Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

200
120694
Synthesis of Nanoparticle Mordenite Zeolite for Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation
Authors:
Abstract:
The different size of nanoparticle mordenite zeolites were prepared by adding different soft template during hydrothermal process for carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) to methyl acetate (MA). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption-desorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, NH3-temperature programmed desorption, scanning electron microscopy and Thermogravimetric. The characterization results confirmed that mordenite zeolites with small nanoparticle showed more strong acid sites which was the active site for carbonylation thus promoting conversion of DME and MA selectivity. Furthermore, the nanoparticle mordenite had increased the mass transfer efficiency which could suppress the formation of coke.
199
91992
Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower
Abstract:
Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
198
92307
Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats
Abstract:
Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
197
54383
Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.
196
22438
Ag Nanoparticle/Melamine Sulfonic Acid Supported on Alumina: Efficient Catalytic System in Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidines
Abstract:
3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-thiones were synthesized in the presence of Ag nanoparticle/melamine sulfonic acid (MSA) supported on alumina. The reaction was carried out at 110 oC for 20 min under solvent free conditions. This method have some advantages such as good yield, mild reaction conditions, ease of operation and work up, short reaction time and high product purity.
195
29666
Experimental Investigation and Optimization of Nanoparticle Mass Concentration and Heat Input of Loop Heat Pipe
Abstract:
This study presents experimental and optimization of nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input based on the total thermal resistance (Rth) of loop heat pipe (LHP), employed for PC-CPU cooling. In this study, silica nanoparticles (SiO2) in water with particle mass concentration ranged from 0% (pure water) to 1% is considered as the working fluid within the LHP. The experimental design and optimization is accomplished by the design of the experimental tool, Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The results show that the nanoparticle mass concentration and the heat input have a significant effect on the Rth of LHP. For a given heat input, the Rth is found to decrease with the increase of the nanoparticle mass concentration up to 0.5% and increased thereafter. It is also found that the Rth is decreased when the heat input is increased from 20W to 60W. The results are optimized with the objective of minimizing the Rt, using Design-Expert software, and the optimized nanoparticle mass concentration and heat input are 0.48% and 59.97W, respectively, the minimum thermal resistance being 2.66(ºC/W).
194
50871
Ceramide-PLGA Nanoparticle Formation to Apply to Atopic Dermatitis
Abstract:
Ceramide, a component of stratum corneum at epidermis, helps to construct a rigid and dense skin barrier to prevent pathogens that cause atopic dermatitis. However, ceramide was too hydrophobic to be directly absorbed into stratum corneum and has risks of side effects by excessive treatment. To overcome the obstacles, ceramide was embedded into PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PLGA and chitosan have been known as biocompatible materials. PLGA was squeezed when faced with water and pumped ceramide out of PLGA nanoparticle. In addition, the chitosan coating layer helped initial adherence of nanoparticles to skin and regulate ceramide release until removed. This coating was degraded at weakly acid state like skin surface, finally ceramide release could be controlled. Finally, the nanoparticle was demonstrated to be non-cytotoxic and regenerate stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis model. Overall the nanoparticle is suggested as a novel and effective nanodrug to apply atopic dermatitis.
193
47734
Preparation and In vitro Characterization of Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing
Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate mupirocin loaded nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel as an infected wound healer. Incorporated Nanoparticle in hydrogel provides a barrier that effectively prevents the contamination of the wound and further progression of infection to deeper tissues. Hydrogel creates moist healing environment on wound space with good fluid absorbance. Nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method using different ratios of PLGA polymer and the hydrogels was developed using sodium alginate and gelatin. Further prepared nanoparticles were then incorporated into the hydrogels. The formulations were characterized by FT-IR and DSC for drug and polymer compatibility and surface morphology was studied by TEM. Nanoparticle hydrogel were evaluated for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and for in vitro studies. The FT-IR and DSC confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The average size of Nanoparticle was found to be in range of 208.21-412.33 nm and shape was found to be spherical. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was found to be 69.03%. The in vitro release profile of Nanoparticle incorporated hydrogel formulation was found to give sustained release of drug. Antimicrobial activity testing confirmed that encapsulated drug preserve its effectiveness. The stability study confirmed that the formulation prepared were stable. Present study complements our finding that mupirocin loaded Nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel has the potential to be an effective and safe novel addition for the release of mupirocin in sustained manner, which may be a better option for the management of wound. These finding also supports the progression of antibiotic via hydrogel delivery system is a novel topical dosage form for the management of wound.
192
33124
Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber
Abstract:
In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.
191
18236
Targeted Delivery of Novel Copper-Based Nanoparticles for Advance Cancer Therapeutics
Abstract:
We have explored the synergistic anti-cancer activity of copper ion and acetylacetone complex containing 1,3 diketone group (like curcumin) in metallorganic compound “Copper acetylacetonate” (CuAA). The cytotoxicity mechanism of CuAA complex was evaluated on various cancer cell lines in vitro. Among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione level (GSH) in the cell was found to increase. Further mitochondrial membrane damage was observed. The fate of cell death was found to be induced by apoptosis. For application purpose, we have developed a novel biodegradable, non-toxic polymer-based nanoparticle which has hydrophobically modified core for loading of the CuAA. Folic acid is conjugated on the surface of the polymer (chitosan) nanoparticle for targeting to cancer cells for minimizing toxicity to normal cells in-vivo. Thus, this novel drug CuAA has an efficient anticancer activity which has been targeted specifically to cancer cells through polymer nanoparticle.
190
6388
Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal
Abstract:
This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.
189
28316
MHD Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Wedge Shaped Wick in Heat Pipe
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper deals with the theoretical and numerical investigation of magneto-hydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a nano fluid past a wedge shaped wick in heat pipe used for the cooling of electronic components and different type of machines. To incorporate the effect of nanoparticle diameter, concentration of nanoparticles in the pure fluid, nano thermal layer formed around the nanoparticle and Brownian motion of nano particles etc., appropriate models are used for the effective thermal and physical properties of nano fluids. To model the rotation of nano particles inside the base fluid, microfluidics theory is used. In this investigation ethylene glycol (EG) based nanofluids, are taken into account. The non-linear equations governing the flow and heat transfer are solved by using a very effective particle swarm optimization technique along with Runge-Kutta method. The values of heat transfer coefficient are found for different parameters involved in the formulation viz. nanoparticle concentration, nanoparticle size, magnetic field and wedge angle etc. It is found that the wedge angle, presence of magnetic field, nanoparticle size and nanoparticle concentration etc. have prominent effects on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics for the considered configuration.
188
33791
Nonreciprocal Optical Effects in Plasmonic Nanoparticle Aggregates
Abstract:
Nonreciprocal optical effects, such as Faraday rotation or magnetic circular dichroism, are very useful both for fundamental studies as for applications such as magnetic field sensors or optical isolators. In this study, we developed layer-by-layer deposited 20nm thick plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates consisting of gold, silver and magnetite nanoparticles that show broadband nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission. As such, the optical transmittance, or absorbance, depends on the direction of light propagation in the material, which means that looking from one direction or the other, more or less light passes through the sample. Theoretical analysis showed that strong electric quadrupole fields, which are electric field gradients, occur in the aggregates and that these quadrupole fields are responsible for the observed asymmetric transmission and the nonreciprocity of the effect. Apart from nonreciprocal asymmetric transmission, also other effects such as, but not limited to, optical rotation, circular dichroism or nonlinear optical responses were measured in the plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates and the influences of the intense electric quadrupole fields determined. In conclusion, the presence of strong electric quadrupole fields make the developed plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates ideal candidates for the study and application of various nonreciprocal optical effects.
187
109880
Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF
Abstract:
There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.
186
109882
Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF
Abstract:
There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.
185
102152
Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF
Abstract:
There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.
184
109881
Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF
Abstract:
There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.
183
115927
Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity
Abstract:
The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.
182
73621
Silver-Curcumin Nanoparticle Eradicate Enterococcus faecalis in Human ex vivo Dentine Model
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Among the dental infections, inflammation and infection of the root canal are common among all age groups. Currently, the management of root canal infections involves cleaning the canal with powerful irrigants followed by intracanal medicament application. Though these treatments have been in vogue for a long time, root canal failures do occur. Treatment for root canal infections is limited due to the anatomical complexity in terms of small micrometer volumes and poor penetration of drugs. Thus, infections of the root canal seem to be a challenge that demands development of new agents that can eradicate E. faecalis. Methodology: In the present study, we synthesized and screened silver-curcumin nanoparticle against E. faecalis. Morphological cell damage and antibiofilm activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle on E. faecalis was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was studied using flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model. Results: Screening data showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle was active against E. faecalis. silver-curcumin nanoparticle exerted time kill effect. Further, SEM images of E. faecalis showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle caused membrane damage and inhibited biofilm formation. Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was confirmed by increased propidium iodide (PI) uptake in flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model, which mimics human tooth root canal infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed eradication of E. faecalis and reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) after 24 h treatment in the infected tooth samples in this model. Further, silver-curcumin nanoparticle was found to be hemocompatible, not cytotoxic to normal mammalian NIH 3T3 cells and non-mutagenic. Conclusion: The results of this study can pave the way for developing new antibacterial agents with well deciphered mechanisms of action and can be a promising antibacterial agent or medicament against root canal infection.
181
73620
Combination of Silver-Curcumin Nanoparticle for the Treatment of Root Canal Infection
Abstract:
Background and Significance: Among the dental infections, inflammation and infection of the root canal are common among all age groups. Currently, the management of root canal infections involves cleaning the canal with powerful irrigants followed by intracanal medicament application. Though these treatments have been in vogue for a long time, root canal failures do occur. Treatment for root canal infections is limited due to the anatomical complexity in terms of small micrometer volumes and poor penetration of drugs. Thus, infections of the root canal seem to be a challenge that demands development of new agents that can eradicate C. albicans. Methodology: In the present study, we synthesized and screened silver-curcumin nanoparticle against Candida albicans. Detailed molecular studies were carried out with silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans pathogenicity. Morphological cell damage and antibiofilm activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was studied using flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model. Results: Screening data showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle was active against C. albicans. Silver-curcumin nanoparticle exerted time kill effect and post antifungal effect. When used in combination with fluconazole or nystatin, silver-curcumin nanoparticle revealed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) decrease for both drugs used. In-depth molecular studies with silver-curcumin nanoparticle on C. albicans showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle inhibited yeast to hyphae (Y-H) conversion. Further, SEM images of C. albicans showed that silver-curcumin nanoparticle caused membrane damage and inhibited biofilm formation. Biochemical evidence for membrane damage was confirmed by increased propidium iodide (PI) uptake in flow cytometry. Further, the antifungal activity of silver-curcumin nanoparticle was evaluated in an ex vivo dentinal tubule infection model, which mimics human tooth root canal infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed eradication of C. albicans and reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) after 24 h treatment in the infected tooth samples in this model. Conclusion: The results of this study can pave the way for developing new antifungal agents with well deciphered mechanisms of action and can be a promising antifungal agent or medicament against root canal infection.
180
42981
Development of Cationic Gelatin Nanoparticles as an Antigen-Carrier for Mucosal Immunization
Abstract:
Mucosal vaccine induces both mucosal (secretory IgA) and systemic immune responses and it is considered an ideal vaccination strategy for prevention of infectious diseases. One important point to be considered in mucosal vaccination is effective antigen delivery system which can manage effective delivery of antigen to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mucosal. In the present study, cationic gelatin nanoparticles were prepared as ideal carriers for more efficient antigen delivery. The average diameter of cationic gelatin nanoparticle was approximate 190 nm, and the zeta potential was about +45 mV, then ovalbumin (OVA) was physically absorbed onto cationic gelatin nanoparticle. The OVA absorption rate was near 95% the zeta potential was about +20 mV. We show that cationic gelatin nanoparticle effectively facilitated antigen uptake by mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (mBMDCs) and RAW264.7 cells and induced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice twice immunized intranasally with OVA-absorbed cationic gelatin nanoparticle induced high levels of OVA-specific IgG in the serum and IgA in their in the nasal and lung wash fluid. These results indicate that nasal administration of cationic gelatin nanoparticles induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses and cationic gelatin nanoparticles might be a potential antigen delivery carrier for further clinical applications.
179
22780
Systematic Exploration and Modulation of Nano-Bio Interactions
Authors:
Abstract:
Nanomaterials are widely used in various industrial sectors, biomedicine, and more than 1300 consumer products. Although there is still no standard safety regulation, their potential toxicity is a major concern worldwide. We discovered that nanoparticles target and enter human cells1, perturb cellular signaling pathways2, affect various cell functions3, and cause malfunctions in animals4,5. Because the majority of atoms in nanoparticles are on the surface, chemistry modification on their surface may change their biological properties significantly. We modified nanoparticle surface using nano-combinatorial chemistry library approach6. Novel nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit significantly reduced toxicity6,7, enhance cancer targeting ability8, or re-program cellular signaling machineries7. Using computational chemistry, quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) is established and predictive models have been built to predict biocompatible nanoparticles.
178
15727
Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing
Abstract:
Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil
177
126611
Numerical Investigation of AL₂O₃ Nanoparticle Effect on a Boiling Forced Swirl Flow Field
Abstract:
One of the most important issues in the design of nuclear fusion power plants is the heat removal from the hottest region at the diverter. Various methods could be employed in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, such as generating turbulent flow and injection of nanoparticles in the host fluid. In the current study, Water/AL₂O₃ nanofluid forced swirl flow boiling has been investigated by using a homogeneous thermophysical model within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework through a twisted tape tube, and the boiling phenomenon was modeled using the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) approach. In addition to comparing the results with the experimental data and their reasonable agreement, it was evidenced that higher flow mixing results in more uniform bulk temperature and lower wall temperature along the twisted tape tube. The presence of AL₂O₃ nanoparticles in the boiling flow field showed that increasing the nanoparticle concentration leads to a reduced vapor volume fraction and wall temperature. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the average heat transfer coefficient in the tube increases both by increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the insertion of twisted tape, which significantly affects the thermal field of the boiling flow.
176
76502
Economic Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Nanofluid
Abstract:
Economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) is presented in this paper. To increase the rate of heat transfer, copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticle is added into the tube side fluid and their optimum results are compared with the case of without additive nanoparticle. Total annual cost (TAC) is selected as fitness function and nine decision variables related to the heat exchanger parameters as well as concentration of nanoparticle are considered. Optimization results reveal the noticeable improvement in the TAC and in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid (8.9%). Comparison of the results between two studied cases also reveal that the lower tube diameter, tube number, and baffle spacing are needed in the case of heat exchanger working with nanofluid compared with the case of base fluid.
175
21993
Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle
Abstract:
Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.
174
40774
Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.
173
29026
Inhibitory Mechanism of Ag and Fe Colloidal Nanoparticles on P. aeruginosa and E.coli Growth
Abstract:
Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nanoparticles and their Nano composites as an alternative. The use of metal nanoparticles to combat bacterial infections is one of the most wide spread applications of nanotechnology in the field of antibacterial. Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of zerovalent Iron(ZVI) and Ag(silver) nanoparticles against Gram-negative bacteria E.coli(DH5α) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At first ZVI and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the nanoparticle size determined. Different concentrations of Ag and ZVI nanoparticles were added to bacteria on nutrient agar medium. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag and Fe nanoparticles for P. aeruginosa were 5µM and 1µg as well as for E.coli were 6µM. and 10 µg, respectively. Among the two nanoparticles, ZVI showed that the greatest antimicrobial activity against E.coli and Ag nanoparticle on P.aeruginosa. Results suggested that the bactericidal effect of metal nanoparticles has been attributed to their small size as well as high surface to volume ratio and NPs could be used as an effective antibacterial material.
172
54619
Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams
Abstract:
In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.
171
48532
Khaya Cellulose Supported Copper Nanoparticles for Chemo Selective Aza-Michael Reactions
Abstract:
We prepared a highly active Khaya cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) copper nanoparticles by the surface modification of Khaya cellulose through graft co-polymerization and subsequently amidoximation. The Cu-nanoparticle (0.05 mol% to 50 mol ppm) was selectively promoted Aza-Michael reaction of aliphatic amines to give the corresponding alkylated products at room temperature in methanol. The supported nanoparticle was easy to recover and reused seven times without significance loss of its activity.
170
121769
Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles
Abstract:
A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.
169
60397
Effect of Temperature and CuO Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of a Phase Change Material
Abstract:
The main results of an experimental study of the effect of temperature and nanoparticle concentration on thermal conductivity and viscosity of a nanofluid are shown. The nanofluid was made by using octadecane as a base fluid and CuO spherical nanoparticles of 75 nm (MkNano). Since the base fluid is a phase change material (PCM) to be used in thermal storage applications, the engineered nanofluid is referred as nanoPCM. Three nanoPCM were prepared through the two-step method (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%wv). In order to increase the stability of the nanoPCM, the surface of the CuO nanoparticles was modified with sodium oleate, and it was verified by IR analysis. The modified CuO nanoparticles were dispersed by using an ultrasonic horn (Hielscher UP50H) during one hour (amplitude of 180 μm at 50 W). The thermal conductivity was measured by using a thermal properties analyzer (KD2-Pro) in the temperature range of 30ºC to 40ºC. The viscosity was measured by using a Brookfield DV2T-LV viscosimeter to 30 RPM in the temperature range of 30ºC to 55ºC. The obtained results for the nanoPCM showed that thermal conductivity is almost constant in the analyzed temperature range, and the viscosity decreases non-linearly with temperature. Respect to the effect of the nanoparticle concentration, both thermal conductivity and viscosity increased with nanoparticle concentration. The thermal conductivity raised up to 9% respect to the base fluid, and the viscosity increases up to 60%, in both cases for the higher concentration. Finally, the viscosity measurements for different rotation speeds (30 RPM - 80 RPM) exhibited that the addition of nanoparticles modifies the rheological behavior of the base fluid, from a Newtonian to a viscoplastic (Bingham) or shear thinning (power-law) non-Newtonian behavior.
168
100954
Thermal Instability in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous Nanofluid with Connective Boundary Condition: Effect of Vertical Throughflow
Authors:
Abstract:
The effect of vertical throughflow on the onset of convection in Rivlin-Ericksen Elastico-Viscous nanofluid with convective boundary condition is investigated. The flow is stimulated with modified Darcy model under the assumption that the nanoparticle volume fraction is not actively managed on the boundaries. The heat conservation equation is formulated by introducing the convective term of nanoparticle flux. A linear stability analysis based upon normal mode is performed, and an approximate solution of eigenvalue problems is obtained using the Galerkin weighted residual method. Investigation of the dependence of the Rayleigh number on various viscous and nanofluid parameter is performed. It is found that through flow and nanofluid parameters hasten the convection while capacity ratio, kinematics viscoelasticity, and Vadasz number do not govern the stationary convection. Using the convective component of nanoparticle flux, critical wave number is the function of nanofluid parameters as well as the throughflow parameter. The obtained solution provides important physical insight into the behavior of this model.
