasted mice until the end of the study. To further measure the regenerative capacity of the hepatocytes, the inflammatory mediators of cytokines that involved in the progression or regression of the toxicity like TNF-α and IL-6 in liver and spleen using RT-qPCR were also included. Yet, quantification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has demonstrated the time for hepatic regenerative in fasted is longer than that to fed mice. Together, these data would probably confirm that fasting prior to APAP treatment does not only modulate liver injury, but could have further effects to delay subsequent regeneration of the hepatocytes.
18
75179
Crash and Injury Characteristics of Riders in Motorcycle-Passenger Vehicle Crashes
Abstract:
The motorcycle has become one of the most common type of vehicles used on the road, particularly in the Asia region, including Malaysia, due to its size-convenience and affordable price. This study focuses only on crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars consisting 43 real world crashes obtained from in-depth crash investigation process from June 2016 till July 2017. The study collected and analyzed vehicle and site parameters obtained during crash investigation and injury information acquired from the patient-treating hospital. The investigation team, consisting of two personnel, is stationed at the Emergency Department of the treatment facility, and was dispatched to the crash scene once receiving notification of the related crashes. The injury information retrieved was coded according to the level of severity using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and classified into different body regions. The data revealed that weekend crashes were significantly higher for the night time period and the crash occurrence was the highest during morning hours (commuting to work period) for weekdays. Bad weather conditions play a minimal effect towards the occurrence of motorcycle &ndash; passenger vehicle crashes and nearly 90% involved motorcycles with single riders. Riders up to 25 years old are heavily involved in crashes with passenger vehicles (60%), followed by 26-55 year age group with 35%. Male riders were dominant in each of the age segments. The majority of the crashes involved side impacts, followed by rear impacts and cars outnumbered the rest of the passenger vehicle types in terms of crash involvement with motorcycles. The investigation data also revealed that passenger vehicles were the most at-fault counterpart (62%) when involved in crashes with motorcycles and most of the crashes involved situations whereby both of the vehicles are travelling in the same direction and one of the vehicles is in a turning maneuver. More than 80% of the involved motorcycle riders had sustained yellow severity level during triage process. The study also found that nearly 30% of the riders sustained injuries to the lower extremities, while MAIS level 3 injuries were recorded for all body regions except for thorax region. The result showed that crashes in which the motorcycles were found to be at fault were more likely to occur during night and raining conditions. These types of crashes were also found to be more likely to involve other types of passenger vehicles rather than cars and possess higher likelihood in resulting higher ISS (&gt;6) value to the involved rider. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand the characteristics concerned and focus may be given on crashes involving passenger vehicles as the most dominant crash partner on Malaysian roads.
17
89072
Use of Selected Cytokines in the Early SIRS/MODS Diagnostic Testing at Patients after Trauma
Abstract:
Post-traumatic mortality rates are still very high and show an increasing tendency. Early identification of patients at high risk of severe complications has a significant impact on treatment outcomes. The aim of the study was to better understand the early pathological inflammatory response to injury and infection and to determine the usefulness of the assessment of TNF-α and sTNFR1 concentrations in the peripheral blood as early indicators of severe post-traumatic complications. The study was carried out in a group of 51 patients after trauma treated in the ED, including 32 patients that met inclusion criteria for immunological analysis. Patients were divided into two groups using the ISS scale (group A with ISS ≥20, group B with ISS
16
113870
Core Stability Training and the Young Para-Swimmers’ Results on 50 Meters and 100 Meters Freestyle
Abstract:
Background: Central stabilisation training aims to improve neuromuscular coordination. It is used in the form of injury prevention and completing the swimmers' process. The aim of the study was to access the impact of this training on the results by disabled swimmers at 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Material/Method: 20 competitors with similar dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, randomly assigned to the experimental and control group, participated in the study. Each group consisted of 7 swimmers started in competitions from the standing starting position, and 3 started from the water. The study included a 4-week set of stabilization exercises, 4 times a week instead of pulling by legs. Exercises were held under specialist swimming conditions and involved controlled circuit muscle movements while maintaining a floating stable position in the water. Results: All groups improved their 'best times' besides swimmers started from standing position in the control group. There were no significant differences between intergroup and intra-group results, both at distance 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Conclusions: Better improvements in the experimental group were noted, but this effect cannot be attributed to 4-week stabilisation training. However, this investigation might suggest that this type of training could be beneficial for junior disabled swimmers.
