Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review
Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.
Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Performance: A System Dynamics Approach
We are living in knowledge based economy where firms can gain competitive advantage with the help of managing knowledge within the organization. The purpose the study is to develop a conceptual model to explain the relationship between factors affecting knowledge sharing, called as knowledge enablers, in an organization, knowledge sharing activities and organizational performance, using system dynamics approach. This research is important since it will provide better understandings on what are the key knowledge enablers to support knowledge sharing activities, and how knowledge sharing activities will affect the capability of an organization to enhance the performance of the organization.
The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing
The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.
A Framework for Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) as a Key Role in Relationship
The customer’s value has become obvious for the leading companies in today’s competitive environment. Therefore they are constantly trying to improve their relationship with customers. Customer Knowledge has been recognized as a strategic resource and a key to the success of any company. Talking about the Customer Knowledge Management is closely associated with Knowledge Management and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Recent studies conducted in the fields of Knowledge Management (KM) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has explained that the two approaches can have great synergies. In this paper, our aim is to provide an understanding of Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) as an integrated management approach and competence it requires. We describe CKM as an ongoing process of generating, disseminating and using customer knowledge within an organization and between an organization and its customers. In addition, we propose a comprehensive framework of CKM, the ability to integrate customer knowledge into customer relationship management processes.
Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge
Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.
Effect of Incentives on Knowledge Sharing and Learning: Evidence from the Indian IT Sector
The organizations in the knowledge economy era have recognized the importance of building knowledge assets for sustainable growth and development. In comparison to other industries, Information Technology (IT) enterprises, holds an edge in developing an effective Knowledge Management (KM) program, thanks to their in-house technological abilities. This paper tries to study the various knowledge-based incentive programs and its effect on Knowledge Sharing and Learning in the context of the Indian IT sector. A conceptual model is developed linking KM incentives, knowledge sharing, and learning. A questionnaire study is conducted to collect primary data from the knowledge workers of the IT organizations located in India. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modeling using Partial Least Square method. The results show a strong influence of knowledge management incentives on knowledge sharing and an indirect influence on learning.
The Work System Method for Designing Knowledge Mobilization Projects
Could the Work System Approach (WSA) function as a framework for designing high-impact knowledge mobilization systems? This paper put forward arguments in favor of the applicability of WSA for knowledge mobilization design based on evidences from a practical research. Normative approaches for practitioners are highly needed especially in the field of knowledge management (KM), given the abysmal rate of disappointment and failure of KM projects. The paper contrasts knowledge management and knowledge mobilization, presents the WSA and showed how the WSA’s concepts and ideas fit with the approach adopted by a multinational company in designing a successful knowledge mobilization initiative.
Management of Indigenous Knowledge: Expectations of Library and Information Professionals in Developing Countries
This paper examines the challenges facing library and information centers (LICs) in managing indigenous knowledge in academic libraries in developing countries. The need for managing an indigenous knowledge in library and information centers in developing nations is becoming more critical. There is an ever increasing output of indigenous knowledge; effective management of indigenous knowledge becomes necessary to enable the next generation benefit from them. This paper thus explores the concept of indigenous knowledge (IK), nature of indigenous knowledge (IK), the various forms of indigenous knowledge (IK), sources of indigenous knowledge (IK), and relevance of indigenous knowledge (IK). The expectations of library and information professionals towards effective management of indigenous knowledge and the challenges to effective management of indigenous knowledge were highlighted. Recommendations were made based on the identified challenges.
Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube
A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.
Presenting a Knowledge Mapping Model According to a Comparative Study on Applied Models and Approaches to Map Organizational Knowledge
Mapping organizational knowledge is an innovative concept and useful instrument of representation, capturing and visualization of implicit and explicit knowledge. There are a diversity of methods, instruments and techniques presented by different researchers following mapping organizational knowledge to reach determined goals. Implicating of these methods, it is necessary to know their exigencies and conditions in which those can be used. Integrating identified methods of knowledge mapping and comparing them would help knowledge managers to select the appropriate methods. This research conducted to presenting a model and framework to map organizational knowledge. At first, knowledge maps, their applications and necessity are introduced because of extracting comparative framework and detection of their structure. At the next step techniques of researchers such as Eppler, Kim, Egbu, Tandukar and Ebner as knowledge mapping models are presented and surveyed. Finally, they compare and a superior model would be introduced.
Contestation of Local and Non-Local Knowledge in Developing Bali Cattle at Barru Regency, Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia
The aim of this study was to identify local and non local knowledge in Bali cattle development, to analyze the contestation between local and non-local knowledge. The paradigm used was constructivism paradigm with a qualitative approach. descriptive type of research using case study method. The study was conducted in four villages subjected to Agropolitan Program, i.e. Palakka, Tompo, Galung and Anabanua in Barru District, province of South Sulawesi. The results indicated that the local knowledge of the farmers were: a) knowledge of animal housing, b) knowledge of the prevention and control disease, c) knowledge of the feed, d) knowledge of breed selection, e) knowledge of sharing arrangement, f) knowledge of marketing, Generally, there are three patterns of knowledge contestation namely coexistence, ‘zero sum game’ and hybridization but in this research only coexistence and zero sum game patterns took place, while the pattern of hybridization did not occur.
Creation and Management of Knowledge for Organization Sustainability and Learning
This paper appreciates the emergence and growing importance as a new production factor makes the development of technologies, methodologies and strategies for measurement, creation, and diffusion into one of the main priorities of the organizations in the knowledge society. There are many models for creation and management of knowledge and diverse and varied perspectives for study, analysis, and understanding. In this article, we will conduct a theoretical approach to the type of models for the creation and management of knowledge; we will discuss some of them and see some of the difficulties and the key factors that determine the success of the processes for the creation and management of knowledge.
Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education
Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – complexity leadership that encompasses multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. The success of higher education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge sharing and knowledge applications. In this paper are the elements of globalization, the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization are discussed. The complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.
Investigating the Interaction of Individuals' Knowledge Sharing Constructs
Knowledge sharing is a practice where individuals commonly exchange both tacit and explicit knowledge to jointly create a new knowledge. Knowledge management literature vividly express that knowledge sharing is the keystone and perhaps it is the most important aspect of knowledge management. To enhance the understanding of knowledge sharing domain, this study is aimed to investigate some factors that could influence employee’s attitude and behaviour to share their knowledge. The researchers employed the social exchange theory as a theoretical foundation for this study. Three essential factors namely: Trust, mutual reciprocity and perceived enjoyment that could influence knowledge sharing behaviour has been incorporated into a research model. To empirically validate this model, data was collected from one hundred and twenty respondents. The multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and trust have a significant influence on knowledge sharing. Surprisingly, mutual reciprocity did not influence knowledge sharing. The paper concludes by highlight the practical implications of the findings and areas for future research to consider.
Knowledge Audit Model for Requirement Elicitation Process
Knowledge plays an important role to the success of any organization. Software development organizations are highly knowledge-intensive organizations especially in their Requirement Elicitation Process (REP). There are several problems regarding communicating and using the knowledge in REP such as misunderstanding, being out of scope, conflicting information and changes of requirements. All of these problems occurred in transmitting the requirements knowledge during REP. Several researches have been done in REP in order to solve the problem towards requirements. Knowledge Audit (KA) approaches were proposed in order to solve managing knowledge in human resources, financial, and manufacturing. There is lack of study applying the KA in requirements elicitation process. Therefore, this paper proposes a KA model for REP in supporting to acquire good requirements.
Knowledge Development: How New Information System Technologies Affect Knowledge Development
Knowledge development is a proactive process that covers collection, analysis, storage and distribution of information that helps to contribute the understanding of the environment. To transfer knowledge correctly and fastly, you have to use new emerging information system technologies. Actionable knowledge is only of value if it is understandable and usable by target users. The purpose of the paper is to enlighten how technology eases and affects the process of knowledge development. While preparing the paper, literature review, survey and interview methodology will be used. The hypothesis is that the technology and knowledge development are inseparable and the technology will formalize the DIKW hierarchy again. As a result, today there is huge data. This data must be classified sharply and quickly.
Research on Construction of Subject Knowledge Base Based on Literature Knowledge Extraction
Researchers put forward higher requirements for efficient acquisition and utilization of domain knowledge in the big data era. As literature is an effective way for researchers to quickly and accurately understand the research situation in their field, the knowledge discovery based on literature has become a new research method. As a tool to organize and manage knowledge in a specific domain, the subject knowledge base can be used to mine and present the knowledge behind the literature to meet the users' personalized needs. This study designs the construction route of the subject knowledge base for specific research problems. Information extraction method based on knowledge engineering is adopted. Firstly, the subject knowledge model is built through the abstraction of the research elements. Then under the guidance of the knowledge model, extraction rules of knowledge points are compiled to analyze, extract and correlate entities, relations, and attributes in literature. Finally, a database platform based on this structured knowledge is developed that can provide a variety of services such as knowledge retrieval, knowledge browsing, knowledge q&a, and visualization correlation. Taking the construction practices in the field of activating blood circulation and removing stasis as an example, this study analyzes how to construct subject knowledge base based on literature knowledge extraction. As the system functional test shows, this subject knowledge base can realize the expected service scenarios such as a quick query of knowledge, related discovery of knowledge and literature, knowledge organization. As this study enables subject knowledge base to help researchers locate and acquire deep domain knowledge quickly and accurately, it provides a transformation mode of knowledge resource construction and personalized precision knowledge services in the data-intensive research environment.
Understanding Tacit Knowledge and DIKW
Today it is difficult to reach accurate knowledge because of mass data. This huge data makes the environment more and more caotic. Data is a main piller of intelligence. There is a close tie between knowledge and intelligence. Information gathered from different sources can be modified, interpreted and classified by using knowledge development process. This process is applied in order to attain intelligence. Within this process the effect of knowledge is crucial. Knowledge is classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge can be seen as "only the tip of the iceberg”. This tacit knowledge accounts for much more than we guess in all intelligence cycle. If the concept of intelligence scrutinized, it can be seen that it contains risks, threats as well as success. The main purpose for all organization is to be succesful by eliminating risks and threats. Therefore, there is a need to connect or fuse existing information and the processes which can be used to develop it. By the help of process the decision-maker can be presented with a clear holistic understanding, as early as possible in the decision making process. Planning, execution and assessments are the key functions that connects to information to knowledge. Altering from the current traditional reactive approach to a proactive knowledge development approach would reduce extensive duplication of work in the organization. By new approach to this process, knowledge can be used more effectively.
The Application of System Approach to Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management Evidence from Tehran Municipality
In the current era, all organizations need knowledge to be able to manage the diverse human resources. Creative, dynamic and knowledge-based Human resources are important competitive advantage and the scarcest resource in today's knowledge-based economy. In addition managers with skills of knowledge management must be aware of human resource management science. It is now generally accepted that successful implementation of knowledge management requires dynamic interaction between knowledge management and human resource management. This is emphasized at systematic approach to knowledge management as well. However human resource management can be complementary of knowledge management because human resources management with the aim of empowering human resources as the key resource organizations in the 21st century, the use of other resources, creating and growing and developing today. Thus, knowledge is the major capital of every organization which is introduced through the process of knowledge management. In this context, knowledge management is systematic approach to create, receive, organize, access, and use of knowledge and learning in the organization. This article aims to define and explain the concepts of knowledge management and human resource management and the importance of these processes and concepts. Literature related to knowledge management and human resource management as well as related topics were studied, then to design, illustrate and provide a theoretical model to explain the factors affecting the relationship between knowledge management and human resource management and knowledge management system approach, for schematic design and are drawn.
Knowledge Management to Develop the Graduate Study Programs
This study aims to identify the factors facilitating the knowledge management to develop the graduate study programs to achieve success and to identify the approaches in developing the graduate study programs in the Rajbhat Suansunantha University. The 10 respondents were the administrators, the faculty, and the personnel of its Graduate School. The research methodology was based on Pla-too Model of the Knowledge Management Institute (KMI) by allocating the knowledge indicators, the knowledge creation and search, knowledge systematization, knowledge processing and filtering, knowledge access, knowledge sharing and exchanges and learning. The results revealed that major success factors were knowledge indicators, evident knowledge management planning, knowledge exchange and strong solidarity of the team and systematic and tenacious access of knowledge. The approaches allowing the researchers to critically develop the graduate study programs were the environmental data analyses, the local needs and general situations, data analyses of the previous programs, cost analyses of the resources, and the identification of the structure and the purposes to develop the new programs.
Support of Knowledge Sharing in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study
Knowledge is considered as an important asset which can help organizations to create competitive advantage. The necessity of taking care of these assets is more important in these days – in days of turbulent changes in business environment. Knowledge could facilitate adaption to constant changes. The aim of this paper is to describe how the knowledge sharing can be supported in the manufacturing companies. The methods of case studies and grounded theory were used to present information gained by carrying out semi-structured interviews. Results show that knowledge sharing is supported in very similar ways in respondent companies.
Managing HR Knowledge in a Large Privately Owned Enterprise: An Empirical Case Analysis
The paper contributes towards the development of scarce literature on HR knowledge management. Drawing literature from knowledge management, the authors define the meaning of HR knowledge and propose that there are social mechanisms in organizations that facilitate the management and sharing of HR knowledge. Instead of investigating the subject in large multinational corporations, the present paper examines it in a large Chinese privately owned enterprise, which has an international standing. The main finding of the case analysis is that communication and feedback plays a pivotal role when managing HR knowledge. Social mechanisms can stimulate the communication and feedback between employees, thus facilitate knowledge exchange.
A Strategic Communication Design Model for Indigenous Knowledge Management
This article presents the initial development of a communication model (Model_isi) as the means of gathering, preserving and transferring indigenous knowledge in the field of knowledge management. The article first discusses the need for an appropriate complimentary model for indigenous knowledge management which differs from the existing methods and models. Then the paper suggests the newly developed model for indigenous knowledge management which generate as result of blending key aspects of different disciplines, which can be implemented as a complementary approach for the existing scientific method. The paper further presents the effectiveness of the developed method in reflecting upon a pilot demonstration carried out on selected indigenous communities of Sri Lanka.
Medical Knowledge Management since the Integration of Heterogeneous Data until the Knowledge Exploitation in a Decision-Making System
Knowledge management is to acquire and represent knowledge relevant to a domain, a task or a specific organization in order to facilitate access, reuse and evolution. This usually means building, maintaining and evolving an explicit representation of knowledge. The next step is to provide access to that knowledge, that is to say, the spread in order to enable effective use. Knowledge management in the medical field aims to improve the performance of the medical organization by allowing individuals in the care facility (doctors, nurses, paramedics, etc.) to capture, share and apply collective knowledge in order to make optimal decisions in real time. In this paper, we propose a knowledge management approach based on integration technique of heterogeneous data in the medical field by creating a data warehouse, a technique of extracting knowledge from medical data by choosing a technique of data mining, and finally an exploitation technique of that knowledge in a case-based reasoning system.
Knowledge Management in Agro-Alimentary Companies in Algeria
Our survey deals a theme of the measurement of the management knowledge of actors in Algerian agricultural sector, through a study carried out with professionals affiliated to agro-alimentary 'agribusinesses'. Taking into account the creation of a national device of information on the agronomic research in Algeria, the aim is to analyze their informational practices and to assess how they rate the sharing of knowledge and the process of collective intelligence. The results of our study reveal a more crucial need: The creation a suitable framework to the division of the knowledge, to produce 'knowledge shared social' where the scientific community could interact with firms. It is a question of promoting processes for the adaptation and the spreading of knowledge, through a partnership between the R&D sector and the production one, to increase the competitiveness of the firms, even the sustainable development of the country.
Applying an Application-Based Knowledge Capturing and Reusing for Construction Consultant Organizations Applying
Knowledge Management effectively is critical to the survival and advance of a company, especially in company-based industries such as construction. Knowledge management practice is crucial to the survival and progress of a company, especially company-based knowledge such as construction consultancy. Effective knowledge management practices are very significant to the competitive and development of a consulting organization. Hence, the success of knowledge management implementation depends on knowledge capturing and reusing effectively. In this paper, a survey was carried out of engineers and managers with experience in seven construction consulting organizations that provide services on the north-central coast of Vietnam. The main objectives of the survey to finding out how these organizations capture and reuse knowledge and significant barriers to the implementation of knowledge management. A conceptual framework based-on Trello application is proposed to formalize the knowledge-capturing and reusing process within construction consulting companies. It is showed that the conceptual framework could be used to manage both implicit and explicit knowledge effectively in construction consultant organizations.
A Knowledge-As-A-Service Support Framework for Ambient Learning in Kenya
Over recent years, learners have experienced a constant need to access on demand knowledge that is fully aligned with the paradigm of cloud computing. As motivated by the global sustainable development goal to ensure inclusive and equitable learning opportunities, this research has developed a framework hinged on the knowledge-as-a-service architecture that utilizes knowledge from ambient learning systems. Through statistical analysis and decision tree modeling, the study discovers influential variables for ambient learning among university students. The main aim is to generate a platform for disseminating and exploiting the available knowledge to aid the learning process and, thus, to improve educational support on the ambient learning system. The research further explores how collaborative effort can be used to form a knowledge network that allows access to heterogeneous sources of knowledge, which benefits knowledge consumers, such as the developers of ambient learning systems.
Knowledge Management Best Practice Model in Higher Learning Institution: A Systematic Literature Review
Introduction: This systematic literature review aims to identify the Knowledge Management Best Practice components in the Knowledge Management Model for Higher Learning Institutions environment. Study design: Systematic literature review. Methods: A systematic literature re-view of Knowledge Management Best Practice to identify and define the components of Best Practice from the Knowledge Management models was conducted recently. Results: This review of published papers of conference and journals’ articles shows the components of Best Practice in Knowledge Management are basically divided into two aspect which is the soft aspect and the hard aspect. The lacks of combination of these two aspects into an integrated model decelerate Knowledge Management Best Practice to fully throttle. Evidence from the literature shows the lack of integration of this two aspects leads to the immaturity of the Higher Learning Institution (HLI) towards the implementation of Knowledge Management System. Conclusion: The first steps of identifying the attributes to measure the Knowledge Management Best Practice components from the models in the literature will led to the definition of the Knowledge Management Best Practice component for the higher learning environment.
Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing: Investigating the Influence of Knowledge Sharing Factors towards Postgraduate Research Supervision
Today’s economy is a knowledge-based economy in which knowledge is a crucial facilitator to individuals, as well as being an instigator of success. Due to the impact of globalization, universities face new challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, they ought to be more innovative and have their own competitive advantages. One of the most important goals of universities is the promotion of students as professional knowledge workers. Therefore, knowledge sharing and transferring at tertiary level between students and supervisors is vital in universities, as it decreases the budget and provides an affordable way of doing research. Knowledge-sharing impact factors can be categorized into three groups, namely: organizational, individual and technical factors. There are some individual barriers to knowledge sharing, namely: lack of time and trust, lack of communication skills and social networks. IT systems such as e-learning, blogs and portals can increase knowledge sharing capability. However, it must be stated that IT systems are only tools and not solutions. Individuals are still responsible for sharing information and knowledge. This paper proposes new research model to examine the effect of individual factors and organisational factors, namely: learning strategy, trust culture, supervisory support, as well as technological factor on knowledge sharing in a research supervision process at the University of Technology Malaysia.
Information Technology Application for Knowledge Management in Medium-Size Businesses
Result of the study on knowledge management systems in businesses was shown that the most of these businesses provide internet accessibility for their employees in order to study new knowledge via internet, corporate website, electronic mail, and electronic learning system. These business organizations use information technology application for knowledge management because of convenience, time saving, ease of use, accuracy of information and knowledge usefulness. The result indicated prominent improvements for corporate knowledge management systems as the following; 1) administrations must support corporate knowledge management system 2) the goal of corporate knowledge management must be clear 3) corporate culture should facilitate the exchange and sharing of knowledge within the organization 4) cooperation of personnel of all levels must be obtained 5) information technology infrastructure must be provided 6) they must develop the system regularly and constantly.
Knowledge Sharing within a Team: Exploring the Antecedents and Role of Trust
Knowledge sharing is a process in which individuals mutually exchange existing knowledge and co-create new knowledge. Previous research has confirmed that trust is positively associated with knowledge sharing. However, only few studies systematically examined the antecedents of trust and these antecedents’ impacts on knowledge sharing. In order to explore and understand the relationships between trust and knowledge sharing in depth, this study proposed a relationship maintenance-based model to examine the antecedents of trust in knowledge sharing in project teams. Three critical elements within a project team were measured, including the environment, project team partner and interaction. It was hypothesized that the trust would lead to knowledge sharing and in turn result in perceived good team performance. With a sample of 200 Hong Kong employees, the proposed model was evaluated with structural equation modeling. Expected findings are trust will contribute to knowledge sharing, resulting in better team performance. The results will also offer insights into antecedents of trust that play a heavy role in the focal relationship. The present study contributes to a more holistic understanding of relationship between trust and knowledge sharing by linking the antecedents and outcomes. The findings will raise the awareness of project managers on ways to promote knowledge sharing.
Building Knowledge Society: The Imperative Role of Library and Information Centres (LICs) in Developing Countries
A critical examination of the emerging knowledge society reveals that library and information centres have a significant role to play in the building of knowledge society. The major highlights of this paper include: the conceptual analysis of knowledge society, overview of library and information centres in developing countries, role of libraries and information centre in building up of knowledge society, library and information professionals as factor in building knowledge, challenges faced by Library and Information Centres (LICs) in building knowledge society, strategies for building knowledge society. The position of this paper is that in spite of the influx of varied information and communication technologies in the information industry which is the driving force of knowledge society, there is a dire need for Libraries and Information Centres (LIC) to contribute positively to the migration and transition processes from the information society to knowledge-based society.
The Influences of Marketplace Knowledge, General Product Class Knowledge, and Knowledge in Meat Product with Traceability on Trust in Meat Traceability
Since the outbreak of mad cow disease and bird flu, consumers have become more concerned with meat quality and safety. As a result, meat traceability is adopted as one approach to handle consumers’ concern in this issue. Nevertheless, in Thailand, meat traceability is rarely used as a marketing tool to persuade consumers. As a consequence, the present study attempts to understand consumer trust in the meat traceability system by conducting a study in this country to examine the impact of three types of consumer knowledge on this trust. The study results reveal that out of three types of consumer knowledge, marketplace knowledge was the sole predictor of consumer trust in meat traceability and it has a positive influence. General product class knowledge and knowledge in meat products with traceability, however, did not significantly influence consumer trust. The research results provide several implications and directions for future study.
