Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66727

In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses
Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.
In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19
COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.
Influence of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara Extracts on Survival and Longevity of Dysdercus koenigii
The development of resistance among insects and pests, environmental contamination and adverse effects on non-target organisms is contributed by the indiscriminate use of chemical based insecticides. To overcome these environmental and other ecological issues that are need to replace these harmful toxic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara plants volatiles on survival and longevity of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract and ethanol extracts of these three plants were used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5% 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5% 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625% while, adults were treated with10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen- newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24- hour exposure to the plant volatiles. For ethanol extracts cottonseed were treated with ethanol extracts of 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25% concentrations. The treated seeds were provided to the Dysdercus for a period of 24 hours and their feeding behaviour was observed. The effect of hexane and ethanol extract of these plants was observed and readings were recorded for 15 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. Among three plant extracts, Ocimum hexane extract was most toxic and Catharanthus was moderate while Lantana was least toxic. The ethanol extracts of Lantana was highly antifeedent while Ocimum was moderate and Catharanthus was least antifeedent. Both Catharanthus and Ocimum appeared to have potential molecules, which possessed insecticidal activity while Ocimum and Lantana showed antifeedent activities. These insecticidal and antifeedent properties may be used in IPM.
An Ecofriendly Approach for the Management of Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae) by Ocimum sanctum
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as tiger mosquito is the vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika virus. In the absence of any effective vaccine against these diseases, control the mosquito population is the only promising mean to prevent the diseases. Currently used chemical insecticides cause environmental contamination, high mammalian toxicity and hazards to non-target organisms, insecticide resistance and vector resurgence. Present research work aimed to explore the potentials of phytochemicals present in the Ocimum sanctum in management of mosquito population. The leaves of Ocimum were extracted with ethanol by ‘cold extraction method’. 0-24h old fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were treated with the extract of concentrations 50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 400ppm for 24h. Survival, growth and development of the treated larvae were evaluated. The adults emerged from the treated larvae were used for the reproductive fitness studies. Our results indicate 77.2% mortality in the larvae exposed to 400 ppm. At lower doses, although there was no significant reduction in the survival after 24h however, it decreased during subsequent days of observations. In control experiments, no mortality was observed. It was also observed that the larvae survived after treatment showed severe growth and developmental abnormalities. There was significant increase in larval duration. In control, fourth instar moulted into pupa after 3 days while larvae treated with 400 ppm extract were moulted after 4.6 days. Larva-pupa intermediates and the pupa-adult intermediates were observed in many cases. The adults emerged from the treated larvae showed impaired mating and oviposition behaviour. The females exhibited longer preoviposition period, reduced oviposition rate and decreased egg output. GCMS analysis of the ethanol extract revealed presence of JH mimics and intermediates of JH biosynthetic pathway. Potentials of Ocimum sanctum in integrated vector management programme of Aedes aegypti were discussed.
Bioefficacy of Ocimum sanctum on Survival, Development and Reproduction of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Vector borne diseases are a serious global concern. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for viruses that cause dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. In last decade, diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti are of serious concern. In past decade, number of cases of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and chikungunya has increased multifold. Present research work focused on impact of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum on dengue vector Aedes aegypti. 0-24 hr. old fourth instar larvae of lab-bred population of Aedes aegypti were exposed to ethanol leaf extract of Ocimum with concentrations ranging from 50 ppm to 400 ppm. Survival and development and the treated larvae and reproductive behaviour of the adults emerged from the treated larvae was evaluated. Our results indicated larvicidal potential of the leaf ethanol extract. The influence of the extract was dose dependent. 77.2% mortality was observed in the larvae exposed to 400 ppm for 24 hr. Treatment at lower concentrations revealed delayed toxicity. The larvae survived after treatment showed severe developmental anomalies. Consequently, there was the significant increase in duration of fourth instar larva. The L4 treated with 400-ppm extract moulted after 4.6 days; this was in sharp contrast to control where the larval period of the fourth instar lasts three days. The treated fourth instar larvae in many cases transformed into larva-pupa intermediates with the combination of larva, pupa characters. The larva-pupa intermediates had reduced life span and failed to moult successfully. The adults emerged from the larvae treated with lower doses had reduced reproductive potential. The females exhibited longer preoviposition period, reduced oviposition rate, abnormal oviposition behaviour and decreased fertility. Our studies indicated the possibility of the presence of JH mimic or JH analogue in the leaf ethanol extract of Ocimum. The present research work explored the potentials of Ocimum sanctum, also known as the queen of herbs, in integrated vector management programme of Aedes aegypti, which is a serious threat to human health.
