Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 66749

200
101757
Spectroscopic Relation between Open Clusters and Globular Clusters
Abstract:
The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.
199
101731
Spectroscopic Relation between Open Clusters and Globular Clusters
Abstract:
The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.
198
101732
Spectroscopic Relation between Open Clusters and Globular Clusters
Abstract:
The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.
197
96685
Spectroscopic Relation between Open Cluster and Globular Cluster
Abstract:
The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.
196
107965
Study of Open Spaces in Urban Residential Clusters in India
Authors:
Abstract:
From chowks to streets to verandahs to courtyards; residential open spaces are very significantly placed in traditional urban neighborhoods of India. At various levels of intersection, the open spaces with their attributes like juxtaposition with the built fabric, scale, climate sensitivity and response, multi-functionality, etc. reflect and respond to the patterns of human interactions. Also, these spaces tend to be quite well utilized. On the other hand, it is a common specter to see an imbalanced utilization of open spaces in newly/recently planned residential clusters. This is maybe due to lack of activity generators around or wrong locations or excess provisions or improper incorporation of aforementioned design attributes. These casual observations suggest the necessity for a systematic study of current residential open spaces. The exploratory study thus attempts to draw lessons through a structured inspection of residential open spaces to understand the effective environment as revealed through their use patterns. Here, residential open spaces are considered in a wider sense to incorporate all the un-built fabric around. These thus, include both use spaces and access space. For the study, open spaces in ten exemplary housing clusters/societies built during the last ten years across India are studied. A threefold inquiry is attempted in this direction. The first relates to identifying and determining the effects of various physical functions like space organization, size, hierarchy, thermal and optical comfort, etc. on the performance of residential open spaces. The second part sets out to understand socio-cultural variations in values, lifestyle, and beliefs which determine activity choices and behavioral preferences of users for respective residential open spaces. The third inquiry further observes the application of these research findings to the design process to derive meaningful and qualitative design advice. However, the study also emphasizes to develop a suitable framework of analysis and to carve out appropriate methods and approaches to probe into these aspects of the inquiry. Given this emphasis, a considerable portion of the research details out the conceptual framework for the study. This framework is supported by an in-depth search of available literature. The findings are worked out for design solutions which integrate the open space systems with the overall design process for residential clusters. The open spaces in residential areas present great complexities both in terms of their use patterns and determinants of their functional responses. The broad aim of the study is, therefore, to arrive at reconsideration of standards and qualitative parameters used by designers – on the basis of more substantial inquiry into the use patterns of open spaces in residential areas.
195
8521
Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster
Abstract:
Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.
194
45221
Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh
Abstract:
As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.
193
17422
A Comparative Study of Multi-SOM Algorithms for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters
Abstract:
The interpretation of the quality of clusters and the determination of the optimal number of clusters is still a crucial problem in clustering. We focus in this paper on multi-SOM clustering method which overcomes the problem of extracting the number of clusters from the SOM map through the use of a clustering validity index. We then tested multi-SOM using real and artificial data sets with different evaluation criteria not used previously such as Davies Bouldin index, Dunn index and silhouette index. The developed multi-SOM algorithm is compared to k-means and Birch methods. Results show that it is more efficient than classical clustering methods.
192
25635
A Technique for Image Segmentation Using K-Means Clustering Classification
Abstract:
The paper presents the Technique for Image Segmentation Using K-Means Clustering Classification. The presented algorithms were specific, however, missed the neighboring information and required high-speed computerized machines to run the segmentation algorithms. Clustering is the process of partitioning a group of data points into a small number of clusters. The proposed method is content-aware and feature extraction method which is able to run on low-end computerized machines, simple algorithm, required low-quality streaming, efficient and used for security purpose. It has the capability to highlight the boundary and the object. At first, the user enters the data in the representation of the input. Then in the next step, the digital image is converted into groups clusters. Clusters are divided into many regions. The same categories with same features of clusters are assembled within a group and different clusters are placed in other groups. Finally, the clusters are combined with respect to similar features and then represented in the form of segments. The clustered image depicts the clear representation of the digital image in order to highlight the regions and boundaries of the image. At last, the final image is presented in the form of segments. All colors of the image are separated in clusters.
191
55430
Creation of Greater Mekong Subregion Regional Competitiveness through Cluster Mapping
Abstract:
This research investigates cluster development in the area called the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which consists of Thailand, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Myanmar, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Cambodia, and Vietnam. The study utilized Porter’s competitiveness theory and the cluster mapping approach to analyze the competitiveness of the region. The data collection consists of interviews, focus groups, and the analysis of secondary data. The findings identify some evidence of cluster development in the GMS; however, there is no clear indication of collaboration among the components in the clusters. GMS clusters tend to be stand-alone. The clusters in Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia tend to be labor intensive, whereas the clusters in Thailand and the PRC (Yunnan) have the potential to successfully develop into innovative clusters. The collaboration and integration among the clusters in the GMS area are promising, though it could take a long time. The most likely relationship between the GMS countries could be, for example, suppliers of the low-end, labor-intensive products will be located in the low income countries such as Myanmar, Lao PDR, and Cambodia, and these countries will be providing input materials for innovative clusters in the middle income countries such as Thailand and the PRC.
190
37926
A Simple User Administration View of Computing Clusters
Abstract:
In this paper a very simple and effective user administration view of computing clusters systems is implemented in order of friendly provide the configuration and monitoring of distributed application executions. The user view, the administrator view, and an internal control module create an illusionary management environment for better system usability. The architecture, properties, performance, and the comparison with others software for cluster management are briefly commented.
189
32430
Atomic Clusters: A Unique Building Motif for Future Smart Nanomaterials
Authors:
Abstract:
The fundamental issue in understanding the origin and growth mechanism of nanomaterials, from a fundamental unit is a big challenging problem to the scientists. Recently, an immense attention is generated to the researchers for prediction of exceptionally stable atomic cluster units as the building units for future smart materials. The present study is a systematic investigation on the stability and electronic properties of a series of bimetallic (semiconductor-alkaline earth) clusters, viz., BxMg3 (x=1-5) is performed, in search for exceptional and/ or unusual stable motifs. A very popular hybrid exchange-correlation functional, B3LYP as proposed by A. D. Becke along with a higher basis set, viz., 6-31+G[d,p] is employed for this purpose under the density functional formalism. The magic stability among the concerned clusters is explained using the jellium model. It is evident from the present study that the magic stability of B4Mg3 cluster arises due to the jellium shell closure.
188
46870
A Non-parametric Clustering Approach for Multivariate Geostatistical Data
Abstract:
Multivariate geostatistical data have become omnipresent in the geosciences and pose substantial analysis challenges. One of them is the grouping of data locations into spatially contiguous clusters so that data locations within the same cluster are more similar while clusters are different from each other, in some sense. Spatially contiguous clusters can significantly improve the interpretation that turns the resulting clusters into meaningful geographical subregions. In this paper, we develop an agglomerative hierarchical clustering approach that takes into account the spatial dependency between observations. It relies on a dissimilarity matrix built from a non-parametric kernel estimator of the spatial dependence structure of data. It integrates existing methods to find the optimal cluster number and to evaluate the contribution of variables to the clustering. The capability of the proposed approach to provide spatially compact, connected and meaningful clusters is assessed using bivariate synthetic dataset and multivariate geochemical dataset. The proposed clustering method gives satisfactory results compared to other similar geostatistical clustering methods.
187
23247
Calculation of Electronic Structures of Nickel in Interaction with Hydrogen by Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) Method
Abstract:
Hydrogen-Materials interaction and mechanisms can be modeled at nano scale by quantum methods. In this work, the effect of hydrogen on the electronic properties of a cluster material model «nickel» has been studied by using of density functional theoretical (DFT) method. Two types of clusters are optimized: Nickel and hydrogen-nickel system. In the case of nickel clusters (n = 1-6) without presence of hydrogen, three types of electronic structures (neutral, cationic and anionic), have been optimized according to three basis sets calculations (B3LYP/LANL2DZ, PW91PW91/DGDZVP2, PBE/DGDZVP2). The comparison of binding energies and bond lengths of the three structures of nickel clusters (neutral, cationic and anionic) obtained by those basis sets, shows that the results of neutral and anionic nickel clusters are in good agreement with the experimental results. In the case of neutral and anionic nickel clusters, comparing energies and bond lengths obtained by the three bases, shows that the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2 is most suitable to experimental results. In the case of anionic nickel clusters (n = 1-6) with presence of hydrogen, the optimization of the hydrogen-nickel (anionic) structures by using of the basis set PBE/DGDZVP2, shows that the binding energies and bond lengths increase compared to those obtained in the case of anionic nickel clusters without the presence of hydrogen, that reveals the armor effect exerted by hydrogen on the electronic structure of nickel, which due to the storing of hydrogen energy within nickel clusters structures. The comparison between the bond lengths for both clusters shows the expansion effect of clusters geometry which due to hydrogen presence.
186
10808
Knowledge Transfer in Industrial Clusters
Abstract:
This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the knowledge transmission channels in textile and clothing clusters located in Brazil and in Europe. Primary data was obtained through interviews with key individuals. The collection of primary data was carried out based on a questionnaire with ten categories of indicators of knowledge transmission. Secondary data was also collected through a literature review and through international organizations sites. Similarities related to the use of the main transmission channels of knowledge are observed in all cases. The main similarities are: influence of suppliers of machinery, equipment and raw materials; imitation of products and best practices; training promoted by technical institutions and businesses; and cluster companies being open to acquire new knowledge. The main differences lie in the relationship between companies, where in Europe the intensity of this relationship is bigger when compared to Brazil. The differences also occur in importance and frequency of the relationship with the government, with the cultural environment, and with the activities of research and development. It is also found factors that reduce the importance of geographical proximity in transmission of knowledge, and in generating trust and the establishment of collaborative behavior.
185
85629
Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Abstract:
This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease, as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province. Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form, unpleasant symptom form, and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions, peripheral nerves abnormality, fatigue, gastro-intestinal tract, pain and, waste congestion. Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = -.220; p < .05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=-.204; p
184
66834
Technology Planning with Internal and External Resource for Open Innovation
Abstract:
Technology planning with both internal capacity and external resource is necessary for successful open innovation. Until now, many types of research have been conducted for this issue. However, technology planning for open innovation at the national level has not been researched sufficiently. This study proposes Open roadmap for open innovation at the national level. The proposed open roadmap can manage the inflow & outflow open innovation systematically. Six types of open roadmap are classified with respect to the innovation direction and characteristics. The proposed open roadmap is applied to the open innovation cases of the Roman period. The proposed open roadmap is expected to be helpful tool for technology policy planning at the national level.
183
87705
Integrating Molecular Approaches to Understand Diatom Assemblages in Marine Environment
Abstract:
Environmental processes acting at multiple spatial scales control marine diatom community structure. However, the contribution of local factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, etc.) in these highly complex systems is poorly understood. We, therefore, investigated the diatom community organization as a function of environmental predictors and determined the relative contribution of various environmental factors on the structure of marine diatoms assemblages in the world’s ocean. The dataset for this study was derived from the Tara Oceans expedition, constituting 46 sampling stations from diverse oceanic provinces. The V9 hypervariable region of 18s rDNA was organized into assemblages based on their distributional co-occurrence. Using Ward’s hierarchical clustering, nine clusters were defined. The number of ribotypes and reads varied within each cluster-three clusters (II, VIII and IX) contained only a few reads whereas two of them (I and IV) were highly abundant. Of the nine clusters, seven can be divided into two categories defined by a positive correlation with phosphate and nitrate and a negative correlation with longitude and, the other by a negative correlation with salinity, temperature, latitude and positive correlation with Lyapunov exponent. All the clusters were found to be remarkably dominant in South Pacific Ocean and can be placed into three classes, namely Southern Ocean-South Pacific Ocean clusters (I, II, V, VIII, IX), South Pacific Ocean clusters (IV and VII), and cosmopolitan clusters (III and VI). Our findings showed that co-occurring ribotypes can be significantly associated into recognizable clusters which exhibit a distinct response to environmental variables. This study, thus, demonstrated distinct behavior of each recognized assemblage displaying a taxonomic and environmental signature.
182
27311
Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters
Abstract:
Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.
181
43047
Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya
Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.
180
26856
Max-Entropy Feed-Forward Clustering Neural Network
Abstract:
The outputs of non-linear feed-forward neural network are positive, which could be treated as probability when they are normalized to one. If we take Entropy-Based Principle into consideration, the outputs for each sample could be represented as the distribution of this sample for different clusters. Entropy-Based Principle is the principle with which we could estimate the unknown distribution under some limited conditions. As this paper defines two processes in Feed-Forward Neural Network, our limited condition is the abstracted features of samples which are worked out in the abstraction process. And the final outputs are the probability distribution for different clusters in the clustering process. As Entropy-Based Principle is considered into the feed-forward neural network, a clustering method is born. We have conducted some experiments on six open UCI data sets, comparing with a few baselines and applied purity as the measurement. The results illustrate that our method outperforms all the other baselines that are most popular clustering methods.
179
61662
Cluster Analysis of Customer Churn in Telecom Industry
Abstract:
The research examines the factors that affect customer churn (CC) in the Jordanian telecom industry. A total of 700 surveys were distributed. Cluster analysis revealed three main clusters. Results showed that CC and customer satisfaction (CS) were the key determinants in forming the three clusters. In two clusters, the center values of CC were high, indicating that the customers were loyal and SC was expensive and time- and energy-consuming. Still, the mobile service provider (MSP) should enhance its communication (COM), and value added services (VASs), as well as customer complaint management systems (CCMS). Finally, for the third cluster the center of the CC indicates a poor level of loyalty, which facilitates customers churn to another MSP. The results of this study provide valuable feedback for MSP decision makers regarding approaches to improving their performance and reducing CC.
178
66755
An Exploratory Study of Nasik Small and Medium Enterprises Cluster
Abstract:
Small and Medium Enterprises play crucial role in contributing to economic objectives of an emerging nation. To support SMEs, the idea of creation of clusters has been prevalent since past two decades. In this paper, an attempt has been done to explore the impact of being in the cluster on the competitiveness of SMEs. To meet the objective, Nasik Cluster (India) has been selected. The information was collected by means of two focus group discussions and survey of thirty SMEs. The finding generates interest revealing the fact that under the concept ‘Cluster’ a lot of ambiguity flourish. Besides the problems and opportunities of the firms in the cluster the results bring to notice that the benefits of clusterization can only reach to SMEs when the whole location can be considered/understood as a cluster, rather than many subsets (various forms of clusters) prevailing under it. Fostering such an understanding calls for harmony among the various stakeholders of the clusters. The dynamics of interaction among government, local industry associations, relevant institutions, large firms and finally SMEs which makes the most of the location based cluster, are significant in shaping the host cluster’s competitiveness and vice versa.