People Management, Knowledge Sharing and Intermediary Variables
The present research investigates the relationship among HRM practices, knowledge sharing behavior and a certain number of intermediary variables in the context of Tunisian knowledge-intensive firms. Results suggest that five HR practices influence either directly or indirectly the knowledge sharing behavior through enhancing the value of human capital and fostering a learning-oriented organizational climate. Results have strong theoretical implications for both the fields of knowledge management and strategic human resource management. Managerial implications are also derived.
Active Development of Tacit Knowledge Using Social Media and Learning Communities
This paper uses a pragmatic research approach to investigate the relationships between Active Development of Tacit Knowledge (ADTK), social media (Facebook) and classroom learning communities. This paper investigates the use of learning communities and social media as the context and means for changing tacit knowledge to explicit and presents a dynamic model of the development of a classroom learning community. The goal of this study is to identify the point that explicit knowledge is converted to tacit knowledge and to test a way to quantify the exchange using social media and learning communities.
Knowledge Management Factors Affecting the Level of Commitment
This paper examines the influence of knowledge management factors on organizational commitment for employees in the oil and gas drilling industry of Iran. We determine what knowledge factors have the greatest impact on the personnel loyalty and commitment to the organization using collected data from a survey of over 300 full-time personnel working in three large companies active in oil and gas drilling industry of Iran. To specify the effect of knowledge factors in the organizational commitment of the personnel in the studied organizations, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used. Findings of our study show that the factors such as knowledge and expertise, in-service training, the knowledge value and the application of individuals’ knowledge in the organization as the factor "learning and perception of personnel from the value of knowledge within the organization" has the greatest impact on the organizational commitment. After this factor, "existence of knowledge and knowledge sharing environment in the organization"; "existence of potential knowledge exchanging in the organization"; and "organizational knowledge level" factors have the most impact on the organizational commitment of personnel, respectively.
Sharing Tacit Knowledge: The Essence of Knowledge Management
In 21st century where markets are unstable, technologies rapidly proliferate, competitors multiply, products and services become obsolete almost overnight and customers demand low cost high value product, leveraging and harnessing knowledge is not just a potential source of competitive advantage rather a necessity in technology based and information intensive industries. Knowledge management focuses on leveraging the available knowledge and sharing the same among the individuals in the organization so that the employees can make best use of it towards achieving the organizational goals. Knowledge is not a discrete object. It is embedded in people and so difficult to transfer outside the immediate context that it becomes a major competitive advantage. However, internal transfer of knowledge among the employees is essential to maximize the use of knowledge available in the organization in an unstructured manner. But as knowledge is the source of competitive advantage for the organization it is also the source of competitive advantage for the individuals. People think that knowledge is power and sharing the same may lead to lose the competitive position. Moreover, the very nature of tacit knowledge poses many difficulties in sharing the same. But sharing tacit knowledge is the vital part of knowledge management process because it is the tacit knowledge which is inimitable. Knowledge management has been made synonymous with the use of software and technology leading to the management of explicit knowledge only ignoring personal interaction and forming of informal networks which are considered as the most successful means of sharing tacit knowledge. Factors responsible for effective sharing of tacit knowledge are grouped into –individual, organizational and technological factors. Different factors under each category have been identified. Creating a positive organizational culture, encouraging personal interaction, practicing reward system are some of the strategies that can help to overcome many of the barriers to effective sharing of tacit knowledge. Methodology applied here is completely secondary. Extensive review of relevant literature has been undertaken for the purpose.
Knowledge and Organisational Success: Developing a Scale of Knowledge Framework
The aim of this exploratory research is to further understand how organisations can evaluate their activities, which generate knowledge creation, to meet changing stakeholder expectations. A Scale of Knowledge (SoK) Framework is proposed which links knowledge management and organisational activities to changing stakeholder expectations. The framework was informed by the knowledge management literature, as well as empirical work conducted via a single case study of a multi-site hospital organisation in Saudi Arabia. Eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from across the organisation regarding current and future stakeholder expectations, organisational strategy/activities and knowledge management. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a hierarchical value map technique to identify activities that can produce further knowledge and consequently impact on how stakeholder expectations are met. The SoK Framework developed may be useful to practitioners as an analytical aid to determine if current organisational activities produce organisational knowledge which helps them meet (increasingly higher levels of) stakeholder expectations. The limitations of the research and avenues for future development of the proposed framework are discussed.
Investigating Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of the Effective Teaching Strategies
This paper investigated mathematics teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies at the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, it aimed to identify a list of the effective strategies of teaching mathematics; the extent of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies; and the differences (if any) of mathematics teachers' knowledge of these strategies regarding scientific degree, teaching experience, and educational sage. To achieve that, the researcher used the descriptive approach for preparing a list of effective mathematics teaching strategies and developing a questionnaire of a sample of (240) mathematics teachers. As a result, there were differences in teachers' knowledge of the effective teaching strategies, which ranked as a low, and the highest knowledge was in favor of higher degrees. In addition, there were a few recommendations and suggestions for developing mathematics teachers' knowledge of effective teaching strategies, such as involving in workshops of mathematics teaching strategies, integrating technology into mathematics teaching, and using research findings in the instruction process.
Organizational Climate being Knowledge Sharing Oriented: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis
According to literature, knowledge sharing behaviors are influenced by organizational values and structures, namely organizational climate. The manuscript examines the antecedents of the knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate. According to theoretical expectations the study adopts the following explanatory conditions: knowledge sharing costs, knowledge sharing incentives, perceptions of knowledge sharing contributing to performance and tenure. The study confronts results considering two groups of firms: nondigital (firms without intranet) vs digital (firms with intranet). The paper applies fsQCA technique to analyze data by using fsQCA 2.5 software (www.fsqca.com) testing several conditional arguments to explain the outcome variable. Main results strengthen claims on the relevancy of the contribution of knowledge sharing to performance. Secondly, evidence brings tenure - an explanatory condition that is associated to organizational memory – to the spotlight. The study provides an original contribution not previously addressed in literature, since it identifies the sufficient conditions sets to knowledge sharing oriented organizational climate using fsQCA, which is, to our knowledge, a novel application of the technique.
Knowledge Transfer from Experts to Novice: An Empirical Study on Online Communities
This paper aims to investigate factors that drive individuals to transfer their knowledge in the context of online communities. By revisiting tacit-to-explicit knowledge creation, this research attempts to contribute empirically using three online forums (1) Software Engineering; (2) Aerospace Simulator; (3) Health Insurance System. A qualitative approach was deployed to map and recognize the pattern of users ‘Knowledge Transfer (KT), particularly from expert to novice. The findings suggest a common form on how experts give their effort to formulate ‘explicit’ knowledge and how novices ‘understand’ such knowledge. This research underlines that skill; intuition, judgment; value and belief are the prominent factors, both for experts and novice. Further, this research has recognized the groups of expert and novice by their ability to transfer and to ‘adopt’ new knowledge. Future research infers to triangulate the method in which the quantitative study is needed to measure the level of adoption of (new) knowledge by individuals.
An Empirical Investigation on the Dynamics of Knowledge and IT Industries in Korea
Knowledge and IT inputs to other industrial production have become more important as a key factor for the competitiveness of national and regional economies, such as knowledge economies in smart cities. Knowledge and IT industries lead the industrial innovation and technical (r)evolution through low cost, high efficiency in production, and by creating a new value chain and new production path chains, which is referred as knowledge and IT dynamics. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and IT dynamics in Korea, which are analyzed through the input-output model and structural path analysis. Twenty-eight industries were reclassified into seven categories; Agriculture and Mining, IT manufacture, Non-IT manufacture, Construction, IT-service, Knowledge service, Non-knowledge service to take close look at the knowledge and IT dynamics. Knowledge and IT dynamics were analyzed through the change of input output coefficient and multiplier indices in terms of technical innovation, as well as the changes of the structural paths of the knowledge and IT to other industries in terms of new production value creation from 1985 and 2010. The structural paths of knowledge and IT explain not only that IT foster the generation, circulation and use of knowledge through IT industries and IT-based service, but also that knowledge encourages IT use through creating, sharing and managing knowledge. As a result, this paper found the empirical investigation on the knowledge and IT dynamics of the Korean economy. Knowledge and IT has played an important role regarding the inter-industrial transactional input for production, as well as new industrial creation. The birth of the input-output production path has mostly originated from the knowledge and IT industries, while the death of the input-output production path took place in the traditional industries from 1985 and 2010. The Korean economy has been in transition to a knowledge economy in the Smart City.
Impact of Knowledge Management on Learning Organizations
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between various dimensions of Knowledge Management and Learning Organizations. On the basis of the dimensions of Learning Organization, Hypothesis were formulated. Knowledge Management (KM) is taken as the independent variable and Learning Organization (LO) as a dependent variable. KM had 5 dimensions and LO had 7. For this study, a total of 92 participants took part and answered the questionnaire. The respondents were selected using Judgemental and Snowball sampling. The respondents were from SMEs in and around Chandigarh. SPSS was used to for the data analysis purposes. The results showed that the dimensions of KM had a positive influence on the dimensions of LO. The hypothesis were accepted.
Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait
In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.
The Contemporary Issues of Quality Management: Relationship between Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management
To meet the challenges of the new global environment, companies have started paying great attention towards quality management as an integral part of their strategic business plans. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between total quality management (TQM) and knowledge management (KM). Successful total quality management implementation throughout the organizations requires major changes in the main four aspects of knowledge management, namely: Creating, storage, sharing and application. Skill, knowledge and productivity are important factors in organization’s success and have important role. Therefore, TQM management system pays special attention to it. However, knowledge as the source is essential for organization’s survival. Our study points out how the quality management and knowledge management have been incorporated into each other for the development of the quality culture within the organization.
Explaining Listening Comprehension among L2 Learners of English: The Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Working Memory Capacity
Listening comprehension constitutes a considerable challenge for the second language (L2) learners, but a little is known about the explanatory power of different variables in explaining variance in listening comprehension. Since research in this area, to the researcher's knowledge, is relatively small in comparison to that focusing on the relationship between reading comprehension and factors such as vocabulary and working memory, there is a need for studies that are seeking to fill the gap in our knowledge about the specific contribution of working memory capacity (WMC), aural vocabulary knowledge and written vocabulary knowledge to explaining listening comprehension. Among 130 English as foreign language learners, the present study examines what proportion of the variance in listening comprehension is explained by aural vocabulary knowledge, written vocabulary knowledge, and WMC. Four measures were used to collect the required data for the study: (1) A-Lex, a measure of aural vocabulary knowledge; (2) XK-Lex, a measure of written vocabulary knowledge; (3) Listening Span Task, a measure of WMC and; (4) IELTS Listening Test, a measure of listening comprehension. The results show that aural vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of listening comprehension, followed by WMC, while written vocabulary knowledge is the weakest predictor. The study discusses implications for the explanatory power of aural vocabulary knowledge and WMC to listening comprehension and pedagogical practice in L2 classrooms.
Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control
The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.
The Relationship between Knowledge Management Processes and Strategic Thinking at the Organization Level
The role of knowledge management processes in achieving the strategic goals of organizations is crucial. To this end, understanding the relationship between knowledge management processes and different aspects of strategic thinking (followed by long-term organizational planning) should be considered. This research examines the relationship between each of the five knowledge management processes (creation, storage, transfer, audit, and deployment) with each dimension of strategic thinking (vision, creativity, thinking, communication and analysis) in one of the major sectors of the food industry in Iran. In this research, knowledge management and its dimensions (knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge transfer, knowledge auditing, and finally knowledge utilization) as independent variables and strategic thinking and its dimensions (creativity, systematic thinking, vision, strategic analysis, and strategic communication) are considered as the dependent variable. The statistical population of this study consisted of 245 managers and employees of Minoo Food Industrial Group in Tehran. In this study, a simple random sampling method was used, and data were collected by a questionnaire designed by the research team. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. LISERL software is also used for calculating and drawing models and graphs. Among the factors investigated in the present study, knowledge storage with 0.78 had the most effect, and knowledge transfer with 0.62 had the least effect on knowledge management and thus on strategic thinking.
The Effects of Giving on Knowledge about Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis in Bangsaen Beach Venders, Chonburi, Thailand
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is an acute infection caused by the adenovirus symptoms of eye irritation, tearing an incubation period of 7-9 days from the respiratory tract into the eye and often cohesion in the community who work in the school's pool as well as a shopping mall. After infection can cause symptoms within 1-2 days chance to infect others up to two weeks. In some cases when red-eye better they had potential complications of the eye, inflammation occurs 7-10 days after conjunctivitis. It could be for several more months to recover. This study is a cross-sectional study with one hundred and eleven beach venders, and purpose of the research was to assess the knowledge, that knowledge has improved much. By comparing before and after the knowledge of the use of questionnaires and test your knowledge. The statistics used for data analysis percent, arithmetic mean and T-test. The statistics used to analyze data at the level of statistical p ≤ 0.05. Result of this study; mostly female (83.8%), most age 19-35 years (42.3%). Hometown is mostly in Chonburi 74.8%. 20.7% had epidemic keratoconjunctivitis within one year. Compared between before and after gave knowledge; after gave knowledge is better than before gave knowledge p=0.00.
Knowledge Management Challenges within Traditional Procurement System
In the construction industry, project members are conveyor of project knowledge which is, often, not managed properly to be used in future projects. As construction projects are temporary and unique, project members are willing to be recruited once a project is completed. Therefore, poor management of knowledge across construction projects will lead to a considerable amount of knowledge loss; the ignoring of which would be detrimental to project performance. This issue is more prominent in projects undertaken through the traditional procurement system, as this system does not incentives project members for integration. Thus, disputes exist between the design and construction phases based on the poor management of knowledge between those two phases. This paper aims to highlight the challenges of the knowledge management that exists within the traditional procurement system. Expert interviews were conducted and challenges were identified and analysed by the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach in order to summarise the relationships among them. Two identified key challenges are the Culture of an Organisation and Knowledge Management Policies. A knowledge of the challenges and their relationships will help project manager and stakeholders to have a better understanding of the importance of knowledge management.
Evolving Knowledge Extraction from Online Resources
In this paper, we present an evolving knowledge
extraction system named AKEOS (Automatic Knowledge Extraction
from Online Sources). AKEOS consists of two modules, including
a one-time learning module and an evolving learning module.
The one-time learning module takes in user input query, and
automatically harvests knowledge from online unstructured resources
in an unsupervised way. The output of the one-time learning is a
structured vector representing the harvested knowledge. The evolving
learning module automatically schedules and performs repeated
one-time learning to extract the newest information and track the
development of an event. In addition, the evolving learning module
summarizes the knowledge learned at different time points to produce
a final knowledge vector about the event. With the evolving learning,
we are able to visualize the key information of the event, discover
the trends, and track the development of an event.
Investigating Knowledge Management in Financial Organisation: Proposing a New Model for Implementing Knowledge Management
In the age of the knowledge-based economy, knowledge management has become a key factor in sustainable competitive advantage. Knowledge management is discovering, acquiring, developing, sharing, maintaining, evaluating, and using right knowledge in right time by right person in organization; which is accomplished by creating a right link between human resources, information technology, and appropriate structure, to achieve organisational goals. Studying knowledge management financial institutes shows the knowledge management in banking system is not different from other industries but because of complexity of bank’s environment, the implementation is more difficult. The bank managers found out that implementation of knowledge management will bring many advantages to financial institutes, one of the most important of which is reduction of threat to lose subsequent information of personnel job quit. Also Special attention to internal conditions and environment of the financial institutes and avoidance from copy-making in designing the knowledge management is a critical issue. In this paper, it is tried first to define knowledge management concept and introduce existing models of knowledge management; then some of the most important models which have more similarities with other models will be reviewed. In second step according to bank requirements with focus on knowledge management approach, most major objectives of knowledge management are identified. For gathering data in this stage face to face interview is used. Thirdly these specified objectives are analysed with the response of distribution of questionnaire which is gained through managers and expert staffs of ‘Karafarin Bank’. Finally based on analysed data, some features of exiting models are selected and a new conceptual model will be proposed.
Personal Knowledge Management: Systematic Review and Future Direction
Personal knowledge management is the aspect of knowledge management that relates to the way in which individuals organize and manage their own set of knowledge. While in that respect, there has been research in this area for the past 25 years, it is at present necessary to speculate upon what research has been done and what we have discovered about this arena of knowledge management. In contrast to organizational knowledge management, which focuses on a firm’s profitability and competitiveness, personal knowledge management (PKM) is concerned with the person’s self-effectiveness, competence and success. People are concerned in managing their knowledge in order to become more efficient in a variety of personal and organizational interests. This study presents a systematic review of PKM studies. Articles with PKM concepts are reviewed with the objective of clearly defining PKM, identifying the benefits of PKM, classifying the tools that enable PKM and finding the research gaps to indicate future research directions in the area. Consequently, we have developed a definition of PKM and identified the benefits of PKM, including an understanding of who seeks PKM and for what. Tools enabling PKM are identified and classified under three categories Web 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 and finally the research gap and future directions are suggested. Research which facilitates collaboration by using semantic technologies is suggested to be studied further to improve PKM effectiveness.
The Effect of Tacit Knowledge for Intelligence Cycle
It is difficult to access accurate knowledge because of mass data. This huge data make environment more and more caotic. Data are main piller of intelligence. The affiliation between intelligence and knowledge is quite significant to understand underlying truths. The data gathered from different sources can be modified, interpreted and classified by using intelligence cycle process. This process is applied in order to progress to wisdom as well as intelligence. Within this process the effect of tacit knowledge is crucial. Knowledge which is classified as explicit and tacit knowledge is the key element for any purpose. Tacit knowledge can be seen as "the tip of the iceberg”. This tacit knowledge accounts for much more than we guess in all intelligence cycle. If the concept of intelligence cycle is scrutinized, it can be seen that it contains risks, threats as well as success. The main purpose of all organizations is to be successful by eliminating risks and threats. Therefore, there is a need to connect or fuse existing information and the processes which can be used to develop it. Thanks to this process the decision-makers can be presented with a clear holistic understanding, as early as possible in the decision making process. Altering from the current traditional reactive approach to a proactive intelligence cycle approach would reduce extensive duplication of work in the organization. Applying new result-oriented cycle and tacit knowledge intelligence can be procured and utilized more effectively and timely.
A History of Knowledge Management: A Chronological Account from the 1970s to 2017
Knowledge management (KM) has become an imperative to modern business growth, competitive edge, and sustainability. Though there has been extensive research in the field, this literature overview showcases massive gaps that exist on the coverage of the field’s rich and fascinating history. Particularly, accounts of the history of KM are inconsistent and fragmentary in breadth and depth. This paper presents new insights into the history of KM from the early 70s when the actual coinage ‘knowledge management’ entered the literature. It reveals how knowledge over the years was shrouded in secrecy and subsumed by technology. It makes a clear distinction between the histories of the debate around knowledge and that of KM. The paper also finds a history of KM filled with skepticisms and engulfed by an ‘intellectual paradox’.
Development of Researcher Knowledge in Mathematics Education: Towards a Confluence Framework
We present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher decision making. The components of the framework originated from a confluence between constructs and theories in Mathematics Education, Higher Education and Sociology. Drawing on a self-reflective interview with a leading researcher in mathematics education, professor Michèle Artigue, we illustrate how the framework can be utilized in data analysis. Criteria for framework evaluation are discussed.
Sudan’s Approach to Knowledge Management in Disaster Management
Knowledge Management has become very important for Disaster Management response and planning. This paper proposes the implementation of a Knowledge Management System with a sustainable data collection mechanism for reliable and timely information management to support decision makers in making the right decisions in the timely manner.
Embedding Knowledge Management in Business Process
The purpose of this paper is to explore and highlight the process of creating value for strategy management by embedding knowledge management in the business process. Knowledge management can be seen from a three-dimensional perspective of content, connections and competencies. These dimensions can be embedded in the knowledge processes (create, capture, share, and apply) and operationalized within a business process to effectively create a scenario where knowledge can be focused on enabling a process and the process in turn generates outcomes. The application of knowledge management on business processes of organizations is rare and underreported. Few researches have explored this paradigm although researches have tended to reinforce the notion that competitive advantage sits within the internal aspects of the firm. Given this notion, it is surprising that knowledge management research and practice have not focused sufficiently on the business process which is the basic unit of organizational decision implementation. This research serves to generate understanding on applying KM in business process using a large multinational in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Effect of Social Network Ties on Virtual Organization Success: Mediate Role of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: An Empirical Study in Tourism Sector Firms in Jordan
This empirical study examines how knowledge sharing behaviors mediate the effect Technology-driven strategy on virtual organization success in Jordanian tourism sector firms. The results reveal that Social network ties are positively related to web knowledge seeking, web knowledge contributing and interactive system, but negatively related to accidental knowledge leakage. Furthermore, all types of knowledge sharing behavior are positively related to virtual organization success. Data collected from 23 firms. The total number of questionnaires mailed, 250 questionnaires were delivered. 214 were considered valid out of 241 Responses were received. The findings provide evidence that knowledge sharing behavior play a mediating role between Social network ties and virtual organization success and show that, web knowledge seeking, web knowledge contributing and interactive system playing an important impact on virtual organization success through knowledge sharing behaviors.
