Residual Life Estimation Based on Multi-Phase Nonlinear Wiener Process
Residual life (RL) estimation based on multi-phase nonlinear Wiener process was studied in this paper, which is significant for complicated products with small samples. Firstly, nonlinear Wiener model with random parameter was introduced and multi-phase nonlinear Wiener model was proposed to model degradation process of products that were nonlinear and separated into different phases. Then the multi-phase RL probability density function based on the presented model was derived approximately in a closed form and parameters estimation was achieved with the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). Finally, the method was applied to estimate the RL of high voltage plus capacitor. Compared with the other three different models by log-likelihood function (Log-LF) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), the results show that the proposed degradation model can capture degradation process of high voltage plus capacitors in a better way and provide a more reliable result.
Comparison of Methods of Estimation for Use in Goodness of Fit Tests for Binary Multilevel Models
It can be frequently observed that the data arising in our environment have a hierarchical or a nested structure attached with the data. Multilevel modelling is a modern approach to handle this kind of data. When multilevel modelling is combined with a binary response, the estimation methods get complex in nature and the usual techniques are derived from quasi-likelihood method. The estimation methods which are compared in this study are, marginal quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (MQL1, MQL2) and penalized quasi-likelihood (order 1 & order 2) (PQL1, PQL2). A statistical model is of no use if it does not reflect the given dataset. Therefore, checking the adequacy of the fitted model through a goodness-of-fit (GOF) test is an essential stage in any modelling procedure. However, prior to usage, it is also equally important to confirm that the GOF test performs well and is suitable for the given model. This study assesses the suitability of the GOF test developed for binary response multilevel models with respect to the method used in model estimation. An extensive set of simulations was conducted using MLwiN (v 2.19) with varying number of clusters, cluster sizes and intra cluster correlations. The test maintained the desirable Type-I error for models estimated using PQL2 and it failed for almost all the combinations of MQL. Power of the test was adequate for most of the combinations in all estimation methods except MQL1. Moreover, models were fitted using the four methods to a real-life dataset and performance of the test was compared for each model.
Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based on ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments
In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.
Parameter Estimation for the Mixture of Generalized Gamma Model
Mixture generalized gamma distribution is a combination of two distributions: generalized gamma distribution and length biased generalized gamma distribution. These two distributions were presented by Suksaengrakcharoen and Bodhisuwan in 2014. The findings showed that probability density function (pdf) had fairly complexities, so it made problems in estimating parameters. The problem occurred in parameter estimation was that we were unable to calculate estimators in the form of critical expression. Thus, we will use numerical estimation to find the estimators. In this study, we presented a new method of the parameter estimation by using the expectation – maximization algorithm (EM), the conjugate gradient method, and the quasi-Newton method. The data was generated by acceptance-rejection method which is used for estimating α, β, λ and p. λ is the scale parameter, p is the weight parameter, α and β are the shape parameters. We will use Monte Carlo technique to find the estimator's performance. Determining the size of sample equals 10, 30, 100; the simulations were repeated 20 times in each case. We evaluated the effectiveness of the estimators which was introduced by considering values of the mean squared errors and the bias. The findings revealed that the EM-algorithm had proximity to the actual values determined. Also, the maximum likelihood estimators via the conjugate gradient and the quasi-Newton method are less precision than the maximum likelihood estimators via the EM-algorithm.
ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments
This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.
Modelling Hydrological Time Series Using Wakeby Distribution
The statistical modelling of precipitation data for a
given portion of territory is fundamental for the monitoring of
climatic conditions and for Hydrogeological Management Plans
(HMP). This modelling is rendered particularly complex by the
changes taking place in the frequency and intensity of precipitation,
presumably to be attributed to the global climate change. This paper
applies the Wakeby distribution (with 5 parameters) as a theoretical
reference model. The number and the quality of the parameters
indicate that this distribution may be the appropriate choice for
the interpolations of the hydrological variables and, moreover, the
Wakeby is particularly suitable for describing phenomena producing
heavy tails. The proposed estimation methods for determining the
value of the Wakeby parameters are the same as those used for
density functions with heavy tails. The commonly used procedure
is the classic method of moments weighed with probabilities
(probability weighted moments, PWM) although this has often shown
difficulty of convergence, or rather, convergence to a configuration
of inappropriate parameters. In this paper, we analyze the problem of
the likelihood estimation of a random variable expressed through its
quantile function. The method of maximum likelihood, in this case,
is more demanding than in the situations of more usual estimation.
The reasons for this lie, in the sampling and asymptotic properties of
the estimators of maximum likelihood which improve the estimates
obtained with indications of their variability and, therefore, their
accuracy and reliability. These features are highly appreciated in
contexts where poor decisions, attributable to an inefficient or
incomplete information base, can cause serious damages.
The Generalized Pareto Distribution as a Model for Sequential Order Statistics
In this article, sequential order statistics (SOS) censoring type II samples coming from the generalized Pareto distribution are considered. Maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the unknown parameters are derived on the basis of the available multiple SOS data. Necessary conditions for existence and uniqueness of the derived ML estimates are given. Due to complexity in the proposed likelihood function, a useful re-parametrization is suggested. For illustrative purposes, a Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted and an illustrative example is analysed.
Parameter Estimation of Gumbel Distribution with Maximum-Likelihood Based on Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno Quasi-Newton
Extreme data on an observation can occur due to unusual circumstances in the observation. The data can provide important information that can’t be provided by other data so that its existence needs to be further investigated. The method for obtaining extreme data is one of them using maxima block method. The distribution of extreme data sets taken with the maxima block method is called the distribution of extreme values. Distribution of extreme values is Gumbel distribution with two parameters. The parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with maximum likelihood method (ML) is difficult to determine its exact value so that it is necessary to solve the approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the parameter estimation of Gumbel distribution with quasi-Newton BFGS method. The quasi-Newton BFGS method is a numerical method used for nonlinear function optimization without constraint so that the method can be used for parameter estimation from Gumbel distribution whose distribution function is in the form of exponential doubel function. The quasi-New BFGS method is a development of the Newton method. The Newton method uses the second derivative to calculate the parameter value changes on each iteration. Newton's method is then modified with the addition of a step length to provide a guarantee of convergence when the second derivative requires complex calculations. In the quasi-Newton BFGS method, Newton's method is modified by updating both derivatives on each iteration. The parameter estimation of the Gumbel distribution by a numerical approach using the quasi-Newton BFGS method is done by calculating the parameter values that make the distribution function maximum. In this method, we need gradient vector and hessian matrix. This research is a theory research and application by studying several journals and textbooks. The results of this study obtained the quasi-Newton BFGS algorithm and estimation of Gumbel distribution parameters. The estimation method is then applied to daily rainfall data in Purworejo District to estimate the distribution parameters. This indicates that the high rainfall that occurred in Purworejo District decreased its intensity and the range of rainfall that occurred decreased.
Forecasting the Volatility of Geophysical Time Series with Stochastic Volatility Models
This work is devoted to the study of modeling
geophysical time series. A stochastic technique with time-varying
parameters is used to forecast the volatility of data arising in
geophysics. In this study, the volatility is defined as a logarithmic
first-order autoregressive process. We observe that the inclusion of
log-volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly
improves forecasting which is facilitated via maximum likelihood
estimation. This allows us to conclude that the estimation algorithm
for the corresponding one-step-ahead suggested volatility (with ±2
standard prediction errors) is very feasible since it possesses good
Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution: A Generalization of the Weibull Probability Distribution
This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.
An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods
This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of
the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML),
Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML
estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is
considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator,
and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from
posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter
then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the
estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true
parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample
sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen
that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different
from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with
variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the
prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed
the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size
10 and 20.
Reliability and Probability Weighted Moment Estimation for Three Parameter Mukherjee-Islam Failure Model
The Mukherjee-Islam Model is commonly used as a simple life time distribution to assess system reliability. The model exhibits a better fit for failure information and provides more appropriate information about hazard rate and other reliability measures as shown by various authors. It is possible to introduce a location parameter at a time (i.e., a time before which failure cannot occur) which makes it a more useful failure distribution than the existing ones. Even after shifting the location of the distribution, it represents a decreasing, constant and increasing failure rate. It has been shown to represent the appropriate lower tail of the distribution of random variables having fixed lower bound. This study presents the reliability computations and probability weighted moment estimation of three parameter model. A comparative analysis is carried out between three parameters finite range model and some existing bathtub shaped curve fitting models. Since probability weighted moment method is used, the results obtained can also be applied on small sample cases. Maximum likelihood estimation method is also applied in this study.
Credit Risk Prediction Based on Bayesian Estimation of Logistic Regression Model with Random Effects
The aim of this current paper is to predict the credit risk of banks in Tunisia, over the period (2000-2005). For this purpose, two methods for the estimation of the logistic regression model with random effects: Penalized Quasi Likelihood (PQL) method and Gibbs Sampler algorithm are applied. By using the information on a sample of 528 Tunisian firms and 26 financial ratios, we show that Bayesian approach improves the quality of model predictions in terms of good classification as well as by the ROC curve result.
Analysis of Financial Time Series by Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Type Models
In the present work, we develop a technique for estimating the volatility of financial time series by using stochastic differential equation. Taking the daily closing prices from developed and emergent stock markets as the basis, we argue that the incorporation of stochastic volatility into the time-varying parameter estimation significantly improves the forecasting performance via Maximum Likelihood Estimation. While using the technique, we see the long-memory behavior of data sets and one-step-ahead-predicted log-volatility with ±2 standard errors despite the variation of the observed noise from a Normal mixture distribution, because the financial data studied is not fully Gaussian. Also, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process followed in this work simulates well the financial time series, which aligns our estimation algorithm with large data sets due to the fact that this algorithm has good convergence properties.
A Flexible Pareto Distribution Using α-Power Transformation
In Statistical Distribution Theory, considering an additional parameter to classical distributions is a usual practice. In this study, a new distribution referred to as α-Power Pareto distribution is introduced by including an extra parameter. Several properties of the proposed distribution including explicit expressions for the moment generating function, mode, quantiles, entropies and order statistics are obtained. Unknown parameters have been estimated by using maximum likelihood estimation technique. Two real datasets have been considered to examine the usefulness of the proposed distribution. It has been observed that α-Power Pareto distribution outperforms while compared to different variants of Pareto distribution on the basis of model selection criteria.
On Parameter Estimation of Simultaneous Linear Functional Relationship Model for Circular Variables
This paper proposes a new simultaneous simple linear functional relationship model by assuming equal error variances. We derive the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameters in the simultaneous model and the covariance. We show by simulation study the small bias values of the parameters suggest the suitability of the estimation method. As an illustration, the proposed simultaneous model is applied to real data of the wind direction and wave direction measured by two different instruments.
Bayesian Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Lindley's Approximation Based on Type-I Censored Data
These papers describe the Bayesian Estimator using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Lindley’s approximation and the maximum likelihood estimation of the Weibull distribution with Type-I censored data. The maximum likelihood method can’t estimate the shape parameter in closed forms, although it can be solved by numerical methods. Moreover, the Bayesian estimates of the parameters, the survival and hazard functions cannot be solved analytically. Hence Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and Lindley’s approximation are used, where the full conditional distribution for the parameters of Weibull distribution are obtained via Gibbs sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm (HM) followed by estimate the survival and hazard functions. The methods are compared to Maximum Likelihood counterparts and the comparisons are made with respect to the Mean Square Error (MSE) and absolute bias to determine the better method in scale and shape parameters, the survival and hazard functions.
A New Distribution and Application on the Lifetime Data
We introduce a new model called the Marshall-Olkin Rayleigh distribution which extends the Rayleigh distribution using Marshall-Olkin transformation and has increasing and decreasing shapes for the hazard rate function. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived including explicit expressions for the moments, generating and quantile function, some entropy measures, and order statistics are presented. The model parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and the observed information matrix is determined. The potentiality of the new model is illustrated by means of real life data set.
The Beta-Fisher Snedecor Distribution with Applications to Cancer Remission Data
In this paper, a new four-parameter generalized version of the Fisher Snedecor distribution called Beta- F distribution is introduced. The comprehensive account of the statistical properties of the new distributions was considered. Formal expressions for the cumulative density function, moments, moment generating function and maximum likelihood estimation, as well as its Fisher information, were obtained. The flexibility of this distribution as well as its robustness using cancer remission time data was demonstrated. The new distribution can be used in most applications where the assumption underlying the use of other lifetime distributions is violated.
Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches to Joint Signal Detection, ToA and AoA Estimation in Multi-Element Antenna Arrays
In this paper two approaches to joint signal detection, time of arrival (ToA) and angle of arrival (AoA) estimation in multi-element antenna array are investigated. Two scenarios were considered: first one, when the waveform of the useful signal is known a priori and, second one, when the waveform of the desired signal is unknown. For first scenario, the antenna array signal processing based on multi-element matched filtering (MF) with the following non-coherent detection scheme and maximum likelihood (ML) parameter estimation blocks is exploited. For second scenario, the signal processing based on the antenna array elements covariance matrix estimation with the following eigenvector analysis and ML parameter estimation blocks is applied. The performance characteristics of both signal processing schemes are thoroughly investigated and compared for different useful signals and noise parameters.
Introduction of Robust Multivariate Process Capability Indices
Process capability indices (PCIs) are important concepts of statistical quality control and measure the capability of processes and how much processes are meeting certain specifications. An important issue in statistical quality control is parameter estimation. Under the assumption of multivariate normality, the distribution parameters, mean vector and variance-covariance matrix must be estimated, when they are unknown. Classic estimation methods like method of moment estimation (MME) or maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) makes good estimation of the population parameters when data are not contaminated. But when outliers exist in the data, MME and MLE make weak estimators of the population parameters. So we need some estimators which have good estimation in the presence of outliers. In this work robust M-estimators for estimating these parameters are used and based on robust parameter estimators, robust process capability indices are introduced. The performances of these robust estimators in the presence of outliers and their effects on process capability indices are evaluated by real and simulated multivariate data. The results indicate that the proposed robust capability indices perform much better than the existing process capability indices.
Bayesian Estimation under Different Loss Functions Using Gamma Prior for the Case of Exponential Distribution
The Bayesian estimation approach is a non-classical estimation technique in statistical inference and is very useful in real world situation. The aim of this paper is to study the Bayes estimators of the parameter of exponential distribution under different loss functions and then compared among them as well as with the classical estimator named maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). In our real life, we always try to minimize the loss and we also want to gather some prior information (distribution) about the problem to solve it accurately. Here the gamma prior is used as the prior distribution of exponential distribution for finding the Bayes estimator. In our study, we also used different symmetric and asymmetric loss functions such as squared error loss function, quadratic loss function, modified linear exponential (MLINEX) loss function and non-linear exponential (NLINEX) loss function. Finally, mean square error (MSE) of the estimators are obtained and then presented graphically.
A Survey on Quasi-Likelihood Estimation
Approaches for Longitudinal Set-ups
The Com-Poisson (CMP) model is one of the most popular discrete generalized linear models (GLMS) that handles both equi-, over- and under-dispersed data. In longitudinal context, an integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1)) process that incorporates covariate specification has been developed to model longitudinal CMP counts. However, the joint likelihood CMP function is difficult to specify and thus restricts the likelihood based estimating methodology. The joint generalized quasilikelihood approach (GQL-I) was instead considered but is rather computationally intensive and may not even estimate the regression effects due to a complex and frequently ill conditioned covariance structure. This paper proposes a new GQL approach for estimating the regression parameters (GQLIII) that are based on a single score vector representation. The performance of GQL-III is compared with GQL-I and separate marginal GQLs (GQL-II) through some simulation experiments and is proved to yield equally efficient estimates as GQL-I and is far more computationally stable.
Estimation of Stress-Strength Parameter for Burr Type XII Distribution Based on Progressive Type-II Censoring
In this paper, the estimation of stress-strength parameter R = P(Y < X) is considered when X; Y the strength and stress respectively are two independent random variables of Burr Type XII distribution. The samples taken for X and Y are progressively censoring of type II. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of R is obtained when the common parameter is unknown. But when the common parameter is known the MLE, uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator (UMVUE) and the Bayes estimator of R = P(Y < X) are obtained. The exact condence interval of R based on MLE is obtained. The performance of the proposed estimators is compared using the computer simulation.
Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings
In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.
Parameter Estimation of Induction Motors by PSO Algorithm
After emergent of alternative current networks and their popularity, asynchronous motors became more widespread than other kinds of industrial motors. In order to control and run these motors efficiently, an accurate estimation of motor parameters is needed. There are different methods to obtain these parameters such as rotor locked test, no load test, DC test, analytical methods, and so on. The most common drawback of these methods is their inaccuracy in estimation of some motor parameters. In order to remove this concern, a novel method for parameter estimation of induction motors using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed method, transient state of motor is used for parameter estimation. Comparison of the simulation results purtuined to the PSO algorithm with other available methods justifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter
In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.
An Application of Sinc Function to Approximate Quadrature Integrals in Generalized Linear Mixed Models
This paper discusses a novel approach to approximate quadrature integrals that arise in the estimation of likelihood parameters for the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) as well as Bayesian methodology also requires computation of multidimensional integrals with respect to the posterior distributions in which computation are not only tedious and cumbersome rather in some situations impossible to find solutions because of singularities, irregular domains, etc. An attempt has been made in this work to apply Sinc function based quadrature rules to approximate intractable integrals, as there are several advantages of using Sinc based methods, for example: order of convergence is exponential, works very well in the neighborhood of singularities, in general quite stable and provide high accurate and double precisions estimates. The Sinc function based approach seems to be utilized first time in statistical domain to our knowledge, and it's viability and future scopes have been discussed to apply in the estimation of parameters for GLMM models as well as some other statistical areas.