167
24737
Heat Transfer Enhancement via Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Car Radiator
Abstract:
In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator is investigated numerically. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a car plays an important role in vehicle's performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. In this study, the effects of fluid inlet flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer and pressure drop of acar radiator are studied.
166
80312
Modeling of Anode Catalyst against CO in Fuel Cell Using Material Informatics
Abstract:
The catalytic properties of metal usually change by intermixturing with another metal in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Pt-Ru alloy is one of the much-talked used alloy to enhance the CO oxidation. In this work, we have investigated the CO coverage on the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle with different atomic conformation of Pt and Ru using a combination of material informatics with computational chemistry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations used to describe the adsorption strength of CO and H with different conformation of Pt Ru ratio in the Pt2Ru3 slab surface. Then through the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations we examined the segregation behaviour of Pt as a function of surface atom ratio, subsurface atom ratio, particle size of the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle. We have constructed a regression equation so as to reproduce the results of DFT only from the structural descriptors. Descriptors were selected for the regression equation; xa-b indicates the number of bonds between targeted atom a and neighboring atom b in the same layer (a,b = Pt or Ru). Terms of xa-H2 and xa-CO represent the number of atoms a binding H2 and CO molecules, respectively. xa-S is the number of atom a on the surface. xa-b- is the number of bonds between atom a and neighboring atom b located outside the layer. The surface segregation in the alloying nanoparticles is influenced by their component elements, composition, crystal lattice, shape, size, nature of the adsorbents and its pressure, temperature etc. Simulations were performed on different size (2.0 nm, 3.0 nm) of nanoparticle that were mixing of Pt and Ru atoms in different conformation considering of temperature range 333K. In addition to the Pt2Ru3 alloy we also considered pure Pt and Ru nanoparticle to make comparison of surface coverage by adsorbates (H2, CO). Hence, we assumed the pure and Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles have an fcc crystal structures as well as a cubo-octahedron shape, which is bounded by (111) and (100) facets. Simulations were performed up to 50 million MC steps. From the results of MC, in the presence of gases (H2, CO), the surfaces are occupied by the gas molecules. In the equilibrium structure the coverage of H and CO as a function of the nature of surface atoms. In the initial structure, the Pt/Ru ratios on the surfaces for different cluster sizes were in range of 0.50 - 0.95. MC simulation was employed when the partial pressure of H2 (PH2) and CO (PCO) were 70 kPa and 100-500 ppm, respectively. The Pt/Ru ratios decrease as the increase in the CO concentration, without little exception only for small nanoparticle. The adsorption strength of CO on the Ru site is higher than the Pt site that would be one of the reason for decreasing the Pt/Ru ratio on the surface. Therefore, our study identifies that controlling the nanoparticle size, composition, conformation of alloying atoms, concentration and chemical potential of adsorbates have impact on the steadiness of nanoparticle alloys which ultimately and also overall catalytic performance during the operations.
165
70716
Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant
Abstract:
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.
164
35916
Investigation the Effect of Nano-Alumina Particles on Physical Adsorption Property of Acrylic Fiber
Abstract:
The flue gas from fossil fuels combustion contains harmful pollutants dangerous for human health and the environment. One of the air pollution control methods to restrict the emission of these pollutants is based on using the nanoparticle in the adsorption process. In the present research gamma, Nano-alumina particle is added to Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer through simple loading method and the adsorption capacity of the wet spun fiber is investigated. The results of exposure the fiber to the acid gasses including SO2, CO, NO2, NO and CO2 show the noticeable increase of gas adsorption capacity on fiber contains nanoparticle. The research has been conducted in Acrylic II Plant of Polyacryl Iran Corporation.
163
72340
Impact of Nanoparticles in Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage and Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics
Abstract:
Phase change materials (PCM) are an ideal thermal storage medium. They are characterized by a high latent heat, which allows them to store large amounts of energy when the material transitions into different physical states. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems are widely recognized as the most efficient form of Photovoltaic (PV) for thermal energy which can be stored in Phase Change Materials (PCM). However, PCMs often have a low thermal conductivity which leads to a slow transient response. This makes it difficult to quickly store and access the energy stored within the PCM based systems, so there is need to improve transient responses and increase the thermal conductivity. The present study aims to investigate and analyze the melting and solidification process of phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nanoparticle contained in a container. Heat flux from concentrated photovoltaic is applied in an attempt to analyze the thermal performance and the impact of nanoparticles. The work will be realized by using a two dimensional model which take into account the phase change phenomena based on the principle of enthalpy method. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate heat and flow characteristics by using governing equations, to ascertain the impacts of the nanoparticle loading. The Rayleigh number, sub-cooling as well as the unsteady evolution of the melting front and the velocity and temperature fields were also observed. The predicted results exhibited a good agreement, showing thermal enhancement due to present of nanoparticle which leads to decreasing the melting time.
162
91412
Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.
161
99415
Investigation of the Effect of Nano-Alumina Particles on Adsorption Property of Acrylic Fiber
Abstract:
The flue gas from fossil fuels combustion contains harmful pollutants dangerous for human health and environment. One of the air pollution control methods to restrict the emission of these pollutants is based on using the nanoparticle in adsorption process. In the present research, gamma nano-alumina particle is added to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer through simple loading method, and the adsorption capacity of the wet spun fiber is investigated. The results of exposure the fiber to the acid gases including SO2, CO, NO2, NO, and CO2 show the noticeable increase of gas adsorption capacity on fiber contains nanoparticle. The research has been conducted in Acrylic II Plant of Polyacryl Iran Corporation.
160
28289
Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon
Abstract:
We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.
159
62786
Quantum Conductance Based Mechanical Sensors Fabricated with Closely Spaced Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays
Abstract:
Mechanical sensors have undergone a continuous evolution and have become an important part of many industries, ranging from manufacturing to process, chemicals, machinery, health-care, environmental monitoring, automotive, avionics, and household appliances. Concurrently, the microelectronics and microfabrication technology have provided us with the means of producing mechanical microsensors characterized by high sensitivity, small size, integrated electronics, on board calibration, and low cost. Here we report a new kind of mechanical sensors based on the quantum transport process of electrons in the closely spaced nanoparticle films covering a flexible polymer sheet. The nanoparticle films were fabricated by gas phase depositing of preformed metal nanoparticles with a controlled coverage on the electrodes. To amplify the conductance of the nanoparticle array, we fabricated silver interdigital electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate(PET) by mask evaporation deposition. The gaps of the electrodes ranged from 3 to 30μm. Metal nanoparticles were generated from a magnetron plasma gas aggregation cluster source and deposited on the interdigital electrodes. Closely spaced nanoparticle arrays with different coverage could be gained through real-time monitoring the conductance. In the film coulomb blockade and quantum, tunneling/hopping dominate the electronic conduction mechanism. The basic principle of the mechanical sensors relies on the mechanical deformation of the fabricated devices which are translated into electrical signals. Several kinds of sensing devices have been explored. As a strain sensor, the device showed a high sensitivity as well as a very wide dynamic range. A gauge factor as large as 100 or more was demonstrated, which can be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of the conventional metal foil gauges or even better than that of the semiconductor-based gauges with a workable maximum applied strain beyond 3%. And the strain sensors have a workable maximum applied strain larger than 3%. They provide the potential to be a new generation of strain sensors with performance superior to that of the currently existing strain sensors including metallic strain gauges and semiconductor strain gauges. When integrated into a pressure gauge, the devices demonstrated the ability to measure tiny pressure change as small as 20Pa near the atmospheric pressure. Quantitative vibration measurements were realized on a free-standing cantilever structure fabricated with closely-spaced nanoparticle array sensing element. What is more, the mechanical sensor elements can be easily scaled down, which is feasible for MEMS and NEMS applications.
158
40233
Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure
Abstract:
This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.
157
67369
Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated with Andrographolide Ameliorates Viper Venom-Induced Inflammatory Response and Organ Toxicity in Animal Model
Abstract:
Since 1894 anti-snake venom serum (ASVS) is the only available treatment against snake envenomation, although there are many side effects and limitations. The need for a supportive treatment was felt for a long time to overcome the side effects and limitations of ASVS. Andrographolide conjugated with gold nanoparticle (A-GNP) has been found to antagonize viper venom-induced local damages. The present study was aimed to study the protective efficacy of A-GNP against Viper venom-induced inflammatory response and organ toxicity in animal model. Ethical clearance was obtained from animal experiments. Physico-chemical characterization of A-GNP was done by DLS (diameter and zeta potential), FE-SEM and XRD. Swiss albino male mice were divided into 4 groups: Gr.1-Sham control, Gr.2- Russell’s Viper venom (RVV) control, Gr.3- andrographolide treated and Gr.4- A-GNP treated. The 1/5th minimum lethal dose of RVV (500µg/kg, s.c.) was induced in animals of group 2, 3 & 4 animals, followed by treatment with andrographolide (100mg/kg, i.p.) and A-GNP (100mg/kg, i.v.) in group 3 & 4 animals, respectively. Blood was collected after 18 h, serum was prepared, and inflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17a, 10, TNF α) and biochemical markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) were assessed. Values were expressed as mean±SEM (n=4), one way ANOVA was done, P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. DLS size showed the hydrodynamic diameter of A-GNP to be 230-260nm with polydispersity index of 0.103 and zeta potential was -18.32mV. XRD data confirmed the presence of crystalline gold in A-GNP, and FESEM indicated the presence of nearly spherical particle with size18-24nm.Treatment with A-GNP significantly decreased viper venom-induced proinflammatory markers (IL 1β, 6, 17, TNF α) increased anti-inflammatory markers (IL 10) and decreased organ toxicity markers (AST, ACP, LDH, urea, creatinine) in animal model. Venom neutralization efficacy of A-GNP was > andrographolide, which confirmed the increased efficacy of andrographolide after gold nanoparticle conjugation. Venom neutralization by A-GNP was due to anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, which showed increased efficacy after gold nanoparticle tagging. Thus, A-GNP may serve as a supportive therapy in snake-bite (against inflammatory response and organ toxicity) subject to further detail studies.
156
84088
Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections
Abstract:
We present method of nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, using gold nanoparticles combined with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Ab (antibody solution) bound to GNPs (gold nanoparticles) was administered in vitro and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the microorganism. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy, and at the same time, normal cells were not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the infected tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into bacteria following perfusion. These results may represent a major step in antibiotherapy treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.
155
64596
Advanced Separation Process of Hazardous Plastics and Metals from End-Of-Life Vehicles Shredder Residue by Nanoparticle Froth Flotation
Abstract:
One of the issues of End of Life Vehicles (ELVs) recycling promotion is technology for the appropriate treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR). Owing to its high heterogeneity and variable composition (plastic (23–41%), rubber/elastomers (9–21%), metals (6–13%), glass (10–20%) and dust (soil/sand) etc.), ASR can be classified as ‘hazardous waste’, on the basis of the presence of heavy metals (HMs), PCBs, BFRs, mineral oils, etc. Considering their relevant concentrations, these metals and plastics should be properly recovered for recycling purposes before ASR residues are disposed of. Brominated flame retardant additives in ABS/HIPS and PVC may generate dioxins and furans at elevated temperatures. Moreover, these BFRs additives present in plastic materials may leach into the environment during landfilling operations. ASR thermal process removes some of the organic material but concentrates, the heavy metals and POPs present in the ASR residues. In the present study, Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle assisted ozone treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR plastics by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR respectively. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5% and 99.5% of HIPS in ASR samples sank, resulting in a purity of 98% and 99%. Furthermore, at 150 rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% of purity in ASR, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. This process improved the quality of recycled ASR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities. Further, a hybrid ball-milling and with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle froth flotation process was established for the recovery of HMs from ASR. After ball-milling with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticle additives, the flotation efficiency increased to about 55 wt% and the HMs recovery were also increased about 90% for the 0.25 mm size fractions of ASR. Coating with Fe/Ca/CaO nanoparticles associated with subsequent microbubble froth flotation allowed the air bubbles to attach firmly on the HMs. SEM–EDS maps showed that the amounts of HMs were significant on the surface of the floating ASR fraction. This result, along with the low HM concentration in the settled fraction, was confirmed by elemental spectra and semi-quantitative SEM–EDS analysis. Developed hybrid preferential hazardous plastics and metals separation process from ASR is a simple, highly efficient, and sustainable procedure.
154
42064
Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow
Abstract:
Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds number varies in range of 50 to 200, in this range flow is considered to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.
153
18087
One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity
Abstract:
In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.
152
103224
Unsteady Flow Simulations for Microchannel Design and Its Fabrication for Nanoparticle Synthesis
Abstract:
Micro-mixers play an important role in the lab-on-a-chip applications and micro total analysis systems to acquire the correct level of mixing for any given process. The mixing process can be classified as active or passive according to the use of external energy. Literature of microfluidics reports that most of the work is done on the models of steady laminar flow; however, the study of unsteady laminar flow is an active area of research at present. There are wide applications of this, out of which, we consider nanoparticle synthesis in micro-mixers. In this work, we have developed a model for unsteady flow to study the mixing performance of a passive micro mixer for reactants used for such synthesis. The model is developed in Finite Volume Method (FVM)-based software, OpenFOAM. The model is tested by carrying out the simulations at Re of 0.5. Mixing performance of the micro-mixer is investigated using simulated concentration values of mixed species across the width of the micro-mixer and calculating the variance across a line profile. Experimental validation is done by passing dyes through a Y shape micro-mixer fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer and comparing variances with the simulated ones. Gold nanoparticles are later synthesized through the micro-mixer and collected at two different times leading to significantly different size distributions. These times match with the time scales over which reactant concentrations vary as obtained from simulations. Our simulations could thus be used to create design aids for passive micro-mixers used in nanoparticle synthesis.
151
5889
Green Prossesing of PS/Nanoparticle Fibers and Studying Morphology and Properties
Abstract:
In this experiment Polystyrene/Zinc-oxide (PS/ZnO) nanocomposite fibers were produced by electrospinning technique using limonene as a green solvent. First, the morphology of electrospun pure polystyrene (PS) and PS/ZnO nanocomposite fibers investigated by SEM. Results showed the PS fiber diameter decreased by increasing concentration of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) results showed thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by increasing ZnO NPs in PS electrospun fibers. Considering Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) thermograms for electrospun PS fibers indicated that introduction of ZnO NPs into fibers affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) by reducing it. Also, UV protection properties of nanocomposite fibers were increased by increasing ZnO concentration. Evaluating the effect of metal oxide NPs amount on mechanical properties of electrospun layer showed that tensile strength and elasticity modulus of the electrospun layer of PS increased by addition of ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of nanopcomposite fibers confirmed the presence of NPs in the samples.
150
39255
Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle
Abstract:
A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.
149
31977
Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction
Abstract:
Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.
148
96276
Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process
Abstract:
The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.
147
37635
Experimental Study of the Microstructure and Properties of Aluminum Alloy Composites Reinforced with Pod Ash Nanoparticles Composites
Abstract:
The experimental study of the microstructure and properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy/bean pod ash (BPA) nanoparticles was investigated. The aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) were produced by varying the BPA nanoparticles from 1-4wt%. The microstructure and phases of the composites produced were examined by SEM/EDS and XRD. Properties such as: hardness, tensile strength, impact energy, fatigue and wear were evaluated. The results showed that tensile strength and hardness values increased by 35 and 44.1% at 4wt% BPA nanoparticles with appreciable impact energy. The fatigue limit of 167MPa, 135 MPa and 75Mpa were obtained for the nano-particle (55nm), micro-particle (100µm) BPA composites and unreinforced alloy respectively. The wear properties of the as-cast Al–3.7%Cu-1.4%Mg/BPA nanoparticle have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of BPA nanoparticle. The properties of the as-cast aluminium nanoparticles (MMNCs) have been improved significantly even with a low weight percent of nano-sized BPAp.
146
5929
Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite
Abstract:
Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.
145
47235
First-Principles Modeling of Nanoparticle Magnetization, Chaining, and Motion
Abstract:
The ability to effectively design and test magnetic nanoparticles for controlled movement has been an elusive goal in the design of these particles. Magnetic nanoparticles of various characteristics have been created for use towards therapeutic effects, however the challenge of designing for controlled movement remains unmet. A step towards design in this aspect is a first principles model that captures and predicts the behaviors of particles in a magnetic field. The model is governed by four forces acting on the particles, the magnetic gradient, the dipole-dipole forces, the steric forces, and the viscous drag force. The particles are multi-core or single core, and incorporate a preferred magnetization axis. Particles exhibit behaviors, such as chaining, in simulations that are similar to those witnessed through experimentation. Currently, experimental results are being compared to the modeling results for verification of the model, through the analysis of chaining behaviors. This modeling system will be used in designing magnetic nanoparticles for specific chaining and movement behaviors.
144
81569
Evaluation of Nanoparticle Application to Control Formation Damage in Porous Media: Laboratory and Mathematical Modelling
Abstract:
Suspension-Colloidal flow in porous media occurs in numerous engineering fields, such as industrial water treatment, the disposal of industrial wastes into aquifers with the propagation of contaminants and low salinity water injection into petroleum reservoirs. The main effects are particle mobilization and captured by the porous rock, which can cause pore plugging and permeability reduction which is known as formation damage. Various factors such as fluid salinity, pH, temperature, and rock properties affect particle detachment. Formation damage is unfavorable specifically near injection and production wells. One way to control formation damage is pre-treatment of the rock with nanoparticles. Adsorption of nanoparticles on fines and rock surfaces alters zeta-potential of the surfaces and enhances the attachment force between the rock and fine particles. The main objective of this study is to develop a two-stage mathematical model for (1) flow and adsorption of nanoparticles on the rock in the pre-treatment stage and (2) fines migration and permeability reduction during the water production after the pre-treatment. The model accounts for adsorption and desorption of nanoparticles, fines migration, and kinetics of particle capture. The system of equations allows for the exact solution. The non-self-similar wave-interaction problem was solved by the Method of Characteristics. The analytical model is new in two ways: First, it accounts for the specific boundary and initial condition describing the injection of nanoparticle and production from the pre-treated porous media; second, it contains the effect of nanoparticle sorption hysteresis. The derived analytical model contains explicit formulae for the concentration fronts along with pressure drop. The solution is used to determine the optimal injection concentration of nanoparticle to avoid formation damage. The mathematical model was validated via an innovative laboratory program. The laboratory study includes two sets of core-flood experiments: (1) production of water without nanoparticle pre-treatment; (2) pre-treatment of a similar core with nanoparticles followed by water production. Positively-charged Alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 100 nm were used for the rock pre-treatment. The core was saturated with the nanoparticles and then flushed with low salinity water; pressure drop across the core and the outlet fine concentration was monitored and used for model validation. The results of the analytical modeling showed a significant reduction in the fine outlet concentration and formation damage. This observation was in great agreement with the results of core-flood data. The exact solution accurately describes fines particle breakthroughs and evaluates the positive effect of nanoparticles in formation damage. We show that the adsorbed concentration of nanoparticle highly affects the permeability of the porous media. For the laboratory case presented, the reduction of permeability after 1 PVI production in the pre-treated scenario is 50% lower than the reference case. The main outcome of this study is to provide a validated mathematical model to evaluate the effect of nanoparticles on formation damage.