A Critical Re-Evaluation of Knowledge Management Definitions and Terminologies
The last three decades have witnessed myriads of definitions of knowledge management proposed by researchers and industry practitioners. Despite the magnitude of research and available literature on knowledge management, there is yet to be a consensus on what constitutes a good definition. There exists an in-exhaustive list of definitions which can appear confusing, conflicting and overlapping. What is even more daunting is the lack of common terminology in describing knowledge management processes and the inconsistency in the sequence in which the processes take. Whilst newbies to knowledge management research would struggle to make sense of knowledge management definitions, industry practitioners would struggle with their applicability. Against this backdrop, this study aimed to re-evaluate knowledge management definitions and terminologies. The objectives were threefold: (1) to conduct a critical review of an existing body of work around knowledge management concepts and definitions (2) to analyse and synthesise findings (3) to present conclusions and recommendations. The methodology for this study centres around the review of the literature and secondary data sources. A total of 48 knowledge management processes were found and extracted from various definitions (e.g. ‘identify’, ‘capture’, ‘codify’, ‘store’…). A taxonomy of the processes was created based on the commonality of the entities. The 48 processes were classified under 8 headings which were further converged into 3 main headings namely ‘acquire’, ‘exploit’ and ‘evaluate’, of which all definitions therefore hinge. The study concludes that in the multitude of knowledge management definitions, there is a consistent pattern to which the processes are organised and should be utilised. The contribution of this study is in the synthesis of previous work by various authors and the presentation of a more holistic approach to knowledge management definitions and terminologies.
Knowledge Transformation Flow (KTF) of Visually Impaired Students: The Virtual Knowledge System as a New Service Innovation
This paper aims to present the key factors that support the decision to use the technology and to present the knowledge transformation flow of visually impaired students after the use of virtual knowledge system as proposed as a new service innovation to universities in Thailand. Correspondents of 27 visually impaired students are involved in this research. Total of 25 students are selected from the University that mainly conducts non-classroom teaching environment; while another 2 visually impaired students are selected from classroom teaching environment. All of them are fully involved in the study along 8 weeks duration. All correspondents are classified into 5 small groups in various conditions. The research results revealed that the involvement from knowledge facilitator can push out for the behavioral actual use of the virtual knowledge system although there is no any developed intention to use behaviors. Secondly, the situations that the visually impaired students inadequate of the knowledge sources that usually provided by assistants i.e. peers, audio files etc. In this case, they will use the virtual knowledge system for both knowledge access and knowledge transfer request. With this evidence, the need of knowledge would play a stronger role than all technology acceptance factors. Finally, this paper revealed that the knowledge transfer in the normal method that students have a chance to physically meet up is still confirmed as their preference method. In term of other aspects of technology acceptance, it will be discussed together with challenges and recommendations at the end of this paper.
Media Richness Perspective on Web 2.0 Usage for Knowledge Creation: The Case of the Cocoa Industry in Ghana
Cocoa plays critical role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. Meanwhile, smallholder farmers most of whom are illiterate dominate the industry. According to the cocoa-based agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS) model knowledge is created and transferred to the industry between three key actors: cocoa researchers, extension experts, and cocoa farmers. Dwelling on the SECI model, the media richness theory (MRT), and the AKIS model, a conceptual model of web 2.0-based AKIS model (AKIS 2.0) is developed and used to assess the possible effects of social media usage for knowledge creation in the Ghanaian cocoa industry. A mixed method approach with a survey questionnaire was employed, and a second-order multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the data. The study concludes that the use of web 2.0 applications for knowledge creation would lead to sustainable interactions among the key knowledge actors for effective knowledge creation in the cocoa industry in Ghana.
Towards Developing a Strategic Framework for Sustainable Knowledge Economy
Both knowledge economy and sustainable development are considered key dimensions in the policy action lines of many developed and developing countries. In this context, universities and other higher education institutes have a vital role in developing and sustaining wellbeing communities. In this paper, the authors’ aim is to address the links between the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurial capacity and knowledge economy, and to utilize the approach of intellectual capital development in building a sustainable knowledge economy. The paper will contribute to two discourses: (1) Developing a common understanding of the intersection aspects between the three concepts: Knowledge economy, Innovation and entrepreneurial system, and sustainable development; (2) Paving the road towards developing an integrated multidimensional framework for sustainable knowledge economy.
Knowledge Management Strategies within a Corporate Environment of Papers
Knowledge transfer between personnel could benefit an organization’s improved competitive advantage in the marketplace from a strategic approach to knowledge management. The lack of information sharing between personnel could create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Knowledge transfer between personnel can potentially improve information sharing based on an implemented knowledge management strategy. An organization’s capacity to gain more knowledge is aligned with the organization’s prior or existing captured knowledge. This case study attempted to understand the overall influence of a KMS within the corporate environment and knowledge exchange between personnel. The significance of this study was to help understand how organizations can improve the Return on Investment (ROI) of a knowledge management strategy within a knowledge-centric organization. A qualitative descriptive case study was the research design selected for this study. The lack of information sharing between personnel may create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Developing a knowledge management strategy acceptable at all levels of the organization requires cooperation in support of a common organizational goal. Working with management and executive members to develop a protocol where knowledge transfer becomes a standard practice in multiple tiers of the organization. The knowledge transfer process could be measurable when focusing on specific elements of the organizational process, including personnel transition to help reduce time required understanding the job. The organization studied in this research acknowledged the need for improved knowledge management activities within the organization to help organize, retain, and distribute information throughout the workforce. Data produced from the study indicate three main themes including information management, organizational culture, and knowledge sharing within the workforce by the participants. These themes indicate a possible connection between an organizations KMS, the organizations culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge transfer.
Key Factors Influencing Individual Knowledge Capability in KIFs
Knowledge management (KM) literature has mainly focused on the antecedents of KM. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of specific human resource management (HRM) practices on employee knowledge sharing and its outcome as individual knowledge capability. Based on previous literature, a model is proposed for the study and hypotheses are formulated. The cross-sectional dataset comes from a sample of 19 knowledge intensive firms (KIFs). This study has run an item parceling technique followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the latent constructs of the research model. Employees’ collaboration and their interpersonal trust can help to improve their knowledge sharing behaviour and knowledge capability within organisations. This study suggests that in future, by using a larger sample, better statistical insight is possible. The findings of this study are beneficial for scholars, policy makers and practitioners. The empirical results of this study are entirely based on employees’ perceptions and make a significant research contribution, given there is a dearth of empirical research focusing on the subcontinent.
Background Knowledge and Reading Comprehension in ELT Classes: A Pedagogical Perspective
For long, there has been a belief that a reader can easily comprehend a text if he is strong enough in vocabulary and grammatical knowledge but there was no account for the ability of understanding different subjects based on readers’ understanding of the surrounding world which is called world background knowledge. This paper attempts to investigate the reading comprehension process applying the schema theory as an influential factor in comprehending texts, in order to prove the important role of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Based on the discussion, some teaching methods are suggested for employing world background knowledge for an elaborated teaching of reading comprehension in an active learning environment in EFL classes.
Method of Cluster Based Cross-Domain Knowledge Acquisition for Biologically Inspired Design
Biologically inspired design inspires inventions and new technologies in the field of engineering by mimicking functions, principles, and structures in the biological domain. To deal with the obstacles of cross-domain knowledge acquisition in the existing biologically inspired design process, functional semantic clustering based on functional feature semantic correlation and environmental constraint clustering composition based on environmental characteristic constraining adaptability are proposed. A knowledge cell clustering algorithm and the corresponding prototype system is developed. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the visual prosthetic device design.
Knowledge and Eating Behavior of Teenage Pregnancy
The purposed of this research was to study the eating
habit of teenage pregnancy and its relationship to the knowledge of
nutrition during pregnancy. The 100 samples were derived from
simple random sampling technique of the teenage pregnancy in
Bangkae District. The questionnaire was used to collect data with the
reliability of 0.8. The data were analyzed by SPSS for Windows with
multiple regression technique. Percentage, mean and the relationship
of knowledge of eating and eating behavior were obtained. The
research results revealed that their knowledge in nutrition was at the
average of 4.07 and their eating habit that they mentioned most was
to refrain from alcohol and caffeine at 82% and the knowledge in
nutrition influenced their eating habits at 54% with the statistically
significant level of 0.001.
Impact of Dynamic Capabilities on Knowledge Management Processes
Today, with the development and growth of technology and extreme environmental changes, organizations need to identify opportunities and create creativity and innovation in order to be able to maintain or improve their position in competition with others. In this regard, it is necessary that the resources and assets of the organization are coordinated and reviewed in accordance with the orientation of the strategy. One of the competitive advantages of the present age is knowledge management, which is to equip the organization with the knowledge of the day and disseminate among employees and use it in the development of products and services. Therefore, in the forthcoming research, the impact of dynamic capabilities components (sense, seize, and reconfiguration) has been investigated on knowledge management processes (acquisition, integration and knowledge utilization) in the MAPNA Engineering and Construction Company using a field survey and applied research method. For this purpose, a questionnaire was filled out in the form of 15 questions for dynamic components and 15 questions for measuring knowledge management components and distributed among 46 employees of the knowledge management organization. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through content validity and its reliability with Cronbach's coefficient. Pearson correlation test and structural equation technique were used to analyze the data. The results of the research indicate a positive significant correlation between the components of dynamic capabilities and knowledge management.
The Use of Learning Management Systems during Emerging the Tacit Knowledge
Deficiency of institutional memory and knowledge management can result in information security breaches, loss of prestige and trustworthiness and the worst the loss of know-how and institutional knowledge. Traditional learning management within organizations is generally handled by personal efforts. That kind of struggle mostly depends on personal desire, motivation and institutional belonging. Even if an organization has highly motivated employees at a certain time, the institutional knowledge and memory life cycle will generally remain limited to these employees’ spending time in this organization. Having a learning management system in an organization can sustain the institutional memory, knowledge and know-how in the organization. Learning management systems are much more needed especially in public organizations where the job rotation is frequently seen and managers are appointed periodically. However, a learning management system should not be seen as an organizations’ website. It is a more comprehensive, interactive and user-friendly knowledge management tool for organizations. In this study, the importance of using learning management systems in the process of emerging tacit knowledge is underlined.
Development of the Structure of the Knowledgebase for Countermeasures in the Knowledge Acquisition Process for Trouble Prediction in Healthcare Processes
Healthcare safety has been perceived important. It is essential to prevent troubles in healthcare processes for healthcare safety. Trouble prevention is based on trouble prediction using accumulated knowledge on processes, troubles, and countermeasures. However, information on troubles has not been accumulated in hospitals in the appropriate structure, and it has not been utilized effectively to prevent troubles. In the previous study, though a detailed knowledge acquisition process for trouble prediction was proposed, the knowledgebase for countermeasures was not involved. In this paper, we aim to propose the structure of the knowledgebase for countermeasures in the knowledge acquisition process for trouble prediction in healthcare process. We first design the structure of countermeasures and propose the knowledge representation form on countermeasures. Then, we evaluate the validity of the proposal, by applying it into an actual hospital.
Estimating Knowledge Flow Patterns of Business Method Patents with a Hidden Markov Model
Knowledge flows are a critical source of faster technological progress and stouter economic growth. Knowledge flows have been accelerated dramatically with the establishment of a patent system in which each patent is required by law to disclose sufficient technical information for the invention to be recreated. Patent analysis, thus, has been widely used to help investigate technological knowledge flows. However, the existing research is limited in terms of both subject and approach. Particularly, in most of the previous studies, business method (BM) patents were not covered although they are important drivers of knowledge flows as other patents. In addition, these studies usually focus on the static analysis of knowledge flows. Some use approaches that incorporate the time dimension, yet they still fail to trace a true dynamic process of knowledge flows. Therefore, we investigate dynamic patterns of knowledge flows driven by BM patents using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). An HMM is a popular statistical tool for modeling a wide range of time series data, with no general theoretical limit in regard to statistical pattern classification. Accordingly, it enables characterizing knowledge patterns that may differ by patent, sector, country and so on. We run the model in sets of backward citations and forward citations to compare the patterns of knowledge utilization and knowledge dissemination.
Analyzing the Critical Factors Influencing Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Systematic Review and a Conceptual Framework
Due to the importance of knowledge in today’s competitive world, an understanding of how to enhance employee knowledge sharing has become critical. This study discerning employees’ knowledge sharing intentions according to the type of knowledge to be shared, whether tacit or explicit. This study provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. The extant literature was identified through four electronic databases, from 2006 to 2016. The findings of this review reveal that most of the previous studies only focus on individual and social factors as the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Therefore, those previous studies did not consider some other potential factors, like organizational and technological factors that may hinder the progress of knowledge sharing processes. Based on the findings of the critical review, a conceptual framework is proposed, which presents the antecedents of employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions and its impact on innovation and sustainable competitive advantage.
, explicit knowledge
, individual factors
, knowledge sharing
, organizational factors
, social factors
, sustainable competitive advantage
, tacit knowledge
, technological factors
Surveying the Effect of Cybernetics on Knowledge Management from Users' Viewpoint Who Are Members of Electronic Discussion Groups (ALA, ALIA)
Nowadays, the aim of the organizations is to gain sustainable competitive. So, developing their intellectual capital, encouraging innovation, increasing suitable performance can be done by knowledge management. Knowledge turns into science if knowledge is used to improve decision making, decision quality and make effective decisions. The current research intends to investigate the relationship between cybernetics and knowledge management from the perspective of users who are members of electronic discussion groups (ALA, ALIA). The research methodology is survey method, and it is a type of correlation research. Cybernetics and knowledge management questionnaires used for collecting data. The questionnaire that was designed in electronic format, distributed among two electronic discussion groups during 30 days and completed by 100 members of each electronic discussion groups. The finding of this research showed that although cybernetics has an impact on knowledge management, there is no significant difference between the ALA and ALIA user's view regard to effect of cybernetics on knowledge management. The results also indicated that this conceptual model is consistent with the data collected from the sample.
The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers
The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.
Students’ Experiential Knowledge Production in the Teaching-Learning Process of Universities
This paper aims to present two models around the production of students’ experiential knowledge in the teaching-learning process of higher education: the teacher-centered production model and the student-centered production model. From a range of knowledge management and experiential learning theories, the paper elaborates into the nature of students’ experiential knowledge and proposes further adjustments of existing second-generation knowledge management theories taking into account the particularities of higher education. Despite its theoretical nature the paper can be relevant for future studies that stress student-driven improvement and innovation at higher education institutions.
The Role of Piaget's Theory in Conjecture via Analogical Reasoning
The construction of knowledge is the goal of learning. The purpose of this research is to know how the role of Piaget theory in allegation via analogy reasoning. This study uses Think out loads when troubleshooting. To explore conjecturing via analogical reasoning is given the question of open analogy. The result: conjecture via analogical reasoning has been done by students in the construction of knowledge, in conjecture there are differences in thinking flow depending on the basic knowledge of the students, in the construction of knowledge occurs assimilation and accommodation problems, strategies and relationships.
Importance of Knowledge in the Interdisciplinary Production Processes of Innovative Medical Tools
Processes of production of innovative medical tools have interdisciplinary character. They consist of direct and indirect close cooperation of specialists of different scientific branches. The Knowledge they have seems to be important for undertaken design, construction and manufacturing processes. The Knowledge exchange between participants of these processes is therefore crucial for the final result, which are innovative medical products. The paper draws attention to the necessity of feedback from the end user to the designer / manufacturer of medical tools which will allow for more accurate understanding of user needs. The study describes prerequisites of production processes of innovative medical (surgical) tools including participants and category of knowledge resources occurring in these processes. They are the result of research in selected Polish organizations involved in the production of medical instruments and are the basis for further work on the development of knowledge sharing model in interdisciplinary teams geographically dispersed.
Review of Studies on Agility in Knowledge Management
Agility in Knowledge Management (AKM) tries to capture agility requirements and their respective answers within the framework of knowledge and learning for organizations. Since it is rather a new construct, it is difficult to claim that it has been sufficiently discussed and analyzed in practical and theoretical realms. Like the term ‘agile learning’, it is also commonly addressed in the software development and information technology fields and across the related areas where those technologies can be applied. The organizational perspective towards AKM, seems to need some more time to become scholarly mature. Nevertheless, in the literature one can come across some implicit usages of this term occasionally. This research is aimed to explore the conceptual background of agility in KM, re-conceptualize it and extend it to business applications with a special focus on e-business.
The Impact of Information and Communication Technology in Knowledge Fraternization
Significant improvement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the enforced global competition are revolutionizing the way knowledge is managed and the way organizations compete. The emergence of new organizations calls for a new way to fraternize knowledge, which is known as 'knowledge fraternization.' In this modern economy, it is the knowledge if properly managed that can harness the organization's competitive advantage. This competitive advantage is realized through the full utilization of information and data coupled with the harnessing of people’s skills and ideas as well as their commitment and motivations, which can be accomplished through socializing the knowledge management processes. A fraternize network for knowledge management is a web-based system designed using PHP that is Dreamweaver web development tool, with the help of CS4 Adobe Dreamweaver as the PHP code Editor that supports the use of Cascadian Style Sheet (CSS), MySQL with Xamp, Php My Admin (Version 3.4.7) localhost server via TCP/IP for containing the databases of the system to support this in a distributed way, spreading the workload over the whole organization. This paper reviews the technologies and the technology tools to be used in the development of social networks in an organization.
Knowledge Management Strategies as a Tool to Change the Organizational Culture
For the past two decades demand for knowledge has been increasing. Management of society’s knowledge has far reaching effects to economic growth through increased capacity to complete viable activities. Organizations use information technology to effect organizational change. This is a challenge for the less developed nations whose capacity to integrate knowledge in core functions is limited. This creates organizational problems as there is global competition amongst organizations. Cross-cultural perceptions influence difference knowledge Management. This study provides a cross-cultural analysis on the influence in knowledge culture in Japan and Saudi Arabia to effect change in organizations. Since different countries adopt different knowledge management strategies, this dictates the state of organizational development through enriched organizational culture. The research uses a mixed approach design to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Primary source will use the questionnaires while secondary sources uses case analysis from books, articles, reports, and journals. The study will take a period of three years to come up with a complete paper.
A Case from China on the Situation of Knowledge Management in Government
Organizational scholars have paid enormous attention on how local governments manage their knowledge during the past two decades. Government knowledge management (KM) research recognizes that the management of knowledge flows and networks is critical to reforms on government service efficiency and the effect of administration. When dealing with complex affairs, all the limitations resulting from a lack of KM concept, processes and technologies among all the involved organizations begin to be exposed and further compound the processing difficulty of the affair. As a result, the challenges for individual or group knowledge sharing, knowledge digging and organizations’ collaboration in government's activities are diverse and immense. This analysis presents recent situation of government KM in China drawing from a total of more than 300 questionnaires and highlights important challenges that remain. The causes of the lapses in KM processes within and across the government agencies are discussed.
The EFL Mental Lexicon: Connectivity and the Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge Depth
The study at hand has attempted to describe the acquisition of three EFL lexical knowledge aspects - meaning, synonymy and collocation – across three academic levels: Baccalaureate, second year and fourth year university levels in Morocco. The research also compares the development of the three lexical knowledge aspects between knowledge (reception) and use (production) and attempts to trace their order of acquisition. This has led to the use of three main data collection tasks: translation, acceptability judgment and multiple choices. The study has revealed the following findings. First, L1 and EFL mental lexicons are connected at the lexical knowledge depth. Second, such connection is active whether in language reception or use. Third, the connectivity between L1 and EFL mental lexicons tends to relatively decrease as the academic level of the learners increases. Finally, the research has revealed a significant 'order' of acquisition between the three lexical aspects, though not a very strong one.
Rethinking of Self-Monitoring and Self-Response Roles in Teaching Grammar Knowledge to Iranian EFL Learners
In the present days, learning and teaching researchers have emphasized the role which teachers, tutors, and trainers’ constraint knowledge treat in resizing and trimming what they perform in educational atmosphere. Regarding English language as subject to teaching, although the prominence of instructor’s knowledge about grammar has also been stressed, but the lack of empirical insights into the relationship between teacher’ self-monitoring and self-response of grammar knowledge have been observed. With particular attention to the grammar this article indicates and discusses information obtained self- feedback and conversing teachers of a kind who backwash the issue. The result of the study indicates that enabling teachers to progress and maintain a logical and realistic awareness of their knowledge about grammar have to be prominent goal for teachers’ education and development programs.
Knowledge Management Efficiency of Personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya Songkhla, Thailand
This research is survey research purposed to study the factor affected to knowledge management efficiency of personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, and study the problem of knowledge management affected to knowledge development of personnel in the university. The tool used in this study is structures questioner standardize rating scale in 5 levels. The sample selected by purposive sampling and there are 137 participation calculated in 25% of population. The result found that factor affected to knowledge management efficiency in the university included (1) result from the organization factor found that the university provided project or activity that according to strategy and mission of knowledge management affected to knowledge management efficiency in highest level (x̅ = 4.30) (2) result from personnel factor found that the personnel are eager for knowledge and active to learning to develop themselves and work (Personal Mastery) affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.75) (3) result from technological factor found that the organization brought multimedia learning aid to facilitate learning process affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.70) and (4) the result from learning factor found that the personnel communicated and sharing knowledge and opinion based on acceptance to each other affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.78). The problem of knowledge management in the university included the personnel do not change their work behavior, insufficient of collaboration, lack of acceptance in knowledge and experience to each other, and limited budget. The solutions to solve these problems are the university should be support sufficient budget, the university should follow up and evaluate organization development based on knowledge using, the university should provide the activity emphasize to personnel development and assign the committee to process and report knowledge management procedure.
Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment for Departing Employees: An Exploratory Study
Organizations are posed to a threat of valuable knowledge loss when employees leave either due to retirement, resignation, job change or because of disabilities e.g. death, etc. Due to changing economic conditions, globalization, and aging workforce, organizations are facing challenges regarding retention of valuable knowledge. On the one hand, large number of employees are going to retire in the organizations whereas on the other hand, younger generation does not want to work in a company for a long time and there is an increasing trend of frequent job change among the new generation. Because of these factors, organizations need to make sure that they capture the knowledge of employee before (s)he walks out of the door. The first step in this process is to know what type of knowledge employee possesses and whether this knowledge is important for the organization. Researchers reveal in the literature that despite the serious consequences of knowledge loss in terms of organizational productivity and competitive advantage, there has not been much work done in the area of knowledge loss assessment of departing employees. An important step in the knowledge retention process is to determine the critical ‘at risk’ knowledge. Thus, knowledge loss risk assessment is a process by which organizations can gauge the importance of knowledge of the departing employee. The purpose of this study is to explore this topic of knowledge loss risk assessment by conducting a qualitative study in oil and gas sector. By engaging in dialogues with managers and executives of the organizations through in-depth interviews and adopting a grounded methodology approach, the research will explore; i) Are there any measures adopted by organizations to assess the risk of knowledge loss from departing employees? ii) Which factors are crucial for knowledge loss assessment in the organizations? iii) How can we prioritize the employees for knowledge retention according to their criticality? Grounded theory approach is used when there is not much knowledge available in the area under research and thus new knowledge is generated about the topic through an in-depth exploration of the topic by using methods such as interviews and using a systematic approach to analyze the data. The outcome of the study will generate a model for the risk of knowledge loss through factors such as the likelihood of knowledge loss, the consequence/impact of knowledge loss and quality of the knowledge loss of departing employees. Initial results show that knowledge loss assessment is quite crucial for the organizations and it helps in determining what types of knowledge employees possess e.g. organizations knowledge, subject matter expertise or relationships knowledge. Based on that, it can be assessed which employee is more important for the organizations and how to prioritize the knowledge retention process for departing employees.
A Method of Representing Knowledge of Toolkits in a Pervasive Toolroom Maintenance System
The learning process needs to be so pervasive to impart the quality in acquiring the knowledge about a subject by making use of the advancement in the field of information and communication systems. However, pervasive learning paradigms designed so far are system automation types and they lack in factual pervasive realm. Providing factual pervasive realm requires subtle ways of teaching and learning with system intelligence. Augmentation of intelligence with pervasive learning necessitates the most efficient way of representing knowledge for the system in order to give the right learning material to the learner. This paper presents a method of representing knowledge for Pervasive Toolroom Maintenance System (PTMS) in which a learner acquires sublime knowledge about the various kinds of tools kept in the toolroom and also helps for effective maintenance of the toolroom. First, we explicate the generic model of knowledge representation for PTMS. Second, we expound the knowledge representation for specific cases of toolkits in PTMS. We have also presented the conceptual view of knowledge representation using ontology for both generic and specific cases. Third, we have devised the relations for pervasive knowledge in PTMS. Finally, events are identified in PTMS which are then linked with pervasive data of toolkits based on relation formulated. The experimental environment and case studies show the accuracy and efficient knowledge representation of toolkits in PTMS.
Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography (Autocart)
The post-globalization epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behavior has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit - and even conceptualizing on tacit - knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualized. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper, we present an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.
Setting Ground for Improvement of Knowledge Managament System in the Educational Organization
One of the organizational issues is how to develop and shape decision making and knowledge management systems which will continually avoid traps of both paralyses by analyses“ and extinction by instinct“, the concepts that are a kind of tolerant limits anti-patterns which define what we can call decision making and knowledge management patterns control zone. This paper discusses potentials for development of a core base for recognizing, capturing, and analyzing anti-patterns in the educational organization, thus creating a space for improving decision making and knowledge management processes in education.
An Exploration of Organisational Elements on Social Media Platforms Based Knowledge Sharing: The Case of Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia
Managing and sharing knowledge has been a broadly satisfactory strategy to most of the organisations. Harnessing the power of knowledge supported the organisations to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Along with the invention of social media, knowledge sharing process has been more efficient and comfortable. Numerous researches have been conducted to investigate the effect of social media platforms for public and academic use. Furthermore, knowledge sharing, in general, have been subject to considerable n research, but research on sharing knowledge in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) is rare. Also, it is noted that still there is a gap related to the organisational elements that contribute to the successful knowledge sharing through social media platforms. Thus, this research aims to investigate organisational elements that influence the social media platform based knowledge sharing within the context of Malaysian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The research used qualitative research methods to get an in-depth understanding of the subject matter. The conclusions of this study are based on interpreting the results of semi-structured interviews with academic staff from various Malaysian HEIs from the public and private sectors. Documents review will supplement the data from the interviews, and this ensures triangulation of the responses and thus increase the validity of the research. This research contributes to the literature by investigating an in-depth understanding the role of organisational elements about the social media platform based knowledge sharing in nourishing knowledge and spreading it to become better HEIs in utilising their knowledge. The proposed framework which identifies the organisational elements influences of social media platform based knowledge sharing will present as the main contribution of this research.
The Role of Knowledge Sharing in Market Response: The Case of Saman Bank of Iran
Perpetual changes in the workplace and daily business activities bring a need for imbedding organizational knowledge sharing within the organizations’ culture, routines and processes. Organizations should adapt to the changing in the environment in order to survive. Accordingly, the management should promote a knowledge sharing culture which might result in knowledge accumulation, hence better response to these changing environmental conditions. Researchers in the field of strategy and marketing stressed that employees’, as well as the overall performance of the organization, would improve as a result of implementing a knowledge-oriented culture. The research investigated the significant impact of knowledge sharing on market response and the competitiveness of organizations. A knowledge sharing framework was developed based on current literary frameworks with additional constructs such as employees’ learning commitments, experiences and prior knowledge. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationships among dependent and independent variables. The research’s results indicated strong positive correlation between the dependent and independent variables, especially in organizational market sharing. We anticipate that this correlation would improve organizational knowledge sharing related practices and the associated knowledge entities. The research posits the introduced framework could be a solid ground for further investigations on how some organizational factors would influence the organization’s response to the market as well as on competitiveness. Final results support all hypotheses. Finding of this research show that knowledge sharing intention had the significant and positive effect on market response and competitiveness of organizations.
RASPE: Risk Advisory Smart System for Pipeline Projects in Egypt
A knowledge-based expert system with the acronym RASPE is developed as an application tool to help decision makers in construction companies make informed decisions about managing risks in pipeline construction projects. Choosing to use expert systems from all available artificial intelligence techniques is due to the fact that an expert system is more suited to representing a domain’s knowledge and the reasoning behind domain-specific decisions. The knowledge-based expert system can capture the knowledge in the form of conditional rules which represent various project scenarios and potential risk mitigation/response actions. The built knowledge in RASPE is utilized through the underlying inference engine that allows the firing of rules relevant to a project scenario into consideration. This paper provides an overview of the knowledge acquisition process and goes about describing the knowledge structure which is divided up into four major modules. The paper shows one module in full detail for illustration purposes and concludes with insightful remarks.
Positioning Organisational Culture in Knowledge Management Research
This paper proposes a conceptual model for understanding the impact of organisational culture on knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. It is suggested that organisational culture should be assessed as a multi-level construct comprising artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions. A holistic view of organisational culture and knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance, is presented. A comprehensive review of previous literature was undertaken in the development of the conceptual model. Taken together, the literature and the proposed model reveal possible relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance. Potential implications of organisational culture levels for the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge are elaborated. In addition, the paper offers possible new insight into the impact of organisational culture on various knowledge management processes and their link with organisational performance. A number of possible relationships between organisational culture factors, knowledge management processes, and their link with organisational performance were employed to examine such relationships. The research model highlights the multi-level components of organisational culture. These are: the artifacts, the espoused beliefs and values, and the underlying assumptions. Through a conceptualisation of the relationships between organisational culture, knowledge management processes, and organisational performance, the study provides practical guidance for practitioners during the implementation of knowledge management processes. The focus of previous research on knowledge management has been on understanding organisational culture from the limited perspective of promoting knowledge creation and sharing. This paper proposes a more comprehensive approach to understanding organisational culture in that it draws on artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions, and reveals their impact on the creation, sharing, and application of knowledge which can affect overall organisational performance.
Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises
The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a "data knowledge model". Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.
Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography: Autocart
The post-globalisation epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behaviour has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit- and even conceptualising on tacit- Knowledge Management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the Intellectual Capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualised. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper we present likewise an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.
Moderating Role of Positive External Factors in Relationship of Abusive Supervision and Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge sharing is very important in organizations for their future progress and survival. This study investigates the impact of destructive leadership (abusive supervision) on knowledge sharing in employees. Further, the authors want to investigate a context variable (group cohesion) and explore its cross level influence on the relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Conservation of resource theory (COR) claims loss of psychological capital (an internal positive resource) in employees due to abusive supervision and hence decrease occurs in knowledge sharing. This study tests psychological capital as mediator and group cohesion as moderator in relationship of abusive supervision and knowledge sharing. Data was collected from 239 respondents from more than 40 different organizations and 50 different groups from all over Pakistan. Results show that abusive supervision has negative effect on knowledge sharing through reduction in psychological capital of employees, and increased group cohesion in employees reduces this negative effect improving psychological capital in employees.
Knowledge regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Higher Secondary School
Adolescent sexual reproductive health is one of the most important issues in the world. Reproductive ability is taking place at an earlier age and adolescents are indulging in risk taking behaviors day by day. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Kathmandu valley to assess the knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health among adolescent. Total of 200 respondents were selected through non-probability convenient sampling technique. Self-administered written questionnaires using semi-structured questions were used. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics such as Chi-square test. The findings revealed that most of the respondents had adequate knowledge regarding transmission and protection of HIV/AIDs and STIs but still some respondents had a misconception regarding it. Few respondents had knowledge regarding legal age for marriage and the minimum age for first child bearing. The statistical analysis revealed that the total mean knowledge score with standard deviation was 45.02±8.674. Nearly half of the respondents (49.5%) had a moderate level of knowledge, followed by an inadequate level of knowledge 29.5% and adequate level of knowledge 21.0% regarding sexual and reproductive health. There was significant association of level of knowledge with area of residence (p-value .002) but no association with age (p-value .067), sex (p-value .999), religion (p-value .082) and ethnicity (p-value .114). Nearly half of the participants possess some knowledge about sexual and reproductive health but still effective educational intervention is required in higher secondary school to encourage more sensible and healthy behaviour.
Assessment of Academic Knowledge Transfer Channels in Field of Environment
Last few years have shown increased an interest of researchers in knowledge and technology transfer. However, facts show fewer types of knowledge transfer practices in the developing countries. This article focuses on assessment transfer channels of academic research produced by highly qualified academicians working in universities in Sindh offering degrees in field of an Environment in Sindh Pakistan. The academic field has been chosen because in field of the environment there is alarming need of research into practice for sustainable development. Using case study approach; in this research qualitative interviews have been conducted from PhD faculty members working in the universities offering degrees in field of environment. Obtained data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with the help of statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Research explored 31 channels of academic knowledge transfer from detailed review of literature and exploratory interviews with participants. Identified knowledge transfer channels have been grouped together in 6 groups of knowledge transfer channels; As knowledge transfer through publications, networking, mobility of researchers, joint research, intellectual property and co-operations. Results revealed that academic knowledge have been transferred through publications, networking, and co-operation. However, less number of academic knowledge has been transferred through groups of knowledge transfer channels such as Intellectual Property and joint research.
The Impact of Motivation, Trust, and National Cultural Differences on Knowledge Sharing within the Context of Electronic Mail
The goal of this research is to examine the impact of trust, motivation, and national culture on knowledge sharing within the context of electronic mail. This study is quantitative and survey based. In order to conduct the research, 200 students from a leading university in New Zealand were chosen randomly to participate in a questionnaire survey. Motivation and trust were found to be significantly and positively related to knowledge sharing. The research findings illustrated that face saving, face gaining, and individualism positively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. In addition, collectivism culture negatively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. Moreover, the research findings reveal that face saving, individualism, and collectivism culture positively moderate the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. In addition, face gaining culture negatively moderates the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. This study sets out several implications for researchers and practitioners. The study produces an integrative model that shows how attributes of national culture impact knowledge sharing through the use of emails. A better understanding of the relationship between knowledge sharing and trust, motivation, and national culture differences will increase individuals’ ability to make wise choices when sharing knowledge with those from different cultures.
Building a Lean Construction Body of Knowledge
The process of construction significantly contributes to high level of risks, complexity and uncertainties leading to cost and time overrun, customer dissatisfaction etc. lean construction is important as it is a comprehensive system of tools and concepts focusing on moving closer to customer satisfaction by understanding the process, identifying the waste and eliminating it. The proposed work includes identification of knowledge areas from lean perspective, lean tools/concepts used in lean construction and establishing a relationship matrix between knowledge areas and lean tools/concepts, thus developing and building up a lean construction body of knowledge (LCBOK), i.e. a guide to lean construction, aiming to provide guidelines to manage individual projects and also helping construction industry to minimise waste and maximize value to the customer. In this study, we identified 8 knowledge areas and 62 lean tools/concepts from lean perspective and also one tool can help to manage two or more knowledge areas.
Modelling Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Genetically Modified Maize in Kenya
A survey of 138 farmers was conducted in Rift valley, Kenya, in November and December 2013 in three counties (Uasin-gishu, Elgeyo-marakwet, and Tranzoia) to determine public knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) maize. Above two third (70%) of the respondents had knowledge of GM maize, mostly those educated and male. Female was found to be having low knowledge on GM maize. Public acknowledged the technology’s potential positive impacts, with more than 90% willing to adopt and more than 98% willing to buy GM seedlings at any given price. A small percentage less than 3% were of a negative opinion about willing to buy and adopt GM seeds. We conclude that GM technology has a role to play in food security in Kenya. However, the public needs more information about the technology, which can be provided through established sources of information and training. Finally, public knowledge and attitude on GM maize should be studied on a regular basis, and the survey population broadened to 47 counties.
Indigenous Knowledge Management: Towards Identification of Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Countries
The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical discourse that highlights the challenges associated with management of indigenous knowledge with reference to developing countries. Literature review and brainstorming were used to collect relevant data and draw inferences. The findings indicate that non-existence of indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), low level of partnership drive among library and information services providers, non-uniformity of format and content of indigenous knowledge, inadequate funding, and lack of access to ICTs, lack of indigenous people with indigenous expertise and hoarding of knowledge as challenges to indigenous knowledge management. The study is based on literature review and information gathered through brain storming with professional colleagues the geographic scope as developing countries. The study has birth several implication based on the findings made. Professionally, it has necessitated the need for formulating a viable indigenous knowledge management policy (IKMP), creating of collaborative network through partnership, and integration of ICTs to indigenous knowledge management practices by libraries in developing countries etc. The originality of this paper is revealed in its capability as serving as an eye opener to librarians on the need for preserving and managing indigenous knowledge in developing countries. It further unlocks the possibilities of exploring empirical based researches to substantiate the theoretical issues raised in this paper. The findings may be used by library managers to improve indigenous knowledge management (IKM).
Consensus-Oriented Analysis Model for Knowledge Management Failure Evaluation in Uncertain Environment
This study propose a framework based on the fuzzy T-Norms, T-conorm, a novel operator, and multi-expert approach to help organizations build awareness of the critical influential factors on the success of knowledge management (KM) implementation, analysis the failure of knowledge management. This study considers the complex uncertainty concept that is in knowledge management implementing capability (KMIC) and it is used by fuzzy logic for this reason. The contribution of our paper is shown with an empirical study in a nonprofit educational organization evaluation.
Negotiating Increased Food Production with African Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge: The Ugandan Case
Scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Africa, including Uganda, during colonial rule. While this form of knowledge was introduced as part of Western scientific canon, African indigenous knowledge was not destroyed and has remained vital in food production. Modern scientific methods were devoted to export crops while food crop production was left to Africans who continued to use indigenous knowledge. Today, indigenous agricultural knowledge still provides farming skills and practices, more than a century since modern scientific agricultural knowledge was introduced in Uganda. It is evident that there is need to promote the still useful and more accessible indigenous agricultural practices in order to sustain increased food production. It is also important to have a tailor made agricultural knowledge system that combines practical indigenous practices with financially viable western scientific agricultural practices for sustained food production. The proposed paper will explain why the African indigenous agricultural knowledge has persisted and survived for over a century after colonial introduction of western scientific agricultural knowledge. The paper draws on research findings for a PhD study at Makerere University, Uganda. The study uses both written and oral sources, including colonial and postcolonial archival documents, and interviews. It critiques the parameters within which Western farming methods were introduced to African farmers.
Knowledge Management and Tourism: An Exploratory Study Applied to Travel Agents in Egypt
Knowledge management focuses on the development, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information and expertise. It has become an important tool to improve performance in tourism enterprises. This includes improving decision-making, developing customer services, and increasing sales and profits. Knowledge management adoption depends on human, organizational and technological factors. This study aims to explore the concept of knowledge management in travel agents in Egypt. It explores the requirements of adoption and its impact on performance in these agencies. The study targets Category A travel agents in Egypt. The population of the study encompasses Category A travel agents having online presence. An online questionnaire is used to collect data from managers of travel agents. This study is useful for travel agents who are in urgent need to restructure their intermediary role and support their survival in the global travel market. The study sheds light on the requirements of adoption and the expected impact on performance. This could help travel agents identify their situation and the determine the extent to which they are ready to adopt knowledge management. This study is contributing to knowledge by providing insights from the tourism sector in a developing country where the concept of knowledge management is still in its infancy stages.
HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Social Integration among Street Children: A Systematic Review
Introduction: Street children include one of the populations at risk of HIV infection. Their vulnerability to these situations is increased by their lack of understanding of the changes associated with adolescence, the lack of knowledge and skills which could help them to make healthy choices. Social integration increased AIDS knowledge among migrant workers in Thailand. Although social integration has been incorporated into health research in other areas, it has received less attention in AIDS prevention research. This factor has not been integrated into models for HIV prevention. Objectives: The goal of this review is to summarize available knowledge about factors related to HIV/AIDS knowledge and to examine whether social integration was reviewed among street children. Methodology: This study performed a systematic search for English language articles published between January 2006 and March 2016 using the following keywords in various combination: street children, HIV/AIDS knowledge and social integration from the following bibliographic databases: Scopus, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, EBSCOhost, Sage Publication, Clinical Key, Google Web, and Google Scholar . Results: A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria were systematically reviewed. This study reviews the existing quantitative and qualitative literature regarding the HIV/AIDS knowledge of street children in many countries. The study locations were Asia, the Americas, Europe, and Africa. The most determinants associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among street children are age and sex. In this review, social integration that may be associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among street children has not been investigated. Conclusion: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study found that there is no research examining the relationship of social integration with the HIV knowledge among street children. This information may assist in the development of relevant strategies and HIV prevention programs to improve HIV knowledge and decrease risk behaviors among street children.
Assessing Knowledge Management Impacts: Challenges, Limits and Base for a New Framework
In a market environment centered more and more on services and the digital economy, knowledge management becomes a framework that can help organizations to create value and to improve their overall performance. Based on an optimal allocation of scarce resources, managers are interested in demonstrating the added value generated by knowledge management projects. One of the challenges faced by organizations is the difficulty in measuring impacts and concrete results of knowledge management initiatives. The present article concerns the measure of concrete results coming from knowledge management projects based on balance scorecard model. One of the goals is to underline what can be done based on this model but also to highlight the limits associated. The present article is structured in five parts; 1-knowledge management projects and organizational impacts; 2- a framework and a methodology to measure organizational impacts; 3- application illustrated in two case studies; 4- limits concerning the proposed framework; 5- the proposal of a new framework to measure organizational impacts.
Personality as a Predictor of Knowledge Hiding Behavior: Case Study of Alpha Electronics
Employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors can be detrimental to employees’ interpersonal relationships and individual and organizational learning and creativity. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on the contingencies, antecedents and outcomes of employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors is still in its infancy. On the other hand, not everyone who hides knowledge hides it the same way, as individuals are different, so do their behaviors. This study explores the links between employees’ personality traits and their knowledge hiding behaviors. By using a single case study as a research methodology and collecting data through 28 semi-structured interviews from employees working in Alpha Electronics (the pseudo name of the company to ascertain anonymity) operating in Pakistan, we foreground the patterns of relationships between employees’ personality traits and knowledge hiding behaviors – rationalized hiding, evasive hiding and playing dumb. Our findings suggest that employees high on extraversion involve in evasive knowledge hiding; while employees low on extraversion (introverts) demonstrate rationalized hiding. Moreover, both extrovert and introvert employees involve in playing dumb in situations that involve risk for their jobs and careers. For instance, when knowledge is requested from their managers, both extrovert and introvert employees tend to play dumb, as in such cases, evasive and rationalized hiding can be harmful to their job and career-related interests and motives. Other than theoretical contributions, the study offers important implications for organizations faced with the challenges of shortage of skills and knowledge.
Knowledge Acquisition as Determinant of Outputs of Innovative Business in Regions of the Czech Republic
The aim of this paper is to analyze the ability to identify and acquire knowledge from external sources at the regional level in the Czech Republic. The results show that the most important sources of knowledge for innovative activities are sources within the businesses themselves, followed by customers and suppliers. Furthermore, the analysis of relationships between the objective of the innovative activity and the ability to identify and acquire knowledge implies that knowledge obtained from a) customers aims at replacing outdated products and increasing product quality; b) suppliers aims at increasing capacity and flexibility of production; and c) competing businesses aims at growing market share and increasing the flexibility of production and services. Regions should therefore direct their support especially into development and strengthening of networks within the value chain.
Elements of Socio-Ecological Knowledge for Sustainable Fisheries Management: An Analysis of Chakara Fishery Management in South West India
Common property resource like fisheries is conserved and managed by fishermen with the help of Local Ecological Knowledge system. Various forms of Social and Ecological elements adapted to formularize management of Chakara fishery. This study tries for a better understanding of elements involved in fishery management in India, such traditional knowledge system practicing within the fishing communities for management and conservation of the marine resources. Participatory Rural Appraisal technique is applied to seize the traditional knowledge system in central Kerala coastal region, India. Socio-Ecological Analysis framework is used for the study. This paper discusses that traditional knowledge systems of chakara fishery and discloses need for inclusive governance system. The paper also discusses adaptation of different elements of the ecological, biological and institutional knowledge system in local ecological knowledge for sustain the fishery. A framework is formulized based on elements operating in chakara fishery management.