Bioefficacy of Ocimum sanctum on Reproductive Performance of Red Cotton Bug, Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoriedae)
Dysdercus koenigii is serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous crop. Present research work aimed at ecofriendly approach for management of pest by plant extracts. The impact of Ocimum sanctum was studied on reproductive performance of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of Ocimum leaves was prepared by ‘cold extraction method’. The newly emerged fifth instar nymphs were exposed to the extract of concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 0.00625% by ‘thin film residual method’ for a period of 24h. Reproductive fitness of the adults emerged from the treated nymphs was evaluated by assessing their courtship behaviour, oviposition behaviour, and fertility. The studies indicated that treatment of Dysdercus with the hexane extract of Ocimum altered their courtship behaviour. Consequently, the treated males exhibited less sexual activity, performed fewer mounting attempts, increased time to mate and showed decreased percent successful mating. The females often rejected courting treated male by shaking the abdomen. Similarly, the treated females in many cases remained non-receptive to the courting male. Premature termination of mating in the mating pairs prior to insemination further decreased the mating success of the treated adults. Maximum abbreviation of courtship behaviour was observed in the experimental set up where both the males and the females were treated. Only females which mate successfully were observed for study of oviposition behaviour. The treated females laid lesser number of egg batches and eggs in their life span. The eggs laid by these females were fertile indicating insemination of the female. However, percent hatchability was lesser than control. The effects of hexane extract were dose dependent. Treatment with 0.1% and 0.05% extract altered courtship behaviour. Doses of concentrations less than 0.05% did not affect courtship behaviour but altered the oviposition behaviour and fertility. Significant reduction in the fecundity and fertility was observed in the treatments at concentration as low as 0.00625%. The GCMS analysis of the extract revealed a plethora of phytochemicals including juvenile hormone mimics, and the intermediates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Therefore, some of these compounds individually or synergistically impair reproductive behaviour of Dysdercus. Alteration of courtship behaviour and suppression of fecundity and fertility with the help of plant extracts has wide potentials in suppression of pest population and ‘integrated pest management’.
Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)
Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.
Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves (African Basil)
Ocimum gratissimum belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is know generally as African Basil. Ocimum gratissimum leaves are widely used as local condiments in diets. The leaves were destalked sorted, washed with potable water to remove dirts, air dried for 14 days under ambient temperature and milled into powder. The proximate composition and mineral contents of Ocimum gratissimum leaves were investigated. The proximate analysis showed the moisture, crude, protein, total ash, crude fiber, crude lipid and total carbohydrate contents were 10.72±0.01%, 12.98±0.10%, 10.95±0.42, 10.21±0.04%, 4.81±0.04% and 49.01±0.25% respectively. The results of the analysis showed that Ocimum gratissimum could be a good source of important food nutrients.
Ecofriendly Approach for the Management of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus koenigii by Botanicals
The indiscriminate use of insecticides causes environmental contamination, adversely affects non-target organisms and develops resistance among insects and pests. There has always been felt a need for methods of control which can overcome these environmental and other ecological issues. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of different plants volatiles on survival, longevity, growth, development and reproduction of Dysdercus koenigii. The hexane extract of three different plants (Catharanthus roseus, Ocimum sanctum and Lantana camara) was used. The fifth instars were exposed to hexane extract with concentrations of 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.13% and 0.06% while adults were treated with 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 1.25%. 1-ml of each of these concentrations was used to make a thin film in sterilized glass jars of 500 ml capacity. Fifteen newly emerged fifth instar nymphs and ten pairs of adult bugs were treated separately with the extracts for 24 hour exposure to the plant volatiles. The effect of these plant extract was observed and readings were recorded for 23 days. Survival and longevity of both fifth instars and adults were in correlation with the concentrations of the plant extracts. The extracts did not influence growth of fifth instars significantly but impaired their development significantly at higher concentrations. The treated nymphs at higher concentrations either could not moult or died and those which could moult moulted into supranumery instars, adultoids or adults with wing deformities. The supranumery insects retained the nymphal characters except increased body size and wing pads. The adultoids had wing deformities and non-functional reproductive organs. Adultoids exhibited courtship and mounting attempts but were not able to mate. At lower concentrations from 0.1 to 0.06% the fifth instars developed into adults with fewer deformities. At these concentrations, the fecundity and fertility of these adults were drastically reduced. On the contrary, the treated adults also had reduced fecundity and fertility compared to control. Among three plant extracts Ocimcum was most toxic for both fifth instars and adults in terms of survival and longevity. Catharanthus, Ocimum and Lantana appeared to have potential molecules which possessed insect juvenile hormone like activity. Potential application of these plant extracts in IPM was discussed.
Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Inhibits Fe2+ and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver
This study seeks to investigate the antioxidative properties and the ability of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves to inhibit some pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver homogenates in vitro. The ability of the extracts to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 and 7.0 µM sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat’s liver was determined. The results of the study revealed that both pro-oxidants caused a significantly decrease in (p < 0.05) accumulation of lipid peroxides. However, aqueous extract of OG shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production in the liver induced with SNP than Fe2+. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract of OG which shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production more when induced with Fe2+ than SNP. However, ethyl acetate fraction of OG shows a higher inhibitory effect on both Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver. This applies to its significantly higher extractable phytochemicals. Therefore, Fe II and sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress could be managed by dietary intake of Ocimum gratissimum leaves.
Effect of Ocimum americanum Water Extract on Antioxidant System in Rat
Several dietary and herbal plants have been shown to possess cytoprotective and antioxidant effects with various mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant effects and its mechanism of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum americanum (OA), commonly known as American basil or 'hoary basil', in rat. The extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with the extract at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, tannin and steroid compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 36.91 ± 0.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram OA extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 41.27 ± 1.86 µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14µg/mL. In the animals, the extract was well tolerated by the animals throughout the 28 days of study as shown by normal serum levels AST, ALP, ALT, BUN and Cr as well as normal histology of liver and pancreatic and kidney tissue. The protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) in liver was significantly increased compared with normal control. Consistent with the induction of γ-GCL protein expression significantly reduction of serum oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in rat treated with OA extract compared with control. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Ocimum americanum exhibits direct antioxidant properties and can induce cytoprotective enzyme in vivo.
Comparative Effects of Dietary Ocimum Gratissimum and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Body Weight and Gut Morphometry of Broiler Starters
Antibiotics used as growth promoters in animal feeds have been criticized and banned in many nations due to possible development of both drug resistance, cross resistance and multiple resistances by consumers. Numerous additives are now being used or proposed as alternatives. A study to compare the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf) and antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) on growth performance and intestinal morphology of starter broiler birds was conducted using ninety six (96) days old broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments with each treatment comprising 24 birds replicated three times with 8 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Four diets (T1 control diet without Oxytetracycline HCl and Ocimum gratissimum; T2 had Oxytetracycline HCl; T3 had 1% Ocimum gratissimum; T4 had 1.5% Ocimum gratissimum) were formulated and offered ad libitum to the respective birds. Data was collected on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) also Jejenal sections of the intestine were collected for examination of Villi length and Crypt depth at the end of starter phase. Results show that there were no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in feed intake and final body weight. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and daily weight gain significantly differed (P< 0.05). T1, T2, and T4 were similar, however T2 differed (P< 0.05) from T3. FCR followed the same pattern. Dietary treatment significantly (P< 0.05) affected Villi length, Crypt depth and Villi length/crypt depth ratio. Birds fed OG containing diets, had significantly higher (P< 0.05) villi length/crypt depth ratio. However, this did not translate to a significantly higher body weight gain or feed conversion ratio. It can be concluded that O. gratissimum can replace antibiotic growth promoter (Oxytetracycline HCl) since their effect on performance were similar.