177
13154
A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting
Abstract:
Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.
176
73858
Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics
Abstract:
We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.
175
17234
Study of Water Cluster-Amorphous Silica Collisions in the Extreme Space Environment Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method
Abstract:
The concept of high velocity particle impact on the spacecraft surface materials has been one of the important issues in the design of such materials. Among these particles, water clusters might be the most abundant and the most important particles to be studied. The importance of water clusters is that upon impact on the surface of the materials, they can cause damage to the material and also if they are sub-cooled water clusters, they can attach to the surface of the materials and cause ice accumulation on the surface which is very problematic in spacecraft and also aircraft operations. The dynamics of the collisions between amorphous silica structures and water clusters with impact velocities of 1 km/s to 10 km/s are studied using the ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation method. The initial water clusters include 150 water molecules and the water clusters are collided on the surface of amorphous fully oxidized and suboxide silica structures. These simulations show that the most abundant molecules observed on the silica surfaces, other than reflecting water molecules, are H3O+ and OH- for the water cluster impacts on suboxide and fully oxidized silica structures, respectively. The effect of impact velocity on the change of silica mass is studied. At high impact velocities the water molecules attach to the silica surface through a chemisorption process meaning that water molecule dissociates through the interaction with silica surface. However, at low impact velocities, physisorbed water molecules are also observed, which means water molecule attaches and accumulates on the silica surface. The amount of physisorbed waters molecules at low velocities is higher on the suboxide silica surfaces. The evolution of the temperatures of the water clusters during the collisions indicates that the possibility of electron excitement at impact velocities less than 10 km/s is minimal and ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics simulation can predict the chemistry of these hypervelocity impacts. However, at impact velocities close to 10 km/s the average temperature of the impacting water clusters increase to about 2000K, with individual molecules oocasionally reaching temperatures of over 8000K and thus will be prudent to consider the concept of electron excitation at these higher impact velocities which goes beyond the current ReaxFF ability.
174
47516
Neural Changes Associated with Successful Antidepressant Treatment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder
Abstract:
Introduction: 40% of adolescents with major depression (MDD) are unresponsive to 1st line antidepressant treatment. The neural mechanism underlying treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant depression in adolescent are unclear. Amygdala is important for emotion processing and has been implicated in mood disorders. Past research has shown abnormal amygdala connectivity in adolescents with MDD. This research study changes in amygdala resting-state functional connectivity to find neural correlates of successful antidepressant treatment. Methods: Thirteen adolescents aged 12-19 underwent rfMRI before and after 8-week antidepressant treatment and completed BDI-II at each scan. A whole-brain approach, using anatomically defined amygdala ROIs (1) identified brain regions that are highly synchronous with the amygdala, (2) correlated neural changes with changes in overall depression and specific symptom clusters within depression. Results: Some neural correlates were common across domains: (1) decreased amygdala RSFC with the default mode network (posterior cingulate, precuneus) is associated with improvement in overall depression and many symptom clusters, (2) increased amygdala RSFC with fusiform gyrus is associated with symptom improvement across many symptom clusters. We also found unique neural changes associated with symptom improvement in each symptom cluster. Conclusion: This is the first preliminary study that looks at neural correlates of antidepressant treatment response to overall depression as well as different clusters of symptoms of depression. The finding suggests both overlapping and distinct neural mechanisms underlying improvement in each symptom clusters within depression. Some brain regions found are also implicated in MDD among adults in previous literature.
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54222
Dynamic Transmission Modes of Network Public Opinion on Subevents Clusters of an Emergent Event
Abstract:
The rise and attenuation of the public opinion broadcast of an emergent accident, in the social network, has a close relationship with the dynamic development of its subevents cluster. In this article, we take Tianjin Port explosion's subevents as an example to research the dynamic propagation discipline of Internet public opinion in a sudden accident, and analyze the overall structure of dynamic propagation to propose four different routes for subevents clusters propagation. We also generate network diagrams for the dynamic public opinion propagation, analyze each propagation type specifically. Based on this, suggestions on the supervision and guidance of Internet public opinion broadcast can be made.
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62284
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes Using Self-Organizing Maps
Abstract:
In the present study, the self-organizing map (SOM) clustering technique was applied to identify homogeneous clusters of hydrochemical parameters in El Milia plain, Algeria, to assess the quality of groundwater for potable and agricultural purposes. The visualization of SOM-analysis indicated that 35 groundwater samples collected in the study area were classified into three clusters, which showed progressive increase in electrical conductivity from cluster one to cluster three. Samples belonging to cluster one are mostly located in the recharge zone showing hard fresh water type, however, water type gradually changed to hard-brackish type in the discharge zone, including clusters two and three. Ionic ratio studies indicated the role of carbonate rock dissolution in increases on groundwater hardness, especially in cluster one. However, evaporation and evapotranspiration are the main processes increasing salinity in cluster two and three.
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97628
Examination of Public Hospital Unions Technical Efficiencies Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Machine Learning Techniques
Abstract:
Regional planning in health has gained speed for developing countries in recent years. In Turkey, 89 different Public Hospital Unions (PHUs) were conducted based on provincial levels. In this study technical efficiencies of 89 PHUs were examined by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and machine learning techniques by dividing them into two clusters in terms of similarities of input and output indicators. Number of beds, physicians and nurses determined as input variables and number of outpatients, inpatients and surgical operations determined as output indicators. Before performing DEA, PHUs were grouped into two clusters. It is seen that the first cluster represents PHUs which have higher population, demand and service density than the others. The difference between clusters was statistically significant in terms of all study variables (p ˂ 0.001). After clustering, DEA was performed for general and for two clusters separately. It was found that 11% of PHUs were efficient in general, additionally 21% and 17% of them were efficient for the first and second clusters respectively. It is seen that PHUs, which are representing urban parts of the country and have higher population and service density, are more efficient than others. Random forest decision tree graph shows that number of inpatients is a determinative factor of efficiency of PHUs, which is a measure of service density. It is advisable for public health policy makers to use statistical learning methods in resource planning decisions to improve efficiency in health care.
170
2417
Modeling of Processes Running in Radical Clusters Formed by Ionizing Radiation with the Help of Continuous Petri Nets and Oxygen Effect
Abstract:
The final biological effect of ionizing particles may be influenced strongly by some chemical substances present in cells mainly in the case of low-LET radiation. The influence of oxygen may be particularly important because oxygen is always present in living cells. The corresponding processes are then running mainly in the chemical stage of radio biological mechanism. The radical clusters formed by densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particles are mainly responsible for final biological effect. The damage effect depends then on radical concentration at a time when the cluster meets a DNA molecule. It may be strongly influenced by oxygen present in a cell as oxygen may act in different directions: at small concentration of it the interaction with hydrogen radicals prevails while at higher concentrations additional efficient oxygen radicals may be formed. The basic radical concentration in individual clusters diminishes, which is influenced by two parallel processes: chemical reactions and diffusion of corresponding clusters. The given simultaneous evolution may be modeled and analyzed well with the help of Continuous Petri nets. The influence of other substances present in cells during irradiation may be studied, too. Some results concerning the impact of oxygen content will be presented.
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82053
Impact of Schools' Open and Semi-Open Spaces on Student's Studying Behavior
Abstract:
Open and semi-open spaces in educational buildings like corridors, mid landings, seating spaces, lobby, courtyards are traditionally have been the places of social communion and interaction which helps in promoting the knowledge, performance, activeness, and motivation in students. Factors like availability of land, commercialization, of educational facilities, especially in e-techno and smart schools, led to closed classrooms to accommodate students thereby lack quality open and semi-open spaces. This insufficient attention towards open space design which is a means of informal learning misses an opportunity to encourage the student’s skill development, behavior and learning skills. The core objective of this paper is to find the level of impact on student learning behavior and to identify the suitable proportions and configuration of spaces that shape the schools. In order to achieve this, different types of open spaces in schools and their impact on student’s performance in various existing models are analysed using case studies to draw some design principles. The study is limited to indoor open spaces like corridors, break out spaces and courtyards. The expected outcome of the paper is to suggest better design considerations for the development of semi-open and open spaces which functions as an element for informal learnings. Its focus is to provide further thinking on designing and development of open spaces in educational buildings.
168
26157
Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?
Abstract:
Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.
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124453
Visualization and Performance Measure to Determine Number of Topics in Twitter Data Clustering Using Hybrid Topic Modeling
Abstract:
Topic models are widely used in building clusters of documents for more than a decade, yet problems occurring in choosing optimal number of topics. The main problem is the lack of a stable metric of the quality of topics obtained during the construction of topic models. The authors analyzed from previous works, most of the models used in determining the number of topics are non-parametric and quality of topics determined by using perplexity and coherence measures and concluded that they are not applicable in solving this problem. In this paper, we used the parametric method, which is an extension of the traditional topic model with visual access tendency for visualization of the number of topics (clusters) to complement clustering and to choose optimal number of topics based on results of cluster validity indices. Developed hybrid topic models are demonstrated with different Twitter datasets on various topics in obtaining the optimal number of topics and in measuring the quality of clusters. The experimental results showed that the Visual Non-negative Matrix Factorization (VNMF) topic model performs well in determining the optimal number of topics with interactive visualization and in performance measure of the quality of clusters with validity indices.
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45739
The Effective Use of the Network in the Distributed Storage
Abstract:
This work aims at studying the exploitation of high-speed networks of clusters for distributed storage. Parallel applications running on clusters require both high-performance communications between nodes and efficient access to the storage system. Many studies on network technologies led to the design of dedicated architectures for clusters with very fast communications between computing nodes. Efficient distributed storage in clusters has been essentially developed by adding parallelization mechanisms so that the server(s) may sustain an increased workload. In this work, we propose to improve the performance of distributed storage systems in clusters by efficiently using the underlying high-performance network to access distant storage systems. The main question we are addressing is: do high-speed networks of clusters fit the requirements of a transparent, efficient and high-performance access to remote storage? We show that storage requirements are very different from those of parallel computation. High-speed networks of clusters were designed to optimize communications between different nodes of a parallel application. We study their utilization in a very different context, storage in clusters, where client-server models are generally used to access remote storage (for instance NFS, PVFS or LUSTRE). Our experimental study based on the usage of the GM programming interface of MYRINET high-speed networks for distributed storage raised several interesting problems. Firstly, the specific memory utilization in the storage access system layers does not easily fit the traditional memory model of high-speed networks. Secondly, client-server models that are used for distributed storage have specific requirements on message control and event processing, which are not handled by existing interfaces. We propose different solutions to solve communication control problems at the filesystem level. We show that a modification of the network programming interface is required. Data transfer issues need an adaptation of the operating system. We detail several propositions for network programming interfaces which make their utilization easier in the context of distributed storage. The integration of a flexible processing of data transfer in the new programming interface MYRINET/MX is finally presented. Performance evaluations show that its usage in the context of both storage and other types of applications is easy and efficient.
165
129865
Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources
Abstract:
The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.
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13698
Cluster Based Ant Colony Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Ant colony based routing algorithms are known to grantee the packet delivery, but they su ffer from the huge overhead of control messages which are needed to discover the route. In this paper we utilize the network nodes positions to group the nodes in connected clusters. We use clusters-heads only on forwarding the route discovery control messages. Our simulations proved that the new algorithm has decreased the overhead dramatically without affecting the delivery rate.
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39978
Genome-Scale Analysis of Streptomyces Caatingaensis CMAA 1322 Metabolism, a New Abiotic Stress-Tolerant Actinomycete
Abstract:
Extremophilic microorganism are adapted to biotopes combining several stress factors (temperature, pressure, radiation, salinity and pH), which indicate the richness valuable resource for the exploitation of novel biotechnological processes and constitute unique models for investigations their biomolecules (1, 2). The above information encourages us investigate bioprospecting synthesized compounds by a noval actinomycete, designated thermotolerant Streptomyces caatingaensis CMAA 1322, isolated from sample soil tropical dry forest (Caatinga) in the Brazilian semiarid region (3-17°S and 35-45°W). This set of constrating physical and climatic factores provide the unique conditions and a diversity of well adapted species, interesting site for biotechnological purposes. Preliminary studies have shown the great potential in the production of cytotoxic, pesticidal and antimicrobial molecules (3). Thus, to extend knowledge of the genes clusters responsible for producing biosynthetic pathways of natural products in strain CMAA1322, whole-genome shotgun (WGS) DNA sequencing was performed using paired-end long sequencing with PacBio RS (Pacific Biosciences). Genomic DNA was extracted from a pure culture grown overnight on LB medium using the PureLink genomic DNA kit (Life Technologies). An approximately 3- to 20-kb-insert PacBio library was constructed and sequenced on an 8 single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cell, yielding 116,269 reads (average length, 7,446 bp), which were allocated into 18 contigs, with 142.11x coverage and N50 value of 20.548 bp (BioProject number PRJNA288757). The assembled data were analyzed by Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) (4) the genome size was found to be 7.055.077 bp, comprising 6167 open reading frames (ORFs) and 413 subsystems. The G+C content was estimated to be 72 mol%. The closest-neighbors tool, available in RAST through functional comparison of the genome, revealed that strain CMAA1322 is more closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 53653 (similarity score value, 537), S. violaceusniger Tu 4113 (score value, 483), S. avermitilis MA-4680 (score value, 475), S. albus J1074 (score value, 447). The Streptomyces sp. CMAA1322 genome contains 98 tRNA genes and 135 genes copies related to stress response, mainly osmotic stress (14), heat shock (16), oxidative stress (49). Functional annotation by antiSMASH version 3.0 (5) identified 41 clusters for secondary metabolites (including two clusters for lanthipeptides, ten clusters for nonribosomal peptide synthetases [NRPS], three clusters for siderophores, fourteen for polyketide synthetase [PKS], six clusters encoding a terpene, two clusters encoding a bacteriocin, and one cluster encoding a phenazine). Our work provide in comparative analyse of genome and extract produced (data no published) by lineage CMAA1322, revealing the potential of microorganisms accessed from extreme environments as Caatinga” to produce a wide range of biotechnological relevant compounds.