Parameters Estimation of Power Function Distribution Based on Selective Order Statistics
In this paper, we discuss the power function distribution and derive the maximum likelihood estimator of its parameter as well as the reliability parameter. We derive the large sample properties of the estimators based on the selective order statistic scheme. We conduct simulation studies to investigate the significance of the selective order statistic scheme in our setup and to compare the efficiency of the new proposed estimators.
Online Battery Equivalent Circuit Model Estimation on Continuous-Time Domain Using Linear Integral Filter Method
Equivalent circuit models (ECMs) are widely used in
battery management systems in electric vehicles and other battery
energy storage systems. The battery dynamics and the model
parameters vary under different working conditions, such as different
temperature and state of charge (SOC) levels, and therefore online
parameter identification can improve the modelling accuracy. This
paper presents a way of online ECM parameter identification using a
continuous time (CT) estimation method. The CT estimation method
has several advantages over discrete time (DT) estimation methods
for ECM parameter identification due to the widely separated battery
dynamic modes and fast sampling. The presented method can be used
for online SOC estimation. Test data are collected using a lithium ion
cell, and the experimental results show that the presented CT method
achieves better modelling accuracy compared with the conventional
DT recursive least square method. The effectiveness of the presented
method for online SOC estimation is also verified on test data.
Robust Inference with a Skew T Distribution
There is a growing body of evidence that non-normal data is more prevalent in nature than the normal one. Examples can be quoted from, but not restricted to, the areas of Economics, Finance and Actuarial Science. The non-normality considered here is expressed in terms of fat-tailedness and asymmetry of the relevant distribution. In this study a skew t distribution that can be used to model a data that exhibit inherent non-normal behavior is considered. This distribution has tails fatter than a normal distribution and it also exhibits skewness. Although maximum likelihood estimates can be obtained by solving iteratively the likelihood equations that are non-linear in form, this can be problematic in terms of convergence and in many other respects as well. Therefore, it is preferred to use the method of modified maximum likelihood in which the likelihood estimates are derived by expressing the intractable non-linear likelihood equations in terms of standardized ordered variates and replacing the intractable terms by their linear approximations obtained from the first two terms of a Taylor series expansion about the quantiles of the distribution. These estimates, called modified maximum likelihood estimates, are obtained in closed form. Hence, they are easy to compute and to manipulate analytically. In fact the modified maximum likelihood estimates are equivalent to maximum likelihood estimates, asymptotically. Even in small samples the modified maximum likelihood estimates are found to be approximately the same as maximum likelihood estimates that are obtained iteratively. It is shown in this study that the modified maximum likelihood estimates are not only unbiased but substantially more efficient than the commonly used moment estimates or the least square estimates that are known to be biased and inefficient in such cases. Furthermore, in conventional regression analysis, it is assumed that the error terms are distributed normally and, hence, the well-known least square method is considered to be a suitable and preferred method for making the relevant statistical inferences. However, a number of empirical researches have shown that non-normal errors are more prevalent. Even transforming and/or filtering techniques may not produce normally distributed residuals. Here, a study is done for multiple linear regression models with random error having non-normal pattern. Through an extensive simulation it is shown that the modified maximum likelihood estimates of regression parameters are plausibly robust to the distributional assumptions and to various data anomalies as compared to the widely used least square estimates. Relevant tests of hypothesis are developed and are explored for desirable properties in terms of their size and power. The tests based upon modified maximum likelihood estimates are found to be substantially more powerful than the tests based upon least square estimates. Several examples are provided from the areas of Economics and Finance where such distributions are interpretable in terms of efficient market hypothesis with respect to asset pricing, portfolio selection, risk measurement and capital allocation, etc.
The Non-Stationary BINARMA(1,1) Process with Poisson Innovations: An Application on Accident Data
This paper considers the modelling of a non-stationary
bivariate integer-valued autoregressive moving average of order
one (BINARMA(1,1)) with correlated Poisson innovations. The
BINARMA(1,1) model is specified using the binomial thinning
operator and by assuming that the cross-correlation between the
two series is induced by the innovation terms only. Based on
these assumptions, the non-stationary marginal and joint moments
of the BINARMA(1,1) are derived iteratively by using some initial
stationary moments. As regards to the estimation of parameters of
the proposed model, the conditional maximum likelihood (CML)
estimation method is derived based on thinning and convolution
properties. The forecasting equations of the BINARMA(1,1) model
are also derived. A simulation study is also proposed where
BINARMA(1,1) count data are generated using a multivariate
Poisson R code for the innovation terms. The performance of
the BINARMA(1,1) model is then assessed through a simulation
experiment and the mean estimates of the model parameters obtained
are all efficient, based on their standard errors. The proposed model
is then used to analyse a real-life accident data on the motorway in
Mauritius, based on some covariates: policemen, daily patrol, speed
cameras, traffic lights and roundabouts. The BINARMA(1,1) model
is applied on the accident data and the CML estimates clearly indicate
a significant impact of the covariates on the number of accidents on
the motorway in Mauritius. The forecasting equations also provide
reliable one-step ahead forecasts.
Simulation of 3-D Direction-of-Arrival
Estimation Using MUSIC Algorithm
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is an important method in array signal processing and has a wide range of applications such as direction finding, beam forming, and so on. In this paper, we briefly introduce the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) Algorithm, one of DOA estimation methods for analyzing several targets. Then we apply the MUSIC algorithm to the two-dimensional antenna array to analyze DOA estimation in 3D space through MATLAB simulation. We also analyze the design factors that can affect the accuracy of DOA estimation through simulation, and proceed with further consideration on how to apply the system.
Using Derivative Free Method to Improve the Error Estimation of Numerical Quadrature
Numerical integration is an essential tool for deriving different physical quantities in engineering and science. The effectiveness of a numerical integrator depends on different factors, where the crucial one is the error estimation. This work presents an error estimator that combines a derivative free method to improve the performance of verified numerical quadrature.
Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure
One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.
Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares
This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency.
Estimating Lost Digital Video Frames Using Unidirectional and Bidirectional Estimation Based on Autoregressive Time Model
In this article, we make attempt to hide error in video with an emphasis on the time-wise use of autoregressive (AR) models. To resolve this problem, we assume that all information in one or more video frames is lost. Then, lost frames are estimated using analogous Pixels time information in successive frames. Accordingly, after presenting autoregressive models and how they are applied to estimate lost frames, two general methods are presented for using these models. The first method which is the same standard method of autoregressive models estimates lost frame in unidirectional form. Usually, in such condition, previous frames information is used for estimating lost frame. Yet, in the second method, information from the previous and next frames is used for estimating the lost frame. As a result, this method is known as bidirectional estimation. Then, carrying out a series of tests, performance of each method is assessed in different modes. And, results are compared.
Parameters Estimation of Multidimensional Possibility Distributions
We present a solution to the Maxmin u/E parameters estimation problem of possibility distributions in m-dimensional case. Our method is based on geometrical approach, where minimal area enclosing ellipsoid is constructed around the sample. Also we demonstrate that one can improve results of well-known algorithms in fuzzy model identification task using Maxmin u/E parameters estimation.
Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling
Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process
modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated
method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development rocess and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.
Hybrid Subspace Approach for Time Delay Estimation in MIMO Systems
In this paper, we present a hybrid subspace approach for Time Delay Estimation (TDE) in multivariable systems. While several methods have been proposed for time delay estimation in SISO systems, delay estimation in MIMO systems were always a big challenge. In these systems the existing TDE methods have significant limitations because most of procedures are just based on system response estimation or correlation analysis. We introduce a new hybrid method for TDE in MIMO systems based on subspace identification and explicit output error method; and compare its performance with previously introduced procedures in presence of different noise levels and in a statistical manner. Then the best method is selected with multi objective decision making technique. It is shown that the performance of new approach is much better than the existing methods, even in low signal-to-noise conditions.
Considering the Reliability of Measurements Issue in Distributed Adaptive Estimation Algorithms
In this paper we consider the issue of reliability
of measurements in distributed adaptive estimation problem. To
this aim, we assume a sensor network with different observation
noise variance among the sensors and propose new estimation
method based on incremental distributed least mean-square
(IDLMS) algorithm. The proposed method contains two phases:
I) Estimation of each sensors observation noise variance, and II)
Estimation of the desired parameter using the estimated observation
variances. To deal with the reliability of measurements, in the
second phase of the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter
is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise
variance. As our simulation results show, the proposed algorithm
considerably improves the performance of the IDLMS algorithm
in the same condition.
New Estimation in Autoregressive Models with Exponential White Noise by Using Reversible Jump MCMC Algorithm
A white noise in autoregressive (AR) model is often assumed to be normally distributed. In application, the white noise usually do not follows a normal distribution. This paper aims to estimate a parameter of AR model that has a exponential white noise. A Bayesian method is adopted. A prior distribution of the parameter of AR model is selected and then this prior distribution is combined with a likelihood function of data to get a posterior distribution. Based on this posterior distribution, a Bayesian estimator for the parameter of AR model is estimated. Because the order of AR model is considered a parameter, this Bayesian estimator cannot be explicitly calculated. To resolve this problem, a method of reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is adopted. A result is a estimation of the parameter AR model can be simultaneously calculated.
Survival and Hazard Maximum Likelihood Estimator with Covariate Based on Right Censored Data of Weibull Distribution
This paper focuses on Maximum Likelihood Estimator with Covariate. Covariates are incorporated into the Weibull model. Under this regression model with regards to maximum likelihood estimator, the parameters of the covariate, shape parameter, survival function and hazard rate of the Weibull regression distribution with right censored data are estimated. The mean square error (MSE) and absolute bias are used to compare the performance of Weibull regression distribution. For the simulation comparison, the study used various sample sizes and several specific values of the Weibull shape parameter.
An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals
This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.
Copula Markov Switching Multifractal Models for Forecasting Value-at-Risk
In this paper, the effectiveness of Copula Markov Switching Multifractal (MSM) models at forecasting Value-at-Risk of a two-stock portfolio is studied. The innovations are allowed to be drawn from distributions that can capture skewness and leptokurtosis, which are well documented empirical characteristics observed in financial returns. The candidate distributions considered for this purpose are Johnson-SU, Pearson Type-IV and α-Stable distributions. The two univariate marginal distributions are combined using the Student-t copula. The estimation of all parameters is performed by Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Finally, the models are compared in terms of accurate Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecasts using tests of unconditional coverage and independence. It is found that Copula-MSM-models with leptokurtic innovation distributions perform slightly better than Copula-MSM model with Normal innovations. Copula-MSM models, in general, produce better VaR forecasts as compared to traditional methods like Historical Simulation method, Variance-Covariance approach and Copula-Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (Copula-GARCH) models.
Estimation of Slab Depth, Column Size and Rebar Location of Concrete Specimen Using Impact Echo Method
In this study, an experimental research for estimation of slab depth, column size and location of rebar of concrete specimen is conducted using the Impact Echo Method (IE) based on stress wave among non-destructive test methods. Estimation of slab depth had total length of 1800×300 and 6 different depths including 150 mm, 180 mm, 210 mm, 240 mm, 270 mm and 300 mm. The concrete column specimen was manufactured by differentiating the size into 300×300×300 mm, 400×400×400 mm and 500×500×500 mm. In case of the specimen for estimation of rebar, rebar of ∅22 mm was used in a specimen of 300×370×200 and arranged at 130 mm and 150 mm from the top to the rebar top. As a result of error rate of slab depth was overall mean of 3.1%. Error rate of column size was overall mean of 1.7%. Mean error rate of rebar location was 1.72% for top, 1.19% for bottom and 1.5% for overall mean showing relative accuracy.
Effect of Adjacent Footings on Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundations
In this study, impact of adjacent footings is considered on the estimation of elastic settlement of shallow foundations. In the estimation of elastic settlement, the Schmertmann’s method that is a very popular method in the elastic settlement estimation of shallow foundations is employed. In order to consider affect of neighboring footings on elastic settlement of main footing in different configurations, a MATLAB script has been generated. Elastic settlements of the various configurations are estimated by the script and several conclusions have been reached.
Online Pose Estimation and Tracking Approach with Siamese Region Proposal Network
Human pose estimation and tracking are to accurately identify and locate the positions of human joints in the video. It is a computer vision task which is of great significance for human motion recognition, behavior understanding and scene analysis. There has been remarkable progress on human pose estimation in recent years. However, more researches are needed for human pose tracking especially for online tracking. In this paper, a framework, called PoseSRPN, is proposed for online single-person pose estimation and tracking. We use Siamese network attaching a pose estimation branch to incorporate Single-person Pose Tracking (SPT) and Visual Object Tracking (VOT) into one framework. The pose estimation branch has a simple network structure that replaces the complex upsampling and convolution network structure with deconvolution. By augmenting the loss of fully convolutional Siamese network with the pose estimation task, pose estimation and tracking can be trained in one stage. Once trained, PoseSRPN only relies on a single bounding box initialization and producing human joints location. The experimental results show that while maintaining the good accuracy of pose estimation on COCO and PoseTrack datasets, the proposed method achieves a speed of 59 frame/s, which is superior to other pose tracking frameworks.
A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm
The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.
Bayesian Reliability of Weibull Regression with Type-I Censored Data
In the Bayesian, we developed an approach by using non-informative prior with covariate and obtained by using Gauss quadrature method to estimate the parameters of the covariate and reliability function of the Weibull regression distribution with Type-I censored data. The maximum likelihood seen that the estimators obtained are not available in closed forms, although they can be solved it by using Newton-Raphson methods. The comparison criteria are the MSE and the performance of these estimates are assessed using simulation considering various sample size, several specific values of shape parameter. The results show that Bayesian with non-informative prior is better than Maximum Likelihood Estimator.
A Periodogram-Based Spectral Method Approach: The Relationship between Tourism and Economic Growth in Turkey
A popular topic in the econometrics and time series area is the cointegrating relationships among the components of a nonstationary time series. Engle and Granger’s least squares method and Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method are the most widely-used methods to determine the relationships among variables. Furthermore, a method proposed to test a unit root based on the periodogram ordinates has certain advantages over conventional tests. Periodograms can be calculated without any model specification and the exact distribution under the assumption of a unit root is obtained. For higher order processes the distribution remains the same asymptotically. In this study, in order to indicate advantages over conventional test of periodograms, we are going to examine a possible relationship between tourism and economic growth during the period 1999:01-2010:12 for Turkey by using periodogram method, Johansen’s conditional maximum likelihood method, Engle and Granger’s ordinary least square method.
Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important
parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored
at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it
is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is,
therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining
in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three
nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation.
One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one
state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF),
the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying
smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the
results are compared.
Off-Line Parameter Estimation for the Induction Motor Drive System
It is important to accurately identify machine parameters for direct vector control. To obtain the parameter values, traditional methods can be used such as no-load and rotor locked tests. However, there are many differences between values obtained from the traditional tests and actual values. In addition, there are drawbacks that additional equipment and cost are required for the experiment. Therefore, it is hard to temporary operation to estimate induction motor parameters. Therefore, this paper deals with the estimation algorithm of induction motor parameters without a motor operation and the measurement from additional equipment such as sensors and dynamometer. The validity and usefulness of the estimation algorithm considering inverter nonlinearity is verified by comparing the conventional method with the proposed method.
The Linear Combination of Kernels in the Estimation of the Cumulative Distribution Functions
The Kernel Distribution Function Estimator (KDFE) method is the most popular method for nonparametric estimation of the cumulative distribution function. The kernel and the bandwidth are the most important components of this estimator. In this investigation, we replace the kernel in the KDFE with a linear combination of kernels to obtain a new estimator based on the linear combination of kernels, the mean integrated squared error (MISE), asymptotic mean integrated squared error (AMISE) and the asymptotically optimal bandwidth for the new estimator are derived. We propose a new data-based method to select the bandwidth for the new estimator. The new technique is based on the Plug-in technique in density estimation. We evaluate the new estimator and the new technique using simulations and real-life data.
Estimating Destinations of Bus Passengers Using Smart Card Data
Nowadays, automatic fare collection (AFC) system is widely used in many countries. However, smart card data from many of cities does not contain alighting information which is necessary to build OD matrices. Therefore, in order to utilize smart card data, destinations of passengers should be estimated. In this paper, kernel density estimation was used to forecast probabilities of alighting stations of bus passengers and applied to smart card data in Seoul, Korea which contains boarding and alighting information. This method was also validated with actual data. In some cases, stochastic method was more accurate than deterministic method. Therefore, it is sufficiently accurate to be used to build OD matrices.
Age Estimation Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Dental Methods on an Archeological Human Sample from the Poor Claire Nunnery in Brussels, Belgium
Dental age estimation can be performed both in living and deceased individuals. In anthropology, few studies have tested the reliability of dental age estimation methods complementary to the usually applied osteological methods. Objectives: In this study, destructive and non-destructive dental age estimation methods were applied on an archeological sample in order to compare them with the previously obtained anthropological age estimates. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four teeth from 24 individuals were analyzed using Kvaal, Kvaal and Solheim, Bang and Ramm, Lamendin, Gustafson, Maples, Dalitz and Johanson’s methods. Results: A high variability and wider age ranges than the ones previously obtained by the anthropologist could be observed. Destructive methods had a slightly higher agreement than the non-destructive. Discussion: Due to the heterogeneity of the sample and the lack of the real age at death, the obtained results were not representative, and it was not possible to suggest one dental age estimation method over another.