15
35124
Therapeutic Effects of Toll Like Receptor 9 Ligand CpG-ODN on Radiation Injury
Authors:
Abstract:
Exposure to ionizing radiation causes severe damage to human body and an safe and effective radioprotector is urgently required for alleviating radiation damage. In 2008, flagellin, an agonist of TLR5, was found to exert radioprotective effects on radiation injury through activating NF-kB signaling pathway. From then, the radioprotective effects of TLR ligands has shed new lights on radiation protection. CpG-ODN is an unmethylated oligonucleotide which activates TLR9 signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that CpG-ODN has therapeutic effects on radiation injuries induced by γ ray and 12C6+ heavy ion particles. Our data showed that CpG-ODN increased the survival rate of mice after whole body irradiation and increased the number of leukocytes as well as the bone marrow cells. CpG-ODN also alleviated radiation damage on intestinal crypt through regulating apoptosis signaling pathway including bcl2, bax, and caspase 3 etc. By using a radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, we found that CpG-ODN could alleviate structural damage, within 20 week after whole–thorax 15Gy irradiation. In this model, Th1/Th2 imbalance induced by irradiation was also reversed by CpG-ODN. We also found that TGFβ-Smad signaling pathway was regulated by CpG-ODN, which accounts for the therapeutic effects of CpG-ODN in radiation-induced pulmonary injury. On another hand, for high LET radiation protection, we investigated protective effects of CpG-ODN against 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation and found that after CpG-ODN treatment, the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by 12C6+ irradiation was reduced. CpG-ODN also reduced the expression of Bax and caspase 3, while increased the level of bcl2. Then we detected the effect of CpG-ODN on heavy ion induced immune dysfunction. Our data showed that CpG-ODN increased the survival rate of mice and also the leukocytes after 12C6+ irradiation. Besides, the structural damage of immune organ such as thymus and spleen was also alleviated by CpG-ODN treatment. In conclusion, we found that TLR9 ligand, CpG-ODN reduced radiation injuries in response to γ ray and 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation. On one hand, CpG-ODN inhibited the activation of apoptosis induced by radiation through regulating bcl2, bax and caspase 3. On another hand, through activating TLR9, CpG-ODN recruit MyD88-IRAK-TRAF6 complex, activating TAK1, IRF5 and NF-kB pathway, and thus alleviates radiation damage. This study provides novel insights into protection and therapy of radiation damages.