162
85479
Specific Frequency of Globular Clusters in Different Galaxy Types
Abstract:
Globular clusters (GC) are important objects for tracing the early evolution of a galaxy. We study the correlation between the cluster population and the global properties of the host galaxy. We found that the correlation between cluster population (NGC) and the baryonic mass (Mb) of the host galaxy are best described as 10 &minus;5.6038Mb. In order to understand the origin of the U -shape relation between the GC specific frequency (SN) and Mb (caused by the high value of SN for dwarfs galaxies and giant ellipticals and a minimum SN for intermediate mass galaxies&asymp; 1010M), we derive a theoretical model for the specific frequency (SNth). The theoretical model for SNth is based on the slope of the power-law embedded cluster mass function (&beta;) and different time scale (&Delta;t) of the forming galaxy. Our results show a good agreement between the observation and the model at a certain &beta; and &Delta;t. The model seems able to reproduce higher value of SNth of &beta; = 1.5 at the midst formation time scale.
161
38319
Spatial Distribution and Cluster Analysis of Sexual Risk Behaviors and STIs Reported by Chinese Adults in Guangzhou, China: A Representative Population-Based Study
Abstract:
Background: Economic and social reforms designed to open China to the world has been successful, but also appear to have rapidly laid the foundation for the reemergence of STIs since 1980s. Changes in sexual behaviors, relationships, and norms among Chinese contributed to the STIs epidemic. As the massive population moved during the last 30 years, early coital debut, multiple sexual partnerships, and unprotected sex have increased within the general population. Our objectives were to assess associations between residences location, sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adults living in Guangzhou, China. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling followed a two-step process was used to select populations aged 18-59 years in Guangzhou, China. Spatial methods including Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were utilized to identify 1400 coordinates with latitude and longitude. Face-to-face household interviews were conducted to collect self-report data on sexual risk behaviors and diagnosed STIs. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic was implemented to identify and detect spatial distribution and clusters of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The presence and location of statistically significant clusters were mapped in the study areas using ArcGIS software. Results: In this study, 1215 of 1400 households attempted surveys, with 368 refusals, resulting in a sample of 751 completed surveys. The prevalence of self-reported sexual risk behaviors was between 5.1% and 50.0%. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of diagnosed STIs was 7.06%. Anal intercourse clustered in an area located along the border within the rural-urban continuum (p=0.001). High rate clusters for alcohol or other drugs using before sex (p=0.008) and migrants who lived in Guangzhou less than one year (p=0.007) overlapped this cluster. Excess cases for sex without a condom (p=0.031) overlapped the cluster for college students (p< 0.001). Conclusions: Short-term migrants and college students reported greater sexual risk behaviors. Programs to increase safer sex within these communities to reduce the risk of STIs are warranted in Guangzhou. Spatial analysis identified geographical clusters of sexual risk behaviors, which is critical for optimizing surveillance and targeting control measures for these locations in the future.
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39737
Changing New York Financial Clusters in the 2000s: Modeling the Impact and Policy Implication of the Global Financial Crisis
Abstract:
With the influx of research assessing the economic impact of the global financial crisis of 2007-8, a spatial analysis based on empirical data is needed to better understand the spatial significance of the financial crisis in New York, a key international financial center also considered the origin of the crisis. Using spatial statistics, the existence of financial clusters specializing in credit and securities throughout the New York metropolitan area are identified for 2000 and 2010, the time period before and after the height of the global financial crisis. Geographically Weighted Regressions are then used to examine processes underlying the formation and movement of financial geographies across state, county and ZIP codes of the New York metropolitan area throughout the 2000s with specific attention to tax regimes, employment, household income, technology, and transportation hubs. This analysis provides useful inputs for financial risk management and public policy initiatives aimed at addressing regional economic sustainability across state boundaries, while also developing the groundwork for further research on a spatial analysis of the global financial crisis.
159
62083
Towards A Framework for Using Open Data for Accountability: A Case Study of A Program to Reduce Corruption
Abstract:
Media has revealed a variety of corruption cases in the regional and local governments all over the world. Many governments pursued many anti-corruption reforms and have created a system of checks and balances. Three types of corruption are faced by citizens; administrative corruption, collusion and extortion. Accountability is one of the benchmarks for building transparent government. The public sector is required to report the results of the programs that have been implemented so that the citizen can judge whether the institution has been working such as economical, efficient and effective. Open Data is offering solutions for the implementation of good governance in organizations who want to be more transparent. In addition, Open Data can create transparency and accountability to the community. The objective of this paper is to build a framework of open data for accountability to combating corruption. This paper will investigate the relationship between open data, and accountability as part of anti-corruption initiatives. This research will investigate the impact of open data implementation on public organization.
158
47971
An Approach for Association Rules Ranking
Abstract:
Medical association rules induction is used to discover useful correlations between pertinent concepts from large medical databases. Nevertheless, ARs algorithms produce huge amount of delivered rules and do not guarantee the usefulness and interestingness of the generated knowledge. To overcome this drawback, we propose an ontology based interestingness measure for ARs ranking. According to domain expert, the goal of the use of ARs is to discover implicit relationships between items of different categories such as ‘clinical features and disorders’, ‘clinical features and radiological observations’, etc. That’s to say, the itemsets which are composed of ‘similar’ items are uninteresting. Therefore, the dissimilarity between the rule’s items can be used to judge the interestingness of association rules; the more different are the items, the more interesting the rule is. In this paper, we design a distinct approach for ranking semantically interesting association rules involving the use of an ontology knowledge mining approach. The basic idea is to organize the ontology’s concepts into a hierarchical structure of conceptual clusters of targeted subjects, where each cluster encapsulates ‘similar’ concepts suggesting a specific category of the domain knowledge. The interestingness of association rules is, then, defined as the dissimilarity between corresponding clusters. That is to say, the further are the clusters of the items in the AR, the more interesting the rule is. We apply the method in our domain of interest – mammographic domain- using an existing mammographic ontology called Mammo with the goal of deriving interesting rules from past experiences, to discover implicit relationships between concepts modeling the domain.
157
85552
A Polynomial Time Clustering Algorithm for Solving the Assignment Problem in the Vehicle Routing Problem
Abstract:
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) consists of a group of customers that needs to be served. Each customer has a certain demand of goods. A central depot having a fleet of vehicles is responsible for supplying the customers with their demands. The problem is composed of two subproblems: The first subproblem is an assignment problem where the number of vehicles that will be used as well as the customers assigned to each vehicle are determined. The second subproblem is the routing problem in which for each vehicle having a number of customers assigned to it, the order of visits of the customers is determined. Optimal number of vehicles, as well as optimal total distance, should be achieved. In this paper, an approach for solving the first subproblem (the assignment problem) is presented. In the approach, a clustering algorithm is proposed for finding the optimal number of vehicles by grouping the customers into clusters where each cluster is visited by one vehicle. Finding the optimal number of clusters is NP-hard. This work presents a polynomial time clustering algorithm for finding the optimal number of clusters and solving the assignment problem.
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18638
Multi-Cluster Overlapping K-Means Extension Algorithm (MCOKE)
Abstract:
Clustering involves the partitioning of n objects into k clusters. Many clustering algorithms use hard-partitioning techniques where each object is assigned to one cluster. In this paper, we propose an overlapping algorithm MCOKE which allows objects to belong to one or more clusters. The algorithm is different from fuzzy clustering techniques because objects that overlap are assigned a membership value of 1 (one) as opposed to a fuzzy membership degree. The algorithm is also different from other overlapping algorithms that require a similarity threshold to be defined as a priority which can be difficult to determine by novice users.
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14432
Open Innovation Strategy (OIS) Paradigm and an OIS Capabilities Model
Abstract:
Innovation and strategy discussions do highlight open innovation as a new paradigm in business. Yet, a number of stumbling blocks in the form of closed innovation principles weaved into the fabric of a traditional business model stand in the way of the new paradigm’s momentum to increase value in various business contexts. The paper argues that businesses considering an engagement with the open innovation paradigm would need to take steps to improve their multiplicative, absorptive and relational capabilities, respectively. The needed improvements would amount to a business model evolutionary transformation and eventually bring about a paradigm overhaul in business. The transformation is worth staging over time to ensure that open innovation is developed across interconnected and partnered areas of strategic importance. This article develops an open innovation strategy (OIS) capabilities model, and employs examples from different industries to briefly discuss OIS’s potential to augment business value in a number of suggested areas for future research.
154
21476
Studies on Pesticide Usage Pattern and Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage and Technologies in Open Field and Poly House Conditions
Abstract:
The survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out by interviewing farmers growing chill in open fields and poly houses based on the questionnaire prepared to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of poly house farmers are high compared to open field farmers, where 57.14% poly house farmers are high school educated, whereas 35% open field farmers are illiterates. Majority farmers use nursery of 35 days and grow in < 0.5 acre poly house in summer and rabi and < 1 acre in open field during kharif. Awareness on pesticide related issues is varying among poly house and open field farmers with some commonality, where 28.57% poly house farmers know about recommended pesticides while only 10% open field farmers are aware of this issue. However, in general, all farmers contact pesticide dealer for recommendations, poly house farmers prefer to contact scientists (35.71%) and open field farmers prefer to contact agricultural officers (33.33). Most farmers are unaware about pesticide classification and toxicity symbols on packing. Farmers are aware about endosulfan ban, but only 21.42% poly house and 11.66% open field farmers know about ban of monocrotofos on vegetables. Very few farmers know about pesticide residues and related issues, but know washing helps to reduce contamination.
153
83833
An Adaptive Oversampling Technique for Imbalanced Datasets
Abstract:
A data set exhibits class imbalance problem when one class has very few examples compared to the other class, and this is also referred to as between class imbalance. The traditional classifiers fail to classify the minority class examples correctly due to its bias towards the majority class. Apart from between-class imbalance, imbalance within classes where classes are composed of a different number of sub-clusters with these sub-clusters containing different number of examples also deteriorates the performance of the classifier. Previously, many methods have been proposed for handling imbalanced dataset problem. These methods can be classified into four categories: data preprocessing, algorithmic based, cost-based methods and ensemble of classifier. Data preprocessing techniques have shown great potential as they attempt to improve data distribution rather than the classifier. Data preprocessing technique handles class imbalance either by increasing the minority class examples or by decreasing the majority class examples. Decreasing the majority class examples lead to loss of information and also when minority class has an absolute rarity, removing the majority class examples is generally not recommended. Existing methods available for handling class imbalance do not address both between-class imbalance and within-class imbalance simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a method that handles between class imbalance and within class imbalance simultaneously for binary classification problem. Removing between class imbalance and within class imbalance simultaneously eliminates the biases of the classifier towards bigger sub-clusters by minimizing the error domination of bigger sub-clusters in total error. The proposed method uses model-based clustering to find the presence of sub-clusters or sub-concepts in the dataset. The number of examples oversampled among the sub-clusters is determined based on the complexity of sub-clusters. The method also takes into consideration the scatter of the data in the feature space and also adaptively copes up with unseen test data using Lowner-John ellipsoid for increasing the accuracy of the classifier. In this study, neural network is being used as this is one such classifier where the total error is minimized and removing the between-class imbalance and within class imbalance simultaneously help the classifier in giving equal weight to all the sub-clusters irrespective of the classes. The proposed method is validated on 9 publicly available data sets and compared with three existing oversampling techniques that rely on the spatial location of minority class examples in the euclidean feature space. The experimental results show the proposed method to be statistically significantly superior to other methods in terms of various accuracy measures. Thus the proposed method can serve as a good alternative to handle various problem domains like credit scoring, customer churn prediction, financial distress, etc., that typically involve imbalanced data sets.
152
114572
The Impact of Public Open Space System on Housing Price in Chicago
Abstract:
The research explored the influences of public open space system on housing price through hedonic models, in order to support better open space plans and economic policies. We have three initial hypotheses: 1) public open space system has an overall positive influence on surrounding housing prices. 2) Different public open space types have different levels of influence on motivating surrounding housing prices. 3) Walking and driving accessibilities from property to public open spaces have different statistical relation with housing prices. Cook County, Illinois, was chosen to be a study area since data availability, sufficient open space types, and long-term open space preservation strategies. We considered the housing attributes, driving and walking accessibility scores from houses to nearby public open spaces, and driving accessibility scores to hospitals as influential features and used real housing sales price in 2010 as a dependent variable in the built hedonic model. Through ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, General Moran’s I analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis, we observed the statistical relations between public open spaces and housing sale prices in the three built hedonic models and confirmed all three hypotheses.
151
24815
Superamolecular Chemistry and Packing of FAMEs in the Liquid Phase for Optimization of Combustion and Emission
Abstract:
Supramolecular chemistry refers to the domain of chemistry beyond that of molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular sub units or components. Biodiesel components self arrangements is closely related/affect their physical properties in combustion systems and emission. Due to technological difficulties, knowledge regarding the molecular packing of FAMEs (biodiesel) in the liquid phase is limited. Spectral tools such as X-ray and NMR are known to provide evidences related to molecular structure organization. Recently, it was reported by our research group that using 1H Time Domain NMR methodology based on relaxation time and self diffusion coefficients, FAMEs clusters with different motilities can be accurately studied in the liquid phase. Head to head dimarization with quasi-smectic clusters organization, based on molecular motion analysis, was clearly demonstrated. These findings about the assembly/packing of the FAME components are directly associated with fluidity/viscosity of the biodiesel. Furthermore, these findings may provide information of micro/nano-particles that are formed in the delivery and injection system of various combustion systems (affected by thermodynamic conditions). Various relevant parameters to combustion such as: distillation/Liquid Gas phase transition, cetane number/ignition delay, shoot, oxidation/NOX emission maybe predicted. These data may open the window for further optimization of FAME/diesel mixture in terms of combustion and emission.
150
126920
Rigorous Literature Review: Open Science Policy
Authors:
Abstract:
This article documents how open science policy is perceived in the scientific literature globally throughout the history. It also presents what policy needs are persistent to enable safe and effective dissemination of scientific knowledge. This information may be of interest to open science and science policy makers globally, especially in the view of recent adoption of supranational open science policies such as Plan S. Evaluation of open science policy landscape is in pressing need of assessment regarding its impact on the research community and society at wide as no previous literature review has been conducted on the topic. This study is a rigorous literature review based on constructivist grounded theory method on the full body of scientific open science policy publications. Selection of these articles has been conducted in 2019 and 2020 in major global knowledge databases. Through the analysis of these articles, two key themes emerged that are seen to shape the relationship between science and society. 1st is that of the policy enabling open science in a safe and effective way, and 2nd is that of the outcome of the science policy may have on the research community and the wider society. These findings accentuate that open science policies can have a major impact on not only research process and availability of knowledge but also on society itself. As an outcome of this study, a theoretical framework is constructed, and the need for further study on open science policy itself on a higher level becomes apparent.
149
87029
Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model
Abstract:
In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.