143
82101
Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube
Abstract:
In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2&acute;105 and 6.8&acute;106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.
142
34507
The Effect of Geometrical Ratio and Nanoparticle Reinforcement on the Properties of Al-based Nanocomposite Hollow Sphere Structures
Abstract:
In the present study, the properties of Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite hollow sphere structures were investigated. For this reason, the Al-based nanocomposite hollow spheres with different amounts of nano alumina reinforcement (0-10wt %) and different ratio of thickness to diameter (t/D: 0.06-0.3) were prepared via a powder metallurgy method. Then, the effect of mentioned parameters was studied on physical and quasi static mechanical properties of their related prepared structures (open/closed cell) such as density, hardness, strength and energy absorption. It was found that as the t/D ratio increases the relative density, compressive strength and energy absorption increase. The highest values of strength and energy absorption were obtained from the specimen with 5 wt. % of nanoparticle reinforcement, t/D of 0.3 (t=1 mm, D=400µm) as 22.88 MPa and 13.24 MJ/m3, respectively. The moderate specific strength of prepared composites in the present study showed the good consistency with the properties of others low carbon steel composite with similar structure.
141
66957
Nanotechnology-Based Treatment of Liver Cancer
Authors:
Abstract:
We present method of Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinomacell line), using gold nanoparticles combuned with a specific growth factor and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy usig ex vivo specimens. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Ab bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of Ab bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intravascular perfusion. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.
140
57531
Regenerative Therapeutic Effect of Statin Nanoparticle-Loaded Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Myocardial Infarction
Abstract:
Background: Clinical trials of autologous adipose-derived stem cell (AdSC) therapy for ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are now on-going. We have investigated the hypothesis that combination of AdSCs and statin, an agent with pleiotropic effects, could augment the therapeutic effect on myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results: Human AdSC functions with different doses of simvastatin-conjugated nanoparticle (STNP) uptake were evaluated by in vitro assays. STNP promoted the migration activity without changing the proliferation activity, and also up-regulated growth factors. Next, MI was induced by LAD ligation in nude mice, and the mice were assigned in the following groups 3 days after MI: 1) PBS (control), 2) NP-AdSCs (50000 cells), 3) STNP, and 4) STNP-AdSCs (50000 cells). Cardiac functional recovery assessed by echocardiography was improved at 4 weeks after surgery in STNP-AdSC group. Masson’s trichrome-stained sections revealed that LV fibrosis length was reduced, and the number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was less in STNP-AdSC group. Surprisingly, a number of de novo endogenous Nkx-2.5/GATA4 positive immature cardiomyocytes as well as massive vascular formation were observed in outer layer of infarcted myocardium despite of a few recruited/retained transfused STNP-AdSCs 4 weeks after MI in STNP-AdSC group. Finally, massive myocardial regeneration was observed 8 weeks after MI. Conclusions: Intravenously injected small number of statin nanoparticle-loaded hAdSCs exhibited a potent therapeutic effect inducing endogenous cardiac tissue regeneration.
139
21367
In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation
Abstract:
In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.
138
57442
Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots
Abstract:
The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles&rsquo; size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.
137
72688
DNA-Based Gold Nanoprobe Biosensor to Detect Pork Contaminant
Abstract:
Designing a sensitive, specific and easy to use method to detect pork contamination in the food industry remains a major challenge. In the current study, we developed a sensitive thiol-bond AuNP-Probe biosensor that will change color when detecting pork DNA in the Cytochrome B region. The interaction between the biosensors and DNA sample is measured by spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The biosensor is made by reducing gold with trisodium citrate to produce gold nanoparticle with 39.05 nm diameter. The AuNP-Probe biosensor (gold nanoprobe) achieved 16.04 ng DNA/µl limit of detection and 53.48 ng DNA/µl limit of quantification. The linearity (R2) between color absorbance changes and DNA concentration is 0.9916. The biosensor has a good specificty as it does not cross-react with DNA of chicken and beef. To verify specificity towards the target sequence, PCR was tested to the target sequence and reacted to the PCR product with the biosensor. The PCR DNA isolate resulted in a 2.7 fold higher absorbance compared to pork-DNA isolate alone (without PCR). The sensitivity and specificity of the method show the promising application of the thiol-bond AuNP biosensor in pork-detection.
136
95005
Multifunctional Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Theranostic Agent for Imaging and Radiation Therapy
Abstract:
In recent years many studies have been focused on bismuth-based nanoparticles as radiosensitizer and contrast agent in radiation therapy and imaging due to the high atomic number (Z = 82), high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity. This study aims to introduce a new multifunctional bismuth-based nanoparticle as a theranostic agent for radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We synthesized bismuth ferrite (BFO, BiFeO3) nanoparticles by sol-gel method and surface of the nanoparticles were modified by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). After proved biocompatibility of the nanoparticles, the ability of them as contract agent in Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. The relaxation time rate (R2) in MRI and Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT imaging were increased with the concentration of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on dose enhancement in low energy was investigated by clonogenic assay. According to clonogenic assay, sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) were obtained as 1.35 and 1.76 for nanoparticle concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoparticles have the ability to employ as multimodal imaging and therapy to enhance theranostic efficacy.
135
30517
The Anti-Bladder Cancer Effects Exerted by Hyaluronan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Heteronemin Isolated from Hippospongia Sp.
Abstract:
Anti-tumor effects of natural products, like compounds from marine sponges and soft corals, have been investigated for decades. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules, such as Hyaluronan (HA), Chitosan (CHI) and gelatin have been widely studied. Encapsulation of anti-cancer therapies by the biopolymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery system is potentially capable of improving the therapeutic effects and attenuating their toxicity. In the current study, the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. with or without HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation were assessed and evaluated in vitro. Results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of heteronemin toward T24 human bladder cancer cell viability is approximately 0.18 µg/mL. Both plain and HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability (P< 0.001) while HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin showed weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 fibroblasts compared with plain heteronemin at the identical concentrations. HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects against migration of T24 human bladder cancer cell than those exerted by plain heteronemin at the same concentrations (P< 0.001). The flow cytometric results showed that 0.2 µg/mL HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin induced higher early apoptosis rate than that induced by plain heteronemin at the same concentration. These results show that HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation is able to elevate anti-migratory and apoptosis-inducing effects exerted by heteronemin against bladder cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anti-bladder cancer effects of the compound with or without HA/CHI nanoparticle encapsulation will be further investigated and examined using murine tumor models. The data obtained from this study will extensively evaluate of the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin as well as HA/CHI-encapsulated heteronemin and pave a way to develop potential bladder cancer treatment.
134
95221
Numerical Investigation of Thermal Energy Storage Panel Using Nanoparticle Enhanced Phase Change Material for Micro-Satellites
Abstract:
In space, electronic devices are constantly attacked with radiation, which causes certain parts to fail or behave in unpredictable ways. To advance the thermal controllability for microsatellites, we need a new approach and thermal control system that is smaller than that on conventional satellites and that demand no electric power. Heat exchange inside the microsatellites is not that easy as conventional satellites due to the smaller size. With slight mass gain and no electric power, accommodating heat using phase change materials (PCMs) is a strong candidate for solving micro satellites' thermal difficulty. In other words, PCMs can absorb or produce heat in the form of latent heat, changing their phase and minimalizing the temperature fluctuation around the phase change point. The main restriction for these systems is thermal conductivity weakness of common PCMs. As PCM is having low thermal conductivity, it increases the melting and solidification time, which is not suitable for specific application like electronic cooling. In order to increase the thermal conductivity nanoparticles are introduced. Adding the nanoparticles in base PCM increases the thermal conductivity. Increase in weight concentration increases the thermal conductivity. This paper numerically investigates the thermal energy storage panel with nanoparticle enhanced phase change material. Silver nanostructure have increased the thermal properties of the base PCM, eicosane. Different weight concentration (1, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, 8, 10%) of silver enhanced phase change material was considered. Both steady state and transient analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of nanoparticle enhanced phase material at different heat loads. Results showed that in steady state, the temperature near the front panel reduced and temperature on NePCM panel increased as the weight concentration increased. With the increase in thermal conductivity more heat was absorbed into the NePCM panel. In transient analysis, it was found that the effect of nanoparticle concentration on maximum temperature of the system was reduced as the melting point of the material reduced with increase in weight concentration. But for the heat load of maximum 20W, the model with NePCM did not attain the melting point temperature. Therefore it showed that the model with NePCM is capable of holding more heat load. In order to study the heat load capacity double the load is given, maximum of 40W was given as first half of the cycle and the other is given constant OW. Higher temperature was obtained comparing the other heat load. The panel maintained a constant temperature for a long duration according to the NePCM melting point. In both the analysis, the uniformity of temperature of the TESP was shown. Using Ag-NePCM it allows maintaining a constant peak temperature near the melting point. Therefore, by altering the weight concentration of the Ag-NePCM it is possible to create an optimum operating temperature required for the effective working of the electronics components.
133
56636
Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy Study of Size Dependent Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity on Erythrocytes
Abstract:
Raman Tweezers technique has become prevalent in single cell studies. This technique combines Raman spectroscopy which gives information about molecular vibrations, with optical tweezers which use a tightly focused laser beam for trapping the single cells. Thus Raman Tweezers enabled researchers analyze single cells and explore different applications. The applications of Raman Tweezers include studying blood cells, monitoring blood-related disorders, silver nanoparticle-induced stress, etc. There is increased interest in the toxic effect of nanoparticles with an increase in the various applications of nanoparticles. The interaction of these nanoparticles with the cells may vary with their size. We have studied the effect of silver nanoparticles of sizes 10nm, 40nm, and 100nm on erythrocytes using Raman Tweezers technique. Our aim was to investigate the size dependence of the nanoparticle effect on RBCs. We used 785nm laser (Starbright Diode Laser, Torsana Laser Tech, Denmark) for both trapping and Raman spectroscopic studies. 100 x oil immersion objectives with high numerical aperture (NA 1.3) is used to focus the laser beam into a sample cell. The back-scattered light is collected using the same microscope objective and focused into the spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Vyon iHR320 with 1200grooves/mm grating blazed at 750nm). Liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (Symphony CCD-1024x256-OPEN-1LS) was used for signal detection. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to separate the blood components. 1.5 ml of silver nanoparticles was washed twice with distilled water leaving 0.1 ml silver nanoparticles in the bottom of the vial. The concentration of silver nanoparticles is 0.02mg/ml so the 0.03mg of nanoparticles will be present in the 0.1 ml nanoparticles obtained. The 25 ul of RBCs were diluted in 2 ml of PBS solution and then treated with 50 ul (0.015mg) of nanoparticles and incubated in CO2 incubator. Raman spectroscopic measurements were done after 24 hours and 48 hours of incubation. All the spectra were recorded with 10mW laser power (785nm diode laser), 60s of accumulation time and 2 accumulations. Major changes were observed in the peaks 565 cm-1, 1211 cm-1, 1224 cm-1, 1371 cm-1, 1638 cm-1. A decrease in intensity of 565 cm-1, increase in 1211 cm-1 with a reduction in 1224 cm-1, increase in intensity of 1371 cm-1 also peak disappearing at 1635 cm-1 indicates deoxygenation of hemoglobin. Nanoparticles with higher size were showing maximum spectral changes. Lesser changes observed in case of 10nm nanoparticle-treated erythrocyte spectra.
132
85921
Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-Functionalized Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Electrochemical Sulfide Detection
Abstract:
Sulfide ion is water soluble, highly corrosive, toxic and harmful to the human beings. As a result, knowing the exact concentration of sulfide in water is very important. However, the existing detection and quantification methods have several shortcomings, such as high cost, low sensitivity, and massive instrumentation. Consequently, the development of novel sulfide sensor is relevant. Nevertheless, electrochemical methods gained enormous popularity due to a vast improvement in the technique and instrumentation, portability, low cost, rapid analysis and simplicity of design. Successful field application of electrochemical devices still requires vast improvement, which depends on the physical, chemical and electrochemical aspects of the working electrode. The working electrode made of bulk gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) are quite common, being very robust and endowed with good electrocatalytic properties. High cost, and electrode poisoning, however, have so far hindered their practical application in many industries. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a sulfide sensor based on an indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITONP)-modified ITO electrode. To prepare ITONP-modified ITO, various methods were tested. Drop-drying of ITONPs (aq.) on aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized ITO (APTMS/ITO) was found to be the best method on the basis of voltammetric analysis of the sulfide ion. ITONP-modified APTMS/ITO (ITONP/APTMS/ITO) yielded much better electrocatalytic properties toward sulfide electro-οxidation than did bare or APTMS/ITO electrodes. The ITONPs and ITONP-modified ITO were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Optimization of the type of inert electrolyte and pH yielded an ITONP/APTMS/ITO detector whose amperometrically and chronocoulοmetrically determined limits of detection for sulfide in aqueous solution were 3.0 µM and 0.90 µM, respectively. ITONP/APTMS/ITO electrodes which displayed reproducible performances were highly stable and were not susceptible to interference by common contaminants. Thus, the developed electrode can be considered as a promising tool for sensing sulfide.
131
123178
One-Step Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable ‘Click-Able’ Polyester Polymer for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
In recent times, polymers have seen a great surge in interest in the field of medicine, particularly chemotherapeutics. One recent innovation is the conversion of polymeric materials into “polymeric nanoparticles”. These nanoparticles can be designed and modified to encapsulate and transport drugs selectively to cancer cells, minimizing collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissues, and improve patient quality of life. In this study, we have synthesized pseudo-branched polyester polymers from bio-based small molecules, including sorbitol, glutaric acid and a propargylic acid derivative to further modify the polymer to make it “click-able" with an azide-modified target ligand. Melt polymerization technique was used for this polymerization reaction, using lipase enzyme catalyst NOVO 435. This reaction was conducted between 90- 95 °C for 72 hours. The polymer samples were collected in 24-hour increments for characterization and to monitor reaction progress. The resulting polymer was purified with the help of methanol dissolving and filtering with filter paper then characterized via NMR, GPC, FTIR, DSC, TGA and MALDI-TOF. Following characterization, these polymers were converted to a polymeric nanoparticle drug delivery system using solvent diffusion method, wherein DiI optical dye and chemotherapeutic drug Taxol can be encapsulated simultaneously. The efficacy of the nanoparticle’s apoptotic effects were analyzed in-vitro by incubation with prostate cancer (LNCaP) and healthy (CHO) cells. MTT assays and fluorescence microscopy were used to assess the cellular uptake and viability of the cells after 24 hours at 37 °C and 5% CO2 atmosphere. Results of the assays and fluorescence imaging confirmed that the nanoparticles were successful in both selectively targeting and inducing apoptosis in 80% of the LNCaP cells within 24 hours without affecting the viability of the CHO cells. These results show the potential of using biodegradable polymers as a vehicle for receptor-specific drug delivery and a potential alternative for traditional systemic chemotherapy. Detailed experimental results will be discussed in the e-poster.
130
82099
Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube
Abstract:
In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.
129
65037
Vibration Behavior of Nanoparticle Delivery in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory
Abstract:
In the paper, the coupled equation of motion for the dynamic displacement of a fullerene moving in a (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is derived using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, including the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The effects of confined stiffness between the fullerene and nanotube, foundation stiffness, and nonlocal parameter on the dynamic behavior are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta Method. The numerical solution is in agreement with the analytical result for the special case. The numerical results show that increasing the confined stiffness and foundation stiffness decrease the dynamic displacement of SWCNT. However, the dynamic displacement increases with increasing the nonlocal parameter. In addition, result using the Euler beam theory and the Timoshenko beam theory are compared. It can be found that ignoring the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation leads to an underestimation of the displacement.
128
99420
Polymer Nanocomposite Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing
Abstract:
Hydrogels produced with polymers have been used in the development of dressings for wound treatment and tissue revitalization. Our study on polymer nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles shows antimicrobial activity and applications in wound healing. The effects are linked with the slow oxidation and Ag⁺ liberation to the biological environment. Furthermore, bacterial cell membrane penetration and metabolic disruption through cell cycle disarrangement also contribute to microbial cell death. The silver antimicrobial activity has been known for many years, and previous reports show that low silver concentrations are safe for human use. This work aims to develop a hydrogel using natural polymers (sodium alginate and gelatin) combined with silver nanoparticles for wound healing and with antimicrobial properties in cutaneous lesions. The hydrogel development utilized different sodium alginate and gelatin proportions (20:80, 50:50 and 80:20). The silver nanoparticles incorporation was evaluated at the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM. The physico-chemical properties of the formulation were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The morphological characterization was made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human fibroblast (L2929) viability assay was performed with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment as well as an in vivo cicatrizant test. The results suggested that sodium alginate and gelatin in the (80:20) proportion with 4 mM of AgNO₃ in the (UV-Vis) exhibited a better hydrogel formulation. The nanoparticle absorption spectra of this analysis showed a maximum band around 430 - 450 nm, which suggests a spheroidal form. The TG curve exhibited two weight loss events. DSC indicated one endothermic peak at 230-250 °C, due to sample fusion. The polymers acted as stabilizers of a nanoparticle, defining their size and shape. Human fibroblast viability assay L929 gave 105 % cell viability with a negative control, while gelatin presented 96% viability, alginate: gelatin (80:20) 96.66 %, and alginate 100.33 % viability. The sodium alginate:gelatin (80:20) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with minimal bacterial growth at a ratio of 1.06 mg.mL⁻¹ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 0.53 mg.mL⁻¹ in Staphylococcus aureus. The in vivo results showed a significant reduction in wound surface area. On the seventh day, the hydrogel-nanoparticle formulation reduced the total area of injury by 81.14 %, while control reached a 45.66 % reduction. The results suggest that silver-hydrogel nanoformulation exhibits potential for wound dressing therapeutics.
127
13088
Stability Analysis of Stagnation-Point Flow past a Shrinking Sheet in a Nanofluid
Abstract:
In this paper, a numerical and theoretical study has been performed for the stagnation-point boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards a shrinking sheet in a nanofluid. The mathematical nanofluid model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles for some values of the governing parameters, namely the nanoparticle volume fraction Φ, the shrinking parameter λ and the Prandtl number Pr. Three different types of nanoparticles are considered, namely Cu, Al2O3 and TiO2. It is found that solutions do not exist for larger shrinking rates and dual (upper and lower branch) solutions exist when λ < -1.0. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. It is also found that the upper branch solutions are stable while the lower branch solutions are unstable.