Improvement of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Accuracy by Means of Current Loop Circuit Using Optimal Digital Signal Processing
The paper presents the advanced digital modification of the conventional current loop circuit for pressure piezoelectric transducers. The optimal DSP algorithms of current loop responses by the maximum likelihood method are applied for diminishing of measurement errors. The loop circuit has some additional advantages such as the possibility to operate with any type of resistance or reactance sensors, and a considerable increase in accuracy and quality of measurements to be compared with AC bridges. The results obtained are dedicated to replace high-accuracy and expensive measuring bridges with current loop circuits.
Brain Age Prediction Based on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging by 3D Convolutional Neural Network
Estimation of biological brain age from MR images is a topic that has been much addressed in recent years due to the importance it attaches to early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's. In this paper, we use a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to provide a method for estimating the biological age of the brain. The 3D-CNN model is trained by MRI data that has been normalized. In addition, to reduce computation while saving overall performance, some effectual slices are selected for age estimation. By this method, the biological age of individuals using selected normalized data was estimated with Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 4.82 years.
Blind Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on PSF Estimation
Successful blind image Super-Resolution algorithms require the exact estimation of the Point Spread Function (PSF). In the absence of any prior information about the imagery system and the true image; this estimation is normally done by trial and error experimentation until an acceptable restored image quality is obtained. Multi-frame blind Super-Resolution algorithms often have disadvantages of slow convergence and sensitiveness to complex noises. This paper presents a Super-Resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on estimation of the PSF that yields the optimum restored image quality. The estimation of PSF is performed by the knife-edge method and it is implemented by measuring spreading of the edges in the reproduced HR image itself during the reconstruction process. The proposed image reconstruction approach is using L1 norm minimization and robust regularization based on a bilateral prior to deal with different data and noise models. A series of experiment results show that the proposed method can outperform other previous work robustly and efficiently.
Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors
In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.
A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements
A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.
A Quantification Method of Attractiveness of Stations and an Estimation Method of Number of Passengers Taking into Consideration the Attractiveness of the Station
In the metropolitan areas in Japan, in many stations, shopping areas are set up, and escalators and elevators are installed to make the stations be barrier-free. Further, many areas around the stations are being redeveloped. Railway business operators want to know how much effect these circumstances have on attractiveness of the station or number of passengers using the station. So, we performed a questionnaire survey of the station users in the metropolitan areas for finding factors to affect the attractiveness of stations. Then, based on the analysis of the survey, we developed a method to quantitatively evaluate attractiveness of the stations. We also developed an estimation method for number of passengers based on combination of attractiveness of the station quantitatively evaluated and the residential and labor population around the station. Then, we derived precise linear regression models estimating the attractiveness of the station and number of passengers of the station.
Causal Estimation for the Left-Truncation Adjusted Time-Varying Covariates under the Semiparametric Transformation Models of a Survival Time
In biomedical researches and randomized clinical trials, the most commonly interested outcomes are time-to-event so-called survival data. The importance of robust models in this context is to compare the effect of randomly controlled experimental groups that have a sense of causality. Causal estimation is the scientific concept of comparing the pragmatic effect of treatments conditional to the given covariates rather than assessing the simple association of response and predictors. Hence, the causal effect based semiparametric transformation model was proposed to estimate the effect of treatment with the presence of possibly time-varying covariates. Due to its high flexibility and robustness, the semiparametric transformation model which shall be applied in this paper has been given much more attention for estimation of a causal effect in modeling left-truncated and right censored survival data. Despite its wide applications and popularity in estimating unknown parameters, the maximum likelihood estimation technique is quite complex and burdensome in estimating unknown parameters and unspecified transformation function in the presence of possibly time-varying covariates. Thus, to ease the complexity we proposed the modified estimating equations. After intuitive estimation procedures, the consistency and asymptotic properties of the estimators were derived and the characteristics of the estimators in the finite sample performance of the proposed model were illustrated via simulation studies and Stanford heart transplant real data example. To sum up the study, the bias of covariates was adjusted via estimating the density function for truncation variable which was also incorporated in the model as a covariate in order to relax the independence assumption of failure time and truncation time. Moreover, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm was described for the estimation of iterative unknown parameters and unspecified transformation function. In addition, the causal effect was derived by the ratio of the cumulative hazard function of active and passive experiments after adjusting for bias raised in the model due to the truncation variable.
Reliability Estimation of Bridge Structures with Updated Finite Element Models
Assessment of structural reliability is essential for efficient use of civil infrastructure which is subjected hazardous events. Dynamic analysis of finite element models is a commonly used tool to simulate structural behavior and estimate its performance accordingly. However, theoretical models purely based on preliminary assumptions and design drawings may deviate from the actual behavior of the structure. This study proposes up-to-date reliability estimation procedures which engages actual bridge vibration data modifying finite element models for finite element model updating and performing reliability estimation, accordingly. The proposed method utilizes vibration response measurements of bridge structures to identify modal parameters, then uses these parameters to calibrate finite element models which are originally based on design drawings. The proposed method does not only show that reliability estimation based on updated models differs from the original models, but also infer that non-updated models may overestimate the structural capacity.
Estimation and Comparison of Delay at Signalized Intersections Based on Existing Methods
Delay implicates the time loss of a traveler while crossing an intersection. Efficiency of traffic operation at signalized intersections is assessed in terms of delay caused to an individual vehicle. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) method and Webster’s method are the most widely used in India for delay estimation purpose. However, in India, traffic is highly heterogeneous in nature with extremely poor lane discipline. Therefore, to explore best delay estimation technique for Indian condition, a comparison was made. In this study, seven signalized intersections from three different cities where chosen. Data was collected for both during morning and evening peak hours. Only under saturated cycles were considered for this study. Delay was estimated based on the field data. With the help of Simpson’s 1/3 rd rule, delay of under saturated cycles was estimated by measuring the area under the curve of queue length and cycle time. Moreover, the field observed delay was compared with the delay estimated using HCM, Webster, Probabilistic, Taylor’s expansion and Regression methods. The drawbacks of the existing delay estimation methods to be use in Indian heterogeneous traffic conditions were figured out, and best method was proposed. It was observed that direct estimation of delay using field measured data is more accurate than existing conventional and modified methods.
The Efficiency of Association Measures in Automatic Extraction of Collocations: Exclusivity and Frequency
This paper deals with automatic extraction of 20 ‘adjective + noun’ collocations using four different association measures: T-score, MI, Log Dice, and Log Likelihood with most emphasis on mainly Log Likelihood and Log Dice scores for which an argument for their suitability in this experiment is to be presented. The nodes of the chosen collocates are 20 adjectival false friends between English and French. The noun candidate to be chosen needs to occur with a threshold of top ten collocates in two lists in which the results are sorted by Log Likelihood and Log Dice. The fulfillment of this criterion will guarantee that the chosen candidates are both exclusive and significant noun collocates and thereby, they make perfect noun candidates for the nodes. The results of the top 10 collocates sorted by Log Dice and Log Likelihood are not to be filtered. Thereby technical terms, function words, and stop words are not to be removed for the purposes of the analysis. Out of 20 adjectives, 15 ‘adjective + noun’ collocations have been extracted by the means of consensus of Log Likelihood and Log Dice scores on the top 10 noun collocates. The generated list of the automatic extracted ‘adjective + noun’ collocations will serve as the bulk of a translation test in which Algerian students of translation are asked to render these collocations into Arabic. The ultimate goal of this test is to test French influence as a Second Language on English as a Foreign Language in the Algerian context.
A Novel Stator Resistance Estimation Method and Control Design of Speed-Sensorless Induction Motor Drives
Speed sensorless systems are intensively studied during recent years; this is mainly due to their economical benefit and fragility of mechanical sensors and also the difficulty of installing this type of sensor in many applications. These systems suffer from instability problems and sensitivity to parameter mismatch at low speed operation. In this paper an analysis of adaptive observer stability with stator resistance estimation is given.
Applicability of Cameriere’s Age Estimation Method in a Sample of Turkish Adults
The strong relationship between the reduction in the size of the pulp cavity and increasing age has been reported in the literature. This relationship can be utilized to estimate the age of an individual by measuring the pulp cavity size using dental radiographs as a non-destructive method. The purpose of this study is to develop a population specific regression model for age estimation in a sample of Turkish adults by applying Cameriere’s method on panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of 100 panoramic radiographs of Turkish patients (40 men, 60 women) aged between 20 and 70 years. Pulp and tooth area ratios (AR) of the maxilla¬¬ry canines were measured by two maxillofacial radiologists and then the results were subjected to regression analysis. There were no statistically significant intra-observer and inter-observer differences. The correlation coefficient between age and the AR of the maxillary canines was -0.71 and the following regression equation was derived: Estimated Age = 77,365 – ( 351,193 × AR ). The mean prediction error was 4 years which is within acceptable errors limits for age estimation. This shows that the pulp/tooth area ratio is a useful variable for assessing age with reasonable accuracy. Based on the results of this research, it was concluded that Cameriere’s method is suitable for dental age estimation and it can be used for forensic procedures in Turkish adults. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals.
Identification of Wiener Model Using Iterative Schemes
This paper presents the iterative schemes based on Least square, Hierarchical Least Square and Stochastic Approximation Gradient method for the Identification of Wiener model with parametric structure. A gradient method is presented for the parameter estimation of wiener model with noise conditions based on the stochastic approximation. Simulation results are presented for the Wiener model structure with different static non-linear elements in the presence of colored noise to show the comparative analysis of the iterative methods. The stochastic gradient method shows improvement in the estimation performance and provides fast convergence of the parameters estimates.
Interval Estimation for Rainfall Mean in Northeastern Thailand
This paper considers the problems of interval estimation for rainfall mean of the lognormal distribution and the delta-lognormal distribution in Northeastern Thailand. We present here the modified generalized pivotal approach (MGPA) compared to the modified method of variance estimates recovery (MMOVER). The performance of each method is examined in term of coverage probabilities and average lengths by Monte Carlo simulation. An extensive simulation study indicates that the MMOVER performs better than the MGPA approach in terms of the coverage probability; it results in highly accurate coverage probability.
VaR Estimation Using the Informational
Content of Futures Traded Volume
New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.
Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation
Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.
Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection, resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO Uniformly-Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, Pseudo Random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.
Comparative Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods for Brain-Computer Interfaces
In this paper, we present a method in order to classify EEG signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). EEG signals are first processed by means of spectral estimation methods to derive reliable features before classification step. Spectral estimation methods used are standard periodogram and the periodogram calculated by the Welch method; both methods are compared with Logarithm of Band Power (logBP) features. In the method proposed, we apply Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) followed by Support Vector Machine (SVM). Classification accuracy reached could be as high as 85%, which proves the effectiveness of classification of EEG signals based BCI using spectral methods.
Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources
Locating radio controlled (RC) devices using their unintended emissions has a great interest considering security concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source. Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting walkie-talkie for different positions are given.
Bayesian Parameter Inference for Continuous Time Markov Chains with Intractable Likelihood
Systems biology is an important field in science which focuses on studying behaviour of biological systems. Modelling is required to produce detailed description of the elements of a biological system, their function, and their interactions. A well-designed model requires selecting a suitable mechanism which can capture the main features of the system, define the essential components of the system and represent an appropriate law that can define the interactions between its components. Complex biological systems exhibit stochastic behaviour. Thus, using probabilistic models are suitable to describe and analyse biological systems. Continuous-Time Markov Chain (CTMC) is one of the probabilistic models that describe the system as a set of discrete states with continuous time transitions between them. The system is then characterised by a set of probability distributions that describe the transition from one state to another at a given time. The evolution of these probabilities through time can be obtained by chemical master equation which is analytically intractable but it can be simulated. Uncertain parameters of such a model can be inferred using methods of Bayesian inference. Yet, inference in such a complex system is challenging as it requires the evaluation of the likelihood which is intractable in most cases. There are different statistical methods that allow simulating from the model despite intractability of the likelihood. Approximate Bayesian computation is a common approach for tackling inference which relies on simulation of the model to approximate the intractable likelihood. Particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) is another approach which is based on using sequential Monte Carlo to estimate intractable likelihood. However, both methods are computationally expensive. In this paper we discuss the efficiency and possible practical issues for each method, taking into account the computational time for these methods. We demonstrate likelihood-free inference by performing analysing a model of the Repressilator using both methods. Detailed investigation is performed to quantify the difference between these methods in terms of efficiency and computational cost.
Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method
The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.
An Estimating Equation for Survival Data with a Possibly Time-Varying Covariates under a Semiparametric Transformation Models
An estimating equation technique is an alternative method of the widely used maximum likelihood methods, which enables us to ease some complexity due to the complex characteristics of time-varying covariates. In the situations, when both the time-varying covariates and left-truncation are considered in the model, the maximum likelihood estimation procedures become much more burdensome and complex. To ease the complexity, in this study, the modified estimating equations those have been given high attention and considerations in many researchers under semiparametric transformation model was proposed. The purpose of this article was to develop the modified estimating equation under flexible and general class of semiparametric transformation models for left-truncated and right censored survival data with time-varying covariates. Besides the commonly applied Cox proportional hazards model, such kind of problems can be also analyzed with a general class of semiparametric transformation models to estimate the effect of treatment given possibly time-varying covariates on the survival time. The consistency and asymptotic properties of the estimators were intuitively derived via the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The characteristics of the estimators in the finite sample performance for the proposed model were illustrated via simulation studies and Stanford heart transplant real data examples. To sum up the study, the bias for covariates has been adjusted by estimating density function for the truncation time variable. Then the effect of possibly time-varying covariates was evaluated in some special semiparametric transformation models.
A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function
Stochastic modeling concerns the use of probability
to model real-world situations in which uncertainty is present.
Therefore, the purpose of stochastic modeling is to estimate the
probability of outcomes within a forecast, i.e. to be able to predict
what conditions or decisions might happen under different situations.
In the present study, we present a model of a stochastic diffusion
process based on the bi-Weibull distribution function (its trend
is proportional to the bi-Weibull probability density function). In
general, the Weibull distribution has the ability to assume the
characteristics of many different types of distributions. This has
made it very popular among engineers and quality practitioners, who
have considered it the most commonly used distribution for studying
problems such as modeling reliability data, accelerated life testing,
and maintainability modeling and analysis. In this work, we start
by obtaining the probabilistic characteristics of this model, as the
explicit expression of the process, its trends, and its distribution by
transforming the diffusion process in a Wiener process as shown in
the Ricciaardi theorem. Then, we develop the statistical inference of
this model using the maximum likelihood methodology. Finally, we
analyse with simulated data the computational problems associated
with the parameters, an issue of great importance in its application to
real data with the use of the convergence analysis methods. Overall,
the use of a stochastic model reflects only a pragmatic decision on
the part of the modeler. According to the data that is available and
the universe of models known to the modeler, this model represents
the best currently available description of the phenomenon under
Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method
Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely. It depends on subspace decomposition of the covariance matrix to separate signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition normally is done by either Eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD) or Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the Auto-Correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. In this paper, the multipath channel estimation problem for a Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) system using noise space based method is considered. An efficient method to estimate multipath the time delays basically is proposed, by applying MUltiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which used the null space extracted by the Rank Revealing LU factorization (RRLU). The RRLU provides accurate information about the rank and the numerical null space which make it a valuable tool in numerical linear algebra. The proposed novel method decreases the computational complexity approximately to the half compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance. Computer simulations are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Parameter Estimation via Metamodeling
Based on appropriate multivariate statistical methodology, we suggest a generic framework for efficient parameter estimation for ordinary differential equations and the corresponding nonlinear models. In this framework classical linear regression strategies is refined into a nonlinear regression by a locally linear modelling technique (known as metamodelling). The approach identifies those latent variables of the given model that accumulate most information about it among all approximations of the same dimension. The method is applied to several benchmark problems, in particular, to the so-called ”power-law systems”, being non-linear differential equations typically used in Biochemical System Theory.
Approximation of the Time Series by Fractal Brownian Motion
In this paper, we propose two problems related to fractal Brownian motion. First problem is simultaneous estimation of two parameters, Hurst exponent and the volatility, that describe this random process. Numerical tests for the simulated fBm provided an efficient method. Second problem is approximation of the increments of the observed time series by a power function by increments from the fractional Brownian motion. Approximation and estimation are shown on the example of real data, daily deposit interest rates.
Estimation and Forecasting with a Quantile AR Model for Financial Returns
This talk presents a Bayesian approach to quantile autoregressive (QAR) time series model estimation and forecasting. We establish that the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters and future values is well defined. The associated MCMC algorithm for parameter estimation and forecasting converges to the posterior distribution quickly. We also present a combining forecasts technique to produce more accurate out-of-sample forecasts by using a weighted sequence of fitted QAR models. A moving window method to check the quality of the estimated conditional quantiles is developed. We verify our methodology using simulation studies and then apply it to currency exchange rate data. An application of the method to the USD to GBP daily currency exchange rates will also be discussed. The results obtained show that an unequally weighted combining method performs better than other forecasting methodology.
Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments
In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.