148
51118
The Relationship between Proximity to Sources of Industrial-Related Outdoor Air Pollution and Children Emergency Department Visits for Asthma in the Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton, Canada, 2004/2005 to 2009/2010
Abstract:
Introduction/Objectives: The Census Metropolitan Area of Edmonton (CMAE) has important industrial emissions to the air from the Industrial Heartland Alberta (IHA) at the Northeast and the coal-fired power plants (CFPP) at the West. The objective of the study was to explore the presence of clusters of children asthma ED visits in the areas around the IHA and the CFPP. Methods: Retrospective data on children asthma ED visits was collected at the dissemination area (DA) level for children between 2 and 14 years of age, living in the CMAE between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2010. We conducted a spatial analysis of disease clusters around putative sources with count (ecological) data using descriptive, hypothesis testing, and multivariable modeling analysis. Results: The mean crude rate of asthma ED visits was 9.3/1,000 children population per year during the study period. Circular spatial scan test for cases and events identified a cluster of children asthma ED visits in the DA where the CFPP are located in the Wabamum area. No clusters were identified around the IHA area. The multivariable models suggest that there is a significant decline in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the CFPP area this effect is modified at the SE direction with mean angle 125.58 degrees, where the risk increases with distance. In contrast, the regression models for IHA suggest that there is a significant increase in risk for children asthma ED visits as distance increases around the IHA area and this effect is modified at SW direction with mean angle 216.52 degrees, where the risk increases at shorter distances. Conclusions: Different methods for detecting clusters of disease consistently suggested the existence of a cluster of children asthma ED visits around the CFPP but not around the IHA within the CMAE. These results are probably explained by the direction of the air pollutants dispersion caused by the predominant and subdominant wind direction at each point. The use of different approaches to detect clusters of disease is valuable to have a better understanding of the presence, shape, direction and size of clusters of disease around pollution sources.
147
46359
Proposing an Algorithm to Cluster Ad Hoc Networks, Modulating Two Levels of Learning Automaton and Nodes Additive Weighting
Abstract:
An Ad Hoc network consists of wireless mobile equipment which connects to each other without any infrastructure, using connection equipment. The best way to form a hierarchical structure is clustering. Various methods of clustering can form more stable clusters according to nodes' mobility. In this research we propose an algorithm, which allocates some weight to nodes based on factors, i.e. link stability and power reduction rate. According to the allocated weight in the previous phase, the cellular learning automaton picks out in the second phase nodes which are candidates for being cluster head. In the third phase, learning automaton selects cluster head nodes, member nodes and forms the cluster. Thus, this automaton does the learning from the setting and can form optimized clusters in terms of power consumption and link stability. To simulate the proposed algorithm we have used omnet++4.2.2. Simulation results indicate that newly formed clusters have a longer lifetime than previous algorithms and decrease strongly network overload by reducing update rate.
146
48023
Study of the Landslide and Stability of Open Pit Quarry: Case of Open Pite Quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila, Algeria
Abstract:
Mining operations open induce risks of instability that can cause landslides and collapse at the bleachers slope. These risks may occur both during and after the operation phase. The magnitude of these risks depends on the mechanical and physical characteristics of the rock mass, the geometrical dimensions of ore bodies, their spatial arrangement, and the state of the operated area. If security and technology measures are not taken into account for this purpose, the environment will be affected. The main objective of this work is to assess these risks by analytical and numerical methods. The study is based on the geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical rock mass of the open pit quarry of Chouf Amar M'sila. The results obtained have allowed us to obtain an acceptable factor of safety and stability study of the open pit.
145
25163
A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm
Abstract:
The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.
144
96361
A Relative Entropy Regularization Approach for Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Problem
Abstract:
Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique; its aim is to extract the data structures, in which similar data objects are grouped in the same cluster, whereas dissimilar objects are grouped in different clusters. Clustering methods are widely utilized in different fields, such as: image processing, computer vision , and pattern recognition, etc. Fuzzy c-means clustering (fcm) is one of the most well known fuzzy clustering methods. It is based on solving an optimization problem, in which a minimization of a given cost function has been studied. This minimization aims to decrease the dissimilarity inside clusters, where the dissimilarity here is measured by the distances between data objects and cluster centers. The degree of belonging of a data point in a cluster is measured by a membership function which is included in the interval [0, 1]. In fcm clustering, the membership degree is constrained with the condition that the sum of a data object’s memberships in all clusters must be equal to one. This constraint can cause several problems, specially when our data objects are included in a noisy space. Regularization approach took a part in fuzzy c-means clustering technique. This process introduces an additional information in order to solve an ill-posed optimization problem. In this study, we focus on regularization by relative entropy approach, where in our optimization problem we aim to minimize the dissimilarity inside clusters. Finding an appropriate membership degree to each data object is our objective, because an appropriate membership degree leads to an accurate clustering result. Our clustering results in synthetic data sets, gaussian based data sets, and real world data sets show that our proposed model achieves a good accuracy.
143
9326
Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development
Abstract:
This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.
142
3186
Least-Square Support Vector Machine for Characterization of Clusters of Microcalcifications
Abstract:
Clusters of Microcalcifications (MCCs) are most frequent symptoms of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) recognized by mammography. Least-Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is a variant of the standard SVM. In the paper, LS-SVM is proposed as a classifier for classifying MCCs as benign or malignant based on relevant extracted features from enhanced mammogram. To establish the credibility of LS-SVM classifier for classifying MCCs, a comparative evaluation of the relative performance of LS-SVM classifier for different kernel functions is made. For comparative evaluation, confusion matrix and ROC analysis are used. Experiments are performed on data extracted from mammogram images of DDSM database. A total of 380 suspicious areas are collected, which contain 235 malignant and 145 benign samples, from mammogram images of DDSM database. A set of 50 features is calculated for each suspicious area. After this, an optimal subset of 23 most suitable features is selected from 50 features by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of proposed study are quite promising.
141
44171
Modified Clusterwise Regression for Pavement Management
Abstract:
Typically, pavement performance models are developed in two steps: (i) pavement segments with similar characteristics are grouped together to form a cluster, and (ii) the corresponding performance models are developed using statistical techniques. A challenge is to select the characteristics that define clusters and the segments associated with them. If inappropriate characteristics are used, clusters may include homogeneous segments with different performance behavior or heterogeneous segments with similar performance behavior. Prediction accuracy of performance models can be improved by grouping the pavement segments into more uniform clusters by including both characteristics and a performance measure. This grouping is not always possible due to limited information. It is impractical to include all the potential significant factors because some of them are potentially unobserved or difficult to measure. Historical performance of pavement segments could be used as a proxy to incorporate the effect of the missing potential significant factors in clustering process. The current state-of-the-art proposes Clusterwise Linear Regression (CLR) to determine the pavement clusters and the associated performance models simultaneously. CLR incorporates the effect of significant factors as well as a performance measure. In this study, a mathematical program was formulated for CLR models including multiple explanatory variables. Pavement data collected recently over the entire state of Nevada were used. International Roughness Index (IRI) was used as a pavement performance measure because it serves as a unified standard that is widely accepted for evaluating pavement performance, especially in terms of riding quality. Results illustrate the advantage of the using CLR. Previous studies have used CLR along with experimental data. This study uses actual field data collected across a variety of environmental, traffic, design, and construction and maintenance conditions.
140
82470
Evaluation of Buckwheat Genotypes to Different Planting Geometries and Fertility Levels in Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka
Abstract:
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an annual crop belongs to family Poligonaceae. The cultivated buckwheat species are notable for their exceptional nutritive values. It is an important source of carbohydrates, fibre, macro, and microelements such as K, Ca, Mg, Na and Mn, Zn, Se, and Cu. It also contains rutin, flavonoids, riboflavin, pyridoxine and many amino acids which have beneficial effects on human health, including lowering both blood lipid and sugar levels. Rutin, quercetin and some other polyphenols are potent carcinogens against colon and other cancers. Buckwheat has significant nutritive value and plenty of uses. Cultivation of buckwheat in Sothern part of India is very meager. Hence, a study was planned with an objective to know the performance of buckwheat genotypes to different planting geometries and fertility levels. The field experiment was conducted at Main Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Sciences, Dharwad, India, during 2017 Kharif. The experiment was laid-out in split-plot design with three replications having three planting geometries as main plots, two genotypes as sub plots and three fertility levels as sub-sub plot treatments. The soil of the experimental site was vertisol. The standard procedures are followed to record the observations. The planting geometry of 30*10 cm was recorded significantly higher seed yield (893 kg/ha⁻&sup1;), stover yield (1507 kg ha⁻&sup1;), clusters plant⁻&sup1; (7.4), seeds clusters⁻&sup1; (7.9) and 1000 seed weight (26.1 g) as compared to 40*10 cm and 20*10 cm planting geometries. Between the genotypes, significantly higher seed yield (943 kg ha⁻&sup1;) and harvest index (45.1) was observed with genotype IC-79147 as compared to PRB-1 genotype (687 kg ha⁻&sup1; and 34.2, respectively). However, the genotype PRB-1 recorded significantly higher stover yield (1344 kg ha⁻&sup1;) as compared to genotype IC-79147 (1173 kg ha⁻&sup1;). The genotype IC-79147 was recorded significantly higher clusters plant⁻&sup1; (7.1), seeds clusters⁻&sup1; (7.9) and 1000 seed weight (24.5 g) as compared PRB-1 (5.4, 5.8 and 22.3 g, respectively). Among the fertility levels tried, the fertility level of 60:30 NP kg ha⁻&sup1; recorded significantly higher seed yield (845 kg ha-1) and stover yield (1359 kg ha⁻&sup1;) as compared to 40:20 NP kg ha-1 (808 and 1259 kg ha⁻&sup1; respectively) and 20:10 NP kg ha-1 (793 and 1144 kg ha⁻&sup1; respectively). Within the treatment combinations, IC 79147 genotype having 30*10 cm planting geometry with 60:30 NP kg ha⁻&sup1; recorded significantly higher seed yield (1070 kg ha⁻&sup1;), clusters plant⁻&sup1; (10.3), seeds clusters⁻&sup1; (9.9) and 1000 seed weight (27.3 g) compared to other treatment combinations.
139
68927
Combined Influence of Charge Carrier Density and Temperature on Open-Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells
Abstract:
One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) is the open-circuit voltage, however, it is still not well understood. In order to examine the performance of OSCs, it is necessary to understand the losses associated with the open-circuit voltage and how best it can be improved. Here, an analytical expression for the open-circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs is derived from the charge carrier densities without considering the drift-diffusion current. The open-circuit voltage thus obtained is dependent on the donor-acceptor band gap, the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the hole quasi-Fermi level of the donor material, temperature, the carrier density (electrons), the generation rate of free charge carriers and the bimolecular recombination coefficient. It is found that open-circuit voltage increases when the carrier density increases and when the temperature decreases. The calculated results are discussed in view of experimental results and agree with them reasonably well. Overall, this work proposes an alternative pathway for improving the open-circuit voltage in BHJ OSCs.
138
52766
Cross-Layer Design of Event-Triggered Adaptive OFDMA Resource Allocation Protocols with Application to Vehicle Clusters
Abstract:
We propose an event-triggered algorithm for the solution of a distributed optimization problem by means of the projected subgradient method. Thereby, we invoke an OFDMA resource allocation scheme by applying an event-triggered sensitivity analysis at the access point. The optimal resource assignment of the subcarriers to the involved wireless nodes is carried out by considering the sensitivity analysis of the overall objective function as defined by the control of vehicle clusters with respect to the information exchange between the nodes.
137
29306
Innovative Handloom Design Techniques- an Experimental Study Based on Primary Colour Gradation
Abstract:
The Indian Handloom clusters are known for its tradition and heritage of excellent craftsmanship. The design development of Indian handloom clusters are oriented on traditionally dobby and jacquard design. This comprehensive paper proposes practises on handloom woven design based on primary colour gradation with the help of basic weaved on four shaft. The innovative design ideas are inspired from Nature and transferred into the handloom samples to achieve colour gradation with primary colours. In this paper, design methodology where in woven samples are strategically designed in such way that traditional knowledge of the weavers will be oriented to leveraged their skills.
136
18845
Nature of a Supercritical Mesophase
Abstract:
It has been reported that at temperatures above the critical there is no “continuity of liquid and gas”, as originally hypothesized by van der Waals. Rather, both gas and liquid phases, with characteristic properties as such, extend to supercritical temperatures. Each phase is bounded by the locus of a percolation transition, i.e. a higher-order thermodynamic phase change associated with percolation of gas clusters in a large void, or liquid interstitial vacancies in a large cluster. Between these two-phase bounds, it is reported there exists a mesophase that resembles an otherwise homogeneous dispersion of gas micro-bubbles in liquid (foam) and a dispersion of liquid micro-droplets in gas (mist). Such a colloidal-like state of a pure one-component fluid represents a hitherto unchartered equilibrium state of matter besides pure solid, liquid or gas. Here we provide compelling evidence, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, for the existence of this supercritical mesophase and its colloidal nature. We report preliminary results of computer simulations for a model fluid using a simplistic representation of atoms or molecules, i.e. a hard-core repulsion with an attraction so short that the atoms are referred to as “adhesive spheres”. Molecular clusters, and hence percolation transitions, are unambiguously defined. Graphics of color-coded clusters show colloidal characteristics of the supercritical mesophase.
135
33486
Development of Open Source Geospatial Certification Model Based on Geospatial Technology Competency Model
Abstract:
Open source geospatial certifications are needed in geospatial technology education and industry sector. In parallel with proprietary software, free and open source software solutions become important in geospatial technology research and play an important role for the growth of the geospatial industry. ESRI, GISCI (GIS Certification Institute), ASPRS (American Society of Photogrammetry and remote sensing), and Meta spatial are offering certifications on proprietary and open source software. These are portfolio and competency based certifications depending on GIS Body of Knowledge (Bok). The analysis of these certification approaches might lead to the discovery of some gaps in them and will open a new way to develop certifications related to the geospatial open source (OS). This new certification will investigate the different geospatial competencies according to open source tools that help to identify geospatial professionals and strengthen the geospatial academic content. The goal of this research is to introduce a geospatial certification model based on geospatial technology competency model (GTCM).The developed certification will not only incorporate the importance of geospatial education and production of the geospatial competency-based workforce in universities and companies (private or public) as well as describe open source solutions with tools and technology. Job analysis, market analysis, survey analysis of this certification opens a new horizon for business as well.