Knowledge-Driven Decision Support System Based on Knowledge Warehouse and Data Mining by Improving Apriori Algorithm with Fuzzy Logic
In recent years, we have seen an increasing importance of research and study on knowledge source, decision support systems, data mining and procedure of knowledge discovery in data bases and it is considered that each of these aspects affects the others. In this article, we have merged information source and knowledge source to suggest a knowledge based system within limits of management based on storing and restoring of knowledge to manage information and improve decision making and resources. In this article, we have used method of data mining and Apriori algorithm in procedure of knowledge discovery one of the problems of Apriori algorithm is that, a user should specify the minimum threshold for supporting the regularity. Imagine that a user wants to apply Apriori algorithm for a database with millions of transactions. Definitely, the user does not have necessary knowledge of all existing transactions in that database, and therefore cannot specify a suitable threshold. Our purpose in this article is to improve Apriori algorithm. To achieve our goal, we tried using fuzzy logic to put data in different clusters before applying the Apriori algorithm for existing data in the database and we also try to suggest the most suitable threshold to the user automatically.
A Model of Empowerment Evaluation of Knowledge Management in Private Banks Using Fuzzy Inference System
The purpose of this research is to provide a model based on fuzzy inference system for evaluating empowerment of Knowledge management. The first prototype of the research was developed based on the study of literature. In the next step, experts were provided with these models and after implementing consensus-based reform, the views of Fuzzy Delphi experts and techniques, components and Index research model were finalized. Culture, structure, IT and leadership were considered as dimensions of empowerment. Then, In order to collect and extract data for fuzzy inference system based on knowledge and Experience, the experts were interviewed. The values obtained from designed fuzzy inference system, made review and assessment of the organization's empowerment of Knowledge management possible. After the design and validation of systems to measure indexes ,empowerment of Knowledge management and inputs into fuzzy inference) in the AYANDEH Bank, a questionnaire was used. In the case of this bank, the system output indicates that the status of empowerment of Knowledge management, culture, organizational structure and leadership are at the moderate level and information technology empowerment are relatively high. Based on these results, the status of knowledge management empowerment in AYANDE Bank, was moderate. Eventually, some suggestions for improving the current situation of banks were provided. According to studies of research history, the use of powerful tools in Fuzzy Inference System for assessment of Knowledge management and knowledge management empowerment such an assessment in the field of banking, are the innovation of this Research.
The Use Management of the Knowledge Management and the Information Technologies in the Competitive Strategy of a Self-Propelling Industry
This article presents the beginning of a wider study that intends to demonstrate how within organizations of the automotive industry from the city of Querétaro. Knowledge management and technological management are required, as well as people’s initiative and the interaction embedded at the interior of it, with the appropriate environment that facilitates information conversion with wide information technologies management (ITM) range. A company was identified for the pilot study of this research, where descriptive and inferential research information was obtained. The results of the pilot suggest that some respondents did noted entity the knowledge management topic, even if staffs have access to information technology (IT) that serve to enhance access to knowledge (through internet, email, databases, external and internal company personnel, suppliers, customers and competitors) data, this implicates that there are Knowledge Management (KM) problems. The data shows that academically well-prepared organizations normally do not recognize the importance of knowledge in the business, nor in the implementation of it, which at the end is a great influence on how to manage it, so that it should guide the company to greater in sight towards a competitive strategy search, given that the company has an excellent technological infrastructure and KM was not exploited. Cultural diversity is another factor that was observed by the staff.
Differences in Production of Knowledge between Internationally Mobile versus Nationally Mobile and Non-Mobile Scientists
The presented study examines the impact of international mobility on knowledge production among mobile scientists and within the sending and receiving research groups. Scientists are relevant to the dynamics of knowledge production because scientific knowledge is mainly characterized by embeddedness and tacitness. International mobility enables the dissemination of scientific knowledge to other places and encourages new combinations of knowledge. It can also increase the interdisciplinarity of research by forming synergetic combinations of knowledge. Particularly innovative ideas can have their roots in related research domains and are sometimes transferred only through the physical mobility of scientists. Diversity among scientists with respect to their knowledge base can act as an engine for the creation of knowledge. It is therefore relevant to study how knowledge acquired through international mobility affects the knowledge production process. In certain research domains, international mobility may be essential to contextualize knowledge and to gain access to knowledge located at distant places. The knowledge production process contingent on the type of international mobility and the epistemic culture of a research field is examined. The production of scientific knowledge is a multi-faceted process, the output of which is mainly published in scholarly journals. Therefore, the study builds upon publication and citation data covered in Elsevier’s Scopus database for the period of 1996 to 2015. To analyse these data, bibliometric and social network analysis techniques are used. A basic analysis of scientific output using publication data, citation data and data on co-authored publications is combined with a content map analysis. Abstracts of publications indicate whether a research stay abroad makes an original contribution methodologically, theoretically or empirically. Moreover, co-citations are analysed to map linkages among scientists and emerging research domains. Finally, acknowledgements are studied that can function as channels of formal and informal communication between the actors involved in the process of knowledge production. The results provide better understanding of how the international mobility of scientists contributes to the production of knowledge, by contrasting the knowledge production dynamics of internationally mobile scientists with those being nationally mobile or immobile. Findings also allow indicating whether international mobility accelerates the production of knowledge and the emergence of new research fields.
Perception and Knowledge of the Jordanian Society of Occupational Therapy
Background: there are scarcity of studies done to investigate the level of knowledge and the level of awareness and perception of Jordanians about occupational therapy (OT). Aim: to investigate the level of awareness of lay people, clients receiving services and healthcare professionals of OT, identify the common misconceptions about OT, and to explore ways whereby the knowledge and awareness about OT can be increased. Methodology: a cross sectional design was employed in this study where a survey was distributed in the Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern provinces and the Middle (capital city: Amman) province of Jordan. The survey consisted of eight section and 61 questions that aims to investigate the demographics of participants, self evaluation concerning knowledge and awareness about OT, sources of knowledge about OT, the perception of the aims, fields of practice, OT settings, misconceptions about OT, and suggestion to improve knowledge and awareness about OT. Results: A total of 829 participants were enrolled in this study: 459 lay people, 155 clients who are currently receiving OT services, 215 healthcare professionals. About 57% of the participants did not hear about OT, and 48% of those who reported to hear about OT did not have sufficient knowledge about it. There are several misconceptions associated with OT. The statistical analysis was executed using IBM SPSS software, Version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Conclusion: it is the responsibility of OTRs to increase the knowledge and awareness about OT in Jordan. This is required for the profession to proliferate and to be given its status.
Intertextuality in Tourism Advertising: Sources of Knowledge Asymmetries in Translating Vocative Texts
The article addresses the problem of translating vocative texts with intertextual references and describes the influence of language on how knowledge and meaning are developed in the field of advertising. The starting point of the article takes advertisements from the sphere of tourism and the way we choose, translate, and interpret intertexts. The article focuses on the perception and understanding of the information in printed texts advertising recreational facilities and services for tourists as the target audience by representatives of other cultures and the knowledge intertexts convey. The authors argue that intertextuality complicates translation leading to knowledge asymmetries. Studying typical communicative failures is considered to be of great importance, allowing for improvement in the practice of translation in the sphere of advertising as well as preventing the fallacious transfer of knowledge when translating foreign intertexts.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Anemia among Females Attending Bolan Medical Complex Quetta, Balochistan
Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of anemia among females attending Bolan Medical Complex Quetta, Balochistan. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study by adopting a questionnaire containing 3 dimensions knowledge (15 questions), Attitude (5 questions), and Practice (4 questions) for the assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of anemia among females was conducted. All females attending Bolan Medical Complex Quetta, Balochistan were approached for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and KAP related characteristics of the females regarding anemia.All data were analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) software program version 20.0. Results: Data was collected from six hundred and thirteen (613) participants. Majority of the respondents (n=180, 29.4%) were categorized in the age group of 29-33 years. Participants had knowledge regarding anemia was (n= 564, 91.9%), and attitude was (n= 516, 84.0%) whereas practice was (n=437, 71.3%). Multitative analysis revealed the negative correlation between Attitude-practice (P= -0.040) and a significant figure (0.001) was present between knowledge-attitude. Occupation and reason of diagnosis were not predictive of better KAP. Conclusions: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Anemia shows a satisfactory response in this study. Furthermore, study finding implicates the need for health promotion among females. Improving nutritional knowledge and information related Anemia can result in better control and management.
Top Management Support as an Enabling Factor for Academic Innovation through Knowledge Sharing
Educational institutions are today facing increasing pressures due to economic, political and social upheaval. This is only exacerbated by the nature of education as an intangible good which relies upon the intellectual assets of the organisation, its staff. Top management support has been acknowledged as having a positive general influence on knowledge management and creativity. However, there is a lack of models linking top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation within higher education institutions, in general within developing countries, and particularly in Iraq. This research sought to investigate the impact of top management support on innovation through the mediating role of knowledge sharing in Iraqi private HEIs. A quantitative approach was taken and 262 valid responses were collected to test the causal relationships between top management support, knowledge sharing, and innovation. Employing structural equation modelling with AMOS v.25, the research demonstrated that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between top management support and innovation. The research has produced some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders, and provided evidence to support the use of knowledge sharing to increase innovation within the higher education environment in developing countries, particularly Iraq.
Creating a Quasi-Folklore as a Tool for Knowledge Sharing in a Family-Based Business
Knowledge management practices are more contextual when they combine with the corporate culture. Each entity has a specific cultural climate that enables knowledge sharing in both functional and individual levels. The interactions between people within organization can be influenced by the culture and how the knowledge is transmitted. On the other hand, these interactions have impacts in culture modification as well. Storytelling is one of the methods in delivering the knowledge throughout the organization. This paper aims to explore the possibility in using a quasi-folklore in the family-based business. Folklore is defined as informal tradition culture that spreading through a word-of-mouth, without knowing the source of the story. In this paper, the quasi-folklore term is used to differentiate it with the original term of folklore. The story is created by somebody in the organization, not like the folklore with unknown source. However, the source is not disclosed, in order to avoid the predicted interest from the story origin. The setting of family-based business is deliberately chosen, since the kinship is considerably strong in this type of entity. Through a thorough literature review that relates to knowledge management, storytelling, and folklore, this paper determines how folklore can be an option for knowledge sharing within the organization.
A Study of Emergency Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pain
Objective: Through the questionnaire about emergency nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management to understand whether they are well mastered and practiced the related knowledge about pain management, providing a reference for continuous improvement of the quality of nursing care in acute pain and for improving the effect of management on emergency pain patients. Method: The Chinese version questionnaire about KASRP (knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain) was handed out to 132 emergency nurses to do a study about the knowledge and attitude of pain management. Meanwhile, SPSS17.0 was used to do a descriptive analysis and variance analysis on collected data. Results: The emergency nurses’ correct answer rate about KASRP questionnaire is from 25% to 65% and the average correct rate is (44.65 + 7.85)%. In addition, there are 10 to 26 items being given the right answer. Therefore, the average correct items are (17.86 ± 3.14). Moreover, there is no statistical significant on the differences about the correct rate for different age, gender and work experience to answer; however, the difference of the correct rate in different education background and the professional title is significant. Conclusion: There is a remarkable lack of knowledge and attitude towards pain management in emergency nurses, whose basic knowledge of pain is sufficient. Besides, there is a deviation between the knowledge of pain management and clinical practice, which needs to be improved.
Understanding the Interplay between Consumer Knowledge, Trust and Relationship Satisfaction in Financial Services
Consumers often exhibit a bias in their knowledge; they often think that they know more or less than they do. The concept of 'knowledge over/underconfidence' (O/U) has in previous studies been used to investigate such knowledge bias. O/U appears as a combination of subjective and objective knowledge. Subjective knowledge relates to consumers’ perception of their knowledge, while objective knowledge relates to consumers’ absolute knowledge measured by objective standards. This separation leads to three scenarios: The consumer can either be knowledge calibrated (subjective and objective knowledge are similar), overconfident (subjective knowledge exceeds objective knowledge) or underconfident (objective knowledge exceeds subjective knowledge). Knowledge O/U is a highly useful concept in understanding consumer choice behavior. For example, knowledge overconfident individuals are likely to exaggerate their ability to make right choices, are more likely to opt out of necessary information search, spend less time to carry out a specific task than less knowledge confident consumers, and are more likely to show high financial trading volumes. Through the use of financial services as a case study, this study contributes to previous research by examining how consumer knowledge O/U affects two types of trust (broad-scope trust and narrow-scope trust) and consumer relationship satisfaction. Trust does not only concern consumer trust in individual companies (i.e., narrow.-scope confidence NST), but also concerns consumer confidence in the broader business context in which consumers plan and implement their behavior (i.e., broad scope trust, BST). NST is defined as "the expectation that the service provider can be relied on to deliver on its promises’, while BST is defined as ‘the expectation that companies within a particular business type can generally be relied on to deliver on their promises.’ This study expands our understanding of the interplay between consumer knowledge bias, consumer trust, and relationship marketing in two main ways: First, it is demonstrated that the more knowledge O/U a consumer becomes, the higher/lower NST and levels of relationship satisfaction will be. Second, it is demonstrated that BST has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between knowledge O/U and satisfaction, such that knowledge O/U has a higher positive/negative effect on relationship satisfaction when BST is low vs. high. The data for this study comprises 756 mutual fund investors. Trust is particularly important in consumers’ mutual fund behavior because mutual funds have important responsibilities in providing financial advice and in managing consumers’ funds.
Knowledge Management in the Interactive Portal for Decision Makers on InKOM Example
Managers as decision-makers present in different sectors should be supported in efficient and more and more sophisticated way. There are huge number of software tools developed for such users starting from simple registering data from business area – typical for operational level of management – up to intelligent techniques with delivering knowledge - for tactical and strategic levels of management. There is a big challenge for software developers to create intelligent management dashboards allowing to support different decisions. In more advanced solutions there is even an option for selection of intelligent techniques useful for managers in particular decision-making phase in order to deliver valid knowledge-base. Such a tool (called Intelligent Dashboard for SME Managers–InKOM) is prepared in the Business Intelligent framework of Teta products. The aim of the paper is to present solutions assumed for InKOM concerning on management of stored knowledge bases offering for business managers. The paper is managed as follows. After short introduction concerning research context the discussed supporting managers via information systems the InKOM platform is presented. In the crucial part of paper a process of knowledge transformation and validation is demonstrated. We will focus on potential and real ways of knowledge-bases acquiring, storing and validation. It allows for formulation conclusions interesting from knowledge engineering point of view.
Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, and the Leader Role in the Construction of Sustainability
The increased competition in the globalization drives organizations to innovate in their products and services to remain competitive. Innovation and creativity are incorporated as key aspects to creating value for consumers and for the creation of competitive advantage in organizations. However, there are factors that contribute strong with development of innovation and creation in organizations. These factors are the intellectual capital and knowledge management, which together with sustainability, ensure the development of competitive strategies. However, it is understood that the role of the leader is essential to stimulate the development of human capital, because the human capital is essential for organizations of knowledge. It is the leader who drives the dissemination and sharing of knowledge, an essential aspect for the formation of intellectual capital and therefore should be managed. And it turns out that the management of knowledge through intellectual capital allows the development of environmental initiatives efficiently and effectively. Thus, the research demonstrates the importance of the role of leader / manager in organizations and seeks to analyze how managers can contribute to the adoption of sustainability through intellectual capital and knowledge management.
Human Resource Practices and Organization Knowledge Capability: An Exploratory Study Applied to Private Organization
Organizational capability, in terms of employees’ knowledge is valuable, and difficult to reproduce; and help to build sustainable competitive advantages. Knowledge capability is linked with human resource (HR) practices of an organization. This paper investigates the relationship between HR practices, knowledge management and organization capability. In an organization, employees play key role for the effective organizational performance by sharing their knowledge with management and co-workers that contributes towards organization capability. Pakistan being a developing country has different HR practices and culture. The business opportunities give rise to the discussion about the effect of HR practices on knowledge management and organization capability as innovation performance. An empirical study is conducted through questionnaires form the employees in private banks of Lahore, Pakistan. The data is collected via structured questionnaire with a sample of 120 cases. Data is analyzed using Structure Equation Modeling (SEM), and results are depicted using AMOS software. Results of this study are tabulated, interpreted and crosschecked with other studies. Findings suggest that there is a positive relationship of training & development along with incentives on knowledge management. On the other hand, employee’s participation has insignificant association with knowledge management. In addition, knowledge management has also positive association with organization capability. In line with the previous research, it is suggested that knowledge management is important for improving the organizational capability such as innovation performance and knowledge capacity of firm. Organization capability may improve significantly once specific HR practices are properly established and implemented by HR managers. This Study has key implications for knowledge management and innovation fields theoretically and practically.
Introduction of Knowledge Management in a Public Sector Organization in India
This review provides an overview of the impact that implementation of various Knowledge Management (KM) strategies has had on the growth of a department in a Public Sector Company in India. In a regulated utility controlled by the government, the growth of an organization such as Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) had depended largely on the efficiencies of the systems and its people. However, subsequent to the de-regularization & to the entry of the private competition, the need for a ‘systematic templating’ of knowledge was recognized. This necessitated the introduction of Knowledge Management Centre (KMC). Projects & Pipelines Department (P&P) of HPCL introduced KMC that contributed significantly towards KM by adopting various strategies such as standardization, leveraging information system, competency enhancement, and improvements & innovations. These strategies gave both tangible as well as intangible benefits towards KM. Knowledge, technology & people are the three pillars that need to be catered for effective knowledge management in any organization. In HPCL, the initiative of KMC has served as an intermediary between these three major pillars as each activity of the strategy was centered on them and contributed significantly to their growth and up-gradation, ensuring overall growth of KM in the department.
, knowledge management
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EFL Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness as a Predictor of Their Professional Success
Metacognitive knowledge increases EFL students’ ability to be successful learners. Although this relationship has been investigated by a number of scholars, EFL teachers’ explicit awareness of their cognitive knowledge has not been sufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to examine the role of EFL teachers’ metacognitive knowledge in their pedagogical performance. Furthermore, the role played by years of their academic education and teaching experience was also studied. Fifty female EFL teachers were selected. They completed Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) that assessed six components of metacognition including procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge, conditional knowledge, planning, evaluating, and management strategies. Near the end of the academic semester, the students of each class filled in ‘the Language Teacher Characteristics Questionnaire’ to evaluate their teachers’ pedagogical performance. Four elements of MAI, declarative knowledge, planning, evaluating, and management strategies were found to be significantly correlated with EFL teachers’ pedagogical success. Significant correlation was also established between metacognitive knowledge and EFL teachers’ years of academic education and teaching experience. The findings obtained from this research have contributing implication for EFL teacher educators. The discussion concludes by setting out directions for future research.
Governmentality and the Norwegian Knowledge Promotion Reform
The Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was implemented in elementary schools and upper secondary schools in 2006. The goal of the reform was that all pupils should develop basic skills and competencies in order to take an active part in the knowledge society. This paper discusses how governmentality as a management principle is demonstrated through the Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’. Evaluation reports and political documents are the basis for the discussion. The ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was including quality assurance for schools, teachers, and students and the authorities retained control by using curricula and national tests. The reform promoted several intentions that were not reached. In light of governmentality, it seemed that thoughts and intentions by the authorities differed from those in the world of practice. The quality assurances did not motivate the practitioners to be self-governing. The relationship between the authorities and the implementation actors was weak, and the reform was, therefore, difficult to implement in practice.
Trust: The Enabler of Knowledge-Sharing Culture in an Informal Setting
Trust in an organization has been perceived as one of the key factors behind knowledge sharing, mainly in an unstructured work environment. In an informal working environment, to instill trust among individuals is a challenge and even more in the virtual environment. The study has contributed in developing the framework for building trust in an unstructured organization in performing knowledge sharing in a virtual environment. The artifact called KAPE (Knowledge Acquisition, Processing, and Exchange) was developed for knowledge sharing for the informal organization where the framework was incorporated. It applies to Cassava farmers to facilitate knowledge sharing using web-based platform. A survey was conducted; data were collected from 382 farmers from 21 farm communities. Multiple regression technique, Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test; Tukey’s Honestly significant difference (HSD) analysis; one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and all trust acceptable measures (TAM) were used to test the hypothesis and to determine noteworthy relationships. The results show a significant difference when there is a trust in knowledge sharing between farmers, the ones who have high in trust acceptable factors found in the model (M = 3.66 SD = .93) and the ones who have low on trust acceptable factors (M = 2.08 SD = .28), (t (48) = 5.69, p = .00). Furthermore, when applying Cognitive Expectancy Theory, the farmers with cognitive-consonance show higher level of trust and satisfaction with knowledge and information from KAPE, as compared with a low level of cognitive-dissonance. These results imply that the adopted trust model KAPE positively improved knowledge sharing activities in an informal environment amongst rural farmers.
Knowledge Management as Tool for Environmental Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institutions
The most significant changes in the characteristics of consumers have contributed to the development and adoption of methodologies and tools that enable organizations to be more competitive in the marketplace. One of these methodologies is the integration of Knowledge Management (KM) phases and Environmental Management Systems (EMS). This integration allows companies to manage and share the required knowledge for EMS adoption, from the place where it is generated to the place where it is going to be exploited. The aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between KM phases as a tool for the adoption of EMS in HEI. The methodology has a descriptive scope and a qualitative approach. It is based on a case study and a review of the literature about KM and EMS. We conducted 266 surveys to students, professors and staff at Minuto de Dios University (Colombia). Data derived from the study indicate that if a HEI wants to achieve an adequate knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer, it must have clear goals for implementing an EMS. Also, HEI should create empowerment and training spaces for students, professors and staff. In the case study, HEI must generate alternatives that enhance spaces of knowledge appropriation. It was found that 85% of respondents have not received any training from HEI about EMS. 88% of respondents believe that the actions taken by the university are not efficient to knowledge transfer in order to develop an EMS.
Students’ Level of Knowledge Construction and Pattern of Social Interaction in an Online Forum
The asynchronous discussion forum is one of the most widely used activities in learning management system environment. Online forum allows participants to interact, construct knowledge, and can be used to complement face to face sessions in blended learning courses. However, to what extent do the students perceive the benefits or advantages of forum remain to be seen. Through content and social network analyses, instructors will be able to gauge the students’ engagement and knowledge construction level. Thus, this study aims to analyze the students’ level of knowledge construction and their participation level that occur through online discussion. It also attempts to investigate the relationship between the level of knowledge construction and their social interaction patterns. The sample involves 23 students undertaking a master course in one public university in Malaysia. The asynchronous discussion forum was conducted for three weeks as part of the course requirement. The finding indicates that the level of knowledge construction is quite low. Also, the density value of 0.11 indicating that the overall communication among the participants in the forum is low. This study reveals that strong and significant correlations between SNA measures (in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality) and level of knowledge construction. Thus, allocating these active students in a different groups aids the interactive discussion takes place. Finally, based upon the findings, some recommendations to increase students’ level of knowledge construction and also for further research are proposed.