State Estimation of a Biotechnological Process Using Extended Kalman Filter and Particle Filter
This paper deals with advanced state estimation algorithms for estimation of biomass concentration and specific growth rate in a typical fed-batch biotechnological process. This biotechnological process was represented by a nonlinear mass-balance based process model. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Particle Filter (PF) was used to estimate the unmeasured state variables from oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and base consumption (BC) measurements. To obtain more general results, a simplified process model was involved in EKF and PF estimation algorithms. This model doesn’t require any special growth kinetic equations and could be applied for state estimation in various bioprocesses. The focus of this investigation was concentrated on the comparison of the estimation quality of the EKF and PF estimators by applying different measurement noises. The simulation results show that Particle Filter algorithm requires significantly more computation time for state estimation but gives lower estimation errors both for biomass concentration and specific growth rate. Also the tuning procedure for Particle Filter is simpler than for EKF. Consequently, Particle Filter should be preferred in real applications, especially for monitoring of industrial bioprocesses where the simplified implementation procedures are always desirable.
Estimation of Fuel Cost Function Characteristics Using Cuckoo Search
The fuel cost function describes the electric power generation-cost relationship in thermal plants, hence, it sheds light on economical aspects of power industry. Different models have been proposed to describe this relationship with the quadratic function model being the most popular one. Parameters of second order fuel cost function are estimated in this paper using cuckoo search algorithm. It is a new population based meta-heuristic optimization technique that has been used in this study primarily as an accurate estimation tool. Its main features are flexibility, simplicity, and effectiveness when compared to other estimation techniques. The parameter estimation problem is formulated as an optimization one with the goal being minimizing the error associated with the estimated parameters. A case study is considered in this paper to illustrate cuckoo search promising potential as a valuable estimation and optimization technique.
Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud
Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.
Overhead Reduction by Channel Estimation Using Linear Interpolation for Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization Transmission
This paper proposes a new method to reduce the overhead by pilots for single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) transmission. In the conventional SC-FDE transmission structure, the overhead by transmitting pilot is heavy because the pilot are transmitted at every SC-FDE block. The proposed SC-FDE structure has fewer pilots and many SC-FCE blocks are transmitted between pilots. The channel estimation and equalization is performed at the pilot period and the channels between pilots are estimated through linear interpolation. This reduces the pilot overhead by reducing the pilot transmission compared with the conventional structure, and enables reliable channel estimation and equalization.
Extended Constraint Mask Based One-Bit Transform for Low-Complexity Fast Motion Estimation
In this paper, an improved motion estimation (ME) approach based on weighted constrained one-bit transform is proposed for block-based ME employed in video encoders. Binary ME approaches utilize low bit-depth representation of the original image frames with a Boolean exclusive-OR based hardware efficient matching criterion to decrease computational burden of the ME stage. Weighted constrained one-bit transform (WC‑1BT) based approach improves the performance of conventional C-1BT based ME employing 2-bit depth constraint mask instead of a 1-bit depth mask. In this work, the range of constraint mask is further extended to increase ME performance of WC-1BT approach. Experiments reveal that the proposed method provides better ME accuracy compared existing similar ME methods in the literature.
Design of Transmit Beamspace and DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar
A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems use modulated waveforms and directive antennas to transmit electromagnetic energy into a specific volume in space to search for targets. This paper deals with the design of transmit beamspace matrix and DOA estimation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with collocated antennas.The design of transmit beamspace matrix is based on minimizing the difference between a desired transmit beampattern and the actual one while enforcing the constraint of uniform power distribution across the transmit array elements. Rotational invariance property is established at the transmit array by imposing a specific structure on the beamspace matrix. Semidefinite programming and spatial-division based design (SDD) are also designed separately. In MIMO radar systems, DOA estimation is an essential process to determine the direction of incoming signals and thus to direct the beam of the antenna array towards the estimated direction. This estimation deals with non-adaptive spectral estimation and adaptive spectral estimation techniques. The design of the transmit beamspace matrix and spectral estimation techniques are studied through simulation.
A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems
We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.
Age Estimation from Teeth among North Indian Population: Comparison and Reliability of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
Introduction: Age estimation is a crucial step to build the identity of a person, both in case of deceased and alive. In adults, age can be estimated on the basis of six regressive (Attrition, Secondary dentine, Dentine transparency, Root resorption, Cementum apposition and Periodontal Disease) changes in teeth qualitatively using scoring system and quantitatively by micrometric method. The present research was designed to establish the reliability of qualitative (method 1) and quantitative (method 2) of age estimation among North Indians and to compare the efficacy of these two methods. Method: 250 single-rooted extracted teeth (18-75 yrs.) were collected from Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Before extraction, periodontal score of each tooth was noted. Labiolingual sections were prepared and examined under light microscope for regressive changes. Each parameter was scored using Gustafson’s 0-3 point score system (qualitative), and total score was calculated. For quantitative method, each regressive change was measured quantitatively in form of 18 micrometric parameters under microscope with the help of measuring eyepiece. Age was estimated using linear and multiple regression analysis in Gustafson’s method and Kedici’s method respectively. Estimated age was compared with actual age on the basis of absolute mean error. Results: In pooled data, by Gustafson’s method, significant correlation (r= 0.8) was observed between total score and actual age. Total score generated an absolute mean error of ±7.8 years. Whereas, for Kedici’s method, a value of correlation coefficient of r=0.5 (p< 0.01) was observed between all the eighteen micrometric parameters and known age. Using multiple regression equation, age was estimated, and an absolute mean error of age was found to be ±12.18 years. Conclusion: Gustafson’s (qualitative) method was found to be a better predictor for age estimation among North Indians.
A Study of Mode Choice Model Improvement Considering Age Grouping
The purpose of this study is providing an improved mode choice model considering parameters including age grouping of prime-aged and old age. In this study, 2010 Household Travel Survey data were used and improper samples were removed through the analysis. Chosen alternative, date of birth, mode, origin code, destination code, departure time, and arrival time are considered from Household Travel Survey. By preprocessing data, travel time, travel cost, mode, and ratio of people aged 45 to 55 years, 55 to 65 years and over 65 years were calculated. After the manipulation, the mode choice model was constructed using LIMDEP by maximum likelihood estimation. A significance test was conducted for nine parameters, three age groups for three modes. Then the test was conducted again for the mode choice model with significant parameters, travel cost variable and travel time variable. As a result of the model estimation, as the age increases, the preference for the car decreases and the preference for the bus increases. This study is meaningful in that the individual and households characteristics are applied to the aggregate model.
A Mathematical Model of Power System State Estimation for Power Flow Solution
The state estimation of the electrical power system operation state is very important for supervising task. With the nonlinearity of the AC power flow model, the state estimation problem (SEP) is a nonlinear mathematical problem with many local optima. This paper treat the mathematical model for the SEP and the monitoring of the nonlinear systems of great dimensions with an application on power electrical system, the modelling, the analysis and state estimation synthesis in order to supervise the power system behavior. in fact, it is very difficult, to see impossible, (for reasons of accessibility, techniques and/or of cost) to measure the excessive number of the variables of state in a large-sized system. It is thus important to develop software sensors being able to produce a reliable estimate of the variables necessary for the diagnosis and also for the control.
Remote Sensing and GIS Integration for Paddy Production Estimation in Bali Province, Indonesia
Estimation of paddy production is one of the areas that can be examined using the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the field of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to know the amount of the paddy production estimation and how remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are able to perform analysis of paddy production estimation in Tegalallang and Payangan Sub district, Bali Province, Indonesia. The method used is the method of land suitability. This method associates a physical parameters which are to be embodied in the smallest unit of a mapping that represents a mapping unit in a particular field and connecting with its field productivity. Analysis of estimated production using standard land suitability from FAO using matching technique. The parameters used to create the land unit is slope (FAO), climate classification (Oldeman), landform (Prapto Suharsono), and soil type. Land use map consist of paddy and non paddy field information obtained from Geo-eye 1 imagery using visual interpretation technique. Landsat image of the Data used for the interpretation of the landform, the classification of the slopes obtained from high point identification with method of interpolation spline, whereas climate data, soil, use secondary data originating from institutions-related institutions. The results of this research indicate Tegallalang and Payangan Districts in known wetland suitability consists of S1 (very suitable) covering an area of 2884,7 ha with the productivity of 5 tons/ha and S2 (suitable) covering an area of 482,9 ha with the productivity of 3 tons/ha. The sum of paddy production estimation as a results in both districts are 31.744, 3 tons in one year.
A Semi-Markov Chain-Based Model for the Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges in Quebec
Infrastructure systems are crucial to every aspect of life on Earth. Existing Infrastructure is subjected to degradation while the demands are growing for a better infrastructure system in response to the high standards of safety, health, population growth, and environmental protection. Bridges play a crucial role in urban transportation networks. Moreover, they are subjected to high level of deterioration because of the variable traffic loading, extreme weather conditions, cycles of freeze and thaw, etc. The development of Bridge Management Systems (BMSs) has become a fundamental imperative nowadays especially in the large transportation networks due to the huge variance between the need for maintenance actions, and the available funds to perform such actions. Deterioration models represent a very important aspect for the effective use of BMSs. This paper presents a probabilistic time-based model that is capable of predicting the condition ratings of the concrete bridge decks along its service life. The deterioration process of the concrete bridge decks is modeled using semi-Markov process. One of the main challenges of the Markov Chain Decision Process (MCDP) is the construction of the transition probability matrix. Yet, the proposed model overcomes this issue by modeling the sojourn times based on some probability density functions. The sojourn times of each condition state are fitted to probability density functions based on some goodness of fit tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson Darling, and chi-squared test. The parameters of the probability density functions are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The condition ratings obtained from the Ministry of Transportation in Quebec (MTQ) are utilized as a database to construct the deterioration model. Finally, a comparison is conducted between the Markov Chain and semi-Markov chain to select the most feasible prediction model.
Estimation of the Mean of the Selected Population
Two normal populations with different means and same variance are considered, where the variances are known. The population with the smaller sample mean is selected. Various estimators are constructed for the mean of the selected normal population. Finally, they are compared with respect to the bias and MSE risks by the method of Monte-Carlo simulation and their performances are analysed with the help of graphs.
The Estimation Method of Inter-Story Drift for Buildings Based on Evolutionary Learning
The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to reduce seismic damage. The inter-story drift ratio which is the major index of the seismic capacity assessment is employed for estimating the seismic damage of buildings. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the structural responses of building demands significantly high computational cost due to increasing number of high-rise and large buildings. To estimate the inter-story drift ratio of buildings from the earthquake efficiently, this paper suggests the estimation method of inter-story drift for buildings using an artificial neural network (ANN). In the method, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is integrated with optimization algorithm to optimize the variable through evolutionary learning that refers to evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN). The estimation method estimates the inter-story drift without seismic response analysis when the new earthquakes are subjected to buildings. The effectiveness of the estimation method is verified through a simulation using multi-degree of freedom system.
Towards an Intelligent Ontology Construction Cost Estimation System: Using BIM and New Rules of Measurement Techniques
Construction cost estimation is one of the most important aspects of construction project design. For generations, the process of cost estimating has been manual, time-consuming and error-prone. This has partly led to most cost estimates to be unclear and riddled with inaccuracies that at times lead to over- or under-estimation of construction cost. The development of standard set of measurement rules that are understandable by all those involved in a construction project, have not totally solved the challenges. Emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies can exploit standard measurement methods to automate cost estimation process and improves accuracies. This requires standard measurement methods to be structured in ontologically and machine readable format; so that BIM software packages can easily read them. Most standard measurement methods are still text-based in textbooks and require manual editing into tables or Spreadsheet during cost estimation. The aim of this study is to explore the development of an ontology based on New Rules of Measurement (NRM) commonly used in the UK for cost estimation. The methodology adopted is Methontology, one of the most widely used ontology engineering methodologies. The challenges in this exploratory study are also reported and recommendations for future studies proposed.
Presentation of a Mix Algorithm for Estimating the Battery State of Charge Using Kalman Filter and Neural Networks
Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.
Electrical Load Estimation Using Estimated Fuzzy Linear Parameters
A new formulation of fuzzy linear estimation problem is presented. It is formulated as a linear programming problem. The objective is to minimize the spread of the data points, taking into consideration the type of the membership function of the fuzzy parameters to satisfy the constraints on each measurement point and to insure that the original membership is included in the estimated membership. Different models are developed for a fuzzy triangular membership. The proposed models are applied to different examples from the area of fuzzy linear regression and finally to different examples for estimating the electrical load on a busbar. It had been found that the proposed technique is more suited for electrical load estimation, since the nature of the load is characterized by the uncertainty and vagueness.
The Sequential Estimation of the Seismoacoustic Source Energy in C-OTDR Monitoring Systems
The practical efficient approach is suggested for estimation of the seismoacoustic sources energy in C-OTDR monitoring systems. This approach represents the sequential plan for confidence estimation both the seismoacoustic sources energy, as well the absorption coefficient of the soil. The sequential plan delivers the non-asymptotic guaranteed accuracy of obtained estimates in the form of non-asymptotic confidence regions with prescribed sizes. These confidence regions are valid for a finite sample size when the distributions of the observations are unknown. Thus, suggested estimates are non-asymptotic and nonparametric, and also these estimates guarantee the prescribed estimation accuracy in the form of the prior prescribed size of confidence regions, and prescribed confidence coefficient value.
Support Vector Machine Based Retinal Therapeutic for Glaucoma Using Machine Learning Algorithm
Glaucoma is a group of visual maladies represented by the scheduled optic nerve neuropathy; means to the increasing dwindling in vision ground, resulting in loss of sight. In this paper, a novel support vector machine based retinal therapeutic for glaucoma using machine learning algorithm is conservative. The algorithm has fitting pragmatism; subsequently sustained on correlation clustering mode, it visualizes perfect computations in the multi-dimensional space. Support vector clustering turns out to be comparable to the scale-space advance that investigates the cluster organization by means of a kernel density estimation of the likelihood distribution, where cluster midpoints are idiosyncratic by the neighborhood maxima of the concreteness. The predicted planning has 91% attainment rate on data set deterrent on a consolidation of 500 realistic images of resolute and glaucoma retina; therefore, the computational benefit of depending on the cluster overlapping system pedestal on machine learning algorithm has complete performance in glaucoma therapeutic.
Regression Model Evaluation on Depth Camera Data for Gaze Estimation
We investigate the machine learning algorithm selection problem in the term of a depth image based eye gaze estimation, with respect to its essential difficulty in reducing the number of required training samples and duration time of training. Statistics based prediction accuracy are increasingly used to assess and evaluate prediction or estimation in gaze estimation. This article evaluates Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and R-Squared statistical analysis to assess machine learning methods on depth camera data for gaze estimation. There are 4 machines learning methods have been evaluated: Random Forest Regression, Regression Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Regression. The experiment results show that the Random Forest Regression has the lowest RMSE and the highest R-Squared, which means that it is the best among other methods.
Channel Estimation for LTE Downlink
The LTE systems employ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as the multiple access technology for the Downlink channels. For enhanced performance, accurate channel estimation is required. Various algorithms such as Least Squares (LS), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) can be employed for the purpose. The paper proposes channel estimation algorithm based on Kalman Filter for LTE-Downlink system. Using the frequency domain pilots, the initial channel response is obtained using the LS criterion. Then Kalman Filter is employed to track the channel variations in time-domain. To suppress the noise within a symbol, threshold processing is employed. The paper draws comparison between the LS, MMSE, RLS and Kalman filter for channel estimation. The parameters for evaluation are Bit Error Rate (BER), Mean Square Error (MSE) and run-time.
Study of Harmonics Estimation on Analog kWh Meter Using Fast Fourier Transform Method
PLN used the kWh meter to determine the amount of energy consumed by the household customers. High precision of kWh meter is needed in order to give accuracy results as the accuracy can be decreased due to the presence of harmonic. In this study, an estimation of active power consumed was developed. Based on the first year study results, the largest deviation due to harmonics can reach up to 9.8% in 2200VA and 12.29% in 3500VA with kWh meter analog. In the second year of study, deviation of digital customer meter reaches 2.01% and analog meter up to 9.45% for 3500VA household customers. The aim of this research is to produce an estimation system to calculate the total energy consumed by household customer using analog meter so the losses due to irregularities PLN recording of energy consumption based on the measurement used Analog kWh-meter installed is avoided.
Optical Flow Direction Determination for Railway Crossing Occupancy Monitoring
This article deals with the obstacle detection on a railway crossing (clearance detection). Detection is based on the optical flow estimation and classification of the flow vectors by K-means clustering algorithm. For classification of passing vehicles is used optical flow direction determination. The optical flow estimation is based on a modified Lucas-Kanade method.
An Efficient Robot Navigation Model in a Multi-Target Domain amidst Static and Dynamic Obstacles
This paper presents an efficient robot navigation model in a multi-target domain amidst static and dynamic workspace obstacles. The problem is that of developing an optimal algorithm to minimize the total travel time of a robot as it visits all target points within its task domain amidst unknown workspace obstacles and finally return to its initial position. In solving this problem, a classical algorithm was first developed to compute the optimal number of paths to be travelled by the robot amidst the network of paths. The principle of shortest distance between robot and targets was used to compute the target point visitation order amidst workspace obstacles. Algorithm premised on the standard polar coordinate system was developed to determine the length of obstacles encountered by the robot hence giving room for a geometrical estimation of the total surface area occupied by the obstacle especially when classified as a relevant obstacle i.e. obstacle that lies in between a robot and its potential visitation point. A stochastic model was developed and used to estimate the likelihood of a dynamic obstacle bumping into the robot’s navigation path and finally, the navigation/obstacle avoidance algorithm was hinged on the hybrid virtual force field (HVFF) method. Significant modelling constraints herein include the choice of navigation path to selected target points, the possible presence of static obstacles along a desired navigation path and the likelihood of encountering a dynamic obstacle along the robot’s path and the chances of it remaining at this position as a static obstacle hence resulting in a case of re-routing after routing. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a high potential for optimal solution in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization Design to Cope with Narrow Band Jammer
In this paper, based on the conventional single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) structure, we propose a new SC-FDE structure to cope with narrowband jammer. In the conventional SC-FDE structure, channel estimation is performed in the time domain. When a narrowband jammer exists, time-domain channel estimation is very difficult due to high power jamming interference, which degrades receiver performance. To relieve from this problem, a new SC-FDE frame is proposed to enable channel estimation under narrow band jamming environments. In this paper, we proposed a modified SC-FDE structure that can perform channel estimation in the frequency domain and verified the performance via computer simulation.