134
134131
An Assessment of the Quality of Open Government Data in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
In the past decade, open data have become a trend that has gained global attraction, as more countries are launching national open government data (OGD) portals. The Saudi government launched its portal in 2014, but various indicators show that the published data did not achieve expected outcomes. Poor data quality is a problem that can affect any OGD initiative and transform it into a resource-consuming project rather than a beneficial project. This study aims to propose a customised mathematical framework for assessing the quality of the data published in the Saudi Open Government Data Portal. This framework is a thorough attempt to evaluate the core of the OGD, which is based on cell-level and table-level criteria, rather than evaluating the portal. The framework tests the quality of the datasets by inspecting the data's compliance with 12 open data quality standards. A use case is presented to test the proposed framework, and the results are compared with other recognised OGD quality assessment frameworks. The comparison is then generalised to include 15 datasets. The results show how each model gives different readings despite the convergence of some results.
133
86547
Modeling the Demand for the Healthcare Services Using Data Analysis Techniques
Abstract:
Rapidly evolving modern data analysis technologies in healthcare play a large role in understanding the operation of the system and its characteristics. Nowadays, one of the key tasks in urban healthcare is to optimize the resource allocation. Thus, the application of data analysis in medical institutions to solve optimization problems determines the significance of this study. The purpose of this research was to establish the dependence between the indicators of the effectiveness of the medical institution and its resources. Hospital discharges by diagnosis; hospital days of in-patients and in-patient average length of stay were selected as the performance indicators and the demand of the medical facility. The hospital beds by type of care, medical technology (magnetic resonance tomography, gamma cameras, angiographic complexes and lithotripters) and physicians characterized the resource provision of medical institutions for the developed models. The data source for the research was an open database of the statistical service Eurostat. The choice of the source is due to the fact that the databases contain complete and open information necessary for research tasks in the field of public health. In addition, the statistical database has a user-friendly interface that allows you to quickly build analytical reports. The study provides information on 28 European for the period from 2007 to 2016. For all countries included in the study, with the most accurate and complete data for the period under review, predictive models were developed based on historical panel data. An attempt to improve the quality and the interpretation of the models was made by cluster analysis of the investigated set of countries. The main idea was to assess the similarity of the joint behavior of the variables throughout the time period under consideration to identify groups of similar countries and to construct the separate regression models for them. Therefore, the original time series were used as the objects of clustering. The hierarchical agglomerate algorithm k-medoids was used. The sampled objects were used as the centers of the clusters obtained, since determining the centroid when working with time series involves additional difficulties. The number of clusters used the silhouette coefficient. After the cluster analysis it was possible to significantly improve the predictive power of the models: for example, in the one of the clusters, MAPE error was only 0,82%, which makes it possible to conclude that this forecast is highly reliable in the short term. The obtained predicted values of the developed models have a relatively low level of error and can be used to make decisions on the resource provision of the hospital by medical personnel. The research displays the strong dependencies between the demand for the medical services and the modern medical equipment variable, which highlights the importance of the technological component for the successful development of the medical facility. Currently, data analysis has a huge potential, which allows to significantly improving health services. Medical institutions that are the first to introduce these technologies will certainly have a competitive advantage.
132
68041
Design of Open Framework Based Smart ESS Profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS
Abstract:
In this paper, an open framework based smart energy storage system (ESS) profile for photovoltaic (PV)-ESS and uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-ESS is proposed and designed. An open framework based smart ESS is designed and developed for unifying the different interfaces among manufacturers. The smart ESS operates under the profile which provides the specifications of peripheral devices such as different interfaces and to the open framework. The profile requires well systemicity and expandability for addible peripheral devices. Especially, the smart ESS should provide the expansion with existing systems such as UPS and the linkage with new renewable energy technology such as PV. This paper proposes and designs an open framework based smart ESS profile for PV-ESS and UPS-ESS. The designed profile provides the existing smart ESS and also the expandability of additional peripheral devices on smart ESS such as PV and UPS.
131
29167
Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Education in Nigeria: Challenge of Academic Quality
Abstract:
As open and distance education is gradually becoming an acceptable means of solving the problem of access in higher education, quality has now become one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders of open and distance learning (ODL) and the education sector in general. This study assessed the challenges of academic quality in the open and distance learning (ODL) education in Nigeria using Distance Learning Institute (DLI), University of Lagos and National Open University of Nigeria as a case. In carrying out the study, a descriptive survey research design was employed. A researcher-designed and validated questionnaire was used to elicit responses that translated to the quantitative data for this study. The sample comprised 665 students of the Distance Learning Institute (DLI), and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), carefully selected through the method of simple random sampling. Data collected from the study were analyzed using Chi-Square (X2) at 0.05 Level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that; the use of ICT tools is a factor in ensuring quality in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) operations; the quality of the materials made available to ODL students will determine the quality of education that will be received by the students; and the time scheduled for students for self-study, online lecturing/interaction and face to face study and the quality of education in Open and Distance Learning Institutions has a lot of impact on the quality of education the students receive. Based on the findings, a number of recommendations were made.
130
93781
Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria
Abstract:
Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.
129
68382
Visualization-Based Feature Extraction for Classification in Real-Time Interaction
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper introduces a method of using unsupervised machine learning to visualize the feature space of a dataset in 2D, in order to find most characteristic segments in the set. After dimension reduction, users can select clusters by manual drawing. Selected clusters are recorded into a data model that is used for later predictions, based on realtime data. Predictions are made with supervised learning, using Gesture Recognition Toolkit. The paper introduces two example applications: a semantic audio organizer for analyzing incoming sounds, and a gesture database organizer where gestural data (recorded by a Leap motion) is visualized for further manipulation.
128
107072
Evaluation of Japanese Kyoto Park in Terms of User Satisfaction
Abstract:
The need for open space, which is an important problem especially since the 19th century, has become more important in today&#39;s conditions. The most important factor in increasing the livability of cities is the open and green areas. Parks are the most important of the urban open and green space elements that provide the most benefit to users. In this context, the user satisfaction of the Japanese Kyoto Park, which is the subject of the research, was evaluated in the light of the questionnaires. With this analysis, the satisfaction level of the user using the park was determined. Suggestions have been developed for the park to be handled and regulated according to the user requests and requirements changing over time.
127
16059
GCM Based Fuzzy Clustering to Identify Homogeneous Climatic Regions of North-East India
Abstract:
The North-eastern part of India, which receives heavier rainfall than other parts of the subcontinent, is of great concern now-a-days with regard to climate change. High intensity rainfall for short duration and longer dry spell, occurring due to impact of climate change, affects river morphology too. In the present study, an attempt is made to delineate the North-Eastern region of India into some homogeneous clusters based on the Fuzzy Clustering concept and to compare the resulting clusters obtained by using conventional methods and non conventional methods of clustering. The concept of clustering is adapted in view of the fact that, impact of climate change can be studied in a homogeneous region without much variation, which can be helpful in studies related to water resources planning and management. 10 IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) stations, situated in various regions of the North-east, have been selected for making the clusters. The results of the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) analysis show different clustering patterns for different conditions. From the analysis and comparison it can be concluded that non conventional method of using GCM data is somehow giving better results than the others. However, further analysis can be done by taking daily data instead of monthly means to reduce the effect of standardization.
126
14417
Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use
Abstract:
Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.
125
117918
Experimental Study of Discharge with Sharp-Crested Weirs
Abstract:
In this study the water flow in an open channel over a sharp-crested weir is investigated experimentally. For this reason a series of laboratory experiments were performed in an open channel with a sharp-crested weir. The maximum head expected over the weir, the total upstream water height and the downstream water height of the impact in the constant bed of the open channel were measured. The discharge was measured using a tank put right after the open channel. In addition, the discharge and the upstream velocity were also calculated using already known equations. The main finding is that the relative error percentage for the majority of the experimental measurements is &plusmn; 4%, meaning that the calculation of the discharge with a sharp-crested weir gives very good results compared to the numerical results from known equations.
124
64532
Improved Color-Based K-Mean Algorithm for Clustering of Satellite Image
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed an improved color based K-mean algorithm for clustering of satellite Image (SAR). Our method comprises of two stages. The first step is an interactive selection process where users are required to input the number of colors (ncolor), number of clusters, and then they are prompted to select the points in each color cluster. In the second step these points are given as input to K-mean clustering algorithm that clusters the image based on color and Minimum Square Euclidean distance. The proposed method reduces the mixed pixel problem to a great extent.
123
76784
On the Inequality between Queue Length and Virtual Waiting Time in Open Queueing Networks under Conditions of Heavy Traffic
Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the analysis of queueing systems in the context of the network and communications theory. We investigate the inequality in an open queueing network and its applications to the theorems in heavy traffic conditions (fluid approximation, functional limit theorem, and law of the iterated logarithm) for a queue of customers in an open queueing network.
122
58056
Theoretical Study of Gas Adsorption in Zirconium Clusters
Abstract:
The progress of new porous materials has increased rapidly over the past decade for use in applications such as catalysis, gas storage and removal of environmentally unfriendly species due to their high surface area and high thermal stability. In this work, a theoretical study of the zirconium-based metal organic framework (MOFs) were examined in order to determine their potential for gas adsorption of various guest molecules: CO2, N2, CH4 and H2. The zirconium cluster consists of an inner Zr6O4(OH)4 core in which the triangular faces of the Zr6- octahedron are alternatively capped by O and OH groups which bound to nine formate groups and three benzoate groups linkers. General formula is [Zr(μ-O)4(μ-OH)4(HCOO)9((phyO2C)3X))] where X= CH2OH, CH2NH2, CH2CONH2, n(NH2); (n = 1-3). Three types of adsorption sites on the Zr metal center have been studied, named according to capped chemical groups as the ‘−O site’; the H of (μ-OH) site removed and added to (μ-O) site, ‘–OH site’; (μ-OH) site removed, the ‘void site’ where H2O molecule removed; (μ-OH) from one site and H from other (μ-OH) site, in addition to no defect versions. A series of investigations have been performed aiming to address this important issue. First, density functional theory DFT-B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set was employed using Gaussian 09 package in order to evaluate the gas adsorption performance of missing-linker defects in zirconium cluster. Next, study the gas adsorption behaviour on different functionalised zirconium clusters. Those functional groups as mentioned above include: amines, alcohol, amide, in comparison with non-substitution clusters. Then, dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations were performed to further understand the enhanced gas binding on zirconium clusters. Finally, study the water effect on CO2 and N2 adsorption. The small functionalized Zr clusters were found to result in good CO2 adsorption over N2, CH4, and H2 due to the quadrupole moment of CO2 while N2, CH4 and H2 weakly polar or non-polar. The adsorption efficiency was determined using the dispersion method where the adsorption binding improved as most of the interactions, for example, van der Waals interactions are missing with the conventional DFT method. The calculated gas binding strengths on the no defect site are higher than those on the −O site, −OH site and the void site, this difference is especially notable for CO2. It has been stated that the enhanced affinity of CO2 of no defect versions is most likely due to the electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged O of CO2 and the positively charged H of (μ-OH) metal site. The uptake of the gas molecule does not enhance in presence of water as the latter binds to Zr clusters more strongly than gas species which attributed to the competition on adsorption sites.
121
22480
University Clusters Using ICT for Teaching and Learning
Abstract:
There is a phenomenal difference, as regard to the teaching methodology adopted at the urban and the rural area colleges. However, bright and talented student may be from rural back ground even. But there is huge dearth of the digitization in the rural areas and lesser developed countries. Today’s students need new skills to compete and successful in the future. Education should be combination of practical, intellectual, and social skills. What does this mean for rural classrooms and how can it be achieved. Rural colleges are not able to hire the best resources, since the best teacher’s aim is to move towards the city. If city is provided everywhere, then there will be no rural area. This is possible by forming university clusters (UC). The University cluster is a group of renowned and accredited universities coming together to bridge this dearth. The UC will deliver the live lectures and allow the students’ from remote areas to actively participate in the classroom. This paper tries to present a plan of action of providing a better live classroom teaching and learning system from the city to the rural and the lesser developed countries. This paper titled “University Clusters using ICT for teaching and learning” provides a true concept of opening live digital classroom windows for rural colleges, where resources are not available, thus reducing the digital divide. This is different from pod casting a lecture or distance learning and eLearning. The live lecture can be streamed through digital equipment to another classroom. The rural students can collaborate with their peers and critiques, be assessed, collect information, acquire different techniques in assessment and learning process. This system will benefit rural students and teachers and develop socio economic status. This will also will increase the degree of confidence of the Rural students and teachers. Thus bringing about the concept of ‘Train the Trainee’ in reality. An educational university cloud for each cluster will be built remote infrastructure facilities (RIF) for the above program. The users may be informed, about the available lecture schedules, through the RIF service. RIF with an educational cloud can be set by the universities under one cluster. This paper talks a little more about University clusters and the methodology to be adopted as well as some extended features like, tutorial classes, library grids, remote laboratory login, research and development.
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33117
Friendly Public Spaces in Iran
Abstract:
According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.
119
2506
Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand
Abstract:
Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.
118
25134
Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness
Authors:
Abstract:
This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.
117
18675
Surface-Quenching Induced Cell Opening Technique in Extrusion of Thermoplastic Foamed Sheets
Abstract:
In this article, a new technique has been developed to manufacture open cell extruded thermoplastic foamed sheets with the aid of extrudate surface-quenching phenomenon. As the extrudate foam exits the die, its surface is rapidly quenched which results in freezing of cells on the surface, while the cells at the core continue to grow and leads to development of open-cellular microstructure at the core. Influence of chill roll temperature was found to be extremely significant in developing porous morphological attributes. Subsequently, synergistic effect of blowing agent content and chill roll temperature was examined for their expansion ratio and open-cell microstructure. Further, chill roll rotating speed was found extremely significant in obtaining open-cellular foam structures. This study intends to enhance the understanding of researchers working in the area of open-cell foam processing.
116
72775
Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning
Authors:
Abstract:
In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.
115
83028
Capacitated Multiple Allocation P-Hub Median Problem on a Cluster Based Network under Congestion
Abstract:
This paper considers a hub location problem where the network service area partitioned into predetermined zones (represented by node clusters is given) and potential hub nodes capacity levels are determined a priori as a selection criteria of hub to investigate congestion effect on network. The objective is to design hub network by determining all required hub locations in the node clusters and also allocate non-hub nodes to hubs such that the total cost including transportation cost, opening cost of hubs and penalty cost for exceed of capacity level at hubs is minimized. A mixed integer linear programming model is developed introducing additional constraints to the traditional model of capacitated multiple allocation hub location problem and empirically tested.
114
41610
Simulation Approach for a Comparison of Linked Cluster Algorithm and Clusterhead Size Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
A Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile hosts that dynamically form a temporary network without the aid of a system administrator. It has neither fixed infrastructure nor wireless ad hoc sessions. It inherently reaches several nodes with a single transmission, and each node functions as both a host and a router. The network maybe represented as a set of clusters each managed by clusterhead. The cluster size is not fixed and it depends on the movement of nodes. We proposed a clusterhead size algorithm (CHSize). This clustering algorithm can be used by several routing algorithms for ad hoc networks. An elected clusterhead is assigned for communication with all other clusters. Analysis and simulation of the algorithm has been implemented using GloMoSim networks simulator, MATLAB and MAPL11 proved that the proposed algorithm achieves the goals.