Assessing Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Midgutmicroflora of Aedesaegypti
Antimicrobial activity of six indigenous plants such as Tulsi Ocimum sanctum, Neem Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Turmeric Curcuma longa, Lantana Lantana camara, and Clove Syzygium aromaticum was assessed against the gut microbiota of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, keeping in view that the presence of midgut bacteria may affect the ability of the vector to transmit pathogens. Eleven different types of bacterial clones were isolated from the midgut of lab-reared fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and were grown on LB agar medium at an optimum temperature of 25 ºC. Identification of these bacteria was done on the basis of their colony characteristic such as colony size, shape, opacity, elevation, consistency, and growth. Light microscopic studies of the gut microbiota revealed dominance of Gram-negative cocci over gram positive cocci and bacilli and Gram-negative bacilli. Identification of species was done by chemical characterization of the colonies. Crude extracts of all test plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gut microbiota by disc diffusion assay. The zone of exclusion seen after 24 hr of incubation in different assays revealed the most potent antibacterial activities in neem followed by clove and turmeric. Lantana and Aloe vera were least effective.
Antioxidative Potential of Aqueous Extract of Ocimum americanum L. Leaves: An in vitro and in vivo Evaluation
Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg), and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.
Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India
Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana&mdash; a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).
In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt
In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.
Effect of Biostimulants on Downstream Processing of Endophytic Fungi Hosted in Aromatic Plant, Ocimum basicilium
Endophytic microbes are hosted inside plants in a symbiotic and hugely benefitting relationship. Exploring agriculturally beneficial endophytes is quite a prospective field of research. In the present work fungal endophytes associated with aromatic plant Ocimum basicilium L. were investigated for biocontrol potential. The anti-plant pathogenic activity of fungal endophytes was tested against causal agent of stem rot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 75 endophytic fungi were recovered through culture-dependent approach. Fungal identification was performed both microscopically and by rDNA ITS sequencing. Curvuaria lunata (Sb-6) and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sb-8) inhibited 86% and 72% mycelia growth of S. sclerotinia on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium at 7.4 pH. Small-scale fermentation was carried out on sterilised oatmeal grain medium. In another set of experiment, fungi were grown in oatmeal grain medium amended with certain biostimulants such as aqueous seaweed extract (10% v/w); methanolic seaweed extract (5% v/w); cow urine (20% v/w); biochar (10% w/w) in triplicate along with control of each to ascertain the degree of metabolic difference and anti-plant pathogenic activity induced. Phytochemically extracts of both the fungal isolates showed the presence of flavanoids, phenols, tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethylacetate extract of C. lunata and C. lindemuthianum suppressed S. sclerotinia conidial germination at IC50 values of 0.514± 0.02 and 0.913± 0.04 mg/ml. Therefore, fungal endophytes of O. basicilium are highly promising bio-resource agent, which can be developed further for sustainable agriculture.
Anti Oxidant Ayurvedic Rasyan Herbs Concept to Disease Managment
Rasayana is one of the eight clinical specialities of classical Ayurveda The disease preventive and health promotive approach of ‘Ayurveda’, which takes into consideration the whole body, mind and spirit while dealing with the maintenance of health, promotion of health and treating ailments is holistic and finds increasing acceptability in many regions of the world. Ancient Ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest/delay ageing and rejuvenating whole functional dynamics of the body system. This revitalization and rejuvenation is known as the ‘Rasayan chikitsa’ (rejuvenation therapy). Traditionally, Rasayana drugs are used against a plethora of seemingly diverse disorders with no pathophysiological connections according to modern medicine. Though, this group of plants generally possesses strong antioxidant activity, only a few have been investigated in detail. Over about 100 disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, CVS disorders, cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal ulcerogenesis and AIDS have been reported as reactive oxygen species mediated. In this review, the role of free radicals in these diseases has been briefly reviewed. ‘Rasayana’ plants with potent antioxidant activity have been reviewed for their traditional uses, and mechanism of antioxidant action. Fifteen such plants have been dealt with in detail and some more plants with less work have also been reviewed briefly The Rasayanas are rejuvenators, nutritional supplements and possess strong antioxidant activity. They also have antagonistic actions on the oxidative stressors, which give rise to the formation of different free radicals. Ocimum sanctum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Convolvulus pluricaulis, Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Withania somnifera, Triphala rasayana, Chyawanprash, Brahma rasayana are very important rasayanas which are described in ayurveda and proved by new researches.