The Relationship between Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance(Iran)
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and knowledge sharing is the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. They are descriptive correlation study. The study sample consisted of all the experts in the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance helping professionals headquarters in Tehran in the summer period is 2012, the number is 650. Random sampling is targeted. The sample size is 400. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used for the preparation of a standard questionnaire. They also examine the assumptions of the regression coefficient for the relationship between variables in order to investigate the main hypothesis test is used. The findings suggest that the structural and knowledge-sharing between components, there is a direct relationship. The components of the relationship between Impression management and knowledge sharing, there is a direct relationship. There was no significant relationship between Individual pro-social motives and knowledge sharing. Both components of the cognitive aspects of open mindedness and competence are directly related with knowledge sharing. Finally, the comparison between the different dimensions of social capital, the largest of its structure, and its relationship with knowledge sharing is the least relation.
Creating Knowledge Networks: Comparative Analysis of Reference Cases
Knowledge management focuses on coordinating technologies, people, processes, and structures to generate a competitive advantage and considering that networks are perceived as mechanisms for knowledge creation and transfer, this research presents the stages and practices related to the creation of knowledge networks. The methodology started with a literature review adapted from the systematic literature review (SLR). The descriptive analysis includes variables such as approach (conceptual or practical), industry, knowledge management processes and mythologies (qualitative or quantitative), etc. The content analysis includes identification of reference cases. These cases were characterized based on variables as scope, creation goal, years, network approach, actors and creation methodology. It was possible to do a comparative analysis to determinate similarities and differences in these cases documented in knowledge network scientific literature. Consequently, it was shown that even the need and impact of knowledge networks in organizations, the initial guidelines for their creation are not documented, so there is not a guide of good practices and lessons learned. The reference cases are from industries as energy, education, creative, automotive and textile. Their common points are the human approach; it is oriented to interactions to facilitate the appropriation of knowledge, explicit and tacit. The stages of every case are analyzed to propose the main successful elements.
A Conceptual Framework of the Individual and Organizational Antecedents to Knowledge Sharing
The importance of organizational knowledge sharing and knowledge management has been documented in numerous research studies in available literature, since knowledge sharing has been recognized as a founding pillar for superior organizational performance and a source of gaining competitive advantage. Built on this, most of the successful organizations perceive knowledge management and knowledge sharing as a concern of high strategic importance and spend huge amounts on the effective management and sharing of organizational knowledge. However, despite some very serious endeavors, many firms fail to capitalize on the benefits of knowledge sharing because of being unaware of the individual characteristics, interpersonal, organizational and contextual factors that influence knowledge sharing; simply the antecedent to knowledge sharing. The extant literature on antecedents to knowledge sharing, offers a range of antecedents mentioned in a number of research articles and research studies. Some of the previous studies about antecedents to knowledge sharing, studied antecedents to knowledge sharing regarding inter-organizational knowledge transfer; others focused on inter and intra organizational knowledge sharing and still others investigated organizational factors. Some of the organizational antecedents to KS can relate to the characteristics and underlying aspects of knowledge being shared e.g., specificity and complexity of the underlying knowledge to be transferred; others relate to specific organizational characteristics e.g., age and size of the organization, decentralization and absorptive capacity of the firm and still others relate to the social relations and networks of organizations such as social ties, trusting relationships, and value systems. In the same way some researchers have highlighted on only one aspect like organizational commitment, transformational leadership, knowledge-centred culture, learning and performance orientation and social network-based relationships in the organizations. A bulk of the existing research articles on antecedents to knowledge sharing has mainly discussed organizational or environmental factors affecting knowledge sharing. However, the focus, later on, shifted towards the analysis of individuals or personal determinants as antecedents for the individual’s engagement in knowledge sharing activities, like personality traits, attitude and self efficacy etc. For example, employees’ goal orientations (i.e. learning orientation or performance orientation is an important individual antecedent of knowledge sharing behaviour. While being consistent with the existing literature therefore, the antecedents to knowledge sharing can be classified as being individual and organizational. This paper is an endeavor to discuss a conceptual framework of the individual and organizational antecedents to knowledge sharing in the light of the available literature and empirical evidence. This model not only can help in getting familiarity and comprehension on the subject matter by presenting a holistic view of the antecedents to knowledge sharing as discussed in the literature, but can also help the business managers and especially human resource managers to find insights about the salient features of organizational knowledge sharing. Moreover, this paper can help provide a ground for research students and academicians to conduct both qualitative as well and quantitative research and design an instrument for conducting survey on the topic of individual and organizational antecedents to knowledge sharing.
Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria
Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.
Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers and Its Effects on Pupils Achievement of Rational Numbers
The study investigated primary school teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers to determine how it effects on pupil’s achievement on rational number. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual and procedural knowledge about rational number and its effects on their pupils understanding of rational number in primary school was explored. The study was carried out in Bauchi state of Nigeria, Using a multistage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test post-test only quasi experiment design. The population of the study comprises of six mathematics teachers holding the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and their two hundred and ten pupils in intact class. Two instrument namely Conceptual and Procedural knowledge Test (CPKT) and Rational number Achievement Test (RAT) were used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Test. The result revealed a significant differences between pupils taught by teachers with high conceptual and procedural knowledge and those target by teachers with low conceptual and procedural knowledge.
The Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Establishment of Knowledge Management in the Central Insurance of Iran
The present study is conducted to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and the establishment of knowledge management in the Central Insurance of Iran. The research results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational culture and its elements that include management support, organizational belonging, individual innovation, and leadership style and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran and that there isn’t any significant relationship between conflict resolution and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran.
Knowledge and Information Sharing in the Opinion of the Polish Academic Community
The purpose of this paper is to describe the perceptions of knowledge and information sharing by the Polish academic community. An electronic questionnaire was used to gather opinions of respondents. The presented results are a part of the findings of empirical studies carried out amongst academics from various types of universities and academia located throughout Poland.
Knowledge Based Liability for ISPs’ Copyright and Trademark Infringement in the EU E-Commerce Directive: Two Steps Behind the Philosophy of Computing Mind
The subject matter of this article is the efficiency of current knowledge standard to afford the legal integration regarding criteria and approaches to ISP knowledge standards, to shield ISP and copyright, trademark and other parties’ rights in the online information society. The EU recognizes the knowledge-based liability for intermediaries in the European Directive on Electronic Commerce, but the implication of all parties’ responsibility for combating infringement has been immolated by dominating attention on liability due to the lack of the appropriate legal mechanism to devote each party responsibility. Moreover, there is legal challenge on the applicability of knowledge-based liability on hosting services and information location tools service. The aim of this contribution is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of ECD knowledge standard through case law with a special emphasis on duty of prevention and constructive knowledge role on internet service providers (ISP s’) to achieve fair balance between all parties rights.
Factors Affecting General Practitioners’ Transfer of Specialized Self-Care Knowledge to Patients
This study examines the key factors that influence general practitioners’ learning and transfer of specialized arthritis knowledge and self-care techniques to patients during normal patient visits. Drawing on the theory of planed behavior and using matched survey data collected from general practitioners before and after training sessions provided by specialized orthopedic physicians, the study suggests that the general practitioner’s intention to use and transfer learned knowledge was influenced mainly by intrinsic motivation, organizational learning culture and absorptive capacity, but was not influenced by extrinsic motivation. The results provide both theoretical and practical implications.
Studying the Establishment of Knowledge Management Background Factors at Islamic Azad University, Behshahr Branch
Knowledge management serves as one of the great breakthroughs in information and knowledge era and given its outstanding features, successful organizations tends to adopt it. Therefore, to deal with knowledge management establishment in universities is of special importance. In this regard, the present research aims to shed lights on factors background knowledge management establishment at Islamic Azad University, Behshahr Branch (Northern Iran). Considering three factors information technology system, knowledge process system and organizational culture as a fundamental of knowledge management infrastructure, foregoing factors were evaluated individually. The present research was conducted in descriptive-survey manner and participants included all staffs and faculty members, so that according to Krejcie & Morgan table a sample size proportional to the population size was considered. The measurement tools included survey questionnaire whose reliability was calculated to 0.83 according to Cronbachs alpha. To data analysis, descriptive statistics such as frequency and its percentage tables, column charts, mean, standard deviation and as for inferential statistics Kolomogrov- Smirnov test and single T-test were used. The findings show that despite the good corporate culture as one of the three factors background the establishment of the knowledge management at Islamic Azad University Behshahr Branch, other two ones, including IT systems, and knowledge processes systems are characterized with adverse status. As a result, these factors have caused no necessary conditions for the establishment of Knowledge Management in the university provided.
Investigating the Dynamics of Knowledge Acquisition in Undergraduate Mathematics Students Using Differential Equations
The problem of the teaching of mathematics is studied using differential equations. A mathematical model for knowledge acquisition in mathematics is developed. In this study we adopt the mathematical model that is normally used for disease modelling in the teaching of mathematics. It is assumed that teaching is 'infecting' students with knowledge thereby spreading this knowledge to the students. It is also assumed that students who gain this knowledge spread it to other students making disease model appropriate to adopt for this problem. The results of this study show that increasing recruitment rates, learning contact with teachers and learning materials improves the number of knowledgeable students. High dropout rates and forgetting taught concepts also negatively affect the number of knowledgeable students. The developed model is then solved using Matlab ODE45 and \verb"lsqnonlin" to estimate parameters for the actual data.
Enabling Service Innovation in Higher Education Institutions by Means of Leveraging Knowledge Management Practices
It has been revealed in the existing literature that specific knowledge management practices can be implemented and utilized in organizations to enable sustaining service innovation. This kind of innovation is of crucial importance in service environments such as institutions of higher education because it allows the delivery of enhanced services which are designed to add value and deliver better services to clients. However, there is a widespread lack of the necessary implementation of essential knowledge practices in higher education institutions owing to a variety of internal challenges and barriers. The primary objective of the study was to identify the essential knowledge management practices required for the enablement of service innovation. The main outcome was the development of a framework of knowledge management practice which can be applied in institutions of higher education to achieve service innovation. The study will address the gap in where existing literature mostly explored the aforementioned processes in the context of commercial and corporate organizations and not in the higher education environment.
How to Applicate Knowledge Management in Security Environment within the Scope of Optimum Balance Model
Organizations aim to manage information in a most possible effective way for sustainment and development. In doing so, they apply various procedures and methods. The very same situation is valid for each service of Armed Forces. During long-lasting endeavors such as shaping and maintaining security environment, supporting and securing peace, knowledge management is a crucial asset. Optimum Balance Model aims to promote the system from a decisive point to a higher decisive point. In this context, this paper analyses the application of optimum balance model to knowledge management in Armed Forces and tries to find answer to the question how Optimum Balance Model is integrated in knowledge management.
Applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Knowledge Sharing and Management in Construction
Construction knowledge can be referred to and reused among involved project managers and job-site engineers to alleviate problems on a construction job-site and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology to provide sharing of construction knowledge by using the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format, and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the 3D BIM environment. Using the BIM approach, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to 3D BIM and obtain feedback provided by job-site engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management in the construction phase of construction projects and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The combined results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM approach and web technology.
Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Healthcare Sector: Evidences from Primary Health Care Organizations in Indonesia
Knowledge has been viewed as one of the most important resources in organizations, including those that operate in the healthcare sector. On that basis, Knowledge Management (KM) is crucial for healthcare organizations to improve their productivity and ensure effective utilization of their resources. Despite the growing interests to understand how KM might work for healthcare organizations, there is only a modest amount of empirical inquiries which have specifically focused on the tools and initiatives to share knowledge. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the way healthcare organizations, particularly public sector ones, utilize knowledge sharing tools and initiatives for the benefit of patient-care. Employing a qualitative method, 13 (thirteen) Community Health Centers (CHCs) from a high-performing district health setting in Indonesia were observed. Data collection and analysis involved a repetition of document retrievals and interviews (n=41) with multidisciplinary health professionals who work in these CHCs. A single case study was cultivated reflecting on the means that were used to share knowledge, along with the factors that inhibited the exchange of knowledge among those health professionals. The study discovers that all of the thirteen CHCs exhibited and applied knowledge sharing means which included knowledge documents, virtual communication channels (i.e. emails and chatting applications), and social learning forums such as staff meetings, morning briefings, and communities of practices. However, the intensity of utilization was different among these CHCs, in which organizational culture, leadership, professional boundaries, and employees’ technological aptitude were presumed to be the factors that inhibit knowledge sharing processes. Making a distance with the KM literature of other sectors, this study denounces the primacy of technology-based tools, suggesting that socially-based initiatives could be more reliable for sharing knowledge. This suggestion is largely due to the nature of healthcare work which is still predominantly based on the tacit form of knowledge.
The Role of Quality Management Tools and Knowledge Sharing in Improving the Level of Academic Staff: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities
The quality of higher education as a service is fundamental to a country’s development because universities prepare the professionals who will work as managers in companies and manage public and private resources and care for the health and education of new generations. Knowledge sharing involves the interaction of all activities between individuals. Thus, the higher education institutions are aiming to improve and assist their academics in generating new ideas by encouraging them to work as a team, to simplify the exchange of the new knowledge and to further improve the learning process and achieving institutional aims. Moreover, the sources of competitive advantage in universities derive from intellectual capital and innovations in which innovation comes through knowledge sharing. Using quality tools is to define the exact requirements needed to create the concept of knowledge sharing and what are the barriers to achieve this in universities. The purpose of this research is critically evaluating the role of using quality tools to facilitate the concept of knowledge sharing and improve the academic staff level in the Jordanian universities.
The Investigation on the Status of Disaster Prevention and Reduction Knowledge in Rural Pupils in China
Objective: In order to investigate current status on knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction in rural pupils, to explore education method on disaster prevention and reduction for rural pupils. Method: A questionnaire was designed based on literature review. Convenient sampling was used in the survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 180 students from Huodehong town central primary school which located in Ludian county of Zhaotong city in Yunnan province, where 6.5 magnitude earthquake happened in 2014. The result indicated that the pupils’ knowledge and skills on disaster prevention and reduction relevant poor. The source for them to obtain the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction included TV (68.9%), followed by their parents (43.9%), while only 24.4% of knowledge is from the teachers. The scores about different natural disaster are ranking in descending order: earthquake (5.39 ±1.27), floods (3.77 ±1.17); debris flow (2.81 ±1.05), family fire (2.16± 0.96). And the disaster experience did not help the pupils enhance the knowledge reserves. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in knowledge scores of disaster prevention and reduction between experienced and non-experienced group. Conclusion: The local disaster experiences did not draw the attention of parents and schools. Knowledge popularization of disaster for local pupils is extremely urgent. It is necessary to take advantage of more mediums to popularize the knowledge and skills about disaster prevention and reduction, for example, family education, school education, newspapers, brochures, etc. The training courses on disaster prevention and reduction which are based on the characteristics of the local rural pupils and the characteristics of the local disasters would be useful.
Exploring Transitions between Communal- and Market-Based Knowledge Sharing
Markets and communities are often cast as alternative forms of knowledge sharing, but an open question is how and why people dynamically transition between them. To study these transitions, we design a technology that allows geographically distributed participants to either buy knowledge (using virtual points) or request it for free. We use a data-driven, inductive approach, studying 550 members in over 5000 interactions, during nine months. Because the technology offered participants choices between market or community forms, we can document both individual and collective transitions that emerge as people cycle between these forms. Our inductive analysis revealed that uncertainties endemic to knowledge sharing were the impetus for these transitions. Communities evoke uncertainties about knowledge sharing’s costs and benefits, which markets resolve by quantifying explicit prices. However, if people manipulate markets, they create uncertainties about the validity of those prices, allowing communities to reemerge to establish certainty via identity-based validation.
The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence
The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.
An Examination of Factors Leading to Knowledge-Sharing Behavior of Sri Lankan Bankers
In the current competitive environment, the factors leading to organization success are not limited to the investment of capital, labor, and raw material, but in the ability of knowledge innovation from all the members of an organization. However, knowledge on its own cannot provide organizations with its promised benefits unless it is shared, as organizations are increasingly experiencing unsuccessful knowledge sharing efforts. In such a backdrop and due to the dearth of research in this area in the South Asian context, the study set forth to develop an understanding of the factors that influence knowledge-sharing behavior within an organizational framework, using widely accepted social psychology theories. The purpose of the article is to discover the determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and actual knowledge sharing behaviors of bank employees in Sri Lanka using an aggregate model. Knowledge sharing intentions are widely discussed in literature through the application of Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Theory of Social Capital (SCT) separately. Both the theories are rich to explain knowledge sharing intention of workers with limitations. The study, therefore, combines the TPB with SCT in developing its conceptual model. Data were collected through a self-administrated paper-based questionnaire of 199 bank managers from 6 public and private banks of Sri Lanka and analyzed the suggested research model using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The study supported six of the nine hypotheses, where Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, Trust, Anticipated Reciprocal Relationships and Actual Knowledge Sharing Behavior were supported while Organizational Climate, Sense of Self-Worth and Anticipated Extrinsic Rewards were not, in determining knowledge sharing intentions. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of demographic factors of bankers (age, gender, position, education, and experiences) to the actual knowledge sharing behavior. However, findings should be confirmed using a larger sample, as well as through cross-sectional studies. The results highlight the need for theoreticians to combined TPB and SCT in understanding knowledge workers’ intentions and actual behavior; and for practitioners to focus on the perceptions and needs of the individual knowledge worker and the need to cultivate a culture of sharing knowledge in the organization for their mutual benefit.
Expert and Novice Problem-Solvers Differences: A Discourse for Effective Teaching Delivery in Physics Classrooms
This paper reports on a study of problem solving differences between expert and novice Problem solvers for effective physics teaching. Significant differences were found both at the conceptual level and at the level of critical thinking, creative thinking and reasoning. It is suggested for a successful solution of a problem, conceptual knowledge alone may not be sufficient. There is the need of the knowledge of how the conceptual knowledge should be applied (problem solving skills). It is hoped that this research might contribute to efforts of exploring ways for students to acquire a powerful conceptual toolkit based on experts like problem solvers approach for effective teaching delivery.
Comparing the Contribution of General Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Vocabulary Knowledge to Learners' Academic Achievement
Coxhead’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) believed to be essential for students pursuing higher education and helps differentiate English for Academic Purposes (EAP) from General English as a course of study, and it is thought to be important for comprehending English academic texts. It has been described that AWL is an infrequent, discrete set of vocabulary items unreachable from general language. On the other hand, it has been known for a period of time that general vocabulary knowledge is a good predictor of academic achievement. This study, however, is an attempt to measure and compare the contribution of academic knowledge and general vocabulary knowledge to learners’ GPA and examine what knowledge is a better predictor of academic achievement and investigate whether AWL as a specialised list of infrequent words relates to the frequency effect. The participants were comprised of 44 international postgraduate students in Swansea University, all from the School of Management, following the taught MSc (Master of Science). The study employed the Academic Vocabulary Size Test (AVST) and the XK_Lex vocabulary size test. The findings indicate that AWL is a list based on word frequency rather than a discrete and unique word list and that the AWL performs the same function as general vocabulary, with tests of each found to measure largely the same quality of knowledge. The findings also suggest that the contribution that AWL knowledge provides for academic success is not sufficient and that general vocabulary knowledge is better in predicting academic achievement. Furthermore, the contribution that academic knowledge added above the contribution of general vocabulary knowledge when combined is really small and noteworthy. This study’s results are in line with the argument and suggest that it is the development of general vocabulary size is an essential quality for academic success and acquiring the words of the AWL will form part of this process. The AWL by itself does not provide sufficient coverage, and is probably not specialised enough, for knowledge of this list to influence this general process. It can be concluded that AWL as an academic word list epitomizes only a fraction of words that are actually needed for academic success in English and that knowledge of academic vocabulary combined with general vocabulary knowledge above the most frequent 3000 words is what matters most to ultimate academic success.
Data Mining and Knowledge Management Application to Enhance Business Operations: An Exploratory Study
The modern business organizations are adopting technological advancement to achieve competitive edge and satisfy their consumer. The development in the field of Information technology systems has changed the way of conducting business today. Business operations today rely more on the data they obtained and this data is continuously increasing in volume. The data stored in different locations is difficult to find and use without the effective implementation of Data mining and Knowledge management techniques. Organizations who smartly identify, obtain and then convert data in useful formats for their decision making and operational improvements create additional value for their customers and enhance their operational capabilities. Marketers and Customer relationship departments of firm use Data mining techniques to make relevant decisions, this paper emphasizes on the identification of different data mining and Knowledge management techniques that are applied to different business industries. The challenges and issues of execution of these techniques are also discussed and critically analyzed in this paper.
The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Process Innovation through Knowledge Sharing
Transformational leadership has been identified as the most important factor affecting innovation and knowledge sharing; it leads to increased goal-directed behavior exhibited by followers and thus to enhanced performance and innovation for the organization. However, there is a lack of models linking transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and process innovation within higher education (HE) institutions in general within developing countries, particularly in Iraq. This research aims to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing in the transformational leadership and process innovation relationship. A quantitative approach was taken and 254 usable questionnaires were collected from public HE institutions in Iraq. Structural equation modelling with AMOS 22 was used to analyze the causal relationships among factors. The research found that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between transformational leadership and process innovation, and that transformational leadership would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities and influencing process innovation in the public HE in Iraq. The research has developed some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to increase process innovation within HE environment in developing countries, particularly in Iraq.
The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation
Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative (GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.
Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers
The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.