113
13912
A Semantic Analysis of Modal Verbs in Barak Obama’s 2012 Presidential Campaign Speech
Abstract:
This paper is a semantic analysis of the English modals in Obama’s speech. The main objective of this study is to analyze selected modal auxiliaries identified in selected speeches of Obama’s campaign based on Coates’ (1983) semantic clusters. A total of fifteen speeches of Obama’s campaign were selected as the primary data and the modal auxiliaries selected for analysis include will, would, can, could, should, must, ought, shall, may and might. All the modal auxiliaries taken from the speeches of Barack Obama were analyzed based on the framework of Coates’ semantic clusters. Such analytical framework was carried out to examine how modal auxiliaries are used in the context of persuading people in Obama’s campaign speeches. The findings reveal that modals of intention, prediction, futurity and modals of possibility, ability, permission are mostly used in Obama’s campaign speeches.
112
94272
Overcoming Open Innovation Challenges with Technology Intelligence: Case of Medium-Sized Enterprises
Abstract:
The prior research largely discussed open innovation practices both in large and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Open Innovation compels firms to observe and analyze the external environment in order to tap new opportunities for inbound and/or outbound flows of knowledge, ideas, work in progress innovations. As SMEs are different from their larger counterparts, they face several limitations in utilizing open innovation activities, such as resource scarcity, unstructured innovation processes and underdeveloped innovation capabilities. Technology intelligence – the process of systematic acquisition, assessment and communication of information about technological trends, opportunities and threats can mitigate this limitation by enabling SMEs to identify technological and market opportunities in timely manner and undertake sound decisions, as well as to realize a ‘first mover advantage’. Several studies highlighted firm-level barriers to successful implementation of open innovation practices in SMEs, namely challenges in partner selection, intellectual property rights and trust, absorptive capacity. This paper aims to investigate the question how technology intelligence can be useful for SMEs to overcome the barriers to effective open innovation. For this, we conduct a case study in four Estonian life-sciences SMEs. Our findings revealed that technology intelligence can support SMEs not only in inbound open innovation (taking into account inclination of most firms toward technology exploration aspects of open innovation) but also outbound open innovation. Furthermore, the results of this study state that, although SMEs conduct technology intelligence in unsystematic and uncoordinated manner, it helped them to increase their innovative performance.
111
131023
Algebras over an Integral Domain and Immediate Neighbors
Authors:
Abstract:
Let S be an integral domain with field of fractions F and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R&cap;F = S and the localization of R with respect to S \{0} is A. Denoting by W the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A, and defining a notion of open sets on W, one can view W as a T0-Alexandroff space. A characterization of the property of immediate neighbors in an Alexandroff topological space is given, in terms of closed and open subsets of appropriate subspaces. Moreover, two special subspaces of W are introduced, and a way in which their closed and open subsets induce W is presented.
110
29365
OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction
Abstract:
OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.
109
34117
An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment
Abstract:
The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.
108
63309
A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier
Abstract:
It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.
107
41141
Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:
Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.
106
85319
Implementation of an Open Source ERP for SMEs in the Automotive Sector in Peru: A Case Study
Abstract:
The Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP) allows the integration of all the business processes of the functional areas of the companies, in order to automate and standardize the processes, obtain accurate information and improve decision making in time real. In Peru, 79% of medium and small companies (SMEs) do not use any management software, this is because it is believed that ERPs are expensive, complex and difficult to implement. However, for more than 20 years there have been Open Source ERPs, which are more accessible and have the same benefit as proprietary ERPs, but there is little information on the implementation process. In this work is made a case of study, in order to show the implementation process of an Open Source ERP, Odoo, based on the ASAP methodology (Accelerated SAP) and applied to a company of corrective and preventive maintenance services of vehicles. The ERP allowed the SME to standardize its business processes, increase its productivity, reducing up to 40% certain processes. The study of this case shows that it is feasible and profitable to implement an Open Source ERP in SMEs in the Automotive Sector of Peru. In addition, it is shown that the ASAP methodology is adequate to carry out Open Source ERPs implementation projects.
105
34975
The Role of Interactive White Boards towards Achieving Transactional Learning in the Context of Open Distance Learning
Abstract:
Due to the need for higher education in South Africa, the country experiences a rapid growth in open distance learning, especially in rural areas. It is difficult for people to enrol fulltime at contact universities, owing to work and financial constraints. The Unit for Open Distance Learning (UODL) at the North-West University (NWU), Potchefstroom campus, South Africa was established in 2013 with its main function to deliver open distance learning programmes to 30 000 students from the Faculties of Education Sciences, Theology and Health Sciences. With the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs), the NWU and UODL are now able to deliver lectures to students concurrently at 60 regional open learning centres across Southern Africa as well as to an unlimited number of individuals with Internet access worldwide. Although IWBs are not new, our initiative is to use them more extensively in order to create more contact between lecturers and students. To be able to ensure and enhance quality education it is vital to determine students’ perceptions on the delivery of programmes by means of IWBs. Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore students’ perceptions for the use of IWBs in the delivery of programmes in terms of Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance.
104
41787
Providing Open Access for Scholarly Information in Libya
Abstract:
This paper describes an ongoing project at the Libyan Academy. The project aims to build digital library for thesis and dissertations (ETD). The researchers developed a system based on Greenstone open source systems for building ETD digital library. A metadata for theses and dissertations was developed. The paper addresses issues related to project design, development and user satisfaction. Conclusions highlighted some important lessons learned to date.
103
102097
Strategies of Spatial Optimization for Open Space in the Old-Age Friendly City: An Investigation of the Behavior of the Elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou
Authors:
Abstract:
With the aging trend continuing to accelerate, open space is important for the daily life of the elderly, and its old-age friendliness is worthy of attention. Based on behavioral observation and literature research, this paper studies the behavior of the elderly in urban open space. Through the investigation, classification and quantitative analysis of the activity types, time characteristics and spatial behavior order of the elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou, it summarizes the square space suitable for the psychological needs, physiology and activity needs of the elderly, combined with the basis of literature research. Finally, the suggestions for the improvement of the old-age friendship of Xicheng Square are put forward, from the aspects of microclimate, safety and accessibility, space richness and service facility quality.
102
28619
Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang
Abstract:
Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.
101
22998
Thixomixing as Novel Method for Fabrication Aluminum Composite with Carbon and Alumina Fibers
Abstract:
This study focuses on a novel method for dispersion and distribution of reinforcement under high intensive shear stress to produce metal composites. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based short carbon fiber (Csf) and Nextel 610 alumina fiber were dispersed under high intensive shearing at mushy zone in semi-solid of A356 by a novel method. The bundles and clusters were embedded by infiltration of slurry into the clusters, thus leading to a uniform microstructure. The fibers were embedded homogenously into the aluminum around 576-580°C with around 46% of solid fraction. Other experiments at 615°C and 568°C which are contained 0% and 90% solid respectively were not successful for dispersion and infiltration of aluminum into bundles of Csf. The alumina fiber has been cracked by high shearing load. The morphologies and crystalline phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The adopted thixo-process effectively improved the adherence and distribution of Csf into Al that can be developed to produce various composites by thixomixing.
100
3788
Time Series Regression with Meta-Clusters
Abstract:
This paper presents a preliminary attempt to apply classification of time series using meta-clusters in order to improve the quality of regression models. In this case, clustering was performed as a method to obtain a subgroups of time series data with normal distribution from inflow into waste water treatment plant data which Composed of several groups differing by mean value. Two simple algorithms: K-mean and EM were chosen as a clustering method. The rand index was used to measure the similarity. After simple meta-clustering, regression model was performed for each subgroups. The final model was a sum of subgroups models. The quality of obtained model was compared with the regression model made using the same explanatory variables but with no clustering of data. Results were compared by determination coefficient (R2), measure of prediction accuracy mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and comparison on linear chart. Preliminary results allows to foresee the potential of the presented technique.
99
95369
Disclosure on Adherence of the King Code's Audit Committee Guidance: Cluster Analyses to Determine Strengths and Weaknesses
Abstract:
In modern society, audit committees are seen as the custodians of accountability and the conscience of management and the board. But who holds the audit committee accountable for their actions or non-actions and how do we know what they are supposed to be doing and what they are doing? The purpose of this article is to provide greater insight into the latter part of this problem, namely, determine what best practises for audit committees and the disclosure of what is the realities are. In countries where governance is well established, the roles and responsibilities of the audit committee are mostly clearly guided by legislation and/or guidance documents, with countries increasingly providing guidance on this topic. With high cost involved to adhere to governance guidelines, the public (for public organisations) and shareholders (for private organisations) expect to see the value of their ‘investment’. For audit committees, the dividends on the investment should reflect in less fraudulent activities, less corruption, higher efficiency and effectiveness, improved social and environmental impact, and increased profits, to name a few. If this is not the case (which is reflected in the number of fraudulent activities in both the private and the public sector), stakeholders have the right to ask: where was the audit committee? Therefore, the objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by comparing the adherence of audit committee to best practices guidelines as stipulated in the King Report across public listed companies, national and provincial government departments, state-owned enterprises and local municipalities. After constructs were formed, based on the literature, factor analyses were conducted to reduce the number of variables in each construct. Thereafter, cluster analyses, which is an explorative analysis technique that classifies a set of objects in such a way that objects that are more similar are grouped into the same group, were conducted. The SPSS TwoStep Clustering Component was used, being capable of handling both continuous and categorical variables. In the first step, a pre-clustering procedure clusters the objects into small sub-clusters, after which it clusters these sub-clusters into the desired number of clusters. The cluster analyses were conducted for each construct and the measure, namely the audit opinion as listed in the external audit report, were included. Analysing 228 organisations' information, the results indicate that there is a clear distinction between the four spheres of business that has been included in the analyses, indicating certain strengths and certain weaknesses within each sphere. The results may provide the overseers of audit committees’ insight into where a specific sector’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Audit committee chairs will be able to improve the areas where their audit committee is lacking behind. The strengthening of audit committees should result in an improvement of the accountability of boards, leading to less fraud and corruption.
98
82426
Disclosure on Adherence of the King Code's Audit Committee Guidance: Cluster Analyses to Determine Strengths and Weaknesses
Abstract:
In modern society, audit committees are seen as the custodians of accountability and the conscience of management and the board. But who holds the audit committee accountable for their actions or non-actions and how do we know what they are supposed to be doing and what they are doing? The purpose of this article is to provide greater insight into the latter part of this problem, namely, determine what best practises for audit committees and the disclosure of what is the realities are. In countries where governance is well established, the roles and responsibilities of the audit committee are mostly clearly guided by legislation and/or guidance documents, with countries increasingly providing guidance on this topic. With high cost involved to adhere to governance guidelines, the public (for public organisations) and shareholders (for private organisations) expect to see the value of their ‘investment’. For audit committees, the dividends on the investment should reflect in less fraudulent activities, less corruption, higher efficiency and effectiveness, improved social and environmental impact, and increased profits, to name a few. If this is not the case (which is reflected in the number of fraudulent activities in both the private and the public sector), stakeholders have the right to ask: where was the audit committee? Therefore, the objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by comparing the adherence of audit committee to best practices guidelines as stipulated in the King Report across public listed companies, national and provincial government departments, state-owned enterprises and local municipalities. After constructs were formed, based on the literature, factor analyses were conducted to reduce the number of variables in each construct. Thereafter, cluster analyses, which is an explorative analysis technique that classifies a set of objects in such a way that objects that are more similar are grouped into the same group, were conducted. The SPSS TwoStep Clustering Component was used, being capable of handling both continuous and categorical variables. In the first step, a pre-clustering procedure clusters the objects into small sub-clusters, after which it clusters these sub-clusters into the desired number of clusters. The cluster analyses were conducted for each construct and the measure, namely the audit opinion as listed in the external audit report, were included. Analysing 228 organisations' information, the results indicate that there is a clear distinction between the four spheres of business that has been included in the analyses, indicating certain strengths and certain weaknesses within each sphere. The results may provide the overseers of audit committees’ insight into where a specific sector’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Audit committee chairs will be able to improve the areas where their audit committee is lacking behind. The strengthening of audit committees should result in an improvement of the accountability of boards, leading to less fraud and corruption.
97
38727
Identification of Promising Infant Clusters to Obtain Improved Block Layout Designs
Abstract:
The layout optimization of building blocks of unequal areas has applications in many disciplines including VLSI floorplanning, macrocell placement, unequal-area facilities layout optimization, and plant or machine layout design. A number of heuristics and some analytical and hybrid techniques have been published to solve this problem. This paper presents an efficient high-quality building-block layout design technique especially suited for solving large-size problems. The higher efficiency and improved quality of optimized solutions are made possible by introducing the concept of Promising Infant Clusters in a constructive placement procedure. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the improved performance of the presented technique for benchmark problems in comparison with published heuristic, analytic, and hybrid techniques.
96
98901
Evaluation of Massive Open Online Course in a Rural Marginalized Area: Case Study of Alice Community, Eastern Cape, South Africa
Abstract:
Online learning has taken another dimension through the introduction of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), it has also become an important resource base for teaching and learning. This research aimed at investigating the use of Massive Open Online Course in a rural marginalized area. The survey research design of descriptive nature was adopted to evaluate the awareness and usage of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in Alice community, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This study also employed quantitative approach by using self-structured questionnaire to evoke information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings revealed amongst others the efficacy of Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) in fostering teaching and learning in rural marginalized areas. This study concludes that MOOCs is a veritable medium for busy or less privileged individual to acquire a degree or certification. Therefore, the study recommends MOOCs platform to be fully embraced by people in rural marginalized areas, awareness programs about its usefulness should be propagated across the municipalities nationwide.
95
80801
Harmonic Data Preparation for Clustering and Classification
Authors:
Abstract:
The rapid increase in the size of databases required to store power quality monitoring data has demanded new techniques for analysing and understanding the data. One suggested technique to assist in analysis is data mining. Preparing raw data to be ready for data mining exploration take up most of the effort and time spent in the whole data mining process. Clustering is an important technique in data mining and machine learning in which underlying and meaningful groups of data are discovered. Large amounts of harmonic data have been collected from an actual harmonic monitoring system in a distribution system in Australia for three years. This amount of acquired data makes it difficult to identify operational events that significantly impact the harmonics generated on the system. In this paper, harmonic data preparation processes to better understanding of the data have been presented. Underlying classes in this data has then been identified using clustering technique based on the Minimum Message Length (MML) method. The underlying operational information contained within the clusters can be rapidly visualised by the engineers. The C5.0 algorithm was used for classification and interpretation of the generated clusters.