Component Composition of Biologically Active Substances in Extracts of Some Species from the Family Lamiaceae Lindl.
From a medical point of view some species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. attract the attention of scientists. Many plant species from this family are used in science and medicine. Some researchers believe that the medicinal properties of these plants are caused by the action on the organism of the individual components (camphor, menthol, thymol, eugenol, phenols, flavonoids, alcohols, and their derivatives) or the entire complex of essential oils. Biologically active substances (BAS), isolated from these medicinal plants can be an effective supplement in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. The substances of the phenolic group such as flavonoids and phenolic acids; and also alkaloids included in the component composition of the plants from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. present the scientific and practical interest for future investigations of their biological activity and development of medicinal products. The research objects are the species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl., cultivated in the North-Kazakhstan region. In this abstract, we present the results of the investigation of polyphenolic complex (flavonoids and phenolic acids) and alkaloids in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Investigation of the qualitative composition of flavonoids in the aqueous extracts showed that the species Monarda Diana contains flavone, Dracocephalum moldavica contains rutin, Ocimum basilicum (purple form) contains both ruin and quercetin. Biochemical analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of Monarda Diana has phenolic acids, similar to protocatechuic and benzoic acids by their chromatographic characteristics. But the aqueous extract contains four phenolic acids, one of which is an analogue of gentisic acid; and the other three are not identified yet. The phenolic acids such as benzoic and gentisic acids identified in ethanol extracts of species Ocimum basilicum (purple form) and Satureja hortensis, correspondingly. But the same phenolic acids did not appear in aqueous extracts. The phenolic acids were not determined neither in the ethanol or aqueous extracts of species Dracocephalum moldavica. The biochemical analysis did not reveal the content of alkaloids in aqueous extracts of investigated plants. However, the alkaloids in the amount of 5-13 components were identified in the ethanolic extracts of plants by the qualitative reactions. The results of analysis with reagent of Dragendorff showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (6-7), Satureja hortensis (6), Ocimum basilicum (7-9) and Dracocephalum moldavica (5-6). The reactions with reagent of Van-Urca showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (9-12), Satureja hortensis (9-10), two alkaloids of them with Rf6=0,39 and Rf6=0,31 similar to roquefortine), Ocimum basilicum (11) and Dracocephalum moldavica (13, two of them with Rf5=0,34 and Rf5=0,33 by their chromatographic characteristics similar to epikostaklavin).
Comparison between Two Groups of Pathogenic Bacteria under Different Essential Oil Extract of Ocimum basilicum L.
This study was conducted to assessment the antibacterial activities of different part of basil essential oil on the standard gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and gram-positive ones including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogen. The basil essential oil was provided from two part of plant (leaf and herb) at the two different developmental stage. The antibacterial properties of basil essential oil was studied Also agar disk diffusion, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were detected. The results of agar disk diffusion tests showed the inhibition zones as follow: Listeria monocytogen 17.11-17.42 mm, St. aureus 29.20-30.56 mm, B. cereus 14.73-16.06 mm, E. coli 21.60-23.58 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.63-24.80 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen on leaf essential oil. From the herb part of basil almost similar results were obtained: Listeria monocytogen 17.02-17.67 mm, St. aureus 29.60-30.41 mm, B. cereus 10.66-16.11 mm, E. coli 17.48-23.54 mm, Salmonella typhi 21.58-21.64 mm and for P. aeruginosa the maximum inhibition zones were seen. The MICs for gram-positive bacteria were as: B. cereus ranging 36-18 μg/mL, S. aureus 18 μg/mL, Listeria monocytogen 18-36 μg/mL and for gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, Salmonella typhi and P. aeruginosa were 18-9 μg/mL.
Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Potential of Selected Nigerian Herbs and Spices: A Justification for Consumption and Use in the Food Industry
The growing consumer trend for natural ingredients, functional foods with health benefits and the perceived risk of carcinogenesis associated with synthetic antioxidants have forced food manufacturers to look for alternatives for producing healthy and safe food. Herbs and spices are cheap, natural and harmless sources of antioxidants which can delay and prevent lipid oxidation of food products and also confer its unique organoleptic properties and health benefits to food products. The Nigerian climate has been proven to be conducive for the production of spices and herbs and is blessed bountifully with a wide range of them. Five selected Nigerian herbs and spices Piper guieense, Xylopia aethopica, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum were evaluated for their ability to act as radical scavengers. The spices were extracted with 80% ethanol and evaluated using total phenolic capacity (TPC), DPPH (1,1-diph diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) ABTS (2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reducing power (RP) assays. The TPC ranged from 5.33 µg GAE/mg (in Gongronema latifolium) to 15.55 µg GAE/mg (in Ocimum gratissimum). The DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity of the extracts ranged from 0.23-0.36 IC50 mg/ml and 2.32-7.25 Trolox equivalent % respectively. The TAC and RP of the extract ranged from 6.73-10.64 µg AAE/mg and 3.52-10.19 µg AAE/mg. The result of percentage yield of the extract ranged from as low as 9.94% in Gongronema latifolium and to as high as 23.85% in Xylopia aethopica. A very strong positive relationship existed between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the tested herbs and spices (R2=0.96). All of the extracts exhibited different extent of strong antioxidant activity, high antioxidant activity was found in Ocimum gratissimum and Gongronema latifolium with the least. However, Gongronema latifolium possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity. These data confirm the appreciable antioxidant potentials and high phenolic content of Nigerian herbs and spices, thereby providing justification for their use in dishes and functional foods, prevention of cellular damage caused by free radicals and use as natural antioxidants in the food industry for prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. However, to utilize these natural antioxidants in food products, further analysis and studies of their behaviour in food systems at varying temperature, pH conditions and ionic concentrations should be carried out to displace the use of synthetic antioxidants like BHT and BHA.
Antioxidant Potency of Ethanolic Extracts from Selected Aromatic Plants by in vitro Spectrophotometric Analysis
Biological systems possess the ability to neutralize the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to protect cells from destructive alterations. However, many pathological conditions (cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancer) are associated with inflammatory processes that generate an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that shift the balance between endogenous antioxidant systems and free oxygen radicals in favor of the latter, leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, an additional source of natural compounds with antioxidant properties that will reduce the amount of ROS in cells is much needed despite their broad utilization; many plant species remain largely unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant activity of twenty-five selected medicinal and aromatic plant species. The antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was evaluated with in vitro assays: 2,2’-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), non-site-specific- (NSSOH) and site-specific hydroxyl radical-2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation (SSOH) assays. The Folin-Ciocalteu method and AlCl3 method were performed to determine total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). All examined plant extracts manifested antioxidant activity to a different extent. Cinnamomum verum J.Presl bark and Ocimum basilicum L. Herba demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity and reducing power with the DPPH and FRAP assay, respectively. Additionally, significant hydroxyl scavenging potential and metal chelating properties were observed using the NSSOH and SSOH assays. Furthermore, significant variations were determined in the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), with Cinnamomum verum and Ocimum basilicum showing the highest amount of total polyphenols. The considerably strong radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl scavenging potential and reducing power for the species mentioned above suggest of a presence of highly bioactive phytochemical compounds, predominantly polyphenols. Since flavonoids are the most abundant group of polyphenols that possess a large number of available reactive OH groups in their structure, it is considered that they are the main contributors to the radical scavenging properties of the examined plant extracts. This observation is supported by the positive correlation between the radical scavenging activity and the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content obtained in the current research. The observations from the current research nominate Cinnamomum verum bark and Ocimum basilicum herba as potential sources of bioactive compounds that could be utilized as antioxidative additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, the present study will help the researchers as basic data for future research in exploiting the hidden potential of these important plants that have not been explored so far.
Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Larvae and Eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus in the Laboratory
The control of vectors like mosquitoes based on the application of chemical insecticides but due to its adverse effect on the environment, and development of resistance by most of species of mosquitoes including vectors of important diseases. Ethanol and acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus common, and Tagetes erecta) were tested in respect of their influence on the eggs and larvae of Culex quinquifasciatus in concentration 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. In relation to the survival of larvae, ethanol extract of O. canum and acetone extract of A.tuberosum in 100 mg/L have larvicide activity against L4 of Cx. quinquifasciatus. For hatching of eggs, ethanol and acetone extract of A.tuberosum (100 and 10 mg/L) and acetone extract of C.citratus (100 mg/L) produced reduction in the number of eggs hatched of Cx. quinquifasciatus. Our results indicate that each extract of the plant have potential to control mosquito population and suggest that further studies are needed in this field.
Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Heavy Metal Tolerance in Sweet Basil Plants
The effects of phosphorus amendments and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices on the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), chemical composition and percent of volatile oil, and metal accumulation in plants and its availability in soil were investigated in field experiment at two seasons 2012 and 2013 under contaminated soil with Pb and Cu. The content of essential oil and shoot and root dry weights of sweet basil was increased by the application of mineral phosphorus as compared to control. Inoculation with AM fungi reduced the metal concentration in shoot, recording a lowest value of (33.24, 18.60 mg/kg) compared to the control (46.49, 23.46 mg/kg) for Pb and Cu, respectively. Availability of Pb and Cu in soil were decreased after cultivation in all treatments compared to control. However, metal root concentration increased with the inoculation, with highest values of (30.15, 39.25 mg/kg)compared to control (22.01, 33.57mg/kg) for Pb and Cu, respectively. The content of linalool and methyl chavicol in basil oil was significantly increased in all treatments compared to control. We can thus conclude that the AM-sweet basil symbiosis could be employed as an approach to bioremediate polluted soils and enhance the yield and maintain the quality of volatile oil of sweet basil plants.
The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.
Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.
Extracting Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils from the Lamiaceae Plant Family in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Highlights on Great Possibilities and Sever Difficulties
Essential oils are expensive phytochemicals produced and extracted from specific species belonging to particular families in the plant kingdom. In the United Arab Emirates country (UAE), which is located in the arid region of the world, nine species, from the Lamiaceae family, having the capability to produce therapeutic grade essential oils. These species include; Mentha spicata, Ocimum forskolei, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia aegyptiaca, Salvia macilenta, Salvia spinosa, Teucrium polium, Teucrium stocksianum, and Zataria multiflora. Although, such potential species are indigenous to the UAE, however, there are almost no studies available to investigate the chemical composition and the quality of the extracted essential oils under the UAE climatological conditions. Therefore, great attention has to be given to such valuable natural resources, through conducting highly supported research projects, tailored to the UAE conditions, and investigating different extraction techniques, including the application of the latest available technologies, such as superficial fluid CO2. This is crucially needed; in order to accomplish the greatest possibilities in the medicinal field, specifically in the discovery of new therapeutic chemotypes, as well as, to achieve the sustainability of this natural resource in the country.
Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Washing of Vegetables and Fruits
Variety of microbes were isolated from surface of fruit and vegetables to get idea about normal flora of their surface. The process of isolation of microbes involved use of sterilized cotton swabs to wipe the surface of the samples. For isolation of Bacteria, yeast and fungi microbiological media used were nutrient agar medium, GYE agar medium and MRBA agar medium respectively. The microscopical and macroscopical characteristics of all the isolates were studied. Different plants with known antimicrobial activity were selected for obtaining samples for extraction e.g. Ficus (Ficus religosa) stem, Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit, Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) leaves and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil. Antimicrobial activity of these samples was tested initially against known bacteria followed by study against microbes isolated from surface of vegetables and fruits. During the studies carried out throughout the work, lemongrass oil and Amla extract were found superior. Lemongrass oil and Amla extract respectively inhibited growth of 65% and 42% microbes isolated from fruit and vegetable surfaces. Rest two studied plant extracts showed only 11% of inhibition against the studied isolates. The results of isolate inhibition show the antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil better than the rest of the studied plant extracts.