Indoor Temperature Estimation with FIR Filter Using R-C Network Model
In this paper, we proposed a new strategy for estimating indoor temperature based on the modified resistance capacitance (R–C) network thermal dynamic model. Using minimum variance finite impulse response (FIR) filter, accurate indoor temperature estimation can be achieved. Our study is clarified by the experimental validation of the proposed indoor temperature estimation method. This experiment scenario environment is composed of a demand response (DR) server and home energy management system (HEMS) in a test bed.
A Non-Destructive Estimation Method for Internal Time in Perilla Leaf Using Hyperspectral Data
Vegetables harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon are valued in plant production, and so the time of harvest is important. The biological functions known as circadian clocks have a significant effect on this harvest timing. The purpose of this study was to non-destructively estimate the circadian clock and so construct a method for determining a suitable harvest time. We took eight samples of green busil (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) every 4 hours, six times for 1 day and analyzed all samples at the same time. A hyperspectral camera was used to collect spectrum intensities at 141 different wavelengths (350–1050 nm). Calculation of correlations between spectrum intensity of each wavelength and harvest time suggested the suitability of the hyperspectral camera for non-destructive estimation. However, even the highest correlated wavelength had a weak correlation, so we used machine learning to raise the accuracy of estimation and constructed a machine learning model to estimate the internal time of the circadian clock. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for machine learning because this is an effective analysis method for large amounts of data. Using the estimation model resulted in an error between estimated and real times of 3 min. The estimations were made in less than 2 hours. Thus, we successfully demonstrated this method of non-destructively estimating internal time.
Mobile Platform’s Attitude Determination Based on Smoothed GPS Code Data and Carrier-Phase Measurements
Mobile platform’s attitude estimation approaches mainly based on combined positioning techniques and developed algorithms; which aim to reach a fast and accurate solution. In this work, we describe the design and the implementation of an attitude determination (AD) process, using only measurements from GPS sensors. The major issue is based on smoothed GPS code data using Hatch filter and raw carrier-phase measurements integrated into attitude algorithm based on vectors measurement using least squares (LSQ) estimation method. GPS dataset from a static experiment is used to investigate the effectiveness of the presented approach and consequently to check the accuracy of the attitude estimation algorithm. Attitude results from GPS multi-antenna over short baselines are introduced and analyzed. The 3D accuracy of estimated attitude parameters using smoothed measurements is over 0.27°.
Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults
Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.
Selection of Appropriate Classification Technique for Lithological Mapping of Gali Jagir Area, Pakistan
Satellite images interpretation and analysis assist geologists by providing valuable information about geology and minerals of an area to be surveyed. A test site in Fatejang of district Attock has been studied using Landsat ETM+ and ASTER satellite images for lithological mapping. Five different supervised image classification techniques namely maximum likelihood, parallelepiped, minimum distance to mean, mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper have been performed on both satellite data images to find out the suitable classification technique for lithological mapping in the study area. Results of these five image classification techniques were compared with the geological map produced by Geological Survey of Pakistan. The result of maximum likelihood classification technique applied on ASTER satellite image has the highest correlation of 0.66 with the geological map. Field observations and XRD spectra of field samples also verified the results. A lithological map was then prepared based on the maximum likelihood classification of ASTER satellite image.
Age Estimation Using Atlas Method with Orthopantomogram and Digital Tracing on Lateral Cephalogram
Chronological age estimation can be done by looking at the stage of growth and development of teeth from orthopantomogram and mandibular remodeling from lateral cephalogram. Mandibular morphological changes associated with the size and remodeling during growth is a strong indicator of age estimation. These changes can be observed with lateral cephalogram. Objective: To prove the difference between chronological age and age estimation using orthopantomogram (dental age) and lateral cephalogram (skeletal age). Methods: Sample consisted of 100 medical records, 100 orthopantomograms digital and 100 lateral cephalograms digital belongs to 50 male and 50 female of Airlangga University hospital of dentistry. Orthopantomogram were matched with London atlas and lateral cephalograms were observed by digital tracing. The difference of dental age and skeletal age was analyzed by pair t –test. Result: Result of the pair t-test between chronological age and dental age in male (p-value 0.002, p< 0.05), in female (p-value 0.605, p>0.05). Result of pair t-test between the chronological age and skeletal age (variable length Condylion-Gonion, Gonion-Gnathion, Condylion-Gnathion in male (p-value 0.000, p< 0.05) in female (variable Condylion-Gonion length (p-value 0.000, Condylion-Gnathion length (p-value 0,040) and Gonion-Gnathion length (p-value 0.493). Conclusion: Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Gonion- Gnathion variable can be used for age estimation in female. Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Condylion-Gonion variable, Gonion-Gnathion variable and Condylion-Gnathion can not be used for age estimation in male.
A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.
Aerodynamic Modeling Using Flight Data at High Angle of Attack
The paper presents the modeling of linear and nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics using real flight data of Hansa-3 aircraft gathered at low and high angles of attack. The Neural-Gauss-Newton (NGN) method has been applied to model the linear and nonlinear longitudinal dynamics and estimate parameters from flight data. Unsteady aerodynamics due to flow separation at high angles of attack near stall has been included in the aerodynamic model using Kirchhoff’s quasi-steady stall model. NGN method is an algorithm that utilizes Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) and Gauss-Newton optimization to estimate the parameters and it does not require any a priori postulation of mathematical model or solving of equations of motion. NGN method was validated on real flight data generated at moderate angles of attack before application to the data at high angles of attack. The estimates obtained from compatible flight data using NGN method were validated by comparing with wind tunnel values and the maximum likelihood estimates. Validation was also carried out by comparing the response of measured motion variables with the response generated by using estimates a different control input. Next, NGN method was applied to real flight data generated by executing a well-designed quasi-steady stall maneuver. The results obtained in terms of stall characteristics and aerodynamic parameters were encouraging and reasonably accurate to establish NGN as a method for modeling nonlinear aerodynamics from real flight data at high angles of attack.
Long Term Examination of the Profitability Estimation Focused on Benefits
Strategic investment decisions are characterized by
high innovation potential and long-term effects on the
competitiveness of enterprises. Due to the uncertainty and risks
involved in this complex decision making process, the need arises for
well-structured support activities. A method that considers cost and
the long-term added value is the cost-benefit effectiveness estimation.
One of those methods is the "profitability estimation focused on
benefits – PEFB"-method developed at the Institute of Management
Cybernetics at RWTH Aachen University. The method copes with
the challenges associated with strategic investment decisions by
integrating long-term non-monetary aspects whilst also mapping the
chronological sequence of an investment within the organization’s
target system. Thus, this method is characterized as a holistic
approach for the evaluation of costs and benefits of an investment.
This participation-oriented method was applied to business
environments in many workshops. The results of the workshops are a
library of more than 96 cost aspects, as well as 122 benefit aspects.
These aspects are preprocessed and comparatively analyzed with
regards to their alignment to a series of risk levels. For the first time,
an accumulation and a distribution of cost and benefit aspects
regarding their impact and probability of occurrence are given. The
results give evidence that the PEFB-method combines precise
measures of financial accounting with the incorporation of benefits.
Finally, the results constitute the basics for using information
technology and data science for decision support when applying
within the PEFB-method.
Model Predictive Control with Unscented Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Implicit Systems
A class of implicit systems is known as a more
generalized class of systems than a class of explicit systems. To
establish a control method for such a generalized class of systems, we
adopt model predictive control method which is a kind of optimal
feedback control with a performance index that has a moving
initial time and terminal time. However, model predictive control
method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not
exactly known. In other words, model predictive control method is
inapplicable to systems with limited measurable states. In fact, it
is usual that the state variables of systems are measured through
outputs, hence, only limited parts of them can be used directly. It is
also usual that output signals are disturbed by process and sensor
noises. Hence, it is important to establish a state estimation method
for nonlinear implicit systems with taking the process noise and
sensor noise into consideration. To this purpose, we apply the model
predictive control method and unscented Kalman filter for solving
the optimization and estimation problems of nonlinear implicit
systems, respectively. The objective of this study is to establish a
model predictive control with unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear
The Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution: Properties and Applications
In this paper, a new four-parameter univariate continuous distribution called the Normal-Generalized Hyperbolic Secant Distribution (NGHS) is defined and studied. Some general and structural distributional properties are investigated and discussed, including: central and non-central n-th moments and incomplete moments, quantile and generating functions, hazard function, Rényi and Shannon entropies, shapes: skewed right, skewed left, and symmetric, modality regions: unimodal and bimodal, maximum likelihood (MLE) estimators for the parameters. Finally, two real data sets are used to demonstrate empirically its flexibility and prove the strength of the new distribution.
Parameter Estimation in Dynamical Systems Based on Latent Variables
A novel mathematical approach is suggested, which facilitates a compressed representation and efficient validation of parameter-rich ordinary differential equation models describing the dynamics of complex, especially biology-related, systems and which is based on identification of the system's latent variables. In particular, an efficient parameter estimation method for the compressed non-linear dynamical systems is developed. The method is applied to the so-called 'power-law systems' being non-linear differential equations typically used in Biochemical System Theory.
A Framework for Consumer Selection on Travel Destinations
The aim of this study is to develop a parsimonious model that explains the effect of different stimulus on a tourist’s intention to visit a new destination. The model consists of destination trust and interest as the mediating variables. The model was tested using two different types of stimulus; both studies empirically supported the proposed model. Furthermore, the first study revealed that advertising has a stronger effect than positive online reviews. The second study found that the peripheral route of the elaboration likelihood model has a stronger influence power than the central route in this context.
Dynamic Measurement System Modeling with Machine Learning Algorithms
In this paper, ways of modeling dynamic measurement
systems are discussed. Specially, for linear system with single-input
single-output, it could be modeled with shallow neural network.
Then, gradient based optimization algorithms are used for searching
the proper coefficients. Besides, method with normal equation and
second order gradient descent are proposed to accelerate the modeling
process, and ways of better gradient estimation are discussed. It
shows that the mathematical essence of the learning objective is
maximum likelihood with noises under Gaussian distribution. For
conventional gradient descent, the mini-batch learning and gradient
with momentum contribute to faster convergence and enhance model
ability. Lastly, experimental results proved the effectiveness of second
order gradient descent algorithm, and indicated that optimization with
normal equation was the most suitable for linear dynamic models.
Lead-Time Estimation Approach Using the Process Capability Index
This research proposes a methodology to estimate the customer order lead time in the supply chain based on the process capability index. The cases when the process output is normally distributed and when it is not are considered. The relationships between the system capability indices in both service and manufacturing applications, delivery system reliability and the percentages of orders delivered after their promised due dates are presented. The proposed method can be used to examine the current process capability to deliver the orders before the promised lead-time. If the system was found to be incapable, the method can be used to help revise the current lead-time to a proper value according to the service reliability level selected by the management. Numerical examples and a case study describing the lead time estimation methodology and testing the system capability of delivering the orders before their promised due date are illustrated.
Monte Carlo Methods and Statistical Inference of Multitype Branching Processes
A parametric estimation of the MBP with Power Series offspring distribution family is considered in this paper. The MLE for the parameters is obtained in the case when the observable data are incomplete and consist only with the generation sizes of the family tree of MBP. The parameter estimation is calculated by using the Monte Carlo EM algorithm. The estimation for the posterior distribution and for the offspring distribution parameters are calculated by using the Bayesian approach and the Gibbs sampler. The article proposes various examples with bivariate branching processes together with computational results, simulation and an implementation using R.
A Neurosymbolic Learning Method for Uplink
LTE-A Channel Estimation
In this paper we propose a Neurosymbolic Learning System (NLS) as a channel estimator for Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) uplink. The proposed system main idea based on Neural Network has modules capable of performing bidirectional information transfer between symbolic module and connectionist module. We demonstrate various strengths of the NLS especially the ability to integrate theoretical knowledge (rules) and experiential knowledge (examples), and to make an initial knowledge base (rules) converted into a connectionist network. Also to use empirical knowledge witch by learning will have the ability to revise the theoretical knowledge and acquire new one and explain it, and finally the ability to improve the performance of symbolic or connectionist systems. Compared with conventional SC-FDMA channel estimation systems, The performance of NLS in terms of complexity and quality is confirmed by theoretical analysis and simulation and shows that this system can make the channel estimation accuracy improved and bit error rate decreased.
Developing Fuzzy Logic Model for Reliability Estimation: Case Study
The research aim of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of a complex engineering system and to design a fuzzy model for the reliability estimation. The designed model has been applied on Vegetable Oil Purification System (neutralization system) to help the specialist user based on the concept of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) to estimate the reliability of the repairable system at the vegetable oil industry. The fuzzy model has been used to predict the system reliability for a future time period, depending on a historical database for the two past years. The model can help to specify the system malfunctions and to predict its reliability during a future period in more accurate and reasonable results compared with the results obtained by the traditional method of reliability estimation.
Remote Sensing Application in Environmental Researches: Case Study of Iran Mangrove Forests Quantitative Assessment
Environmental assessment is an important session in environment management. Since various methods and techniques have been produces and implemented. Remote sensing (RS) is widely used in many scientific and research fields such as geology, cartography, geography, agriculture, forestry, land use planning, environment, etc. It can show earth surface objects cyclical changes. Also, it can show earth phenomena limits on basis of electromagnetic reflectance changes and deviations records. The research has been done on mangrove forests assessment by RS techniques. Mangrove forests quantitative analysis in Basatin and Bidkhoon estuaries was the aim of this research. It has been done by Landsat satellite images from 1975- 2013 and match to ground control points. This part of mangroves are the last distribution in northern hemisphere. It can provide a good background to improve better management on this important ecosystem. Landsat has provided valuable images to earth changes detection to researchers. This research has used MSS, TM, +ETM, OLI sensors from 1975, 1990, 2000, 2003-2013. Changes had been studied after essential corrections such as fix errors, bands combination, georeferencing on 2012 images as basic image, by maximum likelihood and IPVI Index. It was done by supervised classification. 2004 google earth image and ground points by GPS (2010-2012) was used to compare satellite images obtained changes. Results showed mangrove area in bidkhoon was 1119072 m2 by GPS and 1231200 m2 by maximum likelihood supervised classification and 1317600 m2 by IPVI in 2012. Basatin areas is respectively: 466644 m2, 88200 m2, 63000 m2. Final results show forests have been declined naturally. It is due to human activities in Basatin. The defect was offset by planting in many years. Although the trend has been declining in recent years again. So, it mentioned satellite images have high ability to estimation all environmental processes. This research showed high correlation between images and indexes such as IPVI and NDVI with ground control points.
A Novel Search Pattern for Motion Estimation in High Efficiency Video Coding
High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or H.265 Standard fulfills the demand of high resolution video storage and transmission since it achieves high compression ratio. However, it requires a huge amount of calculation. Since Motion Estimation (ME) block composes about 80 % of calculation load of HEVC, there are a lot of researches to reduce the computation cost. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to lower the number of Motion Estimation’s searching points. The number of computing points in search pattern is down from 77 for Diamond Pattern and 81 for Square Pattern to only 31. Meanwhile, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and bit rate are almost equal to those of conventional patterns. The motion estimation time of new algorithm reduces by at 68.23%, 65.83%compared to the recommended search pattern of diamond pattern, square pattern, respectively.
Comparison of Statistical Methods for Estimating Missing Precipitation Data in the River Subbasin Lenguazaque, Colombia
In this work was compared and evaluated the applicability of statistical methods for the estimation of missing precipitations data in the basin of the river Lenguazaque located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá, Colombia. The methods used were the method of simple linear regression, distance rate, local averages, mean rates, correlation with nearly stations and multiple regression method. The analysis used to determine the effectiveness of the methods is performed by using three statistical tools, the correlation coefficient (r2), standard error of estimation and the test of agreement of Bland and Altmant. The analysis was performed using real rainfall values removed randomly in each of the seasons and then estimated using the methodologies mentioned to complete the missing data values. So it was determined that the methods with the highest performance and accuracy in the estimation of data according to conditions that were counted are the method of multiple regressions with three nearby stations and a random application scheme supported in the precipitation behavior of related data sets.
Human-Machine Cooperation in Facial Comparison Based on Likelihood Scores
Image-based facial features can be classified into category recognition features and individual recognition features. Current automated face recognition systems extract a specific feature vector of different dimensions from a facial image according to their pre-trained neural network. However, to improve the efficiency of parameter calculation, an algorithm generally reduces the image details by pooling. The operation will overlook the details concerned much by forensic experts. In our experiment, we adopted a variety of face recognition algorithms based on deep learning, compared a large number of naturally collected face images with the known data of the same person's frontal ID photos. Downscaling and manual handling were performed on the testing images. The results supported that the facial recognition algorithms based on deep learning detected structural and morphological information and rarely focused on specific markers such as stains and moles. Overall performance, distribution of genuine scores and impostor scores, and likelihood ratios were tested to evaluate the accuracy of biometric systems and forensic experts. Experiments showed that the biometric systems were skilled in distinguishing category features, and forensic experts were better at discovering the individual features of human faces. In the proposed approach, a fusion was performed at the score level. At the specified false accept rate, the framework achieved a lower false reject rate. This paper contributes to improving the interpretability of the objective method of facial comparison and provides a novel method for human-machine collaboration in this field.