126
74782
Preparation of Core-Shell AgBr/Cationic Polymer Nanocomposite with Dual Biocidal Modes and Sustained Release of Ag+ Ions
Authors:
Abstract:
Research on designing nano-antibacterial agent with potent and long-lasting antibacterial property is demanding and provoking work. In this study, a core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposite (AgBr/NPVP-H10) were synthesized and its structure confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the cationic polymer contents were determined with Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The morphology was directly observed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) which showed that the nanoparticle contains single core and organic shell and had an average diameter of 30.1 nm. The antibacterial test against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli illuminated that this nanocomposite had potent bactericidal activity, which can be attributed to the contact-killing of cationic polymers and releasing-killing of Ag+ ions. In addition, cationic polymer encapsulating AgBr cores gave the resin discs sustained release of Ag+ ions, which may result in long-lasting bactericidal activity. The AgBr/NPVP-H10 nanoparticle with the dual bactericidal capability and long term antimicrobial effect is a promising material aimed at preventing bacterial infection.
125
75942
Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides
Abstract:
We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.
124
84456
Nanoparticle Exposure Levels in Indoor and Outdoor Demolition Sites
Abstract:
Working or living close to demolition sites can increase risks of dust-related health problems. Demolition of concrete buildings may produce crystalline silica dust, which can be associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases including silicosis and lung cancers. Previous studies demonstrated significant associations between demolition dust exposure and increase in the incidence of mesothelioma or asbestos cancer. Dust is a generic term used for minute solid particles of typically
123
90304
Nanoparticle Exposure Levels in Indoor and Outdoor Demolition Sites
Abstract:
Working or living close to demolition sites can increase risks of dust-related health problems. Demolition of concrete buildings may produce crystalline silica dust, which can be associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases including silicosis and lung cancers. Previous studies demonstrated significant associations between demolition dust exposure and increase in the incidence of mesothelioma or asbestos cancer. Dust is a generic term used for minute solid particles of typically
122
56751
Modifiable Poly Methacrylic Acid-Co-Acrylonitrile Microgels Fabricated with Cu and Co Nanoparticles for Simultaneous Catalytic Reduction of Multiple Compounds
Abstract:
We prepared poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (p(MAc-co-AN)) microgels by inverse suspension polymerization, and converted the nitrile groups into amidoxime groups to obtain more hydrophilic amidoximated poly(methacrylic acid-co-acrylonitile) (amid-p(MAc-co-AN)) microgels. Amid-microgels were used as microreactors for in situ synthesis of copper and cobalt nanoparticles. Cu (II) and Co (II) ions were loaded into microgels from their aqueous metal salt solutions and then converted to corresponding metal nanoparticle (MNP) by treating the loaded metal ions with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The characterization of the prepared microgels and microgel metal nanoparticle composites was carried out by SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The amounts of metal nanoparticles within microgels were estimated by AAS measurements by dissolving the MNP entrapped within microgels by concentrated HCl acid treatment. Catalytic performances of the prepared amid-p(MAc-co-AN)-M (M: Cu, Co) microgel composites were investigated by using them as catalyst for the degradation of cationic and anionic organic dyes such as eosin Y (EY), methylene blue (MB) and methyl Orange (MO), and for the reduction of nitro aromatic pollutants like 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to their corresponding amino phenols. Here, we also report for the first time, the simultaneous degradation/reduction of MB, EY, and 4-NP by amid-p(MAc-co-AN)-Cu microgel composites. Different parameters affecting the reduction rates such as metal types, amount of catalysts, temperature and the amount of reducing agent were investigated.
121
130877
A pH-Activatable Nanoparticle Self-Assembly Triggered by 7-Amino Actinomycin D Demonstrating Superior Tumor Fluorescence Imaging and Anticancer Performance
Authors:
Abstract:
The development of nanomedicines has recently achieved several breakthroughs in the field of cancer treatment; however, the biocompatibility and targeted burst release of these medications remain a limitation, which leads to serious side effects and significantly narrows the scope of their applications. The self-assembly of intermediate filament protein (IFP) peptides was triggered by a hydrophobic cation drug 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD) to synthesize pH-activatable nanoparticles (NPs) that could simultaneously locate tumors and produce antitumor effects. The designed IFP peptide included a target peptide (arginine–glycine–aspartate), a negatively charged region, and an α-helix sequence. It also possessed the ability to encapsulate 7-AAD molecules through the formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions by a one-step method. 7-AAD molecules with excellent near-infrared fluorescence properties could be target delivered into tumor cells by NPs and released immediately in the acidic environments of tumors and endosome/lysosomes, ultimately inducing cytotoxicity by arresting the tumor cell cycle with inserted DNA. It is noteworthy that the IFP/7-AAD NPs tail vein injection approach demonstrated not only high tumor-targeted imaging potential, but also strong antitumor therapeutic effects in vivo. The proposed strategy may be used in the delivery of cationic antitumor drugs for precise imaging and cancer therapy.
120
46970
Nanomechanical Devices Vibrating at Microwave Frequencies in Simple Liquids
Abstract:
Nanomechanical devices have emerged as a versatile platform for a host of applications due to their extreme sensitivity to environmental conditions. For example, mass measurements with sensitivity at the atomic level have recently been demonstrated. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy coherently excite the vibrational modes of metal nanoparticles and permits precise measurement of the vibration characteristics as a function of nanoparticle shape, size and surrounding environment. This study reports that the vibration of metal nanoparticles in simple liquids, like water and glycerol are not described by conventional fluid mechanics, i.e., Navier Stokes equations. The intrinsic molecular relaxation processes in the surrounding liquid are found to have a profound effect on the fluid-structure interaction of mechanical devices at nanometre scales. Theoretical models have been developed based on the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction theory to investigate the vibration of nanoparticles immersed in simple fluids. The utility of this theoretical framework is demonstrated by comparison to measurements on single nanowires and ensembles of metal rods. This study provides a rigorous foundation for the use of metal nanoparticles as ultrasensitive mechanical sensors in fluid and opens a new paradigm for understanding extremely high frequency fluid mechanics, nanoscale sensing technologies, and biophysical processes.
119
71426
Optimization of the Enzymatic Synthesis of the Silver Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Considering an enormous increase of the use of metal nanoparticles with the exactly defined characteristics, the main goal of this research was to found the optimal and environmental friendly method of their synthesis. The synthesis of the inorganic core-shell nanoparticles was optimized as a model. The core-shell nanoparticles are composed of the enzyme core belted with the metal ions, oxides or salts as a shell. In this research, enzyme urease was the core catalyst and the shell nanoparticle was made of silver. Silver nanoparticles are widespread utilized and some of their common uses are: as an addition to disinfectants to ensure an aseptic environment for the patients, as a surface coating for neurosurgical shunts and venous catheters, as an addition to implants, in production of socks for diabetics and athletic clothing where they improve antibacterial characteristics, etc. Characteristics of synthesized nanoparticles directly depend on of their size, so the special care during this optimization was given to the determination of the size of the synthesized nanoparticles. For the purpose of the above mentioned optimization, sixteen experiments were generated by the Design of Experiments (DoE) method and conducted under various temperatures, with different initial concentration of the silver nitrate and constant concentration of the urease of two separate manufacturers. Synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) method on Malvern NanoSight NS300. Results showed that the initial concentration of the silver ions does not affect the concentration of the synthesized silver nanoparticles neither their size distribution. On the other hand, temperature of the experiments has affected both of the mentioned values.
118
58237
Effects of the Fractional Order on Nanoparticles in Blood Flow through the Stenosed Artery
Abstract:
In this paper, based on the applications of nanoparticle, the blood flow along with nanoparticles through stenosed artery is studied. The blood is acted by periodic body acceleration, an oscillating pressure gradient and an external magnetic field. The mathematical formulation is based on Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel. The model of ordinary blood, corresponding to time-derivatives of integer order, is obtained as a limiting case. Analytical solutions of the blood velocity and temperature distribution are obtained by means of the Hankel and Laplace transforms. Effects of the order of Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives and three different nanoparticles i.e. Fe3O4, TiO4 and Cu are studied. The results highlights that, models with fractional derivatives bring significant differences compared to the ordinary model. It is observed that the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticle reduced the resistance impedance of the blood flow and temperature distribution through bell shape stenosed arteries as compared to TiO4 and Cu nanoparticles. On entering in the stenosed area, blood temperature increases slightly, but, increases considerably and reaches its maximum value in the stenosis throat. The shears stress has variation from a constant in the area without stenosis and higher in the layers located far to the longitudinal axis of the artery. This fact can be an important for some clinical applications in therapeutic procedures.
117
24930
The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters
Abstract:
Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue
116
40731
Nanoparticle-Based Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Assay for the Detection of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum
Abstract:
Diagnosis of severe malaria is particularly important in highly endemic regions since most patients are positive for parasitemia and treatment differs from non-severe malaria. Diagnosis can be challenging due to the prevalence of diseases with similar symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is increasingly important to avoid overprescribing antimalarial drugs, minimize drug resistance, and minimize costs. A nanoparticle-based assay for detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) in urine and serum is reported. The assay uses magnetic beads conjugated with anti-HRP2 antibody for protein capture and concentration, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. Western Blot analysis demonstrated that magnetic beads allows the concentration of HRP2 protein in urine by 20-fold. The concentration effect was achieved because large volume of urine can be incubated with beads, and magnetic separation can be easily performed in minutes to isolate beads containing HRP2 protein. Magnetic beads and Quantum Dots 525 conjugated to anti-HRP2 antibodies allows the detection of low concentration of HRP2 protein (0.5 ng mL-1), and quantification in the range of 33 to 2,000 ng mL-1 corresponding to the range associated with non-severe to severe malaria. This assay can be easily adapted to a non-invasive point-of-care test for classification of severe malaria.
115
56614
Nanoparticles Modification by Grafting Strategies for the Development of Hybrid Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Hybrid inorganic/organic nanostructured materials based on block copolymers are of considerable interest in the field of Nanotechnology, taking into account that these nanocomposites combine the properties of polymer matrix and the unique properties of the added nanoparticles. The use of block copolymers as templates offers the opportunity to control the size and the distribution of inorganic nanoparticles. This research is focused on the surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles to reach a good interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrices which hinders the nanoparticle aggregation. The aim of this work is to obtain a good and selective dispersion of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into different types of block copolymers such us, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), poly(styrene-b-ε-caprolactone) (PS-b-PCL) poly(isoprene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PMMA) or poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SBM) by using different grafting strategies. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been surface-modified with polymer or block copolymer brushes following different grafting methods (grafting to, grafting from and grafting through) to achieve a selective location of nanoparticles into desired domains of the block copolymers. Morphology of fabricated hybrid nanocomposites was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with the aim to reach well-ordered nanostructured composites different annealing methods were used. Additionally, nanoparticle amount has been also varied in order to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle content in the morphology of the block copolymer. Nowadays different characterization methods were using in order to investigate magnetic properties of nanometer-scale electronic devices. Particularly, two different techniques have been used with the aim of characterizing synthesized nanocomposites. First, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was used to investigate qualitatively the magnetic properties taking into account that this technique allows distinguishing magnetic domains on the sample surface. On the other hand, magnetic characterization by vibrating sample magnetometer and superconducting quantum interference device. This technique demonstrated that magnetic properties of nanoparticles have been transferred to the nanocomposites, exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior similar to that of the maghemite nanoparticles at room temperature. Obtained advanced nanostructured materials could found possible applications in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and electronic nanodevices.
114
62476
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid
Abstract:
The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.
113
56646
Thermodynamic and Immunochemical Studies of Antibody Biofunctionalized Gold Nanoparticles Mediated Photothermal Ablation in Human Liver Cancer Cells
Abstract:
We present method of Gold Nanoparticle enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line), based on a simple gold nanoparticle carrier system, such as serum albumin (BSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy. Hyperspectral, contrast phase, and confocal microscopy combined immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA-GNPs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. We examined the ability of laser-activated carbon nanotubes to induce Hsp70 expression using confocal microscopy. Hep G2 cells heat-shocked (laser activated BSA-GNPs) to 42°C demonstrated an up-regulation of Hsp70 compared with control cells (BSA-GNPs treated cells without laser), which showed no detectable constitutive expression of Hsp70. We observed a time-dependent induction in Hsp70 expression in Hep G2 treated with BSA-GNPs and LASER irradiated. The post-irradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA-GNPs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minute the rate increased to 92.34% (50 mg/L). These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.
112
37638
Enhancement Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based MRI Contrast Agent at Different Concentrations and Magnetic Field Strengths
Abstract:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents (MRI-CM) are significant in the clinical and biological imaging as they have the ability to alter the normal tissue contrast, thereby affecting the signal intensity to enhance the visibility and detectability of images. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, coated with dextran or carboxydextran are currently available for clinical MR imaging of the liver. Most SPIO contrast agents are T2 shortening agents and Resovist (Ferucarbotran) is one of a clinically tested, organ-specific, SPIO agent which has a low molecular carboxydextran coating. The enhancement effect of Resovist depends on its relaxivity which in turn depends on factors like magnetic field strength, concentrations, nanoparticle properties, pH and temperature. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of field strength and different contrast concentrations on enhancement effects of Resovist. The study explored the MRI signal intensity of Resovist in the physiological range of plasma from T2-weighted spin echo sequence at three magnetic field strengths: 0.47 T (r1=15, r2=101), 1.5 T (r1=7.4, r2=95), and 3 T (r1=3.3, r2=160) and the range of contrast concentrations by a mathematical simulation. Relaxivities of r1 and r2 (L mmol-1 Sec-1) were obtained from a previous study and the selected concentrations were 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mmol/L. T2-weighted images were simulated using TR/TE ratio as 2000 ms /100 ms. According to the reference literature, with increasing magnetic field strengths, the r1 relaxivity tends to decrease while the r2 did not show any systematic relationship with the selected field strengths. In parallel, this study results revealed that the signal intensity of Resovist at lower concentrations tends to increase than the higher concentrations. The highest reported signal intensity was observed in the low field strength of 0.47 T. The maximum signal intensities for 0.47 T, 1.5 T and 3 T were found at the concentration levels of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that, the concentrations higher than the above, the signal intensity was decreased exponentially. An inverse relationship can be found between the field strength and T2 relaxation time, whereas, the field strength was increased, T2 relaxation time was decreased accordingly. However, resulted T2 relaxation time was not significantly different between 0.47 T and 1.5 T in this study. Moreover, a linear correlation of transverse relaxation rates (1/T2, s&ndash;1) with the concentrations of Resovist can be observed. According to these results, it can conclude that the concentration of SPIO nanoparticle contrast agents and the field strengths of MRI are two important parameters which can affect the signal intensity of T2-weighted SE sequence. Therefore, when MR imaging those two parameters should be considered prudently.
111
77141
Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame
Abstract:
This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.
110
28574
Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.
109
35704
Immobilized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Stem Cell Reconstruction in Magnetic Particle Imaging
Abstract:
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are nanoscale magnets which can be biologically functionalized for biomedical applications. Stem cell therapies to repair damaged tissue, magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer therapy and targeted drug delivery based on SPIONs are prominent examples where the visualization of a preferably low concentrated SPION distribution is essential. In 2005 a new method for tomographic SPION imaging has been introduced. The method named magnetic particle imaging (MPI) takes advantage of the nanoparticles magnetization change caused by an oscillating, external magnetic field and allows to directly image the time-dependent nanoparticle distribution. The SPION magnetization can be changed by the electron spin dynamics as well as by a mechanical rotation of the nanoparticle. In this work different calibration methods in MPI are investigated for image reconstruction of magnetically labeled stem cells. It is shown that a calibration using rotationally immobilized SPIONs provides a higher quality of stem cell images with fewer artifacts than a calibration using mobile SPIONs. The enhancement of the image quality and the reduction of artifacts enables the localization and identification of a smaller number of magnetically labeled stem cells. This is important for future medical applications where low concentrations of functionalized SPIONs interacting with biological matter have to be localized.
108
95323
Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells
Abstract:
In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.
107
40718
Use of a Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) to Correlate with Parasitemia Levels in T. cruzi/HIV Co-Infected Patients
Abstract:
Early diagnosis of reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving; however, in Latin American the diagnosis is performed by detection of parasitemia by microscopy which lacks sensitivity. To evaluate if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test) are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N=55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. The percentage of Chagas positive patients determined by Chunap compared to blood microscopy, qPCR, and ELISA was 100% (6/6), 95% (18/19) and 74% (23/31), respectively. Chunap specificity was 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels (determined by qPCR) and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p< 0.001). A cut-off of > 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (6/6). Urine antigen concentration was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p=0.045). Chunap shows potential for early detection of reactivation and with appropriate adaptation can be used for monitoring Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients.
106
2492
Generation of Charged Nanoparticles and Their Contribution to the Thin Film and Nanowire Growth during Chemical Vapour Deposition
Abstract:
The theory of charged nanoparticles suggested that in many Chemical Vapour Depositions (CVD) processes, Charged Nanoparticles (CNPs) are generated in the gas-phase and become a building block of thin films and nanowires. Recently, the nanoparticle-based crystallization has become a big issue since the growth of nanorods or crystals by the building block of nanoparticles was directly observed by transmission electron microscopy observations in the liquid cell. In an effort to confirm charged gas-phase nuclei, that might be generated under conventional processing conditions of thin films and nanowires during CVD, we performed an in-situ measurement using differential mobility analyser and particle beam mass spectrometer. The size distribution and number density of CNPs were affected by process parameters such as precursor flow rate and working temperature. It was shown that many films and nanostructures, which have been believed to grow by individual atoms or molecules, actually grow by the building blocks of such charged nuclei. The electrostatic interaction between CNPs and the growing surface induces the self-assembly into films and nanowires. In addition, the charge-enhanced atomic diffusion makes CNPs liquid-like quasi solid. As a result, CNPs tend to land epitaxial on the growing surface, which results in the growth of single crystalline nanowires with a smooth surface.
105
71496
Characteristics of the Particle Size Distribution and Exposure Concentrations of Nanoparticles Generated from the Laser Metal Deposition Process
Abstract:
The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the laser metal deposition (LMD) process and to estimate particle concentrations deposited in the head (H), that the tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (A) regions, respectively. The studied LMD chamber (3.6m × 3.8m × 2.9m) is installed with a robot laser metal deposition machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling inside the chamber for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L / min, respectively. The resultant size distributions were used to predict depositions of nanoparticles at the H, TB, and A regions of the respiratory tract using the UK National Radiological Protection Board’s (NRPB’s) LUDEP Software. Result that the number concentrations of nanoparticles in indoor background and LMD chamber were 4.8×10³ and 4.3×10⁵ # / cm³, respectively. However, the nanoparticles emitted from the LMD process was in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) as 142nm and 1.86, respectively. The fractions of the nanoparticles deposited on the alveolar region (A: 69.8%) were higher than the other two regions of the head region (H: 10.9%), tracheobronchial region (TB: 19.3%). This study conducted static sampling to measure the nanoparticles in the LMD process, and the results show that the fraction of particles deposited on the A region was higher than the other two regions. Therefore, applying the characteristics of nanoparticles emitted from LMD process could be provided valuable scientific-based evidence for exposure assessments in the future.