Case-Based Reasoning: A Hybrid Classification Model Improved with an Expert's Knowledge for High-Dimensional Problems
Data mining and classification of objects is the process of data analysis, using various machine learning techniques, which is used today in various fields of research. This paper presents a concept of hybrid classification model improved with the expert knowledge. The hybrid model in its algorithm has integrated several machine learning techniques (Information Gain, K-means, and Case-Based Reasoning) and the expert’s knowledge into one. The knowledge of experts is used to determine the importance of features. The paper presents the model algorithm and the results of the case study in which the emphasis was put on achieving the maximum classification accuracy without reducing the number of features.
Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective
Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.
Improving Knowledge Management Practices in the South African Healthcare System
Knowledge is increasingly recognised in this, the knowledge era, as a strategic resource, by public sector organisations, in view of the public sector reform initiatives. People and knowledge play a vital role in attaining improved organisational performance and high service quality. Many government departments in the public sector have started to realise the importance of knowledge management in streamlining their operations and processes. This study focused on knowledge management in the public healthcare service organisations, where the concept of service provider competitiveness pales to insignificance, considering the huge challenges emanating from the healthcare and public sector reforms. Many government departments are faced with challenges of improving organisational performance and service delivery, improving accountability, making informed decisions, capturing the knowledge of the aging workforce, and enhancing partnerships with stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to examine the knowledge management practices of the Gauteng Department of Health in South Africa, in order to understand how knowledge management practices influence improvement in organisational performance and healthcare service delivery. This issue is explored through a review of literature on dominant views on knowledge management and healthcare service delivery, as well as results of interviews with, and questionnaire responses from, the general staff of the Gauteng Department of Health. Web-based questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and organisational documents were used to collect data. The data were analysed using both the quantitative and qualitative methods. The central question investigated was: To what extent can the conditions required for successful knowledge management be observed, in order to improve organisational performance and healthcare service delivery in the Gauteng Department of Health. The findings showed that the elements of knowledge management capabilities investigated in this study, namely knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge application, have a positive, significant relationship with all measures of organisational performance and healthcare service delivery. These findings thus indicate that by employing knowledge management principles, the Gauteng Department of Health could improve its ability to achieve its operational goals and objectives, and solve organisational and healthcare challenges, thereby improving organisational.
Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Community: Societal Culture Considerations
Hofstede’s culture model is an important model to study culture between different societies. He collected data from world-wide and performed a comprehensive study. Hofstede’s cultural model is widely accepted and has been used to study cross cultural influences in different areas like cross-cultural psychology, cross cultural management, information technology, and intercultural communication. This study investigates the societal cultural aspects of knowledge sharing in virtual communities.
Pitfalls and Drawbacks in Visual Modelling of Learning Knowledge by Students
Knowledge-based systems’ design requires the developer’s owning the advanced analytical skills. The efficient development of that skills within university courses needs a deep understanding of main pitfalls and drawbacks, which students usually make during their analytical work in form of visual modeling. Thus, it was necessary to hold an analysis of 5-th year students’ learning exercises within courses of 'Intelligent systems' and 'Knowledge engineering' in Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University. The analysis shows that both lack of system thinking skills and methodological mistakes in course design cause the errors that are discussed in the paper. The conclusion contains an exploration of the issues and topics necessary and sufficient for the implementation of the improved practices in educational design for future curricula of teaching programs.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors
The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.
Facilitating Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development in Portfolio Entrepreneurship: A Case Study of a Sodium-Ion Battery Start-up in China
Start-ups are consistently under pressure to overcome liabilities of newness and smallness. They must focus on assembling resource and engaging constant renewal and repeated entrepreneurial activities to survive and grow. As an important form of resource, knowledge is constantly vital to start-ups, which will help start-ups with developing new product in hence forming competitive advantage. However, significant knowledge is usually needed to be identified and exploited from external entities, which makes it difficult to achieve knowledge transfer; with limited resources, it can be quite challenging for start-ups balancing the exploration and exploitation of knowledge.
The research on knowledge transfer has become a relatively well-developed domain by indicating that knowledge transfer can be achieved through plenty of patterns, yet it is still under-explored that what processes and organizational practices help start-ups facilitating knowledge transfer for new product in the context portfolio entrepreneurship. Resource orchestration theory emphasizes the initiative and active management of company or the manager to explain the fulfillment of resource utility, which will help understand the process of managing knowledge as a certain kind of resource in start-ups.
Drawing on the resource orchestration theory, this research aims to explore how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through resource orchestration. A qualitative single-case study of a sodium-ion battery new venture was conducted. The case company is sampled deliberately from representative industrial agglomeration areas in Liaoning Province, China. It is found that distinctive resource orchestration sub-processes are leveraged to facilitate knowledge transfer: (i) resource structuring makes knowledge available across the portfolio; (ii) resource bundling makes combines internal and external knowledge to form new knowledge; and (iii) resource harmonizing balances specific knowledge configurations across the portfolio. Meanwhile, by purposefully reallocating knowledge configurations to new product development in a certain new venture (exploration) and gradually adjusting knowledge configurations to being applied to existing products across the portfolio (exploitation), resource orchestration processes as a whole make exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced. This study contributes to the knowledge management literature through proposing a resource orchestration view and depicting how knowledge transfer can be facilitated through different resource orchestration processes and mechanisms. In addition, by revealing the balancing process of exploration and exploitation of knowledge, and laying stress on the significance of the idea of making exploration and exploitation of knowledge balanced in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship, this study also adds specific efforts to entrepreneurship and strategy management literature.
Building Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Beginning of a Startup Nation: Case of Vietnam
With a young population showing a greatly entrepreneurial spirit, Vietnam has become a potential land for a growing knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem (KBEE). KBEE is the key to new job formation, and well solution for the crisis of unemployment of higher education graduates and powerful engine for knowledge-based development and building the knowledge based economy in Vietnam. Consequently, Vietnam is attempting to build a healthy KBEE, giving local entrepreneurs more opportunities to develop their businesses. The purpose of the research article is to sketch up a general map to show the current situation of Vietnam's startup ecosystem in the beginning of a startup nation and take into consideration the influence of socio-cultural norms, institutional landscape and socio-economic factors on motivation to develop a KBEE. This paper also proposes a qualitative approach to explore the relationship between these and other elements of Vietnamese entrepreneurial ecosystems. Eventually, viable recommendations are drawn for Vietnamese entrepreneurs and policymakers to improve the quality of the knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Vietnam.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Its Associated Factors on the Provision of Psychological First Aid during Response to Disasters among Public Health Midwives in Colombo
Different kinds of distressing events happen in the world causing a wide range of reactions and feelings. Psychological first aid (PFA) is humane supportive response for suffering. All health workers especially PHMs who play a major role as first responders in a disaster should be able to provide basic PFA effectively. Aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and associated factors on the provision of PFA among PHMs during disasters. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 307 Public Health Midwives in Colombo RDHS area. In the study population, 86.6% (n=266) of the respondents were aware of the term “Psychological first aid” while 13.4% (n=41) were not aware. The total knowledge score was good in majority 85.4%(n=262) of the respondents while only 14.3%(n=45) had a poor knowledge on PFA. There was the statistically significant difference in relation to the level of education with the total knowledge score. Comprehensive desirable attitudes towards PFA was low (30.61%, n=94). According to the study, only a less than a quarter (21.82%, (n = 67)) of the study population had received training on PFA. More than half (56%, n=172) of the respondents had experience in responding to disasters. Conclusions and Recommendations: The overall knowledge and attitudes were found to be satisfactory. However, it is important to improve the knowledge level of the PHMs by providing training and workshops on PFA.
The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and Knowledge Management Factors on University's Students' Learning Process
This research attempts to investigate the effects of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on students’ learning process of the Silpakorn University. The goal of this study is to fill the literature gap by gaining an understanding of corporate social responsibility and the knowledge management factors that fundamentally relate to students’ learning process within the university context. Thus, this study will focus on the outcomes that derive from a set of quantitative data that were obtained using Silpakorn university’s database of 200 students. The results represent the perceptions of students regarding the impact of corporate social responsibility and knowledge management factors on their learning process within the university. The findings indicate that corporate social responsibility and knowledge management have significant effects on students’ learning process. This study may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the integrated aspects of university and learning environments to discover how to allocate optimally university’s resources and management approaches to gain benefits from corporate social responsibility and knowledge management practices toward students’ learning process within the university bodies. Therefore, there is a sufficient reason to believe that the findings can contribute to research in the area of CSR, KM and students’ learning process as an essential aspect of university’s stakeholder.
Perception of Hygiene Knowledge among Staff Working in Top Five Famous Restaurants of Male’
One of the major factors which can contribute greatly to success of catering businesses is to employ food and beverage staff having sound hygiene knowledge. Individuals having sound knowledge of hygiene has a higher chance of following safe food practices in food production. One of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illnesses has been identified as lack of hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in catering establishments and restaurants. This research aims to analyze the hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in top five restaurants of Male’, in relation to their age, educational background, occupation and training. The research uses quantitative and descriptive methods in data collection and in data analysis. Data was obtained through random sampling technique with self-administered survey questionnaires which was completed by 60 respondents working in 5 different restaurants operating at top level in Male’. The respondents of the research were service staff and chefs working in these restaurants. The responses to the questionnaires have been analyzed by using SPSS. The results of the research indicated that age, education level, occupation and training correlated with hygiene knowledge perception scores.
Knowledge Management in a Combined/Joint Environment
In the current era of shrinking budgets, increasing amounts of worldwide natural disasters, state and non-state initiated conflicts within the world. The response has involved multinational coalitions to conduct effective military operations. The need for a Knowledge Management strategy when developing these coalitions have been overlooked in the past and the need for developing these accords early on will save time and help shape the way information and knowledge are transferred from the staff and action officers of the coalition to the decision-makers in order to make timely decisions within an ever changing environment. The aim of this paper is to show how Knowledge Management has developed within the United States military and how the transformation of working within a Combined/ Joint environment in both the Middle East and the Far East has improved relations between members of the coalitions as well as being more effective as a military force. These same principles could be applied to multinational corporations when dealing with cultures and decision-making processes.
Knowledge Management: Why is So Difficult? From “A Good Idea” to Organizational Contribute
From earliest 90 to now, no many companies or organization can “really” implement a knowledge management (KM) system that works (no only viewed from a measurement model, but in this continuity). Which are the reasons of that? Some of the reason maybe could be embedded in how KM is demanded (usefulness, priority, experts, a definition of KM) vs the importance and resources that the organizations afford (budget, responsible of a specific area of KM, intangibility). Many organizations “claim” the importance of Knowledge Management but thhese demands are not reflecting these claims in their future actions. With another’s tools or managements ideas the organizations put the economics and human resources to work. Why it´s not occur in KM? This paper tray to explain some of this reasons and tray to deal with this situations through a survey done in 2011 for a IAPG (Argentinean Institute from Oil & Gas) Congress.
Knowledge Transfer in Industrial Clusters
This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the knowledge transmission channels in textile and clothing clusters located in Brazil and in Europe. Primary data was obtained through interviews with key individuals. The collection of primary data was carried out based on a questionnaire with ten categories of indicators of knowledge transmission. Secondary data was also collected through a literature review and through international organizations sites. Similarities related to the use of the main transmission channels of knowledge are observed in all cases. The main similarities are: influence of suppliers of machinery, equipment and raw materials; imitation of products and best practices; training promoted by technical institutions and businesses; and cluster companies being open to acquire new knowledge. The main differences lie in the relationship between companies, where in Europe the intensity of this relationship is bigger when compared to Brazil. The differences also occur in importance and frequency of the relationship with the government, with the cultural environment, and with the activities of research and development. It is also found factors that reduce the importance of geographical proximity in transmission of knowledge, and in generating trust and the establishment of collaborative behavior.
Teachers' Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge and Technology Integration in Teaching and Learning in a Small Island Developing State: A Concept Paper
The success of technology integration initiatives hinges on the knowledge and skills of teachers to effectively integrate technology in classroom teaching. Consequently, gaining an understanding of teachers' technology knowledge and its integration can provide useful insights on strategies that can be adopted to enhance teaching and learning, especially in developing country contexts where research is scant. This paper extends existing knowledge on teachers' use of technology by developing a conceptual framework that recognises how three key types of knowledge; content, pedagogy, technology, and their integration are at the crux of teachers' technology use while at the same time is amenable to empirical studies. Although the aforementioned knowledge is important for effective use of technology that can result in enhanced student engagement, literature on how this knowledge leads to effective technology use and enhanced student engagement is limited. Thus, this theoretical paper proposes a framework to explore teachers' knowledge through the lens of the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK); the integration of technology in classroom teaching through the Substitution Augmentation Modification and Redefinition (SAMR) model and how this affects students' learning through the Bloom's Digital Taxonomy (BDT) lens. Studies using this framework could inform the design of professional development to support teachers to develop skills for effective use of available technology that can enhance student learning engagement.
A Conceptual Framework for Knowledge Integration in Agricultural Knowledge Management System Development
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy; however, the sector is dominated by smallholder farmers resulting in land fragmentation and suffering from low productivity. Due to these issues, much effort has been put into the transformation of the sector to bring about more sustainable rural economic development. Technological advancements have been applied for the betterment of farmers resulting in the design of tools that are potentially capable of supporting the agricultural sector; however, their use and relevance are still alien to the local rural communities. The notion of the creating, capturing and sharing of knowledge has also been repetitively raised by many international donor agencies to transform the sector, yet the most current approaches to knowledge dissemination focus on knowledge that originates from the western view of scientific rationality while overlooking the role of indigenous knowledge (IK). Therefore, in agricultural knowledge management system (KMS) development, the integration of IKS with scientific knowledge is a critical success factor. The present study aims to contribute in the discourse on how to best integrate scientific and IK in agricultural KMS development. The conceptual framework of the research is anchored in concepts drawn from the theory of situated learning in communities of practice (CoPs): knowledge brokering. Using the KMS development practices of Ethiopian agricultural transformation agency as a case area, this research employed an interpretive analysis using primary and secondary qualitative data acquired through in-depth semi-structured interviews and participatory observations. As a result, concepts are identified for understanding the integration of the two major knowledge systems (i.e., indigenous and scientific knowledge) and participation of relevant stakeholders in particular the local farmers in agricultural KMS development through the roles of extension agent as a knowledge broker including crossing boundaries, in-between position, translation and interpretation, negotiation, and networking. The research shall have a theoretical contribution in addressing the incorporation of a variety of knowledge systems in agriculture and practically to provide insight for policy makers in agriculture regarding the importance of IK integration in agricultural KMS development and support marginalized small-scale farmers.
The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Knowledge Sharing in Iraq’s Public and Private Higher Education: A Comparison Study
Transformational leadership (TL) has been found to have an important influence on knowledge and knowledge management (KM). It can contribute to organizational learning, employees’ creativity, encourage followers to participate in educational programs and develop the skills needed to achieve exceptional performance. This research sought to examine the impact of TL on knowledge donating and collecting and the differences between these impacts in public and private higher education institutes (HEIs) in Iraq. A mixed method approach was taken and 580 valid responses were collected to test the causal relationships between the factors, then 12 interviews were conducted with the leaders of HEIs to give more insight of the findings from quantitative stage. Employing structural equation modelling with AMOS v.24, the research found that TL would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities in both sectors. The interviews revealed differences between public and private HEIs in terms of the effects relationships. Guidelines are developed for academics as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to encourage knowledge sharing activities within higher education in developing countries particularly Iraq.
A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates
Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties
Optimizing Design Works in Construction Consultant Company: A Knowledge-Based Application
The optimal construction design used during the execution of a construction project is a key factor in determining high productivity and customer satisfaction, however, this management process sometimes is carried out without care and the systematic method that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This study proposes a knowledge management (KM) approach that will enable the intelligent use of experienced and acknowledged engineers to improve the management of construction design works for a project. Then a knowledge-based application to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system for the application, semi-structured interviews were conducted within five construction consulting organizations with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ optimizing process is implemented in practice and the knowledge supported with it. A system of an optimizing construction design works (OCDW) based on knowledge was developed then validated with construction experts. The OCDW was liked as a valuable tool for construction design works’ optimization, by supporting organizations to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The benefits are described as provided by the performance support system, reducing costs and time, improving product design quality, satisfying customer requirements, expanding the brand organization.
Knowledge Sharing Behavior and Cognitive Dissonance: The Influence of Assertive Conflict Management Strategy and Team Psychological Safety
Today’s workers face more numerous and complex challenges and are required to be increasingly interdependent and faster learners. Knowledge sharing activities between people have been understood as a significant element affecting organizational innovation performance. While they do have the potential to spark cognitive conflict, disagreement is important from an organizational perspective because it can stimulate the development of new ideas and perhaps pave the way for creativity, innovation, and competitive advantage. How teams cope with the cognitive conflict dimension of knowledge sharing and the associated interpersonal risk is what captures our attention. Specifically, assertive conflict management strategies have a positive influence on knowledge sharing behaviors, and team psychological safety has a positive influence on knowledge sharing intention. This paper focuses on explaining the impact that these factors have on the shaping of an individual’s decision to engage or not in knowledge sharing activities. To accomplish this, we performed an empirical analysis on the results of our questionnaire about knowledge-sharing related conflict management and team psychological safety in pharmaceutical enterprises located in North America, Europe, and Asia. First, univariate analysis is used to characterize behavior regarding conflict management strategy into two groups. Group 1 presents assertive conflict management strategies and group 2 shows unassertive ones. Then, by using SEM methodology, we evaluated the relationships between them and the team psychological safety construct with the knowledge sharing process. The results of the SEM analysis show that assertive conflict management strategies affect the knowledge sharing process the most with a small, but significant effect from team psychological safety. The findings suggest that assertive conflict management strategies are just as important as knowledge sharing intentions for encouraging knowledge sharing behavior. This paper provides clear insights into how employees manage the sharing of their knowledge in the face of conflict and interpersonal risk and the relative importance of these factors in sustaining productive knowledge sharing activities.
Knowledge Management Processes as a Driver of Knowledge-Worker Performance in Public Health Sector of Pakistan
The governments around the globe have started taking into considerations the knowledge management dynamics while formulating, implementing, and evaluating the strategies, with or without the conscious realization, for the different public sector organizations and public policy developments. Health Department of Punjab province in Pakistan is striving to deliver quality healthcare services to the community through an efficient and effective service delivery system. Despite of this struggle some employee performance issues yet exists in the form of challenge to government. To overcome these issues department took several steps including HR strategies, use of technologies and focus of hard issues. Consequently, this study was attempted to highlight the importance of soft issue that is knowledge management in its true essence to tackle their performance issues. Knowledge management in public sector is quite an ignored area in the knowledge management-a growing multidisciplinary research discipline. Knowledge-based view of the firm theory asserts the knowledge is the most deliberate resource that can result in competitive advantage for an organization over the other competing organizations. In the context of our study it means for gaining employee performance, organizations have to increase the heterogeneous knowledge bases. The study uses the cross-sectional and quantitative research design. The data is collected from the knowledge workers of Health Department of Punjab, the biggest province of Pakistan. A total of 341 sample size is achieved. The SmartPLS 3 Version 2.6 is used for analyzing the data. The data examination revealed that knowledge management processes has a strong impact on knowledge worker performance. All hypotheses are accepted according to the results. Therefore, it can be summed up that to increase the employee performance knowledge management activities should be implemented. Health Department within province of Punjab introduces the knowledge management infrastructure and systems to make effective availability of knowledge for the service staff. This knowledge management infrastructure resulted in an increase in the knowledge management process in different remote hospitals, basic health units and care centers which resulted in greater service provisions to public. This study is to have theoretical and practical significances. In terms of theoretical contribution, this study is to establish the relationship between knowledge management and performance for the first time. In case of the practical contribution, this study is to give an insight to public sector organizations and government about role of knowledge management in employ performance. Therefore, public policymakers are strongly advised to implement the activities of knowledge management for enhancing the performance of knowledge workers. The current research validated the substantial role of knowledge management in persuading and creating employee arrogances and behavioral objectives. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study contribute to the impact of knowledge management on employee performance as its originality.
Development of a Hamster Knowledge System Based on Android Application
In this paper, we present a hamster knowledge system based on android application. The objective of this system is to advice user to upkeep and feed hamsters based on mobile application. We describe the design approaches and functional components of this system. The system was developed based on knowledge based of hamster experts. The results were divided by the research purposes into 2 parts: developing the mobile application for advice users and testing and evaluating the system. Black box technique was used to evaluate application performances and questionnaires were applied to measure user satisfaction with system usability by specialists and users.
Proposing an Index for Determining Key Knowledge Management Processes in Decision Making Units Using Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method
This paper proposes an approach to identify key processes required by an organization in the field of knowledge management and aligning them with organizational objectives. For this purpose, first, organization’s most important non-financial objectives which are impacted by knowledge management processes are identified and then, using a quality house, are linked with knowledge management processes which are regarded as technical elements. Using this method, processes that are in need of improvement and more attention are prioritized based on their significance. This means that if a process has more influence on organization’s objectives and is in a dire situation comparing to others, is prioritized for choice and improvement. In this research process dominance is considered to be an influential element in process ranking (in addition to communication matrix). This is the reason for utilizing DEA techniques for prioritizing processes in quality house. Results of implementing the method in Khuzestan steel company represents this method’s capability of identifying key processes that require improvements in organization’s knowledge management system.
Sense Environmental Hormones in Elementary School Teachers and Their in Service Learning Motivation
Our environment has been contaminated by many artificial chemicals, such as plastics, pesticides. Many of them have hormone-like activity and are classified as 'environmental hormone (also named endocrine disruptors)'. These chemicals interfere with or mimic hormones have adverse effects that persist into adulthood. Environmental education is an important way to teach students to become engaged in real-world issues that transcend classroom walls. Elementary education is the first stage to perform environmental education and it is an important component to help students develop adequate environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. However, elementary teachers' knowledge plays a critical role in this mission. Therefore, we use a questionnaire to survey the knowledge of environmental hormone of elementary school teachers and their learning motivation of the environmental hormone-regarding knowledge. We collected 218 questionnaires from Taiwanese elementary teachers and the results indicate around 73% of elementary teachers do not have enough knowledge about environmental hormones. Our results also reveal the in-service elementary teachers’ learning motivation of environmental hormones knowledge is positively enhanced once they realized their insufficient cognitive ability of environmental hormones. We believe our study will provide the powerful reference for Ministry of Education to set up the policy of environmental education to enrich all citizens sufficient knowledge of the effects of the environmental hormone on organisms, and further to enhance our correct environmental behaviors.