Estimation of Time Loss and Costs of Traffic Congestion: The Contingent Valuation Method
The reduction of road congestion which is inherent to the use of vehicles is an obvious priority to public authority. Therefore, assessing the willingness to pay of an individual in order to save trip-time is akin to estimating the change in price which was the result of setting up a new transport policy to increase the networks fluidity and improving the level of social welfare. This study holds an innovative perspective. In fact, it initiates an economic calculation that has the objective of giving an estimation of the monetized time value during the trips made in Sfax. This research is founded on a double-objective approach. The aim of this study is to i) give an estimation of the monetized value of time; an hour dedicated to trips, ii) determine whether or not the consumer considers the environmental variables to be significant, iii) analyze the impact of applying a public management of the congestion via imposing taxation of city tolls on urban dwellers. This article is built upon a rich field survey led in the city of Sfax. With the use of the contingent valuation method, we analyze the “declared time preferences” of 450 drivers during rush hours. Based on the fond consideration of attributed bias of the applied method, we bring to light the delicacy of this approach with regards to the revelation mode and the interrogative techniques by following the NOAA panel recommendations bearing the exception of the valorization point and other similar studies about the estimation of transportation externality.
Automatic Censoring in K-Distribution for Multiple Targets Situations
The parameters estimation of the K-distribution is an essential part in radar detection. In fact, presence of interfering targets in reference cells causes a decrease in detection performances. In such situation, the estimate of the shape and the scale parameters are far from the actual values. In the order to avoid interfering targets, we propose an Automatic Censoring (AC) algorithm of radar interfering targets in K-distribution. The censoring technique used in this work offers a good discrimination between homogeneous and non-homogeneous environments. The homogeneous population is then used to estimate the unknown parameters by the classical Method of Moment (MOM). The AC algorithm does not need any prior information about the clutter parameters nor does it require both the number and the position of interfering targets. The accuracy of the estimation parameters obtained by this algorithm are validated and compared to various actual values of the shape parameter, using Monte Carlo simulations, this latter show that the probability of censing in multiple target situations are in good agreement.
Defects Estimation of Embedded Systems Components by a Bond Graph Approach
The paper concerns the estimation of system components faults by using an unknown inputs observer. To reach this goal, we used the Bond Graph approach to physical modelling. We showed that this graphical tool is allowing the representation of system components faults as unknown inputs within the state representation of the considered physical system. The study of the causal and structural features of the system (controllability, observability, finite structure, and infinite structure) based on the Bond Graph approach was hence fulfilled in order to design an unknown inputs observer which is used for the system component fault estimation.
Analysis of Exponential Distribution under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Plan Using Adaptive Type-I Hybrid Progressive Censoring Schemes with Competing Risks Data
In this article, we have estimated the parameters for the failure times of units based on the sampling technique adaptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring under the step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk. The failure times of the units are assumed to follow an exponential distribution. Maximum likelihood estimation technique is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the distribution and tampered coefficient. Confidence interval also obtained for the parameters. A simulation study is performed by using Monte Carlo Simulation method to check the authenticity of the model and its assumptions.
High Performance of Direct Torque and Flux Control of a Double Stator Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator
In order to have stable and high performance of direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of double star induction motor drive (DSIM), proper on-line adaptation of the stator resistance is very important. This is inevitably due to the variation of the stator resistance during operating conditions, which introduces error in estimated flux position and the magnitude of the stator flux. Error in the estimated stator flux deteriorates the performance of the DTFC drive. Also, the effect of error in estimation is very important especially at low speed. Due to this, our aim is to overcome the sensitivity of the DTFC to the stator resistance variation by proposing on-line fuzzy estimation stator resistance. The fuzzy estimation method is based on an on-line stator resistance correction through the variations of the stator current estimation error and its variations. The fuzzy logic controller gives the future stator resistance increment at the output. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm control is to avoid the drive instability that may occur in certain situations and ensure the tracking of the actual stator resistance. The validity of the technique and the improvement of the whole system performance are proved by the results.
An Enhanced Floor Estimation Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Localization Systems Using Confidence Interval Approach
Indoor wireless localization systems have played an important role to enhance context-aware services. Determining the position of mobile objects in complex indoor environments, such as those in multi-floor buildings, is very challenging problems. This paper presents an effective floor estimation algorithm, which can accurately determine the floor where mobile objects located. The proposed algorithm is based on the confidence interval of the summation of online Received Signal Strength (RSS) obtained from the IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). We compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with those of other floor estimation algorithms in literature by conducting a real implementation of WSN in our facility. The experimental results and analysis showed that the proposed floor estimation algorithm outperformed the other algorithms and provided highest percentage of floor accuracy up to 100% with 95-percent confidence interval.
A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model
The separation of speech signals has become a research
hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has
many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids,
speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are
usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and
obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem
worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation.
This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation
(UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem
of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly
divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to
estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then
the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this
paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper
proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for
speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm
is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low
signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper
considers the idea of an improved potential function method to
estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence
of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm,
but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This
paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as
an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this
paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies
to any mixing matrix.
RP-HPLC Method Development and Its Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil Combination in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form
A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in bulk and tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC method has shown adequate separation for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil from its degradation products. The separation was achieved on a Phenomenex luna ODS C18 (250mm X 4.6mm i.d., 5μm particle size) with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 50mM phosphate buffer pH 4.0 adjusted with glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 55:45 v/v. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min, Injection volume 20μl and wavelength of detection was kept at 225nm. The retention time for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil was 2.451±0.1min and 6.167±0.1min, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 5-50μg/ml and 2-20μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.9996 for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.2847μg/ml and 0.1251μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively and the limit of quantification was 0.8630μg/ml and 0.3793μg/ml for Metoprolol and Olmesartan, respectively. Proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness for estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory. Thus the developed and validated stability indicating method can be used successfully for marketed formulations.
Orthogonal Regression for Nonparametric Estimation of Errors-In-Variables Models
Two new algorithms for nonparametric estimation of errors-in-variables models are proposed. The first algorithm is based on penalized regression spline. The spline is represented as a piecewise-linear function and for each linear portion orthogonal regression is estimated. This algorithm is iterative. The second algorithm involves locally weighted regression estimation. When the independent variable is measured with error such estimation is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. The simulation results have shown the advantage of the second algorithm under the assumption that true smoothing parameters values are known. Nevertheless the use of some indexes of fit to smoothing parameters selection gives the similar results and has an oversmoothing effect.
On Stochastic Models for Fine-Scale Rainfall Based on Doubly Stochastic Poisson Processes
Much of the research on stochastic point process models for rainfall has focused on Poisson cluster models constructed from either the Neyman-Scott or Bartlett-Lewis processes. The doubly stochastic Poisson process provides a rich class of point process models, especially for fine-scale rainfall modelling. This paper provides an account of recent development on this topic and presents the results based on some of the fine-scale rainfall models constructed from this class of stochastic point processes. Amongst the literature on stochastic models for rainfall, greater emphasis has been placed on modelling rainfall data recorded at hourly or daily aggregation levels. Stochastic models for sub-hourly rainfall are equally important, as there is a need to reproduce rainfall time series at fine temporal resolutions in some hydrological applications. For example, the study of climate change impacts on hydrology and water management initiatives requires the availability of data at fine temporal resolutions. One approach to generating such rainfall data relies on the combination of an hourly stochastic rainfall simulator, together with a disaggregator making use of downscaling techniques. Recent work on this topic adopted a different approach by developing specialist stochastic point process models for fine-scale rainfall aimed at generating synthetic precipitation time series directly from the proposed stochastic model. One strand of this approach focused on developing a class of doubly stochastic Poisson process (DSPP) models for fine-scale rainfall to analyse data collected in the form of rainfall bucket tip time series. In this context, the arrival pattern of rain gauge bucket tip times N(t) is viewed as a DSPP whose rate of occurrence varies according to an unobserved finite state irreducible Markov process X(t). Since the likelihood function of this process can be obtained, by conditioning on the underlying Markov process X(t), the models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods. The proposed models were applied directly to the raw data collected by tipping-bucket rain gauges, thus avoiding the need to convert tip-times to rainfall depths prior to fitting the models. One advantage of this approach was that the use of maximum likelihood methods enables a more straightforward estimation of parameter uncertainty and comparison of sub-models of interest. Another strand of this approach employed the DSPP model for the arrivals of rain cells and attached a pulse or a cluster of pulses to each rain cell. Different mechanisms for the pattern of the pulse process were used to construct variants of this model. We present the results of these models when they were fitted to hourly and sub-hourly rainfall data. The results of our analysis suggest that the proposed class of stochastic models is capable of reproducing the fine-scale structure of the rainfall process, and hence provides a useful tool in hydrological modelling.
Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method
In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.
Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm
Within geostatistics research, effective estimation of
the variogram points has been examined, particularly in developing
robust alternatives. The parametric fit of these variogram points which
eventually defines the kriging weights, however, has not received
the same attention from a robust perspective. This paper proposes
the use of the non-linear Wilcoxon norm over weighted non-linear
least squares as a robust variogram fitting alternative. First, we
introduce the concept of variogram estimation and fitting. Then, as
an alternative to non-linear weighted least squares, we discuss the
non-linear Wilcoxon estimator. Next, the robustness properties of the
non-linear Wilcoxon are demonstrated using a contaminated spatial
data set. Finally, under simulated conditions, increasing levels of
contaminated spatial processes have their variograms points estimated
and fit. In the fitting of these variogram points, both non-linear
Weighted Least Squares and non-linear Wilcoxon fits are examined
for efficiency. At all levels of contamination (including 0%), using
a robust estimation and robust fitting procedure, the non-weighted
Wilcoxon outperforms weighted Least Squares.
Estimation of Synchronous Machine Synchronizing and Damping Torque Coefficients
Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients of a synchronous machine can give a quite clear picture for machine behavior during transients. These coefficients are used as a power system transient stability measurement. In this paper, a crow search optimization algorithm is presented and implemented to study the power system stability during transients. The algorithm makes use of the machine responses to perform the stability study in time domain. The problem is formulated as a dynamic estimation problem. An objective function that minimizes the error square in the estimated coefficients is designed. The method is tested using practical system with different study cases. Results are reported and a thorough discussion is presented. The study illustrates that the proposed method can estimate the stability coefficients for the critical stable cases where other methods may fail. The tests proved that the proposed tool is an accurate and reliable tool for estimating the machine coefficients for assessment of power system stability.
Robust Heart Rate Estimation from Multiple Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Physiological Signals Using Signal Quality Indices and Kalman Filter
Physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often seriously corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data, which lead to errors in the estimation of heart rate (HR) and incidences of false alarm from ICU monitors. Clinical support in ICU requires most reliable heart rate estimation. Cardiac activity, because of its relatively high electrical energy, may introduce artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrooculogram (EOG), and Electromyogram (EMG) recordings. This paper presents a robust heart rate estimation method by detection of R-peaks of ECG artifacts in EEG, EMG & EOG signals, using energy-based function and a novel Signal Quality Index (SQI) assessment technique. SQIs of physiological signals (EEG, EMG, & EOG) were obtained by correlation of nonlinear energy operator (teager energy) of these signals with either ECG or ABP signal. HR is estimated from ECG, ABP, EEG, EMG, and EOG signals from separate Kalman filter based upon individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighing each estimate by the Kalman filters’ SQI modified innovations. The fused signal HR estimate is more accurate and robust than any of the individual HR estimate. This method was evaluated on MIMIC II data base of PhysioNet from bedside monitors of ICU patients. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of noise and artifacts.
, ECG artifacts
, Teager-Kaiser energy
, heart rate
, signal quality index
, Kalman filter
, data fusion
Combined Localization, Beamforming, and Interference Threshold Estimation in Underlay Cognitive System
This paper aims at providing an innovative solution for blind interference threshold estimation in an underlay cognitive network to be used in adaptive beamforming by secondary user Transmitter and Receiver. For the task of threshold estimation, blind detection of modulation and SNR are used. For the sake of beamforming several localization algorithms are compared to settle on best one for cognitive environment. Beamforming algorithms as LCMV (Linear Constraint Minimum Variance) and MVDR (Minimum Variance Distortion less) are also proposed and compared. The idea of just nulling the primary user after knowledge of its location is discussed against the idea of working under interference threshold.
Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor
The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.
An Efficient Fundamental Matrix Estimation for Moving Object Detection
In this paper, an improved method for estimating fundamental matrix is proposed. The method is applied effectively to monocular camera based moving object detection. The method consists of corner points detection, moving object’s motion estimation and fundamental matrix calculation. The corner points are obtained by using Harris corner detector, motions of moving objects is calculated from pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm. Through epipolar geometry analysis using RANSAC, the fundamental matrix is calculated. In this method, we have improved the performances of moving object detection by using two threshold values that determine inlier or outlier. Through the simulations, we compare the performances with varying the two threshold values.
State Estimation Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Burgers’ Equation
Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem
that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental
equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves,
and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called
model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation.
However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to
systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical
point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are
exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured
through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only
available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems
cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical
feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of
state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid
systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish
a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited
measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented
Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems
described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to
establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter
for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is
verified by numerical simulations.
Efficient Schemes of Classifiers for Remote Sensing Satellite Imageries of Land Use Pattern Classifications
Classification of land use patterns is compelling in complexity and variability of remote sensing imageries data. An imperative research in remote sensing application exploited to mine some of the significant spatially variable factors as land cover and land use from satellite images for remote arid areas in Karnataka State, India. The diverse classification techniques, unsupervised and supervised consisting of maximum likelihood, Mahalanobis distance, and minimum distance are applied in Bellary District in Karnataka State, India for the classification of the raw satellite images. The accuracy evaluations of results are compared visually with the standard maps with ground-truths. We initiated with the maximum likelihood technique that gave the finest results and both minimum distance and Mahalanobis distance methods over valued agriculture land areas. In meanness of mislaid few irrelevant features due to the low resolution of the satellite images, high-quality accord between parameters extracted automatically from the developed maps and field observations was found.
A New Criterion Using Pose and Shape of Objects for Collision Risk Estimation
As many recent researches being implemented in aviation and maritime aspects, strong doubts have been raised concerning the reliability of the estimation of collision risk. It is shown that using position and velocity of objects can lead to imprecise results. In this paper, therefore, a new approach to the estimation of collision risks using pose and shape of objects is proposed. Simulation results are presented validating the accuracy of the new criterion to adapt to collision risk algorithm based on fuzzy logic.
Classic Training of a Neural Observer for Estimation Purposes
This paper investigates the training of multilayer neural network using the classic approach. Then, for estimation purposes, we suggest the use of a specific neural observer that we study its training algorithm which is the back-propagation one in the case of the disponibility of the state and in the case of an unmeasurable state. A MATLAB simulation example will be studied to highlight the usefulness of this kind of observer.
Signal Estimation and Closed Loop System Performance in Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring with Communication Channels
In this paper a unique issue rising from feedback control of Atrial Fibrillation monitoring system with embedded communication channels has been investigated. One of the important factors to measure the performance of the feedback control closed loop system is disturbance and noise attenuation factor. It is important that the feedback system can attenuate such disturbances on the atrial fibrillation heart rate signals. Communication channels depend on network traffic conditions and deliver different throughput, implying that the sampling intervals may change. Since signal estimation is updated on the arrival of new data, its dynamics actually change with the sampling interval. Consequently, interaction among sampling, signal estimation, and the controller will introduce new issues in remotely controlled Atrial Fibrillation system. This paper treats a remotely controlled atrial fibrillation system with one communication channel which connects between the heart rate and rhythm measurements to the remote controller. Typical and optimal signal estimation schemes is represented by a signal averaging filter with its time constant derived from the step size of the signal estimation algorithm.
Mathematics Model Approaching: Parameter Estimation of Transmission Dynamics of HIV and AIDS in Indonesia
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the world's deadliest diseases caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that infects white blood cells and cause a decline in the immune system. AIDS quickly became a world epidemic disease that affects almost all countries. Therefore, mathematical modeling approach to the spread of HIV and AIDS is needed to anticipate the spread of HIV and AIDS which are widespread. The purpose of this study is to determine the parameter estimation on mathematical models of HIV transmission and AIDS using cumulative data of people with HIV and AIDS each year in Indonesia. In this model, there are parameters of r ∈ [0,1) which is the effectiveness of the treatment in patients with HIV. If the value of r is close to 1, the number of people with HIV and AIDS will decline toward zero. The estimation results indicate when the value of r is close to unity, there will be a significant decline in HIV patients, whereas in AIDS patients constantly decreases towards zero.
Median-Based Nonparametric Estimation of Returns in Mean-Downside Risk Portfolio Frontier
The Downside Risk (DSR) model for portfolio optimisation allows to overcome the drawbacks of the classical mean-variance model concerning the asymetry of returns and the risk perception of investors. This model optimization deals with a positive definite matrix that is endogenous with respect to portfolio weights. This aspect makes the problem far more difficult to handle. For this purpose, Athayde (2001) developped a new recurcive minimization procedure that ensures the convergence to the solution. However, when a finite number of observations is available, the portfolio frontier presents an appearance which is not very smooth. In order to overcome that, Athayde (2003) proposed a mean kernel estimation of the returns, so as to create a smoother portfolio frontier. This technique provides an effect similar to the case in which we had continuous observations. In this paper, taking advantage on the the robustness of the median, we replace the mean estimator in Athayde's model by a nonparametric median estimator of the returns. Then, we give a new version of the former algorithm (of Athayde (2001, 2003)). We eventually analyse the properties of this improved portfolio frontier and apply this new method on real examples.
Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor
The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.
Predictors of the Self-Reported Likelihood of Seeking Social Worker Help among People with Physical Disabilities
Social workers hold a variety of roles and practices, and one of these involves the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of disabled people. The current study assesses the association between demographic factors, attitudes towards social workers, the stigma attached to seeking social worker help, perceived social support, and psychological distress - and the self-reported likelihood of seeking social worker help, among people with physical disabilities (PWPD) in Israel. Data collection utilized structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 435 PWPD. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software. The findings suggest that women, older respondents, people with more positive attitudes towards social workers, with higher levels of psychological distress and of social support, and with a lower level of stigma, reported a greater likelihood of seeking social worker help. The study's conclusion is that there are certain avoidance factors among PWPD that might discourage them from seeking professional social worker help. Therefore, it is important that social workers identify these factors and develop interventions aimed at encouraging PWPD to seek professional social worker help in case of need, and also develop practices adjusted to PWPD's unique needs.
Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array
Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.
A Unified Deep Framework for Joint 3d Pose Estimation and Action Recognition from a Single Color Camera
We present a deep learning-based multitask framework for joint 3D human pose estimation and action recognition from color video sequences. Our approach proceeds along two stages. In the first, we run a real-time 2D pose detector to determine the precise pixel location of important key points of the body. A two-stream neural network is then designed and trained to map detected 2D keypoints into 3D poses. In the second, we deploy the Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS) algorithm to find an optimal network architecture that is used for modeling the Spatio-temporal evolution of the estimated 3D poses via an image-based intermediate representation and performing action recognition. Experiments on Human3.6M, Microsoft Research Redmond (MSR) Action3D, and Stony Brook University (SBU) Kinect Interaction datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method on the targeted tasks. Moreover, we show that our method requires a low computational budget for training and inference.
Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines
In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.
Infrastructure Change Monitoring Using Multitemporal Multispectral Satellite Images
The main objective of this study is to find a suitable approach to monitor the land infrastructure growth over a period of time using multispectral satellite images. The bi-temporal change detection method is unable to indicate the continuous change occurring over a long period of time. To achieve this objective, the approach used here estimates a statistical model from series of multispectral image data over a long period of time, assuming there is no considerable change during that time period and then compares it with the multispectral image data obtained at a later time. The change is estimated at pixel-wise. The statistical composite hypothesis technique is used for estimating pixel-based change detection in a defined region. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) is used to detect the changed pixel from a probabilistic estimated model of the corresponding pixel. The changed pixel is detected, assuming that the images have been co-registered prior to estimation. To minimize error due to co-registration, 8-neighborhood pixels around the pixel under test are also considered. The multispectral images from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 from the year 2015 to 2017 are used for this purpose. There are different challenges in this method. The first and foremost challenge is to get quite a large number of datasets for multivariate distribution modelling. A large number of images are always discarded due to cloud coverage. Due to imperfect modelling there will be a high probability of false alarm. The overall conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the probabilistic method described in this paper has given some promising results, which need to be pursued further.
Generalized Extreme Value Regression with Binary Dependent Variable: An Application for Predicting Meteorological Drought Probabilities
Logistic regression model is the most used regression model to predict meteorological drought probabilities. When the dependent variable is extreme, the logistic model fails to adequately capture drought probabilities. In order to adequately predict drought probabilities, we use the generalized linear model (GLM) with the quantile function of the generalized extreme value distribution (GEVD) as the link function. The method maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized extreme value (GEV) regression model. We compare the performance of the logistic and the GEV regression models in predicting drought probabilities for Zimbabwe. The performance of the regression models are assessed using the goodness-of-fit tests, namely; relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and relative mean absolute error (RMAE). Results show that the GEV regression model performs better than the logistic model, thereby providing a good alternative candidate for predicting drought probabilities. This paper provides the first application of GLM derived from extreme value theory to predict drought probabilities for a drought-prone country such as Zimbabwe.
Financial Fraud Prediction for Russian Non-Public Firms Using Relational Data
The goal of this paper is to develop the fraud risk assessment model basing on both relational and financial data and test the impact of the relationships between Russian non-public companies on the likelihood of financial fraud commitment. Relationships mean various linkages between companies such as parent-subsidiary relationship and person-related relationships. These linkages may provide additional opportunities for committing fraud. Person-related relationships appear when firms share a director, or the director owns another firm. The number of companies belongs to CEO and managed by CEO, the number of subsidiaries was calculated to measure the relationships. Moreover, the dummy variable describing the existence of parent company was also included in model. Control variables such as financial leverage and return on assets were also implemented because they describe the motivating factors of fraud. To check the hypotheses about the influence of the chosen parameters on the likelihood of financial fraud, information about person-related relationships between companies, existence of parent company and subsidiaries, profitability and the level of debt was collected. The resulting sample consists of 160 Russian non-public firms. The sample includes 80 fraudsters and 80 non-fraudsters operating in 2006-2017. The dependent variable is dichotomous, and it takes the value 1 if the firm is engaged in financial crime, otherwise 0. Employing probit model, it was revealed that the number of companies which belong to CEO of the firm or managed by CEO has significant impact on the likelihood of financial fraud. The results obtained indicate that the more companies are affiliated with the CEO, the higher the likelihood that the company will be involved in financial crime. The forecast accuracy of the model is about is 80%. Thus, the model basing on both relational and financial data gives high level of forecast accuracy.
Brand Management Model in Professional Football League
The study aims to examine brand image in Iran's professional Football League (2014-2015). The study was descriptive survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911) responded four items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to results, brand image plays a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. Moreover due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors.
A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model
In this paper, we propose a method to model the
relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step
stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different
causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function
depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made
about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test
is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure
rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing
stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that
fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to
belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known
as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood
estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an
expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of
failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the
estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation.
Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the
Image Features Comparison-Based Position Estimation Method Using a Camera Sensor
In this paper, propose method that can user’s position
that based on database is built from single camera. Previous
positioning calculate distance by arrival-time of signal like GPS
(Global Positioning System), RF(Radio Frequency). However, these
previous method have weakness because these have large error range
according to signal interference. Method for solution estimate position
by camera sensor. But, signal camera is difficult to obtain relative
position data and stereo camera is difficult to provide real-time
position data because of a lot of image data, too. First of all, in this
research we build image database at space that able to provide
positioning service with single camera. Next, we judge similarity
through image matching of database image and transmission image
from user. Finally, we decide position of user through position of most
similar database image. For verification of propose method, we
experiment at real-environment like indoor and outdoor. Propose
method is wide positioning range and this method can verify not only
position of user but also direction.
Predictors of Behavior Modification Prior to Bariatric Surgery
Given that complications can be significant following bariatric surgery and with rates of long-term success measured in excess weight loss varying as low as 33% after five years, an understanding of the psychological factors that may mitigate findings and increase success and result in better screening and supports prior to surgery are critical. An internally oriented locus of control (LOC) has been identified as a predictor for success in obesity therapy, but has not been investigated within the context of bariatric surgery. It is hypothesized that making behavioral changes prior to surgery which mirror those that are required post-surgery may ultimately predict long-term success. 122 subjects participated in a clinical interview and completed self-report measures including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LQ). Pearson correlations were computed between locus of control orientation and likelihood to make behavior changes prior to surgery. Pearson correlations revealed a positive correlation between locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes r = 0.23, p < .05. As hypothesized, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes. Participants with a higher LOC believe that they are able to make decisions about their own health. Future research will focus on whether this positive correlation is a predictor for future bariatric surgery success.
Low Complexity Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation for Cooperative Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Communication Systems without Cyclic Prefix
Cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which possesses the advantages of better connectivity, expanded coverage, and resistance to frequency selective fading, has been a more powerful solution for the physical layer in wireless communications. However, such a hybrid scheme suffers from the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effects inherited from the OFDM-based systems, which lead to a significant degradation in performance. In addition, insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP) at each symbol block head for combating inter-symbol interference will lead to a reduction in spectral efficiency. The design on the CFO estimation for the cooperative OFDM system without CP is a suspended problem. This motivates us to develop a low complexity CFO estimator for the cooperative OFDM decode-and-forward (DF) communication system without CP over the multipath fading channel. Especially, using a block-type pilot, the CFO estimation is first derived in accordance with the least square criterion. A reliable performance can be obtained through an exhaustive two-dimensional (2D) search with a penalty of heavy computational complexity. As a remedy, an alternative solution realized with an iteration approach is proposed for the CFO estimation. In contrast to the 2D-search estimator, the iterative method enjoys the advantage of the substantially reduced implementation complexity without sacrificing the estimate performance. Computer simulations have been presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed CFO estimation.
Estimating Estimators: An Empirical Comparison of Non-Invasive Analysis Methods
The non-invasive samples are an alternative of collecting genetic samples directly. Non-invasive samples are collected without the manipulation of the animal (e.g., scats, feathers and hairs). Nevertheless, the use of non-invasive samples has some limitations. The main issue is degraded DNA, leading to poorer extraction efficiency and genotyping. Those errors delayed for some years a widespread use of non-invasive genetic information. Possibilities to limit genotyping errors can be done using analysis methods that can assimilate the errors and singularities of non-invasive samples. Genotype matching and population estimation algorithms can be highlighted as important analysis tools that have been adapted to deal with those errors. Although, this recent development of analysis methods there is still a lack of empirical performance comparison of them. A comparison of methods with dataset different in size and structure can be useful for future studies since non-invasive samples are a powerful tool for getting information specially for endangered and rare populations. To compare the analysis methods, four different datasets used were obtained from the Dryad digital repository were used. Three different matching algorithms (Cervus, Colony and Error Tolerant Likelihood Matching - ETLM) are used for matching genotypes and two different ones for population estimation (Capwire and BayesN). The three matching algorithms showed different patterns of results. The ETLM produced less number of unique individuals and recaptures. A similarity in the matched genotypes between Colony and Cervus was observed. That is not a surprise since the similarity between those methods on the likelihood pairwise and clustering algorithms. The matching of ETLM showed almost no similarity with the genotypes that were matched with the other methods. The different cluster algorithm system and error model of ETLM seems to lead to a more criterious selection, although the processing time and interface friendly of ETLM were the worst between the compared methods. The population estimators performed differently regarding the datasets. There was a consensus between the different estimators only for the one dataset. The BayesN showed higher and lower estimations when compared with Capwire. The BayesN does not consider the total number of recaptures like Capwire only the recapture events. So, this makes the estimator sensitive to data heterogeneity. Heterogeneity in the sense means different capture rates between individuals. In those examples, the tolerance for homogeneity seems to be crucial for BayesN work properly. Both methods are user-friendly and have reasonable processing time. An amplified analysis with simulated genotype data can clarify the sensibility of the algorithms. The present comparison of the matching methods indicates that Colony seems to be more appropriated for general use considering a time/interface/robustness balance. The heterogeneity of the recaptures affected strongly the BayesN estimations, leading to over and underestimations population numbers. Capwire is then advisable to general use since it performs better in a wide range of situations.
Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce
In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).
Sensing to Respond & Recover in Emergency
The ability to respond to an incident of a disastrous event in a vulnerable area is very crucial an aspect of emergency management. The ability to constantly predict the likelihood of an event along with its severity in an area and react to those significant events which are likely to have a high impact allows the authorities to respond by allocating resources optimally in a timely manner. It provides for measuring, monitoring, and modeling facilities that integrate underlying systems into one solution to improve operational efficiency, planning, and coordination. We were particularly involved in this innovative incubation work on the current state of research and development in collaboration. technologies & systems for a disaster.
Formulating a Flexible-Spread Fuzzy Regression Model Based on Dissemblance Index
This study proposes a regression model with flexible spreads for fuzzy input-output data to cope with the situation that the existing measures cannot reflect the actual estimation error. The main idea is that a dissemblance index (DI) is carefully identified and defined for precisely measuring the actual estimation error. Moreover, the graded mean integration (GMI) representation is adopted for determining more representative numeric regression coefficients. Notably, to comprehensively compare the performance of the proposed model with other ones, three different criteria are adopted. The results from commonly used test numerical examples and an application to Taiwan's business monitoring indicator illustrate that the proposed dissemblance index method not only produces valid fuzzy regression models for fuzzy input-output data, but also has satisfactory and stable performance in terms of the total estimation error based on these three criteria.
Application of Artificial Neural Network for Conceptual Cost Estimation of Road Projects in Ethiopia
The rapid technological changes and advances in all business sectors strongly impose construction managers to facilitate their work through advanced software applications to simplify different tasks. However, the application of conceptual cost estimation tools in Ethiopian construction industry is at an infant stage and requires domestic researches. This paper presents conceptual cost estimation model developed using artificial intelligence for federal road projects of Ethiopia. The test results of the model, which are based on the performance measures and the reports generated for sensitivity analysis are presented. In addition, a friendly user interface is built to enable the utilization of the model developed easily and is presented with an example of actual road projects in Ethiopia. Based on the conclusions drawn from the analysis, the recommendations forwarded to concerned stakeholders are presented as well. This study indicates the prospect of application of artificial neural network for cost estimation during the early phase of the project development for Ethiopian road projects. The conceptual cost estimation model developed has a mean absolute percentage error of 32.58% trained with only 48 exemplars. If the model is developed with the provision of enough data set to represent the road project with all-state of affairs, it is forecasted to improve the estimating capability of financiers, employers, and consultants.
A Study of Adaptive Fault Detection Method for GNSS Applications
A purpose of this study is to develop efficient detection method for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications based on adaptive estimation. Due to dependence of radio frequency signals, GNSS measurements are dominated by systematic errors in receiver’s operating environment. Thus, to utilize GNSS for aerospace or ground vehicles requiring high level of safety, unhealthy measurements should be considered seriously. For the reason, this paper proposes adaptive fault detection method to deal with unhealthy measurements in various harsh environments. By the proposed method, the test statistics for fault detection is generated by estimated measurement noise. Pseudorange and carrier-phase measurement noise are obtained at time propagations and measurement updates in process of Carrier-Smoothed Code (CSC) filtering, respectively. Performance of the proposed method was evaluated by field-collected GNSS measurements. To evaluate the fault detection capability, intentional faults were added to measurements. The experimental result shows that the proposed detection method is efficient in detecting unhealthy measurements and improves the accuracy of GNSS positioning under fault occurrence.
Bayesian Network and Feature Selection for Rank Deficient Inverse Problem
Parameter estimation with inverse problem often suffers from unfavorable conditions in the real world. Useless data and many input parameters make the problem complicated or insoluble. Data refinement and reformulation of the problem can solve that kind of difficulties. In this research, a method to solve the rank deficient inverse problem is suggested. A multi-physics system which has rank deficiency caused by response correlation is treated. Impeditive information is removed and the problem is reformulated to sequential estimations using Bayesian network (BN) and subset groups. At first, subset grouping of the responses is performed. Feature selection with singular value decomposition (SVD) is used for the grouping. Next, BN inference is used for sequential conditional estimation according to the group hierarchy. Directed acyclic graph (DAG) structure is organized to maximize the estimation ability. Variance ratio of response to noise is used to pairing the estimable parameters by each response.
The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning
This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.
On Confidence Intervals for the Difference between Inverse of Normal Means with Known Coefficients of Variation
In this paper, we propose two new confidence intervals for the difference between the inverse of normal means with known coefficients of variation. One of these two confidence intervals for this problem is constructed based on the generalized confidence interval and the other confidence interval is constructed based on the closed form method of variance estimation. We examine the performance of these confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities and expected lengths via Monte Carlo simulation.
Comparison between Some of Robust Regression Methods with OLS Method with Application
The use of the classic method, least squares (OLS) to estimate the linear regression parameters, when they are available assumptions, and capabilities that have good characteristics, such as impartiality, minimum variance, consistency, and so on. The development of alternative statistical techniques to estimate the parameters, when the data are contaminated with outliers. These are powerful methods (or resistance). In this paper, three of robust methods are studied, which are: Maximum likelihood type estimate M-estimator, Modified Maximum likelihood type estimate MM-estimator and Least Trimmed Squares LTS-estimator, and their results are compared with OLS method. These methods applied to real data taken from Duhok company for manufacturing furniture, the obtained results compared by using the criteria: Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Sum of Absolute Error (MSAE). Important conclusions that this study came up with are: a number of typical values detected by using four methods in the furniture line and very close to the data. This refers to the fact that close to the normal distribution of standard errors, but typical values in the doors line data, using OLS less than that detected by the powerful ways. This means that the standard errors of the distribution are far from normal departure. Another important conclusion is that the estimated values of the parameters by using the lifeline is very far from the estimated values using powerful methods for line doors, gave LTS- destined better results using standard MSE, and gave the M- estimator better results using standard MAPE. Moreover, we noticed that using standard MSAE, and MM- estimator is better. The programs S-plus (version 8.0, professional 2007), Minitab (version 13.2) and SPSS (version 17) are used to analyze the data.
Estimation of Chronic Kidney Disease Using Artificial Neural Network
In this study, an artificial neural network model has been developed to estimate chronic kidney failure which is a common disease. The patients’ age, their blood and biochemical values, and 24 input data which consists of various chronic diseases are used for the estimation process. The input data have been subjected to preprocessing because they contain both missing values and nominal values. 147 patient data which was obtained from the preprocessing have been divided into as 70% training and 30% testing data. As a result of the study, artificial neural network model with 25 neurons in the hidden layer has been found as the model with the lowest error value. Chronic kidney failure disease has been able to be estimated accurately at the rate of 99.3% using this artificial neural network model. The developed artificial neural network has been found successful for the estimation of chronic kidney failure disease using clinical data.