14
45042
Needs for Primary Prevention in Families with Mentally Ill Parents
Abstract:
Children of mentally ill parents are a large high risk group for mental disorders which is hardly reached by preventive programs. The children inherit a heightened risk to develop a mental disorder themselves during their lifetime, but they and their parents are often rejecting to seek help. To elicit the factors determining this prevention dilemma, an explorative qualitative interview study is conducted in 25 families with mentally ill parents and yet unaffected children. Inclusion criteria are the children’s age (7 to 14 years old) and that these children live together with the affected parent. With regard to the concept of Mental Health Literacy the following research questions are leading the Qualitative Content Analysis: What are the needs of families with mentally ill parents? How can their help-seeking behaviour be described? What are their subjective illness theories? And which influences do gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status have on needs, help-seeking and illness theories? Mental Health Literacy relates to the knowledge and attitudes towards mental disorders influencing the recognition, management or prevention of these disorders. The concept seems to be an interesting starting point for our analysis with the aim to understand antecedences and processes in the families more deeply. Results of an extensive literature review serve as deductive framework for our analysis, first findings from the interviews will be available up to the time of the conference and can be presented. They hopefully will give inside in the families’ living environment and help to adapt/develop interventions and in the long term reduce health inequalities. The project at hand is part of the Health Literacy in Childhood and Adolescence (HLCA) Research Consortium financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
13
19340
The Psychological Impact of Acute Occupational Hand Trauma
Abstract:
This study expands on recent findings and offers a new perspective on recovery from injury and return to work (RTW) after an acute traumatic occupational hand injury. Recovery is a complex medical and psychosocial process. A number of predictor variables were studied simultaneously to identify the bio-psychosocial variables that impede recovery. An unexpected phenomenon to emerge from this study was the high incidence of complications within the hand-injured patient sample. Twenty six percent (n = 71) of the total sample (N = 263) required a second operation due to complications. This warranted further investigation. Results confirmed that complications not only significantly delayed the RTW outcome but also had a profound psychological impact on the individuals affected. Research has found that surgical complications are usually the result of incorrect early assessment and management. A strategic plan needs to be implemented to ensure the optimal level of surgical care is provided for managing acute traumatic hand injuries to avoid such complications.
12
75468
Smartphone Based Wound Assessment System for Diabetes Patients
Abstract:
Diabetic foot ulcers speak to a critical medical problem. Right now, clinicians and medical caretakers primarily construct their injury evaluation in light of visual examination of wound size and mending status, while the patients themselves rarely have a chance to play a dynamic part. Henceforth, love quantitative and practical examination technique that empowers the patients and their parental figures to take a more dynamic part in every day wound care possibly can quicken wound recuperating, spare travel cost and diminish human services costs. Considering the commonness of cell phones with a high-determination computerized camera, evaluating wounds by breaking down pictures of ceaseless foot ulcers is an alluring choice. In this paper, we propose a novel injury picture examination framework actualized using feature extraction and color segmentation. Here we are using the Normalized minimum distance classifier for classifying the output.
11
51509
Assessment of Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in Construction Accident Prevention
Abstract:
Majority of the incidents and accidents in complex high-risk systems that exist in the construction industry and other sectors have been attributed to unsafe acts of workers. The purpose of this paper was to asses Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in construction accident prevention. The study was conducted through the use of secondary data from journals, books and internet to achieve the objective of the study. The review of literature looked into details of different views from different scholars about HFACS framework in accidents investigations. It further highlighted on various sections or disciplines of accident occurrences in human performance within the construction. The findings from literature review showed that unsafe acts of a worker and unsafe working conditions are the two major causes of accident in the construction industry.Most significant factor in the cause of site accident in the construction industry is unsafe acts of a worker. The findings also show how the application of HFACS framework in the investigation of accident will lead to the identification of common trends. Further findings show that provision for the prevention of accident will be made based on past accident records to identify and prioritize where intervention is needed within the construction industry.
10
63848
Classification System for Soft Tissue Injuries of Face: Bringing Objectiveness to Injury Severity
Abstract:
Introduction: Despite advances in trauma care, a classification system for soft tissue injuries of the face still needs to be objectively defined. Aim: To develop a classification system for soft tissue injuries of the face; that is objective, easy to remember, reproducible, universally applicable, aids in surgical management and helps to develop a structured data that can be used for future use. Material and Methods: This classification system includes those patients that need surgical management of facial injuries. Associated underlying bony fractures have been intentionally excluded. Depending upon the severity of soft tissue injury, these can be graded from 0 to IV (O-Abrasions, I-lacerations, II-Avulsion injuries with no skin loss, III-Avulsion injuries with skin loss that would need graft or flap cover, and IV-complex injuries). Anatomically, the face has been divided into three zones (Zone 1/2/3), as per aesthetic subunits. Zone 1e stands for injury of eyebrows; Zones 2 a/b/c stand for nose, upper eyelid and lower eyelid respectively; Zones 3 a/b/c stand for upper lip, lower lip and cheek respectively. Suffices R and L stand for right or left involved side, B for presence of foreign body like glass or pellets, C for extensive contamination and D for depth which can be graded as D 1/2/3 if depth is still fat, muscle or bone respectively. I is for damage to facial nerve or parotid duct. Results and conclusions: This classification system is easy to remember, clinically applicable and would help in standardization of surgical management of soft tissue injuries of face. Certain inherent limitations of this classification system are inability to classify sutured wounds, hematomas and injuries along or against Langer’s lines.