Development of Management System of the Experience of Defensive Modeling and Simulation by Data Mining Approach
Defense Defensive Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is a system which enables impracticable training for reducing constraints of time, space and financial resources. The necessity of defensive M&S has been increasing not only for education and training but also virtual fight. Soldiers who are using defensive M&S for education and training will obtain empirical knowledge and know-how. However, the obtained knowledge of individual soldiers have not been managed and utilized yet since the nature of military organizations: confidentiality and frequent change of members. Therefore, this study aims to develop a management system for the experience of defensive M&S based on data mining approach. Since individual empirical knowledge gained through using the defensive M&S is both quantitative and qualitative data, data mining approach is appropriate for dealing with individual empirical knowledge. This research is expected to be helpful for soldiers and military policy makers.
Knowledge Transfer and the Translation of Technical Texts
This paper contributes to the ongoing debate as to the relevance of translation studies to professional practitioners. It exposes the various misconceptions permeating the links between theory and practice in the translation landscape in the Arab World. It is a thesis of this paper that specialization in translation should be redefined; taking account of the fact, that specialized knowledge alone is neither crucial nor sufficient in technical translation. It should be tested against the readability of the translated text, the appropriateness of its style and the usability of its content by end-users to carry out their intended tasks. The paper also proposes a preliminary model to establish a working link between theory and practice from the perspective of professional trainers and practitioners, calling for the latter to participate in the production of knowledge in a systematic fashion. While this proposal is driven by a rather intuitive conviction, a research line is needed to specify the methodological moves to establish the mediation strategies that would relate the components in the model of knowledge transfer proposed in this paper.
Web 2.0 Enabling Knowledge-Sharing Practices among Students of IIUM: An Exploration of the Determinants
This study was aimed to explore the latent factors in the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices instrument. Seven latent factors were identified through a factor analysis with orthogonal rotation and interpreted based on simple structure convergence, item loadings, and analytical statistics. The number of factors retains was based on the analysis of Kaiser Normalization criteria and Scree plot. The reliability tests revealed a satisfactory reliability scores on each of the seven latent factors of the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices. Limitation, conclusion, and future work of this study were also discussed.
Applying the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process to Establish the Relative Importance of Knowledge Sharing Barriers
Knowledge sharing (KS) is the key to creativity and innovation in any organizations. Overcoming the KS barriers has created new challenges for designing in dynamic and complex environment. There may be interrelations and interdependences among the barriers. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of literature of KS barriers and impute the relative importance of them through the fuzzy analytic network process that is a generalization of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). It helps to prioritize the barriers to find ways to remove them to facilitate KS. The study begins with a brief description of KS barriers and the most critical ones. The FANP and its role in identifying the relative importance of KS barriers are explained. The paper, then, proposes the model for research and expected outcomes. The study suggests that the use of the FANP is appropriate to impute the relative importance of KS barriers which are intertwined and interdependent. Implications and future research are also proposed.
A Web-Based Self-Learning Grammar for Spoken Language Understanding
One of the major goals of Spoken Dialog Systems (SDS) is to understand what the user utters. In the SDS domain, the Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) Module classifies user utterances by means of a pre-definite conceptual knowledge. The SLU module is able to recognize only the meaning previously included in its knowledge base. Due the vastity of that knowledge, the information storing is a very expensive process. Updating and managing the knowledge base are time-consuming and error-prone processes because of the rapidly growing number of entities like proper nouns and domain-specific nouns. This paper proposes a solution to the problem of Name Entity Recognition (NER) applied to a SDS domain. The proposed solution attempts to automatically recognize the meaning associated with an utterance by using the PANKOW (Pattern based Annotation through Knowledge On the Web) method at runtime. The method being proposed extracts information from the Web to increase the SLU knowledge module and reduces the development effort. In particular, the Google Search Engine is used to extract information from the Facebook social network.
Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Use of Physical Restraints
Purpose: This study aims at measuring the extent of nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward the use of physical restraints in different hospital wards at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC). Background: The habitual use of physical restraint is a widespread practice among nurses working in the clinical settings. Restraints inflict many deleterious consequences on patients physically and psychologically which in turn increases their morbidity and mortality risk and jeopardizes care quality. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward physical restraints are crucial determinants of the persistence of this practice. Literature review: the evidence of lack of knowledge among nurses regarding the use of physical restraints is overwhelming in various clinical settings, especially in two main areas which are the negative consequences and the available alternatives to physical restraints. Studies explored nurses’ attitudes toward physical restraints yielded inconsistent findings. Equally comparable, some studies found that nurses hold positive attitudes toward the use of physical restraints while some others reported just the opposite. Methods: Self-administered knowledge and attitudes scales to 106 nurses working in the SMC. Findings: nurses hold the moderate level of knowledge about restraints (M=58%) with weak negative attitudes (M = -20%) toward using it. Significant moderately-strong negative correlation (r= -0.57, r2= 0.32, p= 0.000) was uncovered between nurses knowledge and their attitudes which provided an empirical explanation of this phenomenon (use of physical restraints). Recommendations: Induction of awareness program that especially focuses on the negative consequences and encourages the use of alternatives is an evident need. This effort necessarily should be adjoined with policy and procedure adjustments.
The Relation of Water Intake with Level of Knowledge Related to Water Intake in Workers of Food Production Unit, Nutrition Installation at Puspa Hospital, Jakarta
Inadequate of water intake has negative effects on the health of the body, which can cause kidney failure and death. One of the factors that can affect someone intake of water is level of knowledge about the importance of water intake itself. A good knowledge of the daily water intake can increase the awareness of daily needed of water intake. Therefore, researchers initiated a study on the relationship of water intake to the level of knowledge related with water intake in food workers, at “Puspa” Hospital. Type of this research is quantitative research with cross-sectional approach. The research data was collected by measuring the independent and dependent variable at a time. This study took place in the food production unit of Nutrition Installation in "Puspa" Hospital, Jakarta in October 2016. The population target in this study were workers in food production unit aged 30-64 years. The instrument was a questionnaire question regarding water intake and 24 hours food recall. The result is 78.6% of respondents have less knowledge about the importance of water intake. Meanwhile, as many as 85.7% of respondents have adequate water intake. Tested by Chi-Square test, showed that no significant relationship between water intake with the level of knowledge related to water intake in workers of food production unit. Adequate intake of water in food workers commonly may be not caused by the level of knowledge related to water intake, but it may be cause of work environment factor which has a high temperature.
Knowledge and Preventive Practice of Occupational Health Hazards among Nurses Working in Various Hospitals in Kathmandu
Occupational health hazards are recognized as global problems for health care workers, it is quiet high in developing countries. It is increasing day by day due to change in science and technology. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of occupational health hazards among the nurses. A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out among 339 nurses working in three different teaching hospitals of the Kathmandu from February 28, 2016 to March 28, 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The study findings revealed that out of 339 samples of all 80.5% were below 30 years; 51.6% were married; 57.5% were graduates and above; 91.4% respondents were working as staff nurse; 56.9% were working in general ward; 56.9% have work experience of 1 to 5 years; 79.1% respondents were immunized against HBV; only 8.6% have received training/ in-service education related to OHH and 35.4% respondents have experienced health hazards. The mean knowledge score was 26.7 (SD=7.3). The level of knowledge of occupational health hazards among the nurses was 68.1% (adequate knowledge). The knowledge was statistically significant with education OR = 0.288, CI: 0.17-0.46 and p value 0.00 and immunization against HBV OR= 1.762, CI: 0.97-0.17 and p value 0.05. The mean practice score was 7.6 (SD= 3.1). The level of practice on prevention of OHH was 74.6% (poor practice). The practice was statistically significant with age having OR=0.47, CI: 0.26-0.83 and p value 0.01; designation OR= 0.32, CI: 0.14-0.70 and p value 0.004; working department OR=0.61, CI: 0.36-1.02 and p value 0.05; work experience OR=0.562, CI: 0.33-0.94 and p value 0.02; previous in-service education/ training OR=2.25; CI: 1.02-4.92 and p value 0.04. There was no association between knowledge and practice on prevention of occupational health hazards which is not statistically significant. Overall, nurses working in various teaching hospitals of Kathmandu had adequate knowledge and poor practice of occupational health hazards. Training and in-service education and availability of adequate personal protective equipments for nurses are needed to encourage them adhere to practice.
Knowledge Management in Academic: A Perspective of Academic Research Contribution to Economic Development of a Nation
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made information access easier and affordable. Academic research has also benefited from this, with online journals and academic resource readily available by the click of a button. However, there are limited ways of assessing and controlling the quality of the academic research mostly in public institution. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a significant number of universities and young population. The quality of knowledge created by academic researchers, however, needs to be evaluated due to the high number of predatory journals published by academia. The purpose of this qualitative study is to look at the knowledge creation, acquisition, and assimilation process by academic researchers in public universities in Nigeria. Qualitative research will be carried out using in-depth interviews and observations. Academic researchers will be interviewed and absorptive capacity theory will be used as the theoretical framework to guide the research. The findings from this study should help understand the impact of ICT on the knowledge creation process in academic research and to understand how ICT can affect the quality of knowledge produced by researchers. The findings from this study should help add value to the existing body of knowledge on the quality of academic research, especially in Africa where there is limited availability of quality academic research. As this study is limited to Nigerian universities, the outcome may not be generalized to other developing countries.
The Role of Knowledge Management in Innovation: Spanish Evidence
In the knowledge-based economy, innovation is considered essential in order to achieve survival and growth in organizations. On the other hand, knowledge management is currently understood as one of the keys to innovation process. Both factors are generally admitted as generators of competitive advantage in organizations. Specifically, activities on R&D&I and those that generate internal knowledge have a positive influence in innovation results. This paper examines this effect and if it is similar or not is what we aimed to quantify in this paper. We focus on the impact that proportion of knowledge workers, the R&D&I investment, the amounts destined for ICTs and training for innovation have on the variation of tangible and intangibles returns for the sector of high and medium technology in Spain. To do this, we have performed an empirical analysis on the results of questionnaires about innovation in enterprises in Spain, collected by the National Statistics Institute. First, using clusters methodology, the behavior of these enterprises regarding knowledge management is identified. Then, using SEM methodology, we performed, for each cluster, the study about cause-effect relationships among constructs defined through variables, setting its type and quantification. The cluster analysis results in four groups in which cluster number 1 and 3 presents the best performance in innovation with differentiating nuances among them, while clusters 2 and 4 obtained divergent results to a similar innovative effort. However, the results of SEM analysis for each cluster show that, in all cases, knowledge workers are those that affect innovation performance most, regardless of the level of investment, and that there is a strong correlation between knowledge workers and investment in knowledge generation. The main findings reached is that Spanish high and medium technology companies improve their innovation performance investing in internal knowledge generation measures, specially, in terms of R&D activities, and underinvest in external ones. This, and the strong correlation between knowledge workers and the set of activities that promote the knowledge generation, should be taken into account by managers of companies, when making decisions about their investments for innovation, since they are key for improving their opportunities in the global market.
The Effect of Knowledge Management in Lean Organization
In an ever changeable and globalized world with new economic and global competitors competing for the same customers and resources, is increasing the pressure on organizations' competitiveness. In addition, organizations faces additional challenges due to an ever-growing amount of data and the ever-bigger challenge of analyzing that data and keeping the data secure. Successful companies are characterized by exploiting their intellectual capital in an efficient manner. Thus, the most valuable asset an organization has today has become its employees' knowledge. To enable this, there is a tool that supports easier handling and optimizes the use of knowledge, which is knowledge management. Based on the theoretical framework and careful review as well as analysis of interviews and observations resulted in six essential areas: structure, management, compensation, communication, trust and motivation. The analysis showed that the scientific articles and literature have different perspectives, different definitions and are based on different theories but the essence is that they all finally seems to arrive at the same result and conclusion, although with different viewpoints and perspectives. This is regardless of whether the focus is on management style, rewards or communication they all focus on the individual. The conclusion is that organizational culture affects knowledge management and dissemination of information, because of its direct impact on the individual. The largest and most important underlying factor why we choose to participate in improvement work or share knowledge is our motivation. Motivation is the reason for and the reason behind our actions.
Active Development of Tacit Knowledge: Knowledge Management, High Impact Practices and Experiential Learning
Due to their positive associations with student learning and retention, certain undergraduate opportunities are designated ‘high-impact.’ High-Impact Practices (HIPs) such as, learning communities, community based projects, research, internships, study abroad and culminating senior experience, share several traits bin common: they demand considerable time and effort, learning occurs outside of the classroom, and they require meaningful interactions between faculty and students, they encourage collaboration with diverse others, and they provide frequent and substantive feedback. As a result of experiential learning in these practices, participation in these practices can be life changing. High impact learning helps individuals locate tacit knowledge, and build mental models that support the accumulation of knowledge. On-going learning from experience and knowledge conversion provides the individual with a way to implicitly organize knowledge and share knowledge over a lifetime. Knowledge conversion is a knowledge management component which focuses on the explication of the tacit knowledge that exists in the minds of students and that knowledge which is embedded in the process and relationships of the classroom educational experience. Knowledge conversion is required when working with tacit knowledge and the demand for a learner to align deeply held beliefs with the cognitive dissonance created by new information. Knowledge conversion and tacit knowledge result from the fact that an individual's way of knowing, that is, their core belief structure, is considered generalized and tacit instead of explicit and specific. As a phenomenon, tacit knowledge is not readily available to the learner for explicit description unless evoked by an external source. The development of knowledge–related capabilities such as Aggressive Development of Tacit Knowledge (ADTK) can be used in experiential educational programs to enhance knowledge, foster behavioral change, improve decision making, and overall performance. ADTK allows the student in HIPs to use their existing knowledge in a way that allows them to evaluate and make any necessary modifications to their core construct of reality in order to amalgamate new information. Based on the Lewin/Schein Change Theory, the learner will reach for tacit knowledge as a stabilizing mechanism when they are challenged by new information that puts them slightly off balance. As in word association drills, the important concept is the first thought. The reactionary outpouring to an experience is the programmed or tacit memory and knowledge of their core belief structure. ADTK is a way to help teachers design their own methods and activities to unfreeze, create new learning, and then refreeze the core constructs upon which future learning in a subject area is built. This paper will explore the use of ADTK as a technique for knowledge conversion in the classroom in general and in HIP programs specifically. It will focus on knowledge conversion in curriculum development and propose the use of one-time educational experiences, multi-session experiences and sequential program experiences focusing on tacit knowledge in educational programs.
Socioeconomic Factors Associated with the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Oil Palm Smallholders toward Ganoderma Disease
Oil palm smallholders are considered as a very important producer of oil palm in Malaysia. They are categorized into two, which are organized smallholder and independent smallholder. In this study, there were 1000 oil palms smallholders have been interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. The main objective of the survey is to identify the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics of smallholders with their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward Ganoderma disease. The locations of study include Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. There were three important aspects studied, namely knowledge of Ganoderma disease, attitude towards the disease as well as the practices in managing the disease. Cluster analysis, factor analysis, and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study should provide a baseline data which can be used by the relevant agencies to conduct programs or to formulate a suitable development plan to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices of oil palm smallholders in managing Ganoderma disease.
Inquiry on the Improvement Teaching Quality in the Classroom with Meta-Teaching Skills
When teachers reflect and evaluate whether their teaching methods actually have an impact on students’ learning, they will adjust their practices accordingly. This inevitably improves their students’ learning and performance. The approach in meta-teaching can invigorate and create a passion for teaching. It thus helps to increase the commitment and love for the teaching profession. This study was conducted to determine the level of metacognitive thinking of teachers in the process of teaching and learning in the classroom. Metacognitive thinking teachers include the use of metacognitive knowledge which consists of different types of knowledge: declarative, procedural and conditional. The ability of the teachers to plan, monitor and evaluate the teaching process can also be determined. This study was conducted on 377 graduate teachers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The stratified sampling method was selected for the purpose of this study. The metacognitive teaching inventory consisting of 24 items is called InKePMG (Teacher Indicators of Effectiveness Meta-Teaching). The results showed the level of mean is high for two components of metacognitive knowledge; declarative knowledge (mean = 4.16) and conditional (mean = 4.11) whereas, the mean of procedural knowledge is 4.00 (moderately high). Similarly, the level of knowledge in monitoring (mean = 4.11), evaluating (mean = 4.00) which indicate high score and planning (mean = 4.00) are moderately high score among teachers. In conclusion, this study shows that the planning and procedural knowledge is an important element in improving the quality of teachers teaching in the classroom. Thus, the researcher recommended that further studies should focus on training programs for teachers on metacognitive skills and also on developing creative thinking among teachers.
Influence of HIV Testing on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission among Undergraduate Youths in North-West University, Mafikeng
This study examines factors influencing knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission (KHAPPT) among young undergraduate students (15-24 years). Knowledge composite index was computed for 820 randomly selected students. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression were used for the analyses (α=.05). The overall mean knowledge score was 16.5±3.4 out of a possible score of 28. About 83% of the students have undergone HIV test, 21.0% have high KHAPPT, 18% said there is cure for the disease, 23% believed that asking for condom is embarrassing and 11.7% said it is safe to share unsterilized sharp objects with friends or family members. The likelihood of high KHAPPT was higher among students who have had HIV test (OR=3.314; C.I=1.787-6.145, p< 0.001) even when other variables were used as control. The identified predictors of high KHAPPT were; ever had HIV test, faculty, and ever used any HIV/AIDS prevention services. North-West University Mafikeng should intensify efforts on the HIV/AIDS awareness program on the campus.
A Collaborative Platform for Multilingual Ontology Development
Ontologies provide a common understanding of a specific domain of interest that can be communicated between people and used as background knowledge for automated reasoning in a wide range of applications. In this paper we address the design of multilingual ontologies following well-defined knowledge engineering methodologies with the support of novel collaborative development approaches. In particular, we present a collaborative platform which allows ontologies to be developed incrementally in multiple languages. This is made possible via an appropriate mapping between language independent concepts and one lexicalization per language (or a lexical gap in case such lexicalization does not exist). The collaborative platform has been designed to support the development of the Universal Knowledge Core, a multilingual ontology currently in English, Italian, Chinese, Mongolian, Hindi, and Bangladeshi. Its design follows a workflow-based development methodology that models resources as a set of collaborative objects and assigns customizable workflows to build and maintain each collaborative object in a community driven manner, with extensive support of modern web 2.0 social and collaborative features.
Epistemology in African Philosophy: A Critique of African Concept of Knowledge
African tradition and what it entails are the content of African concepts of knowledge. The study of African concepts of knowledge is also known as African epistemology. In other words, African epistemology is a branch of African philosophy that deals with knowledge. This branch of African philosophy engages with the nature and concept of knowledge, the ways in which knowledge can be gained, the ways in which one can justify an epistemic claim or validate a knowledge claim and the limit of human knowledge, etc. The protagonists of African epistemology based their argument for a distinctive or unique African epistemology on the premise or proposition “that each race is endowed with a distinctive nature and embodies in its civilization a particular spirit”. All human beings share some certain basic values and perceptions irrespective of where you come from, and this idea actually fosters some forms of interaction between people from different nationality. Africans like other people share in some certain values, perceptions, and interaction with the rest of the world. These basic values, perceptions, and interaction that Africans share with the rest of the word prompted African people to attempt to “modernize” their societies or develop some forms of their tradition in harmony with the ethos of the contemporary world. Based on the above ideas, it would be interesting to investigate if such (African) epistemology is still unique. The advocates of African epistemology focus on the externalist notion of justification and neglect the idea that both the internalist and externalist notion of justification are needed in order to arrive at a coherent and well-founded account of epistemic justification. Thus, this paper will critically examine the claims that there is a unique African epistemology (a mode of knowing that is peculiar to Africans, and that African mode of knowing is social, monism and situated notion of knowledge), and the grounds for justifying beliefs and epistemic claims.
The Role of Knowledge Management in Global Software Engineering
Knowledge management is essential ingredient of successful coordination in globally distributed software engineering. Various frameworks, KMSs, and tools have been proposed to foster coordination and communication between virtual teams but practical implementation of these solutions has not been found. Organizations have to face challenges to implement knowledge management system. For this purpose at first, a literature review is arranged to investigate about challenges that restrict organizations to implement KMS and then by taking in account these challenges a problem of need of integrated solution in the form of standardized KMS that can easily store tacit and explicit knowledge, has traced down to facilitate coordination and collaboration among virtual teams. Literature review has been already shown that knowledge is a complex perception with profound meanings, and one of the most important resources that contributes to the competitive advantage of an organization. In order to meet the different challenges caused by not properly managing knowledge related to projects among virtual teams in GSE, we suggest making use of the cloud computing model. In this research a distributed architecture to support KM storage is proposed called conceptual framework of KM as a service in cloud. Framework presented is enhanced and conceptual framework of KM is embedded into that framework to store projects related knowledge for future use.
Correlation between Knowledge Level and Public Perception of Autopsy on Criminal Offence Victim in Pulau Punjung
In criminal offense case, such as homicide, investigators may request for an autopsy to the victim without family approval in Indonesia. Generally, there has been decreasing in autopsy rate in the world over past years. Family’s refusal is one of the most common problems. The purpose of this study is to find the correlation between knowledge level and public perception of autopsy on criminal offense victim. This cross-sectional study was done from April to May 2017 in subdistrict Pulau Punjung. Participants were asked to fill the questionnaire. There are 15 questions to asses knowledge level, perception, and factors influencing autopsy refusal. The chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis. Out of the total of 436 respondents, 54,5% were found to have poor knowledge level, and 56,7% were found to have poor perception. There was a significant correlation between knowledge level and public perception (p< 0,001). There are 153 respondents who decline autopsy on criminal offense victim with the most factors influencing autopsy refusal is delays in victim’s funeral (92,2%). Conclusion, knowledge level is correlated with public perception in subdistrict of Pulau Punjung, district of Dharmasraya, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Most influencing factor in autopsy refusal is delays in victim’s funeral.
The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks
The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.