Extended Kalman Filter Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
A robust sensorless speed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been presented for estimation of stator flux components and rotor speed based on The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The model of PMSM and its EKF models are modeled in Matlab /Sirnulink environment. The proposed EKF speed estimation method is also proved insensitive to the PMSM parameter variations. Simulation results demonstrate a good performance and robustness.
Hybrid Robust Estimation via Median Filter and Wavelet Thresholding with Automatic Boundary Correction
Wavelet thresholding has been a power tool in curve estimation and data analysis. In the presence of outliers this non parametric estimator can not suppress the outliers involved. This study proposes a new two-stage combined method based on the use of the median filter as primary step before applying wavelet thresholding. After suppressing the outliers in a signal through the median filter, the classical wavelet thresholding is then applied for removing the remaining noise. We use automatic boundary corrections; using a low order polynomial model or local polynomial model as a more realistic rule to correct the bias at the boundary region; instead of using the classical assumptions such periodic or symmetric. A simulation experiment has been conducted to evaluate the numerical performance of the proposed method. Results show strong evidences that the proposed method is extremely effective in terms of correcting the boundary bias and eliminating outlier’s sensitivity.
Anisotropic Approach for Discontinuity Preserving in Optical Flow Estimation
Estimation of optical flow from a sequence of images using variational methods is one of the most successful approach. Discontinuity between different motions is one of the challenging problem in flow estimation. In this paper, we design a new anisotropic diffusion operator, which is able to provide smooth flow over a region and efficiently preserve discontinuity in optical flow. This operator is designed on the basis of intensity differences of the pixels and isotropic operator using exponential function. The combination of these are used to control the propagation of flow. Experimental results on the different datasets verify the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm and also validate the effect of anisotropic operator in the discontinuity preserving.
Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems
An effort estimation model is needed for software-intensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.
A Kolmogorov-Smirnov Type Goodness-Of-Fit Test of Multinomial Logistic Regression Model in Case-Control Studies
The multinomial logistic regression model is used popularly for inferring the relationship of risk factors and disease with multiple categories. This study based on the discrepancy between the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the cumulative distribution function to propose a Kolmogorov-Smirnov type test statistic to assess adequacy of the multinomial logistic regression model for case-control data. A bootstrap procedure is presented to calculate the critical value of the proposed test statistic. Empirical type I error rates and powers of the test are performed by simulation studies. Some examples will be illustrated the implementation of the test.
Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia
This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last.
Retail Strategy to Reduce Waste Keeping High Profit Utilizing Taylor's Law in Point-of-Sales Data
Waste reduction is a fundamental problem for sustainability. Methods for waste reduction with point-of-sales (POS) data are proposed, utilizing the knowledge of a recent econophysics study on a statistical property of POS data. Concretely, the non-stationary time series analysis method based on the Particle Filter is developed, which considers abnormal fluctuation scaling known as Taylor's law. This method is extended for handling incomplete sales data because of stock-outs by introducing maximum likelihood estimation for censored data. The way for optimal stock determination with pricing the cost of waste reduction is also proposed. This study focuses on the examination of the methods for large sales numbers where Taylor's law is obvious. Numerical analysis using aggregated POS data shows the effectiveness of the methods to reduce food waste maintaining a high profit for large sales numbers. Moreover, the way of pricing the cost of waste reduction reveals that a small profit loss realizes substantial waste reduction, especially in the case that the proportionality constant of Taylor’s law is small. Specifically, around 1% profit loss realizes half disposal at =0.12, which is the actual value of processed food items used in this research. The methods provide practical and effective solutions for waste reduction keeping a high profit, especially with large sales numbers.
Sex Estimation Using Cervical Measurements of Molar Teeth in an Iranian Archaeological Population
In the field of human osteology, sex estimation is an important step in developing biological profile. There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate the sex of human remains varying from visual assessments to metric analysis of sexually dimorphic traits. Teeth are one of the most durable physical elements in human body that can be used for this purpose. The present study investigated the utility of cervical measurements for sex estimation through discriminant analysis. The permanent molar teeth of 75 skeletons (28 females and 52 males) from Hasanlu site in North-western Iran were studied. Cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were taken from both maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of each diameter in assessing sex. The results showed that males had statistically larger teeth than females for maxillary and mandibular molars and both measurements (P < 0.05). The range of classiﬁcation rate was from (75.7% to 85.5%) for the original and cross-validated data. The most dimorphic teeth were maxillary and mandibular second molars providing 85.5% and 83.3% correct classification rate respectively. The data generated from the present study suggested that cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the molar teeth can be useful and reliable for sex estimation in Iranian archaeological populations.
Estimation of Coefficients of Ridge and Principal Components Regressions with Multicollinear Data
The presence of multicollinearity is common in handling with several explanatory variables simultaneously due to exhibiting a linear relationship among them. A great problem arises in understanding the impact of explanatory variables on the dependent variable. Thus, the method of least squares estimation gives inexact estimates. In this case, it is advised to detect its presence first before proceeding further. Using the ridge regression degree of its occurrence is reduced but principal components regression gives good estimates in this situation. This paper discusses well-known techniques of the ridge and principal components regressions and applies to get the estimates of coefficients by both techniques. In addition to it, this paper also discusses the conflicting claim on the discovery of the method of ridge regression based on available documents.
Continuous Differential Evolution Based Parameter Estimation Framework for Signal Models
In this work, the strength of bio-inspired computational intelligence based technique is exploited for parameter estimation for the periodic signals using Continuous Differential Evolution (CDE) by deﬁning an error function in the mean square sense. Multidimensional and nonlinear nature of the problem emerging in sinusoidal signal models along with noise makes it a challenging optimization task, which is dealt with robustness and effectiveness of CDE to ensure convergence and avoid trapping in local minima. In the proposed scheme of Continuous Differential Evolution based Signal Parameter Estimation (CDESPE), unknown adjustable weights of the signal system identification model are optimized utilizing CDE algorithm. The performance of CDESPE model is validated through statistics based various performance indices on a sufficiently large number of runs in terms of estimation error, mean squared error and Thiel’s inequality coefﬁcient. Efficacy of CDESPE is examined by comparison with the actual parameters of the system, Genetic Algorithm based outcomes and from various deterministic approaches at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels.
Combination of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data for Citrus Yield Estimation
Annual crop production is one of the most important macroeconomic indicators for the majority of countries around the world. This information is valuable, especially for exporting countries which need a yield estimation before harvest in order to correctly plan the supply chain. When it comes to estimating agricultural yield, especially for arboriculture, conventional methods are mostly applied. In the case of the citrus industry, the sale before harvest is largely practiced, which requires an estimation of the production when the fruit is on the tree. However, conventional method based on the sampling surveys of some trees within the field is always used to perform yield estimation, and the success of this process mainly depends on the expertise of the ‘estimator agent’. The present study aims to propose a methodology based on the combination of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) point cloud to estimate citrus production. During data acquisition, a fixed wing and rotatory drones, as well as a terrestrial laser scanner, were tested. After that, a pre-processing step was performed in order to generate point cloud and digital surface model. At the processing stage, a machine vision workflow was implemented to extract points corresponding to fruits from the whole tree point cloud, cluster them into fruits, and model them geometrically in a 3D space. By linking the resulting geometric properties to the fruit weight, the yield can be estimated, and the statistical distribution of fruits size can be generated. This later property, which is information required by importing countries of citrus, cannot be estimated before harvest using the conventional method. Since terrestrial laser scanner is static, data gathering using this technology can be performed over only some trees. So, integration of drone data was thought in order to estimate the yield over a whole orchard. To achieve that, features derived from drone digital surface model were linked to yield estimation by laser scanner of some trees to build a regression model that predicts the yield of a tree given its features. Several missions were carried out to collect drone and laser scanner data within citrus orchards of different varieties by testing several data acquisition parameters (fly height, images overlap, fly mission plan). The accuracy of the obtained results by the proposed methodology in comparison to the yield estimation results by the conventional method varies from 65% to 94% depending mainly on the phenological stage of the studied citrus variety during the data acquisition mission. The proposed approach demonstrates its strong potential for early estimation of citrus production and the possibility of its extension to other fruit trees.
Runoff Estimation in the Khiyav River Basin by Using the SCS_ CN Model
The volume of runoff caused by rainfall in the river basin has enticed the researchers in the fields of the water management resources. In this study, first of the hydrological data such as the rainfall and discharge of the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city in the northwest of Iran collected and then the process of analyzing and reconstructing has been completed. The soil conservation service (scs) has developed a method for calculating the runoff, in which is based on the curve number specification (CN). This research implemented the following model in the Khiyav river basin of Meshkin city by the GIS techniques and concluded the following fact in which represents the usage of weight model in calculating the curve numbers that provides the possibility for the all efficient factors which is contributing to the runoff creation such as; the geometric characteristics of the basin, the basin soil characteristics, vegetation, geology, climate and human factors to be considered, so an accurate estimation of runoff from precipitation to be achieved as the result. The findings also exposed the accident-prone areas in the output of the Khiyav river basin so it was revealed that the Khiyav river basin embodies a high potential for the flood creation.
Real-Time Radar Tracking Based on Nonlinear Kalman Filter
To accurately track an aerospace vehicle in a time-critical situation and in a highly nonlinear environment, is one of the strongest interests within the aerospace community. The tracking is achieved by estimating accurately the state of a moving target, which is composed of a set of variables that can provide a complete status of the system at a given time. One of the main ingredients for a good estimation performance is the use of efficient estimation algorithms. A well-known framework is the Kalman filtering methods, designed for prediction and estimation problems. The success of the Kalman Filter (KF) in engineering applications is mostly due to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which is based on local linearization. Besides its popularity, the EKF presents several limitations. To address these limitations and as a possible solution to tracking problems, this paper proposes the use of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). Although the EnKF is being extensively used in the context of weather forecasting and it is being recognized for producing accurate and computationally effective estimation on systems with a very high dimension, it is almost unknown by the tracking community. The EnKF was initially proposed as an attempt to improve the error covariance calculation, which on the classic Kalman Filter is difficult to implement. Also, in the EnKF method the prediction and analysis error covariances have ensemble representations. These ensembles have sizes which limit the number of degrees of freedom, in a way that the filter error covariance calculations are a lot more practical for modest ensemble sizes. In this paper, a realistic simulation of a radar tracking was performed, where the EnKF was applied and compared with the Extended Kalman Filter. The results suggested that the EnKF is a promising tool for tracking applications, offering more advantages in terms of performance.
Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data
The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.
A Semiparametric Approach to Estimate the Mode of Continuous Multivariate Data
Mode estimation is an important task, because it has applications to data from a wide variety of sources. We propose a semi-parametric approach to estimate the mode of an unknown continuous multivariate density function. Our approach is based on a weighted average of a parametric density estimate using the Box-Cox transform and a non-parametric kernel density estimate. Our semi-parametric mode estimate improves both the parametric- and non-parametric- mode estimates. Specifically, our mode estimate solves the non-consistency problem of parametric mode estimates (at large sample sizes) and reduces the variability of non-parametric mode estimates (at small sample sizes). The performance of our method at practical sample sizes is demonstrated by simulation examples and two real examples from the fields of climatology and image recognition.
Tests for Zero Inflation in Count Data with Measurement Error in Covariates
In quality of life, health service utilization is an important determinant of medical resource expenditures on Colorectal cancer (CRC) care, a better understanding of the increased utilization of health services is essential for optimizing the allocation of healthcare resources to services and thus for enhancing the service quality, especially for high expenditure on CRC care like Hong Kong region. In assessing the association between the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health service utilization in patients with colorectal neoplasm, count data models can be used, which account for over dispersion or extra zero counts. In our data, the HRQOL evaluation is a self-reported measure obtained from a questionnaire completed by the patients, misreports and variations in the data are inevitable. Besides, there are more zero counts from the observed number of clinical consultations (observed frequency of zero counts = 206) than those from a Poisson distribution with mean equal to 1.33 (expected frequency of zero counts = 156). This suggests that excess of zero counts may exist. Therefore, we study tests for detecting zero-inflation in models with measurement error in covariates. Method: Under classical measurement error model, the approximate likelihood function for zero-inflation Poisson regression model can be obtained, then Approximate Maximum Likelihood Estimation(AMLE) can be derived accordingly, which is consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. By calculating score function and Fisher information based on AMLE, a score test is proposed to detect zero-inflation effect in ZIP model with measurement error. The proposed test follows asymptotically standard normal distribution under H0, and it is consistent with the test proposed for zero-inflation effect when there is no measurement error. Results: Simulation results show that empirical power of our proposed test is the highest among existing tests for zero-inflation in ZIP model with measurement error. In real data analysis, with or without considering measurement error in covariates, existing tests, and our proposed test all imply H0 should be rejected with P-value less than 0.001, i.e., zero-inflation effect is very significant, ZIP model is superior to Poisson model for analyzing this data. However, if measurement error in covariates is not considered, only one covariate is significant; if measurement error in covariates is considered, only another covariate is significant. Moreover, the direction of coefficient estimations for these two covariates is different in ZIP regression model with or without considering measurement error. Conclusion: In our study, compared to Poisson model, ZIP model should be chosen when assessing the association between condition-specific HRQOL and health service utilization in patients with colorectal neoplasm. and models taking measurement error into account will result in statistically more reliable and precise information.
GIS Application in Surface Runoff Estimation for Upper Klang River Basin, Malaysia
Estimation of surface runoff depth is a vital part in any rainfall-runoff modeling. It leads to stream flow calculation and later predicts flood occurrences. GIS (Geographic Information System) is an advanced and opposite tool used in simulating hydrological model due to its realistic application on topography. The paper discusses on calculation of surface runoff depth for two selected events by using GIS with Curve Number method for Upper Klang River basin. GIS enables maps intersection between soil type and land use that later produces curve number map. The results show good correlation between simulated and observed values with more than 0.7 of R2. Acceptable performance of statistical measurements namely mean error, absolute mean error, RMSE, and bias are also deduced in the paper.
Nonlinear Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation of a Supersonic Air to Air Missile by Using Artificial Neural Networks
Aerodynamic parameter estimation is very crucial in missile design phase, since accurate high fidelity aerodynamic model is required for designing high performance and robust control system, developing high fidelity flight simulations and verification of computational and wind tunnel test results. However, in literature, there is not enough missile aerodynamic parameter identification study for three main reasons: (1) most air to air missiles cannot fly with constant speed, (2) missile flight test number and flight duration are much less than that of fixed wing aircraft, (3) variation of the missile aerodynamic parameters with respect to Mach number is higher than that of fixed wing aircraft. In addition to these challenges, identification of aerodynamic parameters for high wind angles by using classical estimation techniques brings another difficulty in the estimation process. The reason for this, most of the estimation techniques require employing polynomials or splines to model the behavior of the aerodynamics. However, for the missiles with a large variation of aerodynamic parameters with respect to flight variables, the order of the proposed model increases, which brings computational burden and complexity. Therefore, in this study, it is aimed to solve nonlinear aerodynamic parameter identification problem for a supersonic air to air missile by using Artificial Neural Networks. The method proposed will be tested by using simulated data which will be generated with a six degree of freedom missile model, involving a nonlinear aerodynamic database. The data will be corrupted by adding noise to the measurement model. Then, by using the flight variables and measurements, the parameters will be estimated. Finally, the prediction accuracy will be investigated.
Efficient Motion Estimation by Fast Three Step Search Algorithm
The rapid development in the technology have dramatic impact on the medical health care field. Medical data base obtained with latest machines like CT Machine, MRI scanner requires large amount of memory storage and also it requires large bandwidth for transmission of data in telemedicine applications. Thus, there is need for video compression. As the database of medical images contain number of frames (slices), hence while coding of these images there is need of motion estimation. Motion estimation finds out movement of objects in an image sequence and gets motion vectors which represents estimated motion of object in the frame. In order to reduce temporal redundancy between successive frames of video sequence, motion compensation is preformed. In this paper three step search (TSS) block matching algorithm is implemented on different types of video sequences. It is shown that three step search algorithm produces better quality performance and less computational time compared with exhaustive full search algorithm.
Application of Generalized Autoregressive Score Model to Stock Returns
The current study investigates the behaviour of time-varying parameters that are based on the score function of the predictive model density at time t. The mechanism to update the parameters over time is the scaled score of the likelihood function. The results revealed that there is high persistence of time-varying, as the location parameter is higher and the skewness parameter implied the departure of scale parameter from the normality with the unconditional parameter as 1.5. The results also revealed that there is a perseverance of the leptokurtic behaviour in stock returns which implies the returns are heavily tailed. Prior to model estimation, the White Neural Network test exposed that the stock price can be modelled by a GAS model. Finally, we proposed further researches specifically to model the existence of time-varying parameters with a more detailed model that encounters the heavy tail distribution of the series and computes the risk measure associated with the returns.
A Comparison of Smoothing Spline Method and Penalized Spline Regression Method Based on Nonparametric Regression Model
This paper presents a study about a nonparametric regression model consisting of a smoothing spline method and a penalized spline regression method. We also compare the techniques used for estimation and prediction of nonparametric regression model. We tried both methods with crude oil prices in dollars per barrel and the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) index. According to the results, it is concluded that smoothing spline method performs better than that of penalized spline regression method.