94
34782
Vertebral Transverse Open Wedge Osteotomy in Correction of Thoracolumbar Kyphosis Resulting from Ankylosing Spondylitis
Abstract:
In progressive cases of Ankylosing Spondylitis, patients will have high degrees of kyphosis leading to severe disabilities. Several operative techniques have been used in this stage, but little knowledge exists on the indications for and outcome of these methods. In this study, we examined the efficacy of monosegmental transverse open wedge osteotomy of L3 in 11 patients with progressive spinal kyphosis. The average correction was 36̊ (20 to 42) with no loss of correction after operation. The average operating time was 120 minutes (100 to 130) and the mean blood loss was 1500 ml (1100 to 2000). Osteotomy corrected all patients sufficiently to allow them to see ahead and their posture was improved. There were no fatal complications but one patient had paraplegia after the operation.
93
16711
Combined Surface Tension and Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Open Cavity
Abstract:
Combined surface tension and natural convection heat transfer in an open cavity is studied numerically in this article. The cavity is filled with water-{Cu} nanofluids. The left wall is kept at low temperature, the right wall at high temperature and the bottom and top walls are adiabatic. The top free surface is assumed to be flat and non--deformable. Finite difference method is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. It is found that the insignificant effect of adding the nanoparticles were obtained about $Ma_{bf}=250$.
92
73301
Developing a Cultural Policy Framework for Small Towns and Cities
Abstract:
It has long been known that the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) have the potential to aid in physical, social and economic renewal and regeneration of towns and cities, hence their importance when dealing with regional development. The CCIs can act as a catalyst for activity and investment in an area because the ‘consumption’ of cultural activities will lead to the activities and use of other non-cultural activities, for example, hospitality development including restaurants and bars, as well as public transport. ‘Consumption’ of cultural activities also leads to employment creation, and diversification. However, CCIs tend to be clustered, especially around large cities. There is, moreover, a case for development of CCIs around smaller towns and cities, because they do not rely on high technology inputs, and long supply chains, and, their direct link to rural and isolated places makes them vital in regional development. However, there is currently little research on how to craft cultural policy for regions with smaller towns and cities. Using the Sarah Baartman District (SBDM) in South Africa as an example, this paper describes the process of developing cultural policy for a region that has potential, and existing, cultural clusters, but currently no one, coherent policy relating to CCI development. The SBDM was chosen as a case study because it has no large cities, but has some CCI clusters, and has identified them as potential drivers of local economic development. The process of developing cultural policy is discussed in stages: Identification of what resources are present; including human resources, soft and hard infrastructure; Identification of clusters; Analysis of CCI labour markets and ownership patterns; Opportunities and challenges from the point of view of CCIs and other key stakeholders; Alignment of regional policy aims with provincial and national policy objectives; and finally, design and implementation of a regional cultural policy.
91
128297
Neural Network Approach For Clustering Host Community: Based on Perceptions Toward Tourism, Their Satisfaction Level and Demographic Attributes in Iran (Lahijan)
Abstract:
Generally, various industries development depends on their stakeholders and beneficiaries supports. One of the most important stakeholders in tourism industry ( which has become one of the most important lucrative and employment-generating activities at the international level these days) are host communities in tourist destination which are affected and effect on this industry development. Recognizing host community and its segmentations can be important to get their support for future decisions and policy making. In order to identify these segments, in this study, clustering of the residents has been done by using some tools that are designed to encounter human complexities and have ability to model and generalize complex systems without any needs for the initial clusters’ seeds like classic methods. Neural networks can help to meet these expectations. The research have been planned to design neural networks-based mathematical model for clustering the host community effectively according to multi criteria, and identifies differences among segments. In order to achieve this goal, the residents’ segmentation has been done by demographic characteristics, their attitude towards the tourism development, the level of satisfaction and the type of their support in this field. The applied method is self-organized neural networks and the results have compared with K-means. As the results show, the use of Self- Organized Map (SOM) method provides much better results by considering the Cophenetic correlation and between clusters variance coefficients. Based on these criteria, the host community is divided into five sections with unique and distinctive features, which are in the best condition (in comparison other modes) according to Cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8769 and between clusters variance of 0.1412.
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83110
Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers
Abstract:
In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.
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54816
Open Data for e-Governance: Case Study of Bangladesh
Abstract:
Open Government Data (OGD) refers to all data produced by government which are accessible in reusable way by common people with access to Internet and at free of cost. In line with “Digital Bangladesh” vision of Bangladesh government, the concept of open data has been gaining momentum in the country. Opening all government data in digital and customizable format from single platform can enhance e-governance which will make government more transparent to the people. This paper presents a well-in-progress case study on OGD portal by Bangladesh Government in order to link decentralized data. The initiative is intended to facilitate e-service towards citizens through this one-stop web portal. The paper further discusses ways of collecting data in digital format from relevant agencies with a view to making it publicly available through this single point of access. Further, possible layout of this web portal is presented.
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55450
Crowdsourcing as an Open Innovation Tool for Entrepreneurship
Abstract:
As traditional innovation has already taken its place in managers&rsquo; to do lists; managers and companies have started to look for new ways to go beyond the traditional innovation. Because of its cost, traditional innovation became a burden for companies since they only use inner sources. Companies have intended to use outer innovation sources to decrease the innovation costs and Open Innovation has become a new solution for companies at this point. Crowdsourcing is a tool of Open Innovation and it consists of two words: Outsourcing and crowd. Crowdsourcing aims to benefit from the efforts and ideas of a virtual crowd via Internet technologies. In addition to that, crowdsourcing can help entrepreneurs to innovate and grow their businesses. They can crowd source anything they can use to grow their businesses: Ideas, investment, new business, new partners, new solutions, new policies, data, insight, marketing or talent. Therefore, the aim of the study is to be able to show some possible ways for entrepreneurs to benefit from crowdsourcing to expand or foster their businesses. In the study, the term crowdsourcing has been given in details and these possible ways have been searched and given.
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92006
The Impact of External Technology Acquisition and Exploitation on Firms' Process Innovation Performance
Abstract:
There is a consensus among innovation scholars that knowledge is a vital antecedent for firm’s innovation; e.g., process innovation. Recently, there has been an increasing amount of attention to more open approaches to innovation. This open model emphasizes the use of purposive flows of knowledge across the organization boundaries. Firms adopt open innovation strategy to improve their innovation performance by bringing knowledge into the organization (inbound open innovation) to accelerate internal innovation or transferring knowledge outside (outbound open innovation) to expand the markets for external use of innovation. Reviewing open innovation research reveals the following. First, the majority of existing studies have focused on inbound open innovation and less on outbound open innovation. Second, limited research has considered the possible interaction between both and how this interaction may impact the firm’s innovation performance. Third, scholars have focused mainly on the impact of open innovation strategy on product innovation and less on process innovation. Therefore, our knowledge of the relationship between firms’ inbound and outbound open innovation and how these two impact process innovation is still limited. This study focuses on the firm’s external technology acquisition (ETA) and external technology exploitation (ETE) and the firm’s process innovation performance. The ETA represents inbound openness in which firms rely on the acquisition and absorption of external technologies to complement their technology portfolios. The ETE, on the other hand, refers to commercializing technology assets exclusively or in addition to their internal application. This study hypothesized that both ETA and ETE have a positive relationship with process innovation performance and that ETE fully mediates the relationship between ETA and process innovation performance, i.e., ETA has a positive impact on ETE, and turn, ETE has a positive impact on process innovation performance. This study empirically explored these hypotheses in software development firms in Thailand. These firms were randomly selected from a list of Software firms registered with the Department of Business Development, Ministry of Commerce of Thailand. The questionnaires were sent to 1689 firms. After follow-ups and periodic reminders, we obtained 329 (19.48%) completed usable questionnaires. The structure question modeling (SEM) has been used to analyze the data. An analysis of the outcome of 329 firms provides support for our three hypotheses: First, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact on its process innovation performance. Second, the firm’s ETA has a positive impact its ETE. Third, the firm’s ETE fully mediates the relationship between the firm’s ETA and its process innovation performance. This study fills up the gap in open innovation literature by examining the relationship between inbound (ETA) and outbound (ETE) open innovation and suggest that in order to benefits from the promises of openness, firms must engage in both. The study went one step further by explaining the mechanism through which ETA influence process innovation performance.
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89473
The Impact of Open Defecation on Fecal-Oral Infections: A Case Study in Burat and Ngaremara Wards of Isiolo County, Kenya
Abstract:
The practice of open defecation can be devastating for human health as well as the environment, and this practice persistence could be due to ingrained habits that individuals continue to engage in despite having a better alternative. Safe disposal of human excreta is essential for public health protection. This study sought to find if open defecation relates to fecal-oral infections in Burat and Ngaremara Wards in Isiolo County. This was achieved through conducting a cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 385 households that were used in the study. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires and observation checklists. The result show that 66% of the respondents disposed-off fecal matter in a safe manner, whereas 34% disposed-off fecal matter in unsafe manner through open defecation. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and intestinal worms among children under-5 years of age were 142 and 21, respectively. The prevalence proportions per 1000 of diarrhea and typhoid among children over-5 years of age were 20 and 20, respectively.
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67866
Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products (S3 Products) for Higher Education
Abstract:
Higher education methods need to evolve because the new generations of students are learning in different ways. One way is by adopting emergent technologies, new learning methods and promoting the maker movement. As a result, Tecnologico de Monterrey is developing Open Innovation Laboratories as an immediate response to educational challenges of the world. This paper presents an Open Innovation Laboratory for Rapid Realization of Sensing, Smart and Sustainable Products (S3 Products). The Open Innovation Laboratory is composed of a set of specific resources where students and teachers use them to provide solutions to current problems of priority sectors through the development of a new generation of products. This new generation of products considers the concepts Sensing, Smart, and Sustainable. The Open Innovation Laboratory has been implemented in different courses in the context of New Product Development (NPD) and Integrated Manufacturing Systems (IMS) at Tecnologico de Monterrey. The implementation consists of adapting this Open Innovation Laboratory within the course&rsquo;s syllabus in combination with the implementation of specific methodologies for product development, learning methods (Active Learning and Blended Learning using Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs) and rapid product realization platforms. Using the concepts proposed it is possible to demonstrate that students can propose innovative and sustainable products, and demonstrate how the learning process could be improved using technological resources applied in the higher educational sector. Finally, examples of innovative S3 products developed at Tecnologico de Monterrey are presented.
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17380
Students’ Perception and Patterns of Listening Behaviour in an Online Forum Discussion
Abstract:
Online forum is part of a Learning Management System (LMS) environment in which students share opinions. This study attempts to investigate the perceptions of students towards online forum and their patterns of listening behaviour during the forum interaction. The students’ perceptions were measured using a questionnaire, in which seven dimensions were used including online experience, benefits of forum participation, cost of participation, perceived ease of use, usefulness, attitude and intention. Meanwhile, their patterns of listening behaviours were obtained using the log file extracted from the LMS. A total of 25 postgraduate students undertaking a course were involved in this study, and their activities in the forum session were recorded by the LMS and used as a log file. The results from the questionnaire analysis indicated that the students perceived that the forum is easy to use, useful, and bring benefits to them. Also, they showed positive attitude towards online forum, and they have the intention to use it in future. Based on the log data, the participants were also divided into six clusters of listening behaviour, in which they are different in terms of temporality, breadth, depth and speaking level. The findings were compared to previous clusters grouping and future recommendations are also discussed.
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69086
A Weighted K-Medoids Clustering Algorithm for Effective Stability in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
In a highway scenario, the vehicle speed can exceed 120 kmph. Therefore, any vehicle can enter or leave the network within a very short time. This mobility adversely affects the network connectivity and decreases the life time of all established links. To ensure an effective stability in vehicular ad hoc networks with minimum broadcasting storm, we have developed a weighted algorithm based on the k-medoids clustering algorithm (WKCA). Indeed, the number of clusters and the initial cluster heads will not be selected randomly as usual, but considering the available transmission range and the environment size. Then, to ensure optimal assignment of nodes to clusters in both k-medoids phases, the combined weight of any node will be computed according to additional metrics including direction, relative speed and proximity. Empirical results prove that in addition to the convergence speed that characterizes the k-medoids algorithm, our proposed model performs well both AODV-Clustering and OLSR-Clustering protocols under different densities and velocities in term of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and throughput.
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122776
A Literature Review on the Effect of Industrial Clusters and the Absorptive Capacity on Innovation
Abstract:
In recent decades, the analysis of the effects of clustering as an essential factor for the development of innovations and the competitiveness of enterprises has raised great interest in different areas. Nowadays, companies have access to almost all tangible and intangible resources located and/or developed in any country in the world. However, despite the obvious advantages that this situation entails for companies, their geographical location has shown itself, increasingly clearly, to be a fundamental factor that positively influences their innovative performance and competitiveness. Industrial clusters could represent a unique level of analysis, positioned between the individual company and the industry, which makes them an ideal unit of analysis to determine the effects derived from company membership of a cluster. Also, the absorptive capacity (hereinafter &#39;AC&#39;) can mediate the process of innovation development by companies located in a cluster. The transformation and exploitation of knowledge could have a mediating effect between knowledge acquisition and innovative performance. The main objective of this work is to determine the key factors that affect the degree of generation and use of knowledge from the environment by companies and, consequently, their innovative performance and competitiveness. The elements analyzed are the companies&#39; membership of a cluster and the AC. To this end, 30 most relevant papers published on this subject in the &quot;Web of Science&quot; database have been reviewed. Our findings show that, within a cluster, the knowledge coming from the companies&#39; environment can significantly influence their innovative performance and competitiveness, although in this relationship, the degree of access and exploitation of the companies to this knowledge plays a fundamental role, which depends on a series of elements both internal and external to the company.
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8231
Comparative Analysis of Classification Methods in Determining Non-Active Student Characteristics in Indonesia Open University
Abstract:
Classification is one of data mining techniques that aims to discover a model from training data that distinguishes records into the appropriate category or class. Data mining classification methods can be applied in education, for example, to determine the classification of non-active students in Indonesia Open University. This paper presents a comparison of three methods of classification: Naïve Bayes, Bagging, and C.45. The criteria used to evaluate the performance of three methods of classification are stratified cross-validation, confusion matrix, the value of the area under the ROC Curve (AUC), Recall, Precision, and F-measure. The data used for this paper are from the non-active Indonesia Open University students in registration period of 2004.1 to 2012.2. Target analysis requires that non-active students were divided into 3 groups: C1, C2, and C3. Data analyzed are as many as 4173 students. Results of the study show: (1) Bagging method gave a high degree of classification accuracy than Naïve Bayes and C.45, (2) the Bagging classification accuracy rate is 82.99 %, while the Naïve Bayes and C.45 are 80.04 % and 82.74 % respectively, (3) the result of Bagging classification tree method has a large number of nodes, so it is quite difficult in decision making, (4) classification of non-active Indonesia Open University student characteristics uses algorithms C.45, (5) based on the algorithm C.45, there are 5 interesting rules which can describe the characteristics of non-active Indonesia Open University students.