104
34845
Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.
103
63782
Biologically Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles Induces Autophagy and JNK Signaling as a Pro-Survival Response by Abrogating Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Cancer Cells
Abstract:
Metal nanoparticles in recent years have gained importance in cancer therapy due to their enhanced permeability retention effect. Among various nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received considerable attention due to their unique properties like conductivity, chemical stability, relative lower toxicity and outstanding therapeutic potential, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities. In this study, we took a greener approach to synthesize silver nanoparticle from fungus and analyze its effects on both epithelial and mesenchymal derived cancer cells. Much research has been done on nanoparticle-induced apoptosis, but little is known about its role in autophagy. In our study, the silver nanoparticles were seen to induce autophagy which was analyzed by studying the expression of several autophagy markers like, LC3B-II and ATG genes. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) assay also revealed the induction of autophagy upon treatment with AgNPs. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in increased cell death suggesting autophagy as a survival strategy adopted by the cells. In parallel to autophagy induction, silver nanoparticles induced ROS accumulation. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine increased ROS level, resulting in enhanced cell death. We further analyzed MAPK signaling upon AgNP treatment. It was observed that along with autophagy, activation of JNK signaling served as pro-survival while ERK signaling served as a pro-death signal. Our results provide valuable insights into the role of autophagy upon AgNP exposure and provide cues to probabilistic strategies to effectively sensitize cancer cells.
102
117128
Optimization of Sodium Lauryl Surfactant Concentration for Nanoparticle Production
Abstract:
Sodium lauryl surfactant concentration optimization, for nanoparticle production, provided the platform for advanced research studies. Different concentrations (0.05 %, 0.1 %, and 0.2 %) of sodium lauryl surfactant was added to snail shells powder during milling processes for producing CaCO3 at smaller particle size. Epoxy nanocomposites prepared at filler content 2 wt.% synthesized with different volumes of sodium lauryl surfactant were fabricated using a conventional resin casting method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, and hardness of prepared nanocomposites was investigated to determine the effect of sodium lauryl surfactant concentration on nanocomposite properties. It was observed that the loading of the synthesized nano-calcium carbonate improved the mechanical properties of neat epoxy at lower concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %. Meaningfully, loading of achatina fulica snail shell nanoparticles manufactures, with small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, increased the neat epoxy tensile strength by 26%, stiffness by 55%, and hardness by 38%. Homogeneous dispersion facilitated, by the addition of sodium lauryl surfactant during milling processes, improved mechanical properties. Research evidence suggests that nano-CaCO3, synthesized from achatina fulica snail shell, possesses suitable reinforcement properties that can be used for nanocomposite fabrication. The evidence showed that adding small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, improved dispersion of nanoparticles in polymetrix material that provided mechanical properties improvement.
101
18937
Investigation of the Morphology of SiO2 Nano-Particles Using Different Synthesis Techniques
Abstract:
In this paper, the effects of variation synthesized methods on morphology and size of silica nanostructure via modifying sol-gel and precipitation method have been investigated. Meanwhile, resulting products have been characterized by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. As result, the shape of SiO2 with sol-gel and precipitation methods was spherical but with modifying sol-gel method we have been had nanolayer structure.
100
62987
Chronic Impact of Silver Nanoparticle on Aerobic Wastewater Biofilm
Abstract:
The application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in personal care products, various household and industrial products has resulted in an inevitable environmental exposure of such engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Ag ENPs, released via household and industrial wastes, reach water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs), yet the fate and transport of ENPs in WRRFs and their potential risk in the biological wastewater processes are poorly understood. Accordingly, our main objective was to elucidate the impact of long-term continuous exposure to AgNPs on biological activity of aerobic wastewater biofilm. The fate, transport and toxicity of 10 μg.L-1and 100 μg.L-1 PVP-stabilized AgNPs (50 nm) were evaluated in an attached growth biological treatment process, using lab-scale moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs). Two MBBR systems for organic matter removal were fed with a synthetic influent and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 180 min and 60% volumetric filling ratio of Anox-K5 carriers with specific surface area of 800 m2/m3. Both reactors were operated for 85 days after reaching steady state conditions to develop a mature biofilm. The impact of AgNPs on the biological performance of the MBBRs was characterized over a period of 64 days in terms of the filtered biodegradable COD (SCOD) removal efficiency, the biofilm viability and key enzymatic activities (α-glucosidase and protease). The AgNPs were quantitatively characterized using single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS), determining simultaneously the particle size distribution, particle concentration and dissolved silver content in influent, bioreactor and effluent samples. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidative stress were assessed as the proposed toxicity mechanism of AgNPs. Results indicated that a low concentration of AgNPs (10 μg.L-1) did not significantly affect the SCOD removal efficiency whereas a significant reduction in treatment efficiency (37%) was observed at 100 μg.L-1AgNPs. Neither the viability nor the enzymatic activities of biofilm were affected at 10 μg.L-1AgNPs but a higher concentration of AgNPs induced cell membrane integrity damage resulting in 31% loss of viability and reduced α-glucosidase and protease enzymatic activities by 31% and 29%, respectively, over the 64-day exposure period. The elevated intercellular ROS in biofilm at a higher AgNPs concentration over time was consistent with a reduced biological biofilm performance, confirming the occurrence of a nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress in the heterotrophic biofilm. The spICP-MS analysis demonstrated a decrease in the nanoparticles concentration over the first 25 days, indicating a significant partitioning of AgNPs into the biofilm matrix in both reactors. The concentration of nanoparticles increased in effluent of both reactors after 25 days, however, indicating a decreased retention capacity of AgNPs in biofilm. The observed significant detachment of biofilm also contributed to a higher release of nanoparticles due to cell-wall destabilizing properties of AgNPs as an antimicrobial agent. The removal efficiency of PVP-AgNPs and the biofilm biological responses were a function of nanoparticle concentration and exposure time. This study contributes to a better understanding of the fate and behavior of AgNPs in biological wastewater processes, providing key information that can be used to predict the environmental risks of ENPs in aquatic ecosystems.
99
62286
Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles
Abstract:
This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.
98
116801
Fabrication of Ligand Coated Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Synergistic Treatment of Autoimmune Disease
Abstract:
The research is aimed at developing targeted lipid-based nanocarrier systems of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to deliver an antirheumatic drug to the inflammatory site in arthritic paw. Lipid-based nanoparticle (TEF-lipo) was prepared by using a thin-film hydration method. The coating of prepared drug-loaded nanoparticles was done by the ionic interaction mechanism. TEF-lipo and CS-coated lipid nanoparticle (CS-lipo) were characterized for mean droplet size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. TEF-lipo and CS-lipo were further subjected to in vitro cell line studies on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, U937, and MG 63 cell lines. The pharmacodynamic study was performed to establish the effectiveness of the prepared lipid-based conventional and targeted nanoparticles in comparison to pure drugs. Droplet size and zeta potential of TEF-lipo were found to be 128. 92 ± 5.42 nm and +12.6 ± 1.2 mV. It was observed that after the coating of TEF-lipo with CS, particle size increased to 155.6± 2.12 nm and zeta potential changed to -10.2± 1.4mV. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the nanovesicles were uniformly dispersed and detached from each other. Formulations followed sustained release pattern up to 24 h. Results of cell line studies ind icated that CS-lipo formulation showed the highest cytotoxic potential, thereby proving its enhanced ability to kill the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and U937 cells when compared with other formulations. It is clear from our in vivo pharmacodynamic results that targeted nanocarriers had a higher inhibitory effect on arthritis progression than nontargeted nanocarriers or free drugs. Results demonstrate that this approach will provide effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, and CS served as a potential prophylactic against the advancement of cartilage degeneration.
97
134352
Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods
Abstract:
Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.
96
16460
Comparative Analysis of in vitro Release profile for Escitalopram and Escitalopram Loaded Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Escitalopram oxalate (ETP), an FDA approved antidepressant drug from the category of SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and is used in treatment of general anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD).When taken orally, it is metabolized to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT) in the liver with the help of enzymes CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Hence, causing side effects such as dizziness, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, nausea etc. Therefore, targeted and sustained drug delivery will be a helpful tool for increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects. The present study is designed for formulating mucoadhesive nanoparticle formulation for the same Escitalopram loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and characterization of the optimised formulation was done by zeta average particle size (93.63nm), zeta potential (-1.89mV), TEM (range of 60nm to 115nm) analysis also confirms nanometric size range of the drug loaded nanoparticles along with polydispersibility index of 0.117. In this research, we have studied the in vitro drug release profile for ETP nanoparticles, through a semi permeable dialysis membrane. The three important characteristics affecting the drug release behaviour were – particle size, ionic strength and morphology of the optimised nanoparticles. The data showed that on increasing the particle size of the drug loaded nanoparticles, the initial burst was reduced which was comparatively higher in drug. Whereas, the formulation with 1mg/ml chitosan in 1.5mg/ml tripolyphosphate solution showed steady release over the entire period of drug release. Then this data was further validated through mathematical modelling to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics, which showed a typical linear diffusion profile in optimised ETP loaded nanoparticles.
95
123236
Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State
Abstract:
Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.
94
28643
Development of a Novel Antibacterial to Block Growth of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Prevent Biofilm Formation
Abstract:
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal transport of chloride and sodium across the lung epithelium, leading to thick and viscous secretions. Within which CF patients suffer from repeated bacterial pulmonary infections, with Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa (PA) eliciting the greatest inflammatory response, causing an irreversible loss of lung func-tion that determines morbidity and mortality. The cell wall of PA is a permeability barrier to many antibacterials and the rise of Mutli-Drug Resistant strains (MDR) is eroding the efficacy of the few remaining clinical options. In addition when PA infection becomes established it forms an antibi-otic-resistant biofilm, embedded in which are slow growing cells that are refractive to drug treat-ment. Making the development of new antibacterials a major challenge. This work describes the development of new type of nanoparticulate oligonucleotide antibacterial capable of tackling PA infections, including MDR strains. It is being developed to both block growth and prevent biofilm formation. These oligonucleotide therapeutics, Transcription Factor Decoys (TFD), act on novel genomic targets by capturing key regulatory proteins to block essential bacterial genes and defeat infection. They have been successfully transfected into a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, both in vitro and in vivo, using a proprietary delivery technology. The surfactant used self-assembles with TFD to form a nanoparticle stable in biological fluids, which protects the TFD from degradation and preferentially transfects prokaryotic membranes. Key challenges are to adapt the nanoparticle so it is active against PA in the context of biofilms and to formulate it for administration by inhalation. This would allow the drug to be delivered to the respiratory tract, thereby achieving drug concentrations sufficient to eradicate the pathogenic organisms at the site of infection.
93
124308
Upconversion Nanoparticle-Mediated Carbon Monoxide Prodrug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
Gas therapy is still at an early stage of research and development. Even though most gasotransmitters have proven their therapeutic potential, their handling, delivery, and controlled release have been extremely challenging. This research work employs a versatile nanosystem that is capable of delivering a gasotransmitter in the form of a photo-responsive carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) for targeted cancer therapy. The therapeutic action was mediated by upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) designed to transfer bio-friendly low energy near-infrared (NIR) light to ultraviolet (UV) light capable of triggering carbon monoxide (CO) from a water-soluble amphiphilic manganese carbonyl complex CORM incorporated into a carefully designed lipid drug delivery system. Herein, gaseous CO that plays a role as a gasotransmitter with cytotoxic and homeostatic properties was investigated to instigate cellular apoptosis. After successfully synthesizing the drug delivery system, the ability of the system to encapsulate and mediate the sustained release of CO after light excitation was demonstrated. CO fluorescence probe (COFP) was successfully employed to determine the in vitro drug release profile upon NIR light irradiation. The uptake of nanoparticles enhanced by folates and its receptor interaction was also studied for cellular uptake purposes. The anticancer potential of the final lipid nanoparticle Lipid/UCNPs/CORM/FA (LUCF) was also determined by cell viability assay. Intracellular CO release and a subsequent therapeutic action involving ROS production, mitochondrial damage, and CO production was also evaluated. In all, this current project aims to use in vitro studies to determine the potency and efficiency of a NIR-mediated CORM prodrug delivery system.
92
84455
Wood Dust and Nanoparticle Exposure among Workers during a New Building Construction
Abstract:
Building constructions in the US involve numerous wooden structures. Woods are routinely used in walls, framing floors, framing stairs, and making of landings in building constructions. Cross-laminated timbers are currently being used as construction materials for tall buildings. Numerous workers are involved in these timber based constructions, and wood dust is one of the most common occupational exposures for them. Wood dust is a complex substance composed of cellulose, polyoses and other substances. According to US OSHA, exposure to wood dust is associated with a variety of adverse health effects among workers, including dermatitis, allergic respiratory effects, mucosal and nonallergic respiratory effects, and cancers. The amount and size of particles released as wood dust differ according to the operations performed on woods. For example, shattering of wood during sanding operations produces finer particles than does chipping in sawing and milling industries. To our knowledge, how shattering, cutting and sanding of woods and wood slabs during new building construction release fine particles and nanoparticles are largely unknown. General belief is that the dust generated during timber cutting and sanding tasks are mostly large particles. Consequently, little attention has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor and conventional particle counters. This study was conducted in a large new building construction site in southern Georgia primarily during the framing of wooden side walls, inner partition walls, and landings. Exposure levels of nanoparticles (n = 10) were measured by a newly developed nanoparticle counter (TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910) at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location. Other airborne particles (number of particles/m3) including PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored using a 6-channel (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 µm) particle counter at 15 m, 30 m, and 75 m distances at both upwind and downwind directions. Mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (µg/m³) were measured by using a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Wind velocity was measured by a hot wire anemometer. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes were: 11.5 nm: 221 – 816/cm³; 15.4 nm: 696 – 1735/cm³; 20.5 nm: 879 – 1957/cm³; 27.4 nm: 1164 – 2903/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1138 – 2640/cm³; 48.7 nm: 938 – 1650/cm³; 64.9 nm: 759 – 1284/cm³; 86.6 nm: 705 – 1019/cm³; 115.5 nm: 494 – 1031/cm³; 154 nm: 417 – 806/cm³; 205.4 nm: 240 – 471/cm³; 273.8 nm: 45 – 92/cm³; and 365.2 nm:
91
78897
Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity
Abstract:
Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.
90
78727
Magnetophotonics 3D MEMS/NEMS System for Quantitative Mitochondrial DNA Defect Profiling
Abstract:
Mitochondrial defects have a significant impact in many human diseases and aging associated phenotypes. The pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are diverse and usually present as heteroplasmic. mtDNA 4977bps deletion is one of the common mtDNA defects, and the ratio of mutated versus normal copy is significantly associated with clinical symptoms thus their quantitative detection has become an important unmet needs for advanced disease diagnosis and therapeutic guidelines. This study revealed a Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) enabled automatic microfluidic chip that only required minimal sample. The system integrated multiple laboratory operation steps into a Lab-on-a-Chip for high-sensitive and prompt measurement. The entire process including magnetic nanoparticle based mtDNA extraction in chip, mutation selective photonic DNA cleavage, and nanoparticle accelerated photonic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All subsystems were packed inside a miniature three-dimensional micro structured system and operated in an automatic manner. Integration of magnetic beads with microfluidic transportation could promptly extract and enrich the specific mtDNA. The near infrared responsive magnetic nanoparticles enabled micro-PCR to be operated by pulse-width-modulation controlled laser pulsing to amplify the desired mtDNA while quantified by fluorescence intensity captured by a complementary metal oxide system array detector. The proportions of pathogenic mtDNA in total DNA were thus obtained. Micro capillary electrophoresis module was used to analyze the amplicone products. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a new magnetophotonic based qPCR MEMS system that successfully detects and quantify specific disease related DNA mutations thus provides a promising future for rapid diagnosis of mitochondria diseases.
89
18400
Facile Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles on Graphene via Galvanic Displacement Reaction for Sensing Application
Abstract:
We report a facile synthesis of metal nano particles (NPs) on graphene layer via galvanic displacement reaction between graphene-buffered copper (Cu) and metal ion-containing salts. Diverse metal NPs can be formed on graphene surface and their morphologies can be tailored by controlling the concentration of metal ion-containing salt and immersion time. The obtained metal NP-decorated single-layer graphene (SLG) has been used as hydrogen gas (H2) sensing material and exhibited highly sensitive response upon exposure to 2% of H2.
88
9654
The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract
Abstract:
Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.
87
60764
Preparation of MgO Nanoparticles by Green Methods
Abstract:
Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research activities in the chemical community has been directed towards green synthesis. This area of chemistry has received extensive attention because of environmentally benign processes as well as economically viable. In this article, the MgO nanoparticles were prepared by different methods in the present of ionic liquids. A wide range of Magnesium oxide particle sizes within the nanometer scale is obtained by these methods. The structure of these MgO particles was studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the formation of nanoparticle could involve the role of performed 'nucleus' and used template to control the growth rate of nucleuses. The crystallite size of the MgO products was in a range from 31 to 77 nm.
86
34967
Integrated Mathematical Modeling and Advance Visualization of Magnetic Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery, Drug Release and Effects to Cancer Cell Treatment
Abstract:
This paper discusses on the transportation of magnetic drug targeting through blood within vessels, tissues and cells. There are three integrated mathematical models to be discussed and analyze the concentration of drug and blood flow through magnetic nanoparticles. The cell therapy brought advancement in the field of nanotechnology to fight against the tumors. The systematic therapeutic effect of Single Cells can reduce the growth of cancer tissue. The process of this nanoscale phenomena system is able to measure and to model, by identifying some parameters and applying fundamental principles of mathematical modeling and simulation. The mathematical modeling of single cell growth depends on three types of cell densities such as proliferative, quiescent and necrotic cells. The aim of this paper is to enhance the simulation of three types of models. The first model represents the transport of drugs by coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) with 3D parabolic type in a cylindrical coordinate system. This model is integrated by Non-Newtonian flow equations, leading to blood liquid flow as the medium for transportation system and the magnetic force on the magnetic nanoparticles. The interaction between the magnetic force on drug with magnetic properties produces induced currents and the applied magnetic field yields forces with tend to move slowly the movement of blood and bring the drug to the cancer cells. The devices of nanoscale allow the drug to discharge the blood vessels and even spread out through the tissue and access to the cancer cells. The second model is the transport of drug nanoparticles from the vascular system to a single cell. The treatment of the vascular system encounters some parameter identification such as magnetic nanoparticle targeted delivery, blood flow, momentum transport, density and viscosity for drug and blood medium, intensity of magnetic fields and the radius of the capillary. Based on two discretization techniques, finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM), the set of integrated models are transformed into a series of grid points to get a large system of equations. The third model is a single cell density model involving the three sets of first order PDEs equations for proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells change over time and space in Cartesian coordinate which regulates under different rates of nutrients consumptions. The model presents the proliferative and quiescent cell growth depends on some parameter changes and the necrotic cells emerged as the tumor core. Some numerical schemes for solving the system of equations are compared and analyzed. Simulation and computation of the discretized model are supported by Matlab and C programming languages on a single processing unit. Some numerical results and analysis of the algorithms are presented in terms of informative presentation of tables, multiple graph and multidimensional visualization. As a conclusion, the integrated of three types mathematical modeling and the comparison of numerical performance indicates that the superior tool and analysis for solving the complete set of magnetic drug delivery system which give significant effects on the growth of the targeted cancer cell.