Effects of Five Local Spices on the Mortality and Development of Larvae of Dermestes Maculatusdegeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Reared on Dried Smoked Fish
The efficacy of five local spices, namely; Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.), Black pepper (Piper guinese Schum and Thonn), Sweet basil (Occimum canum Sim), African nut-meg (Monodora myristica Dunal), and Ginger (Zingiber officianale Ross) with conventional insecticide against the D. maculatus was studied under ambient laboratory conditions. The plants were pulverized into powders and applied at the rate of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0g per 25g of disinfected dried fish. The same amount of fish (25g) was treated with 5ml of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 percent solution of conventional insecticide (dichlorvos) and air dried for 2hrs. Ten newly hatched 1st instar larvae (24hrs old) were introduced into each powdered smoked fish in separate beakers. Untreated control was also set up. Observation on the mortality and development were recorded daily until the larvae pupated. Each of the treated smoked fish showed significant (p< 0.05) effect on the larval mortality and development when compared with the control. The Piper guinense was as efficacious as dichlorvos in killing all the larvae (100%) at all concentrations before pupation. Ocimum Canunm gave the second best results (50.00, 63.33 and 100%), while the other three spices resulted in less than 50% mortalities at all rate of application. The spice powders were also observed to have extended the larval developmental period. Thus, the spices tested can be recommended for the control of D. maculatus.
Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.
Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Photosynthesis Pigments, Proline Accumulation and Oil Quantity of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in Flowering and Seed Formation Stages
O. basilicum plant was subjected to deficit irrigation using four treatments viz. control, irrigated with 70% of soil water capacity (SWC), Treatment 1, irrigated with 50% SWC, Treatment 2, irrigated with 30% SWC and Treatment 3, irrigated with 10 % SWC. Photosynthesis pigments viz. chlorophyll a, b, and the carotenoids, proline accumulation, and oil quantity were investigated under these irrigation treatments. The results indicate that photosynthesis pigments and oil content of deficit irrigation treatments did not significantly reduced than that of the full irrigation control. Photosynthesis pigments were affected by the stage of growth and not by irrigation treatments. They were high during flowering stage and low during seed formation stage for all treatments. The lowest irrigation plants (10 % SWC) achieved, during flowering stage, 0.72 mg\g\fresh weight of chlorophyll a, compared to 0.43 mg\g\fresh weight in control plant, 0.40 mg\g\fresh weight of chlorophyll b, compared to 0.19 mg\g\fresh weight in control plants and 0.29 mg\g\fresh weight of carotenoids, compared to 0.21 mg\g\fresh weight in control plants. It has been shown that reduced irrigation rates tend to enhance O. basilicum to have high oil quantity reaching a value of 63.37 % in a very low irrigation rate (10 % SWC) compared to 45.38 of control in seeds. Proline was shown to be accumulated in roots to almost double the amount in shoot during flowering stage in treatment 3. This accumulation seems to have a pronounce effect on O. basilicum acclimation to deficit irrigation.
Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana
Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.
Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants
DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.
Basil Plants Attract and Benefit Generalist Lacewing Predator Ceraeochrysa cubana Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) by Providing Nutritional Resources
Aromatic plant species are capable of producing and releasing volatile organic compounds spontaneously, which can repel or attract beneficial insects such as generalist predators of herbivores. Attractive plants could be used as crop companion plants to promote biological control of pests. In order to select such plants for future use in horticulture fields, we assessed the attractiveness of the aromatic plants Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Mentha piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Cordia verbenacea DC (black sage) to adults of the generalist lacewing predator Ceraeochrysa cubana Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). This predator is commonly found in agroecosystems in Brazil and it feeds on aphids, mites, small caterpillars, insect eggs and scales. We further tested the effect of these plant species on the survival, development and oviposition of C. cubana. Finally, we evaluated the survival of larvae and adults of C. cubana when only flowers of basil were offered. Females of C. cubana were attracted to basil but not to the remaining aromatic plants. Larvae survival was higher when individuals had access only to basil leaf than when they had access to peppermint, lemon balm, black sage or water. Adult survival on leaf treatments and on water was no longer than three days. Flowers of basil enhanced predator larvae survival, yet they did not reach adulthood. Adults fed on basil flowers lived longer compared with water, but they did not reproduce. Basil is a promising aromatic plant species to be considered for conservation biological control programs. Besides being attractive to adults of the generalist predator, it benefits larvae and adults by providing nutritional resources when prey or other resources are absent. Financial support: CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (Brazil).
Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards
Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.