9
24492
Translation and Adaptation of Computer Assisted ASPIRA Smoking Prevention Program in Romania
Abstract:
Introduction: Online smoking prevention programs became popular in the last time. In order to extend the use of such programs, existing applications can be adapted and translated in the native languages of the target groups. It is the first time that in Romania such a software was implemented. Our goal was to provide a computer-aided intervention with attractive content targeting high school students who are familiar with information and communication technology. Material and methods: ASPIRA is the Romanian/Hungarian adapted version of a smoking prevention program created in USA. Prior to apply the questionnaire and ASPIRA online program which contains five modules that include tests, videos and interactive games, the program was tested in some IT laboratories on a group of schoolchildren and students. The pilot study questionnaires were completed considering the opinions of young people and the functionality of the software. Results: Above 90% of participants reported a good or very good impression about the ASPIRA program. Only a small minority found that the program included some parts which were too long or reported the existence of any technical problems regarding the functionality of the software. 76% of the participants had little or very little difficulty in understanding the messages presented by the English speaking characters. Only 7.5% of the participants thought that the program included content that was not appropriate for the local culture. Conclusions: The vast majority of students reported favorite impressions about ASPIRA online program. High school students and boys were more critical. Language and cultural barriers did not have the potential to reduce in a significant manner the effectiveness of the tested program.
8
19278
The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Oil with Use of Ciprofloxacin Induced Germ Cell Toxicity in Male Albino Mice
Abstract:
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the germ cell toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin antibiotic and the Protective effect of grape seed oil, Ciproflaxin uses include treatment of genitor-urinary and some reproductive tract bacterial infections. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury, the possible protective effect of grape seed oil, against ciprofloxacin induced reproductive toxicity on mouse .the animals were randomly divided into four groups consisting of five mice. Group (1) was orally given distilled water (solvent of the used drugs) and kept as a control. Group (2) was administered 6ml/kg. b.w of grape seed oil orally 15 days .Group (3) was administered 206mg/kg. b.w of ciprofloxacin orally for 15 days.. Last group was treated orally with Grape seed oil (6mg/kg b.w. /day) prior to an orally administered ciprofloxacin (CPX) at a dose of 206 mg⁄kg. b.w. by three hours for fifteen days. Ciproflaxin have ability to induce various types of sperm abnormalities such as (Sperm without head, sperm without tail, defective head spearm,swollen head sperm ), The results explored that Grape seed oil possesses statistically significant (p< 0.05) protective potential against Ciproflaxin by decreasing sperm abnormalities frequency in mouse.
7
87434
The Role of Organizational Identity in Disaster Response, Recovery and Prevention: A Case Study of an Italian Multi-Utility Company
Abstract:
Identity plays a critical role when an organization faces disasters. Individuals reflect on their working identities and identify themselves with the group and the organization, which facilitate collective sensemaking under crisis situations and enable coordinated actions to respond to and recover from disasters. In addition, an organization’s identity links it to its regional community, which fosters the mobilization of resources and contributes to rapid recovery. However, identity is also problematic for disaster prevention because of its persistence. An organization’s ego-defenses system prohibits the rethink of its identity and a rigid identity obstructs disaster prevention. This research aims to tackle the ‘problem’ of identity by study in-depth a case of an Italian multi–utility which experienced the 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes. Collecting data from 11 interviews with top managers and key players in the local community and archived materials, we find that the earthquakes triggered the rethink of the organization’s identity, which got reinforced afterward. This research highlighted the importance of identity in disaster response and recovery. More importantly, it explored the solution of overcoming the barrier of ego-defense that is to transform the organization into a learning organization which constantly rethinks its identity.