85
11254
The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method
Abstract:
In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.
84
7691
Functionalization of Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles with Fluorescent Protein
Abstract:
Invention of magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites is a rapidly developing area of research. The magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite attractiveness is connected with the ability of simultaneous management and control of such nanocomposites by two independent methods based on different physical principles. These nanocomposites are applied for the solution of various essential scientific and experimental biomedical problems. The aim of this research is development of principle approach to nanobiohybrid structures with magnetic and fluorescent properties design. The surface of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles ([email protected]) were covalently modified by 4-carboxy benzenediazonium tosylate. Recombinant fluorescent protein TagGFP2 (Eurogen) was obtained in E. coli (Rosetta DE3) by standard laboratory techniques. Immobilization of TagGFP2 on the nanoparticles surface was provided by the carbodiimide activation. The amount of COOH-groups on the nanoparticle surface was estimated by elemental analysis (Elementar Vario Macro) and TGA-analysis (SDT Q600, TA Instruments. Obtained nanocomposites were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (Nicolet Thermo 5700) and fluorescence microscopy (AxioImager M1, Carl Zeiss). Amount of the protein immobilized on the modified nanoparticle surface was determined by fluorimetry (Cary Eclipse) and spectrophotometry (Unico 2800) with the help of preliminary obtained calibration plots. In the FTIR spectra of modified nanoparticles the adsorption band of –COOH group around 1700 cm-1 and bands in the region of 450-850 cm-1 caused by bending vibrations of benzene ring were observed. The calculated quantity of active groups on the surface was equal to 0,1 mmol/g of material. The carbodiimide activation of COOH-groups on nanoparticles surface results to covalent immobilization of TagGFP2 fluorescent protein (0.2 nmol/mg). The success of immobilization was proved by FTIR spectroscopy. Protein characteristic adsorption bands in the region of 1500-1600 cm-1 (amide I) were presented in the FTIR spectrum of nanocomposite. The fluorescence microscopy analysis shows that [email protected] nanocomposite possesses fluorescence properties. This fact confirms that TagGFP2 protein retains its conformation due to immobilization on nanoparticles surface. Magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposite was obtained as a result of unique design solution implementation – the fluorescent protein molecules were fixed to the surface of superparamagnetic carbon-coated iron nanoparticles using original diazonium salts.
83
101220
Unconfined Laminar Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder with an Angle of Incidence
Abstract:
A finite-volume method simulation is used to investigate two dimensional unsteady flow of nanofluids and heat transfer characteristics past a square cylinder inclined with respect to the main flow in the laminar regime. The computations are carried out of nanoparticle volume fractions varying from 0 ≤ ∅ ≤ 5% for an inclination angle in the range 0° ≤ δ ≤ 45° at a Reynolds number of 100. The variation of stream line and isotherm patterns are presented for the above range of conditions. Also, it is noticed that the addition of nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer. Hence, the local Nusselt number is found to increase with increasing value of the concentration of nanoparticles for the fixed value of the inclination angle.
82
33905
Green Synthesis of Silver and Silver-Gold Alloy Nanoparticle Using Cyanobacteria as Bioreagent
Abstract:
Cyanobacteria, commonly known as blue green algae were found to be an effective bioreagent for nanoparticle synthesis. Nowadays silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are very popular due to their antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity. To exploit these characters in different biotechnological fields, it is very essential to synthesize more stable, non-toxic nano-silver. For this reason silver-gold alloy (Ag-AuNPs) nanoparticles are of great interest as they are more stable, harder and more effective than single metal nanoparticles. In the present communication we described a simple technique for rapid synthesis of biocompatible AgNP and Ag-AuNP employing cyanobacteria, Leptolyngbya and Lyngbya respectively. For synthesis of AgNP the biomass of Leptolyngbya valderiana (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to 9 mM AgNO3 solution (pH 4). For synthesis of Ag-AuNP Lyngbya majuscula (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to equimolar solution of hydrogen tetra-auro chlorate and silver nitrate (1mM, pH 4). After 72 hrs of exposure thallus of Leptolyngyba turned brown in color and filaments of Lyngbya turned pink in color that indicated synthesis of nanoparticles. The produced particles were extracted from the cyanobacterial biomass using nano-capping agent, sodium citrate. Firstly, extracted brown and pink suspensions were taken for Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis to confirm the presence of silver in brown suspension and presence of both gold and silver in pink suspension. Extracted nanoparticles showed a distinct single plasmon band (AgNP at 411 nm; Ag-Au NP at 481 nm) in Uv-vis spectroscopy. It was revealed from Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that all the synthesized particles were spherical in nature with a size range of ~2-25 nm. In X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis four intense peaks appeared at 38.2°, 44.5°, 64.8°and 77.8° which confirmed the crystallographic nature of synthesized particles. Presence of different functional groups viz. N-H, C=C, C–O, C=O on the surface of nanoparticles were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the surface topography of metal treated filaments of cyanobacteria. The stability of the particles was observed by Zeta potential study. Antibiotic property of synthesized particles was tested by Agar well diffusion method against gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall, this green-technique requires low energy, less manufacturing cost and produces rapidly eco-friendly metal nanoparticles.
81
39619
Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin
Abstract:
Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.
80
19409
Easy Method of Synthesis and Functionalzation of Zno Nanoparticules With 3 Aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTES)
Abstract:
The use of semiconductor oxides, as chemical or biological, requires their functionalization with appropriate dependent molecules of the substance to be detected. generally, the support materials used are TiO2 and SiO2. In the present work, we used zinc oxide (ZnO) known for its interesting physical properties. The synthesis of nano scale ZnO was performed by co-precipitation at low temperature (60 ° C).To our knowledge, the obtaining of this material at this temperature was carried out for the first time. This shows the low cost of this operation. On the other hand, the surface functionalization of ZnO was performed with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by using a specific method using ethanol for the first time. In addition, the duration of this stage is very low compared to literature. The samples obtained were analyzed by XRD, TEM, DLS, FTIR, and TGA shows that XPS that the operation of grafting of APTES on our support was carried out with success.
79
59675
Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3/Water-Based Nanofluids: Revisiting the Influences of pH and Surfactant
Abstract:
The present work focuses on the preparation and the stabilization of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Though they have been widely considered in the past, to the best of our knowledge, there is no clear consensus about a proper way to prepare and stabilize them by the appropriate surfactant. In this paper, a careful experimental investigation is performed to quantify the combined influence of pH and the surfactant on the stability of Al2O3-water based nanofluids. Two volume concentrations of nanoparticles and three nanoparticle sizes have been considered. The good preparation and stability of these nanofluids are evaluated through thermal conductivity measurements. The results show that the optimum value for the thermal conductivity is obtained mainly by controlling the pH of the mixture and surfactants are not necessary to stabilize the solution.
78
46696
Conjugate Free Convection in a Square Cavity Filled with Nanofluid and Heated from Below by Spatial Wall Temperature
Abstract:
The problem of conjugate free convection in a square cavity filled with nanofluid and heated from below by spatial wall temperature is studied numerically using the finite difference method. Water-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. Governing equations are solved over a wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0 &le; &phi; &le; 0.2), wave number ((0 &le; &lambda; &le; 4) and thermal conductivity ratio (0.44 &le; Kr &le; 6). The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. It is found that the flow behavior and the heat distribution are clearly enhanced with the increment of the non-uniform heating.
77
117557
Superhydrophobic Coatings Based On Waterborne Polyolefin And Silica Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Superhydrophobic surfaces have been paid great attentions over the years due to their various applications. In this study, superhydrophobic coatings based on the hybrids of hydrophobically modified silica nanoparticles and waterborne polyolefin were fabricated onto a cotton fabric by spraying a mixture of surface dodecylated silica nanoparticles with aqueous dispersion of polyolefin onto the fabric and a subsequent drying at 80℃. The coated fabrics were characterized using water-contact angle measurement, SEM, and AFM analysis. The coated fabrics exhibit superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 155° along with excellent self-cleaning and water/oil separation ability. It was also revealed that such superhydrophobicity was maintained after repeated mechanical abrasion using a sandpaper.
76
19048
Silicon Nanostructure Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching for Photovoltaic Application
Abstract:
Metal-nano particle-assisted chemical etching is an extraordinary developed wet etching method of producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (nanowires) from the patterned metallic film on the crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. Combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties are presented in this paper.
75
30767
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification
Abstract:
In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
74
16617
Structural and Magnetic Properties of Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Bi0.82La0.2Fe1-xCrxO3 (BLFCxO, x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the lattice parameters decrease for x ≤ 0.05, firstly, and then they increase for x > 0.05. A transformation from rhombohedral structure to orthorhombic structure occurs at x = 0.08. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that the average nanoparticle size is about 60-70 nm. The remnant magnetisation (Mr) increases gradually with x to 0.02, then decreases with further increasing x up to 0.05, and finally enchases abruptly in x = 0.08. The coercivity (HC) increases gradually with x to 0.05, and then significantly reduced with increasing Cr substitution. The magnetic ordering temperature (TN) decreases with Cr doping concentration. The M-H curves of all samples exhibit a wasp-waist hysteresis loop in low magnetic region. This property can play an important role for the applications of some multiferroic nano-device.
73
69489
Application of Nanoparticles on Surface of Commercial Carbon-Based Adsorbent for Removal of Contaminants from Water
Abstract:
Adsorption/sorption is believed to be one of the optimal processes for the removal of heavy metals from water due to its low operational and capital cost as well as its high removal efficiency. Different materials have been reported in literature as adsorbent for heavy metal removal in waste water such as natural sorbents, organic polymers (synthetic) and mineral materials (inorganic). The selection of adsorbents and development of new functional materials that can achieve good removal of heavy metals from water is an important practice and depends on many factors, such as the availability of the material, cost of material, and material safety and etc. In this study we reported the synthesis of doped Activated carbon and Carbon nanotube (CNT) with different loading of metal oxide nanoparticles such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles and their application in removal of heavy metals, hydrocarbon, and organics from waste water. Commercial AC and CNT with different loadings of mentioned nanoparticle were prepared and effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, sorption kinetic, and concentration effects are studied and optimum condition for removal of heavy metals from water is reported. The prepared composite sorbent is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique, and Zeta potential. The composite materials showed higher removal efficiency and superior adsorption capacity compared to commercially available carbon based adsorbent. The specific surface area of AC increased by 50% reaching up to 2000 m2/g while the CNT specific surface area of CNT increased by more than 8 times reaching value of 890 m2/g. The increased surface area is one of the key parameters along with surface charge of the material determining the removal efficiency and removal efficiency. Moreover, the surface charge density of the impregnated CNT and AC have enhanced significantly where can benefit the adsorption process. The nanoparticles also enhance the catalytic activity of material and reduce the agglomeration and aggregation of material which provides more active site for adsorbing the contaminant from water. Some of the results for treating wastewater includes 100% removal of BTEX, arsenic, strontium, barium, phenolic compounds, and oil from water. The results obtained are promising for the use of AC and CNT loaded with metal oxide nanoparticle in treatment and pretreatment of waste water and produced water before desalination process. Adsorption can be very efficient with low energy consumption and economic feasibility.
72
31613
Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nanoparticle on Extracted Carrageenan and Its Catalytic Activity for Reducing Aromatic Nitro Group
Abstract:
Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and characterized on green-extracted Carrageenan from seaweed by precipitation method without using any supporter and template with precipitation method. The crystallinity, optical properties, morphology, and composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of processing parameters on the size and shape of Cu- nanostructures such as effect of pH were investigated. It is found that the reaction at lower pH values (acidic) could not be completed and pH = 8.00 was the best pH value to prepare very fine nanoparticles. They as synthesized Cu-nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of NaBH4. The results showed that Cu-nanoparticles are very active for reduction of these nitro aromatic compounds.
71
25947
Speciation of Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles and other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene
Abstract:
Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1-MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by g-factors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe(IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe(IV)---O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.
70
19318
Nanostructured Pt/MnO2 Catalysts and Their Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Air Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell
Abstract:
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising technology for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Catalysts are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. The sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) rate at air cathode necessitates efficient electrocatalyst such as carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) which is very costly. Manganese oxide (MnO2) was a representative metal oxide which has been studied as a promising alternative electrocatalyst for ORR and has been tested in air-cathode MFCs. However, the single MnO2 has poor electric conductivity and low stability. In the present work, the MnO2 catalyst has been modified by doping Pt nanoparticle. The goal of the work was to improve the performance of the MFC with minimum Pt loading. MnO2 and Pt nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal and sol-gel methods, respectively. Wet impregnation method was used to synthesize Pt/MnO2 catalyst. The catalysts were further used as cathode catalysts in air-cathode cubic MFCs, in which anaerobic sludge was inoculated as biocatalysts and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as the substrate in the anode chamber. The as-prepared Pt/MnO2 was characterized comprehensively through field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) where its surface morphology, crystallinity, oxidation state and electrochemical activity were examined, respectively. XPS revealed Mn (IV) oxidation state and Pt (0) nanoparticle metal, indicating the presence of MnO2 and Pt. Morphology of Pt/MnO2 observed from FESEM shows that the doping of Pt did not cause change in needle-like shape of MnO2 which provides large contacting surface area. The electrochemical active area of the Pt/MnO2 catalysts has been increased from 276 to 617 m2/g with the increase in Pt loading from 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The CV results in O2 saturated neutral Na2SO4 solution showed that MnO2 and Pt/MnO2 catalysts could catalyze ORR with different catalytic activities. MFC with Pt/MnO2 (0.4 wt% Pt) as air cathode catalyst generates a maximum power density of 165 mW/m3, which is higher than that of MFC with MnO2 catalyst (95 mW/m3). The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the MFC operated with MnO2 cathode gradually decreased during 14 days of operation, whereas the MFC with Pt/MnO2 cathode remained almost constant throughout the operation suggesting the higher stability of the Pt/MnO2 catalyst. Therefore, Pt/MnO2 with 0.4 wt% Pt successfully demonstrated as an efficient and low cost electrocatalyst for ORR in air cathode MFC with higher electrochemical activity, stability and hence enhanced performance.
69
57439
Biosynthesis of Silver-Phosphate Nanoparticles Using the Extracellular Polymeric Substance of Sporosarcina pasteurii
Abstract:
Silver ions (Ag+) and their compounds are consequentially toxic to microorganisms, showing biocidal effects on many species of bacteria. Silver-phosphate (or silver orthophosphate) is one of these compounds, which is famous for its antimicrobial effect and catalysis application. In the present study, a green method was presented to synthesis silver-phosphate nanoparticles using Sporosarcina pasteurii. The composition of the biosynthesized nanoparticles was identified as Ag3PO4 using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Also, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that Ag3PO4 nanoparticles was synthesized in the presence of biosurfactants, enzymes, and proteins. In addition, UV-Vis adsorption of the produced colloidal suspension approved the results of XRD and FTIR analyses. Finally, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images indicated that the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm.
68
53003
Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2
Abstract:
Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.
67
28446
Nano Gold and Silver for Control of Mosquitoes Manipulating Nanogeometries
Abstract:
The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Currently, nanoparticle research is an area of intense scientific interest. Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus of fungi and plant based syntheses. Silver and gold nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver and gold. These particles are of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Silver and gold have been use in the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, electronic field, treatment of burns, wounds, and several bacterial infections. There is a crucial need to produce new insecticides due to resistance and high-cost of organic insecticides which are more environmentally-friendly, safe, and target-specific. Synthesizing nanoparticles using plants and microorganisms can eliminate this problem by making the nanoparticles more biocompatible. Here we reviewed the mosquitocidal and antimicrobials activity of silver and gold nanoparticles using fungi, plants as well as bacteria.
66
29064
Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xNdxO4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles
Abstract:
In this present work, CoFe2-xNdxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≥0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were revealed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite with the signature of NdFeO3 phase at higher Nd3+ concentration. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated the spherical nanoparticle in the size range between 5-15 nm. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectra supported the formation of the spinel ferrite structure in the nanocrystalline form. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the presence of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral as well as a tetrahedral site in CoFe2-xNdxO4 nanoparticles. The change in magnetic properties with a variation of concentration of Nd3+ ions in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was observed.
65
84945
Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage
Abstract:
Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.
64
81400
Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage
Abstract:
Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.
63
84948
Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage
Abstract:
Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.
62
25484
Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam
Abstract:
In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.
61
31421
Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.
60
77806
Continuous Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles by Hydrazine Reduction
Abstract:
The synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by the reduction of nickel chloride with hydrazine in an aqueous solution. The effect of hydrazine concentration on batch-processed particle characteristics was investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Both average particle size and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were decreasing with increasing hydrazine concentration. The continuous synthesis of nickel nanoparticles by microemulsion method was also studied using FESEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average size and geometric standard deviation of continuous-processed particles were 87.4 nm and 1.16, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed continuous-processed particles were pure nickel crystalline with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure.
59
58406
Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector
Authors:
Abstract:
Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.
58
20089
Rapid Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata Leaf Extract
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from silver nitrate through a rapid green synthesis method using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent. The experimental procedure was readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and could be easily scaled up. The silver nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) which yielded an absorption peak at 416 nm. The biomolecules responsible for capping of the bio-reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract were successfully identified through FTIR analysis. It was evinced through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and spherical in shape. The average size of the particles obtained using Scherrer’s formula was 27.4 nm. The adopted technique for silver nanoparticle synthesis is suitable for large-scale production.
57
58313
Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.
56
18936
Improvement of Chemical Demulsifier Performance Using Silica Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The reduction of water content in crude oil emulsions reduces pipeline corrosion potential and increases the productivity. Chemical emulsification of crude oil emulsions is one of the methods available to reduce the water content. Presence of demulsifier causes the film layer between the crude oil emulsion and water droplets to become unstable leading to the acceleration of water coalescence. This research has been performed to study the improvement performance of a chemical demulsifier by silica nanoparticles. The silica nano-particles have been synthesized by sol-gel technique and precipitation using poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactants and then nano-particles are added to the demulsifier. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and SEM. Upon the addition of nanoparticles, bottle tests have been carried out to separate and measure the water content. The results show that silica nano-particles increase the demulsifier efficiency by about 40%.
55
51070
Paper-Based Colorimetric Sensor Utilizing Peroxidase-Mimicking Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Aptamers
Abstract:
We developed a paper-based colorimetric sensor utilizing magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with aptamers (MNP-Apts) against E. coli O157:H7. The MNP-Apts were applied to a test sample solution containing the target cells, and the solution was simply dropped onto PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane. The membrane moves the sample radially to form the sample spots of different compounds as concentric rings, thus the MNP-Apts on the membrane enabled specific recognition of the target cells through a color ring generation by MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction of TMB (3,3&#39;,5,5&#39;-tetramethylbenzidine) and H2O2. This method could be applied to rapidly and visually detect various bacterial pathogens in less than 1 h without cell culturing.