6
5936
The Effects of Health Education Programme on Knowledge and Prevention of Cerebrovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan
Authors:
Abstract:
This study examines the effects of health education programme on knowledge and prevention of cerebrovascular disease among hypertensive patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. 100 hypertensive patients were conveniently selected from general outpatient department in UCH. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that health education programme significantly influenced both the knowledge of hypertensive patients (F=22.70; DF=1/99; p < .05) and their attitude (F=10.377; DF=1/99; p < .05) on cerebrovascular disease. Findings also discovered that health education programme significantly reduce the complication of hypertension to cerebrovascular disease (F= 16.41; DF=7/286; p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients at UCH. Based on the findings, it is recommended that hypertensive patients should relieve themselves from stress, engage themselves on regular exercises, compliance with drug and diet regimes coupled with keeping up of regular appointment. Government should design health information that will center on hypertension and cerebrovascular disease so as to keep health and community development problems to the barest minimum. Finally, there should be provision of social amenities and recreational centers, as this will prevents hypertension problems.
5
125471
Data Challenges Facing Implementation of Road Safety Management Systems in Egypt
Abstract:
Implementing a Road Safety Management System (SMS) in a crowded developing country such as Egypt is a necessity. Beginning a sustainable SMS requires a comprehensive reliable data system for all information pertinent to road crashes. In this paper, a survey for the available data in Egypt and validating it for using in an SMS in Egypt. The research provides some missing data, and refer to the unavailable data in Egypt, looking forward to the contribution of the scientific society, the authorities, and the public in solving the problem of missing or unreliable crash data. The required data for implementing an SMS in Egypt are divided into three categories; the first is available data such as fatality and injury rates and it is proven in this research that it may be inconsistent and unreliable, the second category of data is not available, but it may be estimated, an example of estimating vehicle cost is available in this research, the third is not available and can be measured case by case such as the functional and geometric properties of a facility. Some inquiries are provided in this research for the scientific society, such as how to improve the links among stakeholders of road safety in order to obtain a consistent, non-biased, and reliable data system.
4
79860
Traumatic Brain Injury Neurosurgical Care Continuum Delays in Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda
Abstract:
Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can develop rapid neurological deterioration from swelling and intracranial hematomas, which can result in focal tissue ischemia, brain compression, and herniation. Moreover, delays in management increase the risk of secondary brain injury from hypoxemia and hypotension. Therefore, in TBI patients with subdural hematomas (SDHs) and epidural hematomas (EDHs), surgical intervention is both necessary and time sensitive. Significant delays are seen along the care continuum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) largely due to limited healthcare capacity to address the disproportional rates of TBI in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). While many LMICs have subsidized systems to offset surgical costs, the burden of securing funds by the patients for medications, supplies, and CT diagnostics poses a significant challenge to timely surgical interventions. In Kampala Uganda, the challenge of obtaining timely CT scans is twofold: logistical and financial barriers. These bottlenecks contribute significantly to the care continuum delays and are associated with poor TBI outcomes. Objective: The objectives of this study are to 1) describe the temporal delays through a modified three delays model that fits the context of neurosurgical interventions for TBI patients in Kampala and 2) investigate the association between delays and mortality. Methods: Prospective data were collected for 563 TBI patients presenting to a tertiary hospital in Kampala from 1 June – 30 November 2016. Four time intervals were constructed along five time points: injury, hospital arrival, neurosurgical evaluation, CT results, and definitive surgery. Time interval differences among mild, moderate and severe TBI and their association with mortality were analyzed. Results: The mortality rate of all TBI patients presenting to MNRH was 9.6%, which ranged from 4.7% for mild and moderate TBI patients receiving surgery to 81.8% for severe TBI patients who failed to receive surgery. The duration from injury to surgery varied considerably across TBI severity with the largest gap seen between mild TBI (174 hours) and severe TBI (69 hours) patients. Further analysis revealed care continuum differences for interval 3 (neurosurgical evaluation to CT result) and 4 (CT result to surgery) between severe TBI patients (7 hours for interval 3 and 24 hours for interval 4) and mild TBI patients (19 hours for interval 3, and 96 hours for interval 4). These post-arrival delays were associated with mortality for mild (p=0.05) and moderate TBI (p=0.03) patients. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis using a modified 'three delays' framework to analyze the care continuum of TBI patients in Uganda from injury to surgery. We found significant associations between delays and mortality for mild and moderate TBI patients. As it currently stands, poorer outcomes were observed for these mild and moderate TBI patients who were managed non-operatively or failed to receive surgery while surgical services were shunted to more severely ill patients. While well intentioned, high mortality rates were still observed for the severe TBI patients managed surgically. These results suggest the need for future research to optimize triage practices, understand delay contributors, and improve pre-hospital logistical referral systems.