54
6457
Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition of Inorganic-Fluoropolymer Nano-Coatings for Real-Life Applications
Abstract:
In recent years antimicrobial coatings are receiving increasing attention due to their high demand in medical applications as well as in healthcare and hygiene. Research and technology are constantly involved to develop advanced finishing which can provide bacteriostatic growth without compromising the other typical properties of a textile as durability and non-toxicity, just to cite a few. Here we report on the antimicrobial coatings obtained, at room temperature and without the use of solvents, by means of the ion beam co-sputtering technique of an Ag target and a polytetrafluoroethylene one. In particular, such method allows to conjugate the well-known antimicrobial action of silver with the anti-stain and water-repellent properties of the fluoropolymer. Moreover, different Ag nanoparticle loadings (φ) were prepared by tuning the material deposition conditions achieving a fine control on film thickness and their antimicrobial/anti-stain properties.
53
104084
Synthesis of Microporous Interconnected Polymeric Foam of Poly (Glycidyl Methacrylate-Co-Divinylbenzene-Co-Butyl Acrylate) by Using Aqueous Foam as a Template
Abstract:
Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) modified nano silica were used as pore stabilizer for the preparation of interconnected macroporous copolymer foam of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and tert-butyl acrylate (BA). The polymerization of air infused aqueous foam is carried out through free radical thermal initiator. The porosity of the polymerized foam depends on the concentration of HTAB used to control the hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior of silica nanoparticle. Modified silica particle results to form closed cell foam with 74% of porosity for 60% of air infusion during aqueous foaming. The preliminary structure of microfoam was observed through optical microscopy, whereas for a better understanding of morphology SEM was used. The proposed route is an eco-friendly route for synthesizing polymeric microporous polymer as compared to other chemical and additive-based routes available.
52
84089
Development of Gold Nanoparticles-Antibody System for the Selective Photothermal Destruction of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance, which threatens the efficacy of the existing antibiotics represents a worldwide public health issue. At the current time, vancomycin is the only responsive treatment although has significant cytotoxicity, is partially effective and it is poorly retained by infected tissues. From a clinical point of view, attractive alternative approaches for treating such Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) strains would be using agents that cause physical damage to the bacteria. Modular nanopharmaceuticals systems are being designed to address all of these multifunctional capabilities for the ideal bacterial treatment, with the ability to mix and match appropriate functions. Here we present a novel method of selective laser photothermal ablation of MRSA bacteria mediated by gold nanoparticles bound to PBP antibody against PBP protein located on the MRSA surface.
51
93376
Comparison of Cu Nanoparticle Formation and Properties with and without Surrounding Dielectric
Abstract:
When grown only to nanometric sizes, metallic particles (e.g. Ag, Au and Cu) exhibit specific optical properties caused by the presence of plasmon band. The plasmon band represents collective oscillation of the conduction electrons, and causes a narrow band absorption of light in the visible range. When the nanoparticles are embedded in a dielectric, they also cause modifications of dielectrics optical properties. This can be fine-tuned by tuning the particle size. We investigated Cu nanoparticle growth with and without surrounding dielectric (SiO2 capping layer). The morphology and crystallinity were investigated by GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively. Samples were produced by high vacuum thermal evaporation of Cu onto monocrystalline silicon substrate held at room temperature, 100°C or 180°C. One series was in situ capped by 10nm SiO2 layer. Additionally, samples were annealed at different temperatures up to 550°C, also in high vacuum. The room temperature deposited samples annealed at lower temperatures exhibit continuous film structure: strong oscillations in the GISAXS intensity are present especially in the capped samples. At higher temperatures enhanced surface dewetting and Cu nanoparticles (nanoislands) formation partially destroy the flatness of the interface. Therefore the particle type of scattering is enhanced, while the film fringes are depleted. However, capping layer hinders particle formation, and continuous film structure is preserved up to higher annealing temperatures (visible as strong and persistent fringes in GISAXS), compared to the non- capped samples. According to GISAXS, lateral particle sizes are reduced at higher temperatures, while particle height is increasing. This is ascribed to close packing of the formed particles at lower temperatures, and GISAXS deduced sizes are partially the result of the particle agglomerate dimensions. Lateral maxima in GISAXS are an indication of good positional correlation, and the particle to particle distance is increased as the particles grow with temperature elevation. This coordination is much stronger in the capped and lower temperature deposited samples. The dewetting is much more vigorous in the non-capped sample, and since nanoparticles are formed in a range of sizes, correlation is receding both with deposition and annealing temperature. Surface topology was checked by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Capped sample's surfaces were smoother and lateral size of the surface features were larger compared to the non-capped samples. Altogether, AFM results suggest somewhat larger particles and wider size distribution, and this can be attributed to the difference in probe size. Finally, the plasmonic effect was monitored by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and relative weak plasmonic effect could be explained by uncomplete dewetting or partial interconnection of the formed particles.
50
71169
Peristaltic Transport of a Jeffrey Fluid with Double-Diffusive Convection in Nanofluids in the Presence of Inclined Magnetic Field
Authors:
Abstract:
In this article, the effects of peristaltic transport with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids through an asymmetric channel with different waveforms is presented. Mathematical modelling for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a Jeffrey fluid model along with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids are given. Exact solutions are obtained for nanoparticle fraction field, concentration field, temperature field, stream functions, pressure gradient and pressure rise in terms of axial and transverse coordinates under the restrictions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. With the help of computational and graphical results the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Dufour, Soret, and Grashof numbers (thermal, concentration, nanoparticles) on peristaltic flow patterns with double-diffusive convection are discussed.
49
22870
FT-IR Investigation of the Influence of Acid-Base Sites on Cr-Incorporated MCM-41 Nanoparticle in C-C Bond Formation
Authors:
Abstract:
The most popular mesoporous molecular sieves, Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM) are keenly studied by researchers because of these materials possess amorphous silica wall and have a long range of ordered framework with uniform mesopores. These materials also possess large surface area, which can be up to more than 1000 m2g−1. Herein the investigation is focused upon the synthesis and characterization of chromium and aluminum doped MCM-41 using XRD and FTIR. Acid-base properties of Cr-Al-MCM 41 was investigated by molecularly sensitive transmission FT-IR spectroscopy by adsorbing pyridine. In addition, these MCM nanomaterial was used to catalyze C-C bond formation from acetaldehyde adsorption. The assignment of all infrared peaks during adsorption of pyridine provided detail information on the presence of acid-base sites which in turn helped us to explain the roles of these in the condensation reaction of aldehyde. Reaction mechanisms of C-C bond formation is therefore explored to shed some light on this elusive reaction detail.
48
19325
Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor
Abstract:
The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.
47
54627
Sliver Nanoparticles Enhanced Visible and Near Infrared Emission of Er³+ Ions Doped Lithium Tungsten Tellurite Glasses
Abstract:
TeO2-WO3-Li2O glass doped erbium ions (1mol %) and embedded silver nanoparticles( Ag NPs) has successfully been prepared by melt quenching technique and increasing the heat-treatment duration. The amorphous nature of the glass is determined by X-ray diffraction method, and the presences of silver nanoparticles are confirmed using Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis. TEM image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with average size 18 nm. From the UV-Vis absorption spectra, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks are detected at 550 and 578 nm. Under 980 nm excitation wavelengths, enhancement of red upconversion fluorescence and near-infrared broadband emission around 1550nm of Er3+ ions doped tellurite glasses containing Ag NPs have been observed. The observed enhancement of Er3+ emission is mainly attributed to the local field effects of Ag NPs causes an intensified electromagnetic field around NPs. For observed enhancement involved mechanisms are discussed.
46
17756
Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes
Abstract:
An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.
45
18028
Topical Delivery of Griseofulvin via Lipid Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Griseofulvin is a long standing fungistatic agent against dermatophytosis. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks such as poor and highly variable bio availability, long duration of treatment, systemic side effects and drug interactions. Targeted treatment for the superficial skin infection, dermatophytosis via topical route could be beneficial. Nevertheless, griseofulvin is only available in the form of oral preparation. Hence, it generates interest in developing a topical formulation for griseofulvin, by using lipid nano particle as the vehicle. Lipid nanoparticle is a submicron colloidal carrier with a core that is solid in nature (lipid). It has combined advantages of various traditional carriers and is a promising vehicle for topical delivery. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nano particles produced using high pressure homogenization method were characterized and investigated for its skin targeting effect in vitro. It has a mean particle size of 179.8±4.9 nm with polydispersity index of 0.306±0.011. Besides, it showed higher skin permeation and better skin targeting effect compared to the griseofulvin suspension.
44
23740
Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum
Abstract:
Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.
43
71251
Influence of Nanoparticles Phenomena on the Peristaltic Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid in an Inclined Asymmetric Channel with Different Wave Forms
Authors:
Abstract:
The influence of nanofluid with different waveforms in the presence of inclined asymmetric channel on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic fluid is examined. The governing equations for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a pseudoplastic fluid along with nanofluid are modeled and then simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The exact solutions for temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are calculated. Series solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The flow quantities have been examined for various physical parameters of interest. It was found, that the magnitude value of the velocity profile decreases with an increase in volume flow rate (Q) and relaxation times (ζ) and increases in sinusoidal, multisinusoidal, trapezoidal and triangular waves. It was also observed that the size of the trapping bolus decreases with the drop of the width of the channel ‘d’ and increases with a rise of relaxation times ζ.
42
35217
Nanoparticle Supported, Magnetically Separable Metalloporphyrin as an Efficient Retrievable Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst in Oxidation Reactions
Abstract:
Metalloporphyrins are well known to mimic the activity of monooxygenase enzymes. In this regard, metalloporphyrin complexes have been largely employed as valuable biomimetic catalysts, owing to the critical roles they play in oxygen transfer processes in catalytic oxidation reactions. Investigating in this area is based on different strategies to design selective, stable and high turnover catalytic systems. Immobilization of expensive metalloporphyrin catalysts onto supports appears to be a good way to improve their stability, selectivity and the catalytic performance because of the support environment and other advantages with respect to recovery, reuse. In other words, supporting metalloporphyrins provides a physical separation of active sites, thus minimizing catalyst self-destruction and dimerization of unhindered metalloporphyrins. Furthermore, heterogeneous catalytic oxidations have become an important target since their process are used in industry, helping to minimize the problems of industrial waste treatment. Hence, the immobilization of these biomimetic catalysts is much desired. An attractive approach is the preparation of the heterogeneous catalyst involves immobilization of complexes on silica coated magnetic nano-particles. [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles have been studied extensively due to their superparamagnetism property, large surface area to volume ratio and easy functionalization. Using heterogenized homogeneous catalysts is an attractive option to facile separation of catalyst, simplified product work-up and continuity of catalytic system. Homogeneous catalysts immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) surface occupy a unique position due to combining the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, superparamagnetic nature of MNPs enable very simple separation of the immobilized catalysts from the reaction mixture using an external magnet. In the present work, an efficient heterogeneous catalyst was prepared by immobilizing manganese porphyrin on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through the amino propyl linkage. The prepared catalyst was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Application of immobilized metalloporphyrin in the oxidation of various organic substrates was explored using Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The results showed that the supported Mn-porphyrin catalyst ([email protected]@MnPor) is an efficient and reusable catalyst in oxidation reactions. Our catalytic system exhibits high catalytic activity in terms of turnover number (TON) and reaction conditions. Leaching and recycling experiments revealed that nanocatalyst can be recovered several times without loss of activity and magnetic properties. The most important advantage of this heterogenized catalytic system is the simplicity of the catalyst separation in which the catalyst can be separated from the reaction mixture by applying a magnet. Furthermore, the separation and reuse of the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were very effective and economical.
41
42377
Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.
40
1465
Synthesis, Characterization, and Physico–Chemical Properties of Nano Zinc Oxide and PVA Composites
Abstract:
Polymer nanocomposites represent a new class of materials in which nanomaterials act as the reinforcing material in composites, wherein small additions of nanomaterials lead to large enhancements in thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. A boost in these properties is due to the large interfacial area per unit volume or weight of the nanoparticles and the interactions between the particle and the polymer. Micro-sized particles used as reinforcing agents scatter light, thus, reducing light transmittance and optical clarity. Efficient nanoparticle dispersion combined with good polymer–particle interfacial adhesion eliminates scattering and allows the exciting possibility of developing strong yet transparent films, coatings and membranes. This paper aims at synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles which are reinforced in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength of the PVA nanocomposites increases with the increase in the amount of nanoparticles.
39
53060
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
Abstract:
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
38
44974
Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms
Abstract:
Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13&nbsp;nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5&nbsp;nm size nanoparticles.
37
52765
An Easy-Applicable Method for In situ Silver Nanoparticles Preparation into Wool Fibers
Abstract:
In this study, three different systems including room temperature, conventional water bath heating and microwave irradiation technique will be employed in the fabrication of silver nanoparticle-wool fibers. The silver nanoparticles will be synthesized in-situ incorporated into wool fibers under redox active bio-template of wool protein which facilitates the reduction of Ag+ to nanoparticulate Ag0. Silver NPs incorporated wool fiber will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR, TGA, silver content and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanism of binding Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers matrix will be discussed. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the coloration, antimicrobial, UV-protection and catalytic properties of the wool fibers will be evaluated. The overall results of this study indicate that the Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers will be applied as colorants for wool fibers with improving in its multi-functionality properties. So, this study provides a simple approach for innovative protein fibers design by applying the optical properties of Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles.
36
38067
Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits
Abstract:
This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of AuNPs (300 µg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs. Tissue distribution of AuNPs was evaluated at a dose of 300 µg/ kg in male rabbit. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions in lung and liver cells were induced in rabbits treated at the300 µg/ kg dose level. The highest gold levels were found in the spleen, followed by liver, lungs and kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen and liver.
35
66948
Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level
Abstract:
Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.
34
114703
Exploiting the Tumour Microenvironment in Order to Optimise Sonodynamic Therapy for Cancer
Abstract:
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) utilises ultrasound in combination with sensitizers, such as porphyrins, for the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the confined ablation of tumours. Ultrasound can be applied locally, and the acoustic waves, at frequencies between 0.5-2 MHz, are transmitted efficiently through tissue. SDT does not require highly toxic agents, and the cytotoxic effect only occurs upon ultrasound exposure at the site of the lesion. Therefore, this approach is not associated with adverse side effects. Further highlighting the benefits of SDT, no cancer cell population has shown resistance to therapy-triggered ROS production or their cytotoxic effects. This is particularly important, given the as yet unresolved issues of radiation and chemo-resistance, to the authors’ best knowledge. Another potential future benefit of this approach – considering its non-thermal mechanism of action – is its possible role as an adjuvant to immunotherapy. Substantial pre-clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy and targeting capability of this therapeutic approach. However, SDT has yet to be fully characterised and appropriately exploited for the treatment of cancer. In this study, a formulation based on multistimulus-responsive sensitizer-containing nanoparticles that can accumulate in advanced prostate tumours and increase the therapeutic efficacy of SDT has been developed. The formulation is based on a polyglutamate-tyrosine (PGATyr) co-polymer carrying hematoporphyrin. The efficacy of SDT in this study was demonstrated using prostate cancer as the translational exemplar. The formulation was designed to respond to the microenvironment of advanced prostate tumours, such as the overexpression of the proteolytic enzymes, cathepsin-B and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), that can degrade the nanoparticles, reduce their size, improving both diffusions throughout the tumour mass and cellular uptake. The therapeutic modality was initially tested in vitro using LNCaP and PC3 cells as target cell lines. The SDT efficacy was also examined in vivo, using male SCID mice bearing LNCaP subcutaneous tumours. We have demonstrated that the PGATyr co-polymer is digested by cathepsin B and that digestion of the formulation by cathepsin-B, at tumour-mimicking conditions (acidic pH), leads to decreased nanoparticle size and subsequent increased cellular uptake. Sonodynamic treatment, at both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, demonstrated ultrasound-induced cytotoxic effects only for the nanoparticle-treated prostate cancer cells, while the toxicity of the formulation in the absence of ultrasound was minimal. Our in vivo studies in immunodeficient mice, using the hematoporphyrin-containing PGATyr nanoparticles for SDT, showed a 50% decrease in LNCaP tumour volumes within 24h, following IV administration of a single dose. No adverse effects were recorded, and body weight was stable. The results described in this study clearly demonstrate the promise of SDT to revolutionize cancer treatment. It emphasizes the potential of this therapeutic modality as a fist line treatment or in combination treatment for the elimination or downstaging of difficult to treat cancers, such as prostate, pancreatic, and advanced colorectal cancer.
33
14481
Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex
Abstract:
Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.
32
5938
MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip
Abstract:
The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.
31
81621
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2
Abstract:
Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.
30
20293
Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin
Abstract:
Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.
29
68518
Existence of Nano-Organic Carbon Particles below the Size Range of 10 nm in the Indoor Air Environment
Abstract:
<p class="Abstract" style="text-indent:10.2pt">Indoor air environment is a big concern in the last few decades in the developing countries, with increased focus on monitoring the air quality. In this work, an experimental study has been conducted to establish the existence of carbon nanoparticles below the size range of 10 nm in the non-sooting zone of a LPG/air partially premixed flame. Mainly, four optical techniques, UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and TEM have been used to characterize and measure the size of carbon nanoparticles in the sampled materials collected from the inner surface of the flame front. The existence of the carbon nanoparticles in the sampled material has been confirmed with the typical nature of the absorption and fluorescence spectra already reported in the literature. The band gap energy shows that the particles are made up of three to six aromatic rings. The size measurement by DLS technique also shows that the particles below the size range of 10 nm. The results of DLS are also corroborated by the TEM image of the same material.&nbsp;
28
89385
A Prospective Evaluation of Thermal Radiation Effects on Magneto-Hydrodynamic Transport of a Nanofluid Traversing a Spongy Medium
Abstract:
This article reports a fundamental numerical investigation to analyze the impact of thermal radiations on MHD flow of differential type nanofluid past a porous plate. Here, viscosity is taken as function of temperature. Energy equation is deliberated in the existence of viscous dissipation. The mathematical terminologies of nano concentration, velocity and temperature are first cast into dimensionless expressions via suitable conversions and then solved by using Shooting technique to obtain the numerical solutions. Graphs has been plotted to check the convergence of constructed solutions. At the end, the influence of effective parameters on nanoparticle concentration, velocity and temperature fields are also deliberated in a comprehensive way. Moreover, the physical measures of engineering importance such as the Sherwood number, Skin friction and Nusselt number are also calculated. It is perceived that the thermal radiation enhances the temperature for both Vogel's and Reynolds' models but the normal stress parameter causes a reduction in temperature profile.
27
26681
Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework Coated Carbon Nitride Nanosheet for Combination Cancer Therapy
Abstract:
In the past couple of decades, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have been highlighted as promising delivery platforms for biomedical applications, which combine many potent features such as high loading capacity, progressive biodegradability and low cytotoxicity. While NMOF has been extensively used as carriers for drugs of different modalities, so far there is no report on exploiting the advantages of NMOF for combination therapy. Herein, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles, where each nanoparticle contains a single graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet encapsulated by a zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) shell. The g-C3N4 nanosheets are effective visible-light photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). When hosting DOX (doxorubicin), the as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles could realize combinational photo-chemo therapy and provide dual-color fluorescence imaging. Therefore, we expect NMOFs-based core-shell nanoparticles could provide a new way to achieve much-enhanced cancer therapy.
26
38612
Delivery of Doxorubicin to Glioblastoma Multiforme Using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles with Surface Aprotinin and Melanotransferrin Antibody for Enhanced Chemotherapy
Abstract:
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) conjugated with aprotinin (Apr) and melanotransferrin antibody (Anti-MTf) were used to carry doxorubicin (Dox) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) chemotherapy. Dox-entrapped SLNs with grafted Apr and Anti-MTf (Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs) were applied to a cultured monolayer comprising human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) with regulation of human astrocyte (HAs) and to a proliferated colony of U87MG cells. Based on the average particle diameter, zeta potential, entrapping efficiency of Dox, and grafting efficiency of Apr and Anti-MTf, we found that 40% (w/w) 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in lipids were appropriate for fabricating Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs. In addition, Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs could prevent Dox from fast dissolution and did not induce a serious cytotoxicity to HBMECs and HAs when compared with free Dox. Moreover, the treatments with Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs enhanced the ability of Dox to infuse the BBB and to inhibit the growth of GBM. The current Apr-Anti-MTf-Dox-SLNs can be a promising pharmacotherapeutic preparation to penetrate the BBB for malignant brain tumor treatment.
25
24214
Polymer Solar Cells Synthesized with Copper Oxide Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Copper Oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nano particles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nano particles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA/cm2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA/cm2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nano particles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nano particles.
24
84359
Enhanced Magnetic Hyperthermic Efficiency of Ferrite Based Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Hyperthermia is one of many techniques used destroys cancerous cell. It uses the physical methods to heat certain organ or tissue delivering an adequate temperature in an appropriate period of time, to the entire tumor volume for achieving optimal therapeutic results. Magnetic Metal ferrites nanoparticles (MFe₂O₄ where M = Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Mg, etc.) are one of the most potential candidates for hyperthermia due to their tunability, biocompatibility, chemical stability and notable ability to mediate high rate of heat induction. However, to obtain the desirable properties for these applications, it is important to optimize their chemical composition, structure and magnetic properties. These properties are mainly sensitive to cation distribution of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Among the ferrites, zinc ferrite (ZnFe₂O₄) and Manganese ferrite ((MnFe₂O₄) is one of a strong candidate for hyperthermia application because Mn and zinc have a non-magnetic cation and therefore the magnetic property is determined only by the cation distribution of iron, which provides a better platform to manipulate or tailor the properties. In this talk, influence of doping and surfactant towards cation re-distribution leading to an enhancement of magnetic properties of ferrite nanoparticles will be demonstrated. The efficiency of heat generation in association with the enhanced magnetic property is also well discussed in this talk.
23
16972
Characterization and Detection of Cadmium Ion Using Modification Calixarene with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
Water contamination by toxic compound is one of the serious environmental problems today. These toxic compounds mostly originated from industrial effluents, agriculture, natural sources and human waste. These study are focused on modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) with nanoparticle of calixarene and explore the possibility of using this nanocomposites for the remediation of cadmium in water. The nanocomposites were prepared by dissolving calixarene in chloroform solution as solvent, followed by additional multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) then sonication process for 3 hour and fabricated the nanocomposites on substrate by spin coating method. Finally, the nanocomposites were tested on cadmium ion (10 mg/ml). The morphology of nanocomposites was investigated by FESEM showing the formation of calixarene on the outer walls of carbon nanotube and cadmium ion also clearly seen from the micrograph. This formation was supported by using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The presence of cadmium ions in the films, leads to some changes in the surface potential and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).This nanocomposites have potential for development of sensor for pollutant monitoring and nanoelectronics devices applications
22
102821
Stability and Rheological Study of Carbon Nanotube Water Based Nanofluid
Abstract:
In this research, stability and rheology behavior of Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanofluids by using Xanthan Gum as a dispersant were measured. This paper addresses the effects of Xanthan Gum (XG) concentration and nanoparticle loading on stability and viscosity of nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids is measured by Zeta Sizer Nano-ZS (Malvern Instruments, ZEN 3600). The zeta potential of the stable samples was analyzed. The rheological behavior of carbon nanotube CNT nanofluids was analyzed using rheometer (Model AR G2, TA Instrument). Both stability and viscosity of the nanofluids increased with increasing CNT and XG concentration. The experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of nanofluid samples is stable. The results demonstrated that the zeta potential was affected by the CNT concentration and is augmented in parallel with increasing CNT concentration. The rheology results showed that the viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid was increased. The escalated viscosity of CNT/XG nanofluid is owing to the higher van der Waals interaction between the CNT nanoparticles. On the other hand, the viscosity of the CNT/XG nanofluid decreases with increasing temperature. In summary, this research provides useful insight into the behavior of CNT nanofluids.
21
65052
Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.
20
115145
Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity
Abstract:
In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.
19
135275
Efficient Pre-Concentration of As (III) Using Guanidine-Modified Magnetic Mesoporous Silica in the Food Sample
Abstract:
An efficient magnetic mesoporous structure was designed and prepared for the facile pre-concentration of As(III) ions. To prepare the sorbent, a core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticle was covered by MCM-41 like structure, and then the surface was modified by guanidine via an amine linker. The prepared adsorbent was investigated as an effective and sensitive material for the adsorption of arsenic ions from the aqueous solution applying a normal batch method. The imperative variables of the adsorption were studied to increase efficiency. The dynamic and static processes were tested that matched a pseudo-second order of kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The sorbent reusability was investigated, and it was confirmed that the designed product could be applied at best for six cycles successively without any significant efficiency loss. The synthesized product was tested to determine and pre-concentrate trace amounts of arsenic ions in rice and natural waters as a real sample. A desorption process applying 5 mL of hydrochloric acid (0.5 mol L⁻¹) as an eluent exhibited about 98% recovery of the As(III) ions adsorbed on the GA-MSMP sorbent.
18
7668
Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Shrinking Surface in a Cu-Water Nanofluid
Abstract:
In this paper, the steady laminar three-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid in the vicinity of a permeable shrinking flat surface in an otherwise quiescent fluid is studied. The nanofluid mathematical model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Dual solutions (upper and lower branch solutions) are found for the similarity boundary layer equations for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. The numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained, presented and discussed in detail for a range of various governing parameters.
17
25173
Target Drug Delivery of Pamidronate Nanoparticles for Enhancing Osteoblastic Activity in Osteoporosis
Abstract:
Nanoparticles (NPs) that target bone tissue were developed using PLGA–mPEG (poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid)–polyethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by using pamidronate as a bone-targeting moieties. These NPs are expected to enable the transport of hydrophilic drugs. The NP was prepared by in situ polymerization method, and their in- vitro characteristics were evaluated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in phosphate-buffered solution. The bone targeting potential of the NP was also evaluated on in-vitro pre-osteoblast MCT3E1 cell line using ALP activity, degree of mineralization and RT-PCR assay. The average particle size of the NP was 101.6 ± 3.7nm, zeta potential values were negative (-25±0.34mV) of the formulations and the entrapment efficiency was 93± 3.1 % obtained. The moiety of the PLGA–mPEG–pamidronate NPs exhibited the best apatite mineral binding ability in-vitro MCT3E1 pre-osteoblast cell line. Our results suggested that the developed nanoparticles may use as a delivery system for Pamidronate in bone repair and regeneration, warranting further evaluation of the treatment of bone disease.
16
13910
Turbulent Forced Convection of Cu-Water Nanofluid: CFD Models Comparison
Abstract:
This study compares the predictions of five types of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, including two single-phase models (i.e. Newtonian and non-Newtonian) and three two-phase models (Eulerian-Eulerian, mixture and Eulerian-Lagrangian), to investigate turbulent forced convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a tube with a constant heat flux on the tube wall. The Reynolds (Re) number of the flow is between 10,000 and 25,000, while the volume fraction of Cu particles used is in the range of 0 to 2%. The commercial CFD package of ANSYS-Fluent is used. The results from the CFD models are compared with results from experimental investigations from literature. According to the results of this study, non-Newtonian single-phase model, in general, does not show a good agreement with Xuan and Li correlation in prediction of Nu number. Eulerian-Eulerian model gives inaccurate results expect for φ=0.5%. Mixture model gives a maximum error of 15%. Newtonian single-phase model and Eulerian-Lagrangian model, in overall, are the recommended models. This work can be used as a reference for selecting an appreciate model for future investigation. The study also gives a proper insight about the important factors such as Brownian motion, fluid behavior parameters and effective nanoparticle conductivity which should be considered or changed by the each model.
15
30428
Thermo-Physical and Morphological Properties of Pdlcs Films Doped with Tio2 Nanoparticles.
Abstract:
PDLCs are currently considered as promising materials for specific applications such as creation of window blinds controlled by electric field, fog simulators, UV protective glasses, high data storage device etc. We know that the electrical field inside the liquid crystal is low compare with the external electric field [1,2]. An addition of high magnetic and electrical, properties containing compounds to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) will enhance the electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of the PDLC [3,4]. Low Concentration of inorganic nanoparticles TiO2 added to nematic liquid crystals (E7) and also combined with monomers (TPGDA) and cured monomer/LC mixture to elaborate polymer-LC-NP dispersion. The presence of liquid crystal and nanoparticles in TPGDA matrix were conformed and the modified properties of PDLC due to doped nanoparticle were studied and explained by the results of FTIR, POM, UV. Incorporation of nanoparticles modifies the structure of PDLC and thus it makes increase the amount of droplets and decrease in droplet size. we found that the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles leads to a shift the nematic-isotropic transition temperature TNI.
14
19656
Effect of Aging Time on CeO2 Nanoparticle Size Distribution Synthesized via Sol-Gel Method
Abstract:
Cerium oxide (CeO2) also known as cerium dioxide or ceria is a pale yellow-white powder with various applications in the industry from wood coating to cosmetics, filtration, fuel cell electrolytes, gas sensors, hybrid solar cells and catalysts. In this research, attempts were made to synthesize and characterization of CeO2 nano-particles via sol-gel method. In addition, the effect of aging time on the size of particles was investigated. For this purpose, the aging times adjusted 48, 56, 64, and 72 min. The obtained particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmitted electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). As a result, XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CeO2 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images illustrated the nano-particles with cluster shape, spherical and a nano-size range which was in agreement with XRD results. The finest particles (7.3 nm) was obtained at the optimum condition which was aging time of 48 min, calcination temperature at 400 ⁰C, and cerium concentration of 0.004 mol. Average specific surface area of the particles at optimum condition was measured by BET analysis and recorded as 47.57 m2/g.
13
16904
Preparation and Characterization of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle
Abstract:
The possibility of using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for topical use is an interesting feature concerning this system has occlusive properties on the skin surface therefore enhance the penetration of drugs through the stratum corneum by increased hydration. This advantage can be used to enhance the drug penetration of topical delivery such as Diclofenac sodium for the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The purpose of this study was focused on the preparation and physical characterization of Diclofenac sodium loaded SLN (D-SLN). D loaded SLN were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. Since the occlusion factor of SLN is related to its particle size the formulation of D-SLN in present study two formulations different in its surfactant contents were prepared to investigate the difference of the particle size resulted. Surfactants selected for preparation of formulation A (FA) were lecithin soya and Tween 80 whereas formulation B (FB) were lecithin soya, Tween 80, and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate. D-SLN were characterized for particle size and distribution, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential using Beckman-Coulter Delsa™ Nano. Overall, the particle size obtained from FA was larger than FB. FA has 90% of the particles were above 1000 nm, while FB has 90% were below 100 nm.
12
59988
Modeling of Nanocomposite Films Made of Cloisite 30b- Metal Nanoparticle in Packaging of Soy Burger
Abstract:
This study undertakes to investigate the ability of different kinds of nanocomposite films made of cloisite-30B with different percentages of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles incorporated into a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) polymeric matrix by a melt mixing method in order to inhibit the growth of microorganism in soy burger. The number of surviving cell of the total count was decreased by 3.61 log and mold and yeast diminished by 2.01 log after 8 weeks storage at 18 ± 0.5°C below zero, whilst pure LDPE did not has any antimicrobial effect. A composition of 1.3 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 2.7 % cloisite 30B-CuO for total count and 0 % cloisite 30B-Ag and 4 % cloisite 30B-CuO for yeast & mold gave optimum points in combined design test in Design Expert 7.1.5. Suitable microbial models were suggested for retarding above microorganisms growth in soy burger. To validation of optimum point, the difference between the optimum point of nanocomposite film and its repeat was not significant (p< 0.05) by one-way ANOVA analysis using SPSS 17.0 software, while the difference was significant for pure film. Migration of metallic nanoparticles into a food stimulant was within the accepted safe level.
11
53135
Resveratrol Incorporated Liposomes Prepared from Pegylated Phospholipids and Cholesterol
Abstract:
Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 &deg;C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.&nbsp;
10
68225
Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall
Abstract:
Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 &le; Ri &le; 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 &le; ϕ &le; 0.2), amplitude (0.0 &le; &alpha; &le; 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (&omega;) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.
9
120826
Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.
8
29244
On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature
Abstract:
In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.
7
8472
Development of pH Responsive Nanoparticles for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System
Abstract:
The aim of the present work was to develop Paclitaxel loaded polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles as pH responsive nanoparticle systems for targeting colon. The pH sensitive nanoparticles were prepared by modified ionotropic gelation technique. The prepared nanoparticles showed mean diameters in the range of 264±0.676 nm to 726±0.671nm, and a negative net charge 10.8 mV to 35.4mV. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies suggested that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymers. The encapsulation efficiency of the drug was found to be 40.92% to 48.14%. The suitability of the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum ERN’s for the release of Paclitaxel was studied by in vitro release at pH 1.2 and 7.4. It was observed that, there was no significant amount of drug release at gastric pH and 97.63% of drug release at pH 7.4 was obtained for optimized formulation F3 at the end of 12 hrs. In vivo drug targeting performance for the prepared optimized formulation (F3) and pure drug Paclitaxel was evaluated by HPLC. It was observed that the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum can be used to prepare nanoparticles for targeting the drug to the colon. The release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in ERN’s preparation, which allows maximum release at colon’s pH. It may be concluded that polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel have desirable release responsive to specific pH. Hence it is a unique approach for colonic delivery of drug having appropriate site specificity and feasibility and controlled release of drug.
6
103807
Preparation and Characterization of the TiO₂ Photocatalytic Membrane for the Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 Dye
Abstract:
Photocatalytic membranes have shown great potential for the removal of an organic and inorganic pollutant from wastewater as it combines the degradation and antibacterial properties from photocatalysis and physical separation by the membrane in a single unit. Incorporation of the semiconductor in membrane structure results in enhancing the performance and the properties of the membrane. In this study porous ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with entrapped TiO₂ nanoparticle were prepared by phase inversion method and further used for the degradation of reactive orange 16 (RO16). Prepared photocatalytic membranes were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The addition of TiO₂ nanopartparticles improves the strength and thermal stability of the membrane. In particular hydrophilicity and permeability increases with the increase of TiO₂ nanoparticles into the membrane. The photocatalytic membrane achieves 80-85% degrdation of RO16. The impact of different parameters such as pH, concentration of photocatalyst, dye concentration and effect of H₂O₂ were analysed. The best conditions for dye degradation were an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, with a membrane containing TiO₂ loading of 2wt%. It was observed that in the presence of H₂O₂, degradation increases with increasing H₂O₂ concentration and reached up to 95-98%. The high quality permeates obtained from the photocatalytic membrane can be reused.
5
123917
Meticulous Doxorubicin Release from pH-Responsive Nanoparticles Entrapped within an Injectable Thermoresponsive Depot
Abstract:
The dual stimuli-controlled release of doxorubicin from gel-embedded nanoparticles is reported. Non-cytotoxic polymer nanoparticles are formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) that, uniquely, contain a central ester link. This connection renders the nanoparticles pH-responsive, enabling extensive doxorubicin release in acidic solutions (pH 6.5), but not in solutions of physiological pH (pH 7.4). Doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles were found to be stable for at least 31 days and lethal against the three breast cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles could be incorporated within a thermoresponsive poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel depot, which forms immediately upon injection of poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) into aqueous solution. The combination of the poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) nanoparticles yields an injectable doxorubicin delivery system that facilities near-complete drug release when maintained at elevated temperatures (37 °C) in acidic solution (pH 6.5). In contrast, negligible payload release occurs when the material is stored at room temperature in a non-acidic solution (pH 7.4). The system has great potential as a vehicle for the prolonged, site-specific release of chemotherapeutics.
4
125857
Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties
Abstract:
In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles&#39; size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.
3
81377
Catalytic Deoxygenation of Non-Edible Oil to Renewable Fuel by Using Calcium-Based Nanocatalyst
Abstract:
Cracking–Deoxygenation process is one of the important reaction pathways for the production of bio-fuel with desirable n-C17 hydrocarbon chain via removal of oxygen compounds. Calcium-based catalyst has attracted much attention in deoxygenation process due to its relatively high capacity in removing oxygenated compounds in the form of CO₂ and CO under decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction, respectively. In the present study, deoxygenation of triolein was investigated using Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst derived from low cost natural waste shells. The Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst was prepared via integration techniques between surfactant treatment (anionic and non-ionic) and wet sonochemical effect. Results showed that sonochemically assisted surfactant treatment has successfully enhanced the physicochemical properties of Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst in terms of nanoparticle sizes (∼50 nm), high surface area(∼130 m²g⁻¹), large porosity (∼18.6 nm) and strong basic strength. The presence of superior properties from surfactant treated Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalysts rendered high deoxygenation degree, which is capable of producing high alkane and alkene selectivity in chain length of n-C17(high value of C17/(n-C17+ n-C18)ratio = 0.88). Furthermore, both Ca(OH)₂–EG and Ca(OH)₂–CTAB nanocatalysts showed high reactivity with 47.37% and 44.50%, respectively in total liquid hydrocarbon content of triolein conversion with high H/C and low O/C ratio.
2
11058
Free Radical Dosimetry for Ultrasound in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles
Abstract:
When a liquid is irradiated with high intensities (> 1 W) and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz) ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. Acoustic cavitation generates free radicals from the breakdown of water and other molecules. The existence of particles in liquid provide nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and lead to decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing 30 nm gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a range of condition in medical ultrasound fields.
1
38205
Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction
Abstract:
Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.