3
89410
A Multifactorial Algorithm to Automate Screening of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Cases in Clinical and Post-Marketing Settings
Abstract:
Background: Hepatotoxicity can be linked to a variety of clinical symptoms and histopathological signs, posing a great challenge in the surveillance of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) cases in the safety database. Additionally, the majority of such cases are rare, idiosyncratic, highly unpredictable, and tend to demonstrate unique individual susceptibility; these qualities, in turn, lend to a pharmacovigilance monitoring process that is often tedious and time-consuming. Objective: Develop a multifactorial algorithm to assist pharmacovigilance physicians in identifying high-risk hepatotoxicity cases associated with DILI from the sponsor’s safety database (Argus). Methods: Multifactorial selection criteria were established using Structured Query Language (SQL) and the TIBCO Spotfire® visualization tool, via a combination of word fragments, wildcard strings, and mathematical constructs, based on Hy’s law criteria and pattern of injury (R-value). These criteria excluded non-eligible cases from monthly line listings mined from the Argus safety database. The capabilities and limitations of these criteria were verified by comparing a manual review of all monthly cases with system-generated monthly listings over six months. Results: On an average, over a period of six months, the algorithm accurately identified 92% of DILI cases meeting established criteria. The automated process easily compared liver enzyme elevations with baseline values, reducing the screening time to under 15 minutes as opposed to multiple hours exhausted using a cognitively laborious, manual process. Limitations of the algorithm include its inability to identify cases associated with non-standard laboratory tests, naming conventions, and/or incomplete/incorrectly entered laboratory values. Conclusions: The newly developed multifactorial algorithm proved to be extremely useful in detecting potential DILI cases, while heightening the vigilance of the drug safety department. Additionally, the application of this algorithm may be useful in identifying a potential signal for DILI in drugs not yet known to cause liver injury (e.g., drugs in the initial phases of development). This algorithm also carries the potential for universal application, due to its product-agnostic data and keyword mining features. Plans for the tool include improving it into a fully automated application, thereby completely eliminating a manual screening process.
2
62627
mRNA Biomarkers of Mechanical Asphyxia-Induced Death in Cardiac Tissue
Abstract:
Mechanical asphyxia is one of the main cause of death; however, death by mechanical asphyxia may be difficult to prove in court, particularly in cases in which corpses exhibit no obvious signs of asphyxia. To identify a credible biomarker of asphyxia, we first examined the expression levels of all the mRNAs in human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia and compared these expression levels with those of the corresponding mRNAs in specimens subjected to craniocerebral injury. A total of 119 differentially expressed mRNAs were selected and the expression levels of these mRNAs were examined in 44 human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia, craniocerebral injury, hemorrhagic shock and other causes of death. We found that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 were up-regulated in tissue specimens of mechanical asphyxia compared with control tissues, with no significant correlation between age, environmental temperature and PMI, indicating that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 may associate with mechanical asphyxia-induced death and can thus serve as useful biomarkers of death by mechanical asphyxia.
1
28033
Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression
Abstract:
The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.