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41250
Enhanced Cluster Based Connectivity Maintenance in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
Abstract:
The demand of Vehicular ad hoc networks is increasing day by day, due to offering the various applications and marvelous benefits to VANET users. Clustering in VANETs is most important to overcome the connectivity problems of VANETs. In this paper, we proposed a new clustering technique Enhanced cluster based connectivity maintenance in vehicular ad hoc network. Our objective is to form long living clusters. The proposed approach is grouping the vehicles, on the basis of the longest list of neighbors to form clusters. The cluster formation and cluster head selection process done by the RSU that may results it reduces the chances of overhead on to the network. The cluster head selection procedure is the vehicle which has closest speed to average speed will elect as a cluster Head by the RSU and if two vehicles have same speed which is closest to average speed then they will be calculate by one of the new parameter i.e. distance to their respective destination. The vehicle which has largest distance to their destination will be choosing as a cluster Head by the RSU. Our simulation outcomes show that our technique performs better than the existing technique.
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46364
Free and Open Source Licences, Software Programmers, and the Social Norm of Reciprocity
Authors:
Abstract:
Over the past three decades, free and open source software (FOSS) programmers have developed new, innovative and legally binding licences that have in turn enabled the creation of innumerable pieces of everyday software, including Linux, Mozilla Firefox and Open Office. That FOSS has been highly successful in competing with &#39;closed source software&#39; (e.g. Microsoft Office) is now undeniable, but in noting this success, it is important to examine in detail why this system of FOSS has been so successful. One key reason is the existence of networks or communities of programmers, who are bound together by a key shared social norm of &#39;reciprocity&#39;. At the same time, these FOSS networks are not unitary &ndash; they are highly diverse and there are large divergences of opinion between members regarding which licences are generally preferable: some members favour the flexible &lsquo;free&rsquo; or &#39;no copyleft&#39; licences, such as BSD and MIT, while other members favour the &lsquo;strong open&rsquo; or &#39;strong copyleft&#39; licences such as GPL. This paper argues that without both the existence of the shared norm of reciprocity and the diversity of licences, it is unlikely that the innovative legal framework provided by FOSS would have succeeded to the extent that it has.
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80336
A Construction Management Tool: Determining a Project Schedule Typical Behaviors Using Cluster Analysis
Abstract:
Delays in the construction industry are a global phenomenon. Many construction projects experience extensive delays exceeding the initially estimated completion time. The main purpose of this study is to identify construction projects typical behaviors in order to develop a prognosis and management tool. Being able to know a construction projects schedule tendency will enable evidence-based decision-making to allow resolutions to be made before delays occur. This study presents an innovative approach that uses Cluster Analysis Method to support predictions during Earned Value Analyses. A clustering analysis was used to predict future scheduling, Earned Value Management (EVM), and Earned Schedule (ES) principal Indexes behaviors in construction projects. The analysis was made using a database with 90 different construction projects. It was validated with additional data extracted from literature and with another 15 contrasting projects. For all projects, planned and executed schedules were collected and the EVM and ES principal indexes were calculated. A complete linkage classification method was used. In this way, the cluster analysis made considers that the distance (or similarity) between two clusters must be measured by its most disparate elements, i.e. that the distance is given by the maximum span among its components. Finally, through the use of EVM and ES Indexes and Tukey and Fisher Pairwise Comparisons, the statistical dissimilarity was verified and four clusters were obtained. It can be said that construction projects show an average delay of 35% of its planned completion time. Furthermore, four typical behaviors were found and for each of the obtained clusters, the interim milestones and the necessary rhythms of construction were identified. In general, detected typical behaviors are: (1) Projects that perform a 5% of work advance in the first two tenths and maintain a constant rhythm until completion (greater than 10% for each remaining tenth), being able to finish on the initially estimated time. (2) Projects that start with an adequate construction rate but suffer minor delays culminating with a total delay of almost 27% of the planned time. (3) Projects which start with a performance below the planned rate and end up with an average delay of 64%, and (4) projects that begin with a poor performance, suffer great delays and end up with an average delay of a 120% of the planned completion time. The obtained clusters compose a tool to identify the behavior of new construction projects by comparing their current work performance to the validated database, thus allowing the correction of initial estimations towards more accurate completion schedules.
77
24687
Bioinformatics Identification of Rare Codon Clusters in Proteins Structure of HBV
Abstract:
Hepatitis B as an infectious disease has eight main genotypes (A–H). The aim of this study is to Bioinformatically identify Rare Codon Clusters (RCC) in proteins structure of HBV. For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) of HBV proteins; used of uni-prot database and Pfam search tool were used. Obtained Pfam IDs were analyzed in Sherlocc program and RCCs in HBV proteins were detected. In further, the structures of TrEMBL entries proteins studied in PDB database and 3D structures of the HBV proteins and locations of RCCs were visualized and studied using Swiss PDB Viewer software. Pfam search tool have found nine significant hits and 0 insignificant hits in 3 frames. Results of Pfams studied in the Sherlocc program show this program not identified RCCs in the external core antigen (PF08290) and truncated HBeAg protein (PF08290). By contrast the RCCs become identified in Hepatitis core antigen (PF00906) Large envelope protein S (PF00695), X protein (PF00739), DNA polymerase (viral) N-terminal domain (PF00242) and Protein P (Pf00336). In HBV genome, seven RCC identified that found in hepatitis core antigen, large envelope protein S and DNA polymerase proteins and proteins structures of TrEMBL entries sequences that reported in Sherlocc program outputs are not complete. Based on situation of RCC in structure of HBV proteins, it suggested those RCCs are important in HBV life cycle. We hoped that this study provide a new and deep perspective in protein research and drug design for treatment of HBV.
76
9888
An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN
Abstract:
The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.
75
55793
The Evaluation Model for the Quality of Software Based on Open Source Code
Abstract:
Using open source code is a popular method of software development. How to evaluate the quality of software becomes more important. This paper introduces an evaluation model. The model evaluates the quality from four dimensions: technology, production, management, and development. Each dimension includes many indicators. The weight of indicator can be modified according to the purpose of evaluation. The paper also introduces a method of using the model. The evaluating result can provide good advice for evaluating or purchasing the software.
74
31930
Urban Landscape Sustainability Between Past and Present: Toward a Future Vision
Authors:
Abstract:
A variety of definitions and interpretations for sustainable development has been offered since the widely known definition of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, the perspectives have ranged from deep ecology to better life quality for people. Sustainable landscape is widely understood as a key contributor to urban sustainability for the fact that all landscapes has a social, economic, cultural and ecological function for the community’s well-being and urban development, that was evident even before the emergence of sustainability concept. In this paper, the concepts of landscape planning and sustainable development are briefly reviewed; visions for landscape sustainability are demonstrated and classified. Challenges facing sustainable landscape planning are discussed. Finally, the paper investigates how our future urban open space could be sustainable and how does this contribute to urban sustainability, by creating urban landscapes that takes into account the social and cultural values of users of urban open space besides the ecological balance of urban open spaces as an integrated network.
73
104379
Quantifying User-Related, System-Related, and Context-Related Patterns of Smartphone Use
Abstract:
Quantifying and understanding the myriad ways people use their phones and how that impacts their relationships, cognitive abilities, mental health, and well-being is increasingly important in our phone-centric society. However, most studies on the patterns of phone use have focused on theory-driven tests of specific usage hypotheses using self-report questionnaires or analyses of smaller datasets. In this work we present a series of analyses from a large corpus of over 3000 users that combine data-driven and theory-driven analyses to identify reliable smartphone usage patterns and clusters of similar users. Furthermore, we compare the stability of user clusters across user- and system-initiated sessions, as well as during the hypothesized ritualized behavior times directly before and after sleeping. Our results indicate support for some hypothesized usage patterns but present a more complete and nuanced view of how people use smartphones.
72
53029
Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying
Abstract:
Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.
71
106891
Detecting Local Clusters of Childhood Malnutrition in the Island Province of Marinduque, Philippines Using Spatial Scan Statistic
Abstract:
Under-five malnutrition continues to persist in the Philippines, particularly in the island Province of Marinduque, with prevalence of some forms of malnutrition even worsening in recent years. Local spatial cluster detection provides a spatial perspective in understanding this phenomenon as key in analyzing patterns of geographic variation, identification of community-appropriate programs and interventions, and focused targeting on high-risk areas. Using data from a province-wide household-based census conducted in 2014–2016, this study aimed to determine and evaluate spatial clusters of under-five malnutrition, across the province and within each municipality at the individual level using household location. Malnutrition was defined as weight-for-age z-score that fall outside the 2 standard deviations from the median of the WHO reference population. The Kulldorff’s elliptical spatial scan statistic in binomial model was used to locate clusters with high-risk of malnutrition, while adjusting for age and membership to government conditional cash transfer program as proxy for socio-economic status. One large significant cluster of under-five malnutrition was found southwest of the province, in which living in these areas at least doubles the risk of malnutrition. Additionally, at least one significant cluster were identified within each municipality—mostly located along the coastal areas. All these indicate apparent geographical variations across and within municipalities in the province. There were also similarities and disparities in the patterns of risk of malnutrition in each cluster across municipalities, and even within municipality, suggesting underlying causes at work that warrants further investigation. Therefore, community-appropriate programs and interventions should be identified and should be focused on high-risk areas to maximize limited government resources. Further studies are also recommended to determine factors affecting variations in childhood malnutrition considering the evidence of spatial clustering found in this study.
70
85349
Victims and Violators: Open Source Information, Admissibility Standards, and War Crimes Investigations in Iraq and Syria
Abstract:
Modern technology and social media platforms have fundamentally altered the nature of war crimes investigations by providing new forms of data, evidence, and documentation, and pose a unique opportunity to expand the efficacy of international law. However, much of the open source information available is deemed inadmissible in subsequent legal proceedings and fails to function as evidence largely due to issues of reliability and verifiability. Focusing on current judicial investigations related to ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq, this paper will examine key challenges and opportunities for the effective use of open source information in securing justice. This paper will consider strategies and approaches that can be used to ensure that information collected by affected populations meets basic admissibility standards. This paper argues that the critical failure to equip civilian populations in conflict zones with knowledge and information regarding established admissibility standards and guidelines both jeopardizes the potential of open source information and compromises the ability of victims to participate effectively in justice and accountability processes. The ultimate purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine how to maximize the value of open source information based on the rules of evidence in international, regional, and national courts, and how to maximize the participation of affected populations in holding their abusers to account.
69
134607
Phishing Attacks Facilitated by Open Source Intelligence
Authors:
Abstract:
The information has become an important asset to the current cosmos. Globally, various tactics are being observed to confine the spread of information as it makes people vulnerable to security attacks. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is a publicly available source that has disseminated information about users or websites, companies, and various organizations. This paper focuses on the quantitative method of exploring various OSINT tools that reveal public information of personals. This information could further facilitate phishing attacks. Phishing attacks can be launched on email addresses, open ports, and unsecure web-surfing. This study allows to analyze the information retrieved from OSINT tools, i.e. theHarvester, and Maltego that can be used to send phishing attacks to individuals.
68
47361
Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels
Abstract:
To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.
67
107266
Geographic Legacies for Modern Day Disease Research: Autism Spectrum Disorder as a Case-Control Study
Abstract:
Elucidating gene-environment interactions for heritable disease outcomes is an emerging area of disease research, with genetic studies informing hypotheses for environment and gene interactions underlying some of the most confounding diseases of our time, like autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Geography has thus far played a key role in identifying environmental factors contributing to disease, but its use can be broadened to include genetic and environmental factors that have a synergistic effect on disease. Through the use of family pedigrees and disease outcomes with life-course residential histories, space-time clustering of generations at critical developmental windows can provide further understanding of (1) environmental factors that contribute to disease patterns in families, (2) susceptible critical windows of development most impacted by environment, (3) and that are most likely to lead to an ASD diagnosis. This paper introduces a retrospective case-control study that utilizes pedigree data, health data, and residential life-course location points to find space-time clustering of ancestors with a grandchild/child with a clinical diagnosis of ASD. Finding space-time clusters of ancestors at critical developmental windows serves as a proxy for shared environmental exposures. The authors refer to geographic life-course exposures as geographic legacies. Identifying space-time clusters of ancestors creates a bridge for researching exposures of past generations that may impact modern-day progeny health. Results from the space-time cluster analysis show multiple clusters for the maternal and paternal pedigrees. The paternal grandparent pedigree resulted in the most space-time clustering for birth and childhood developmental windows. No statistically significant clustering was found for adolescent years. These results will be further studied to identify the specific share of space-time environmental exposures. In conclusion, this study has found significant space-time clusters of parents, and grandparents for both maternal and paternal lineage. These results will be used to identify what environmental exposures have been shared with family members at critical developmental windows of time, and additional analysis will be applied.
66
45318
Clustering Locations of Textile and Garment Industries to Compare with the Future Industrial Cluster in Thailand
Abstract:
Textile and garment industry is used to a major exporting industry of Thailand. According to lacking of the nation's price-competitiveness by stopping the EU's GSP (Generalised Scheme of Preferences) and ‘Nationwide Minimum Wage Policy’ that Thailand’s employers must pay all employees at least 300 baht (about $10) a day, the supply chains of the Thai textile and garment industry is affected and need to be reformed. Therefore, either Thai textile or garment industry will be existed or not would be concerned. This is also challenged for the government to decide which industries should be promoted the future industries of Thailand. Recently Thai government launch The Cluster-based Special Economic Development Zones Policy for promoting business cluster (effect on September 16, 2015). They define a cluster as the concentration of interconnected businesses and related institutions that operate within the same geographic areas and textiles and garment is one of target industrial clusters and 9 provinces are targeted (Bangkok, Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi, Samut Sakhon, Chonburi, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, and Sa Kaeo). The cluster zone are defined to link west-east corridor connected to manufacturing source in Cambodia and Mynmar to Bangkok where are promoted to be design, sourcing, and trading hub. The Thai government will provide tax and non-tax incentives for targeted industries within the clusters and expects these businesses are scattered to where they can get the most benefit which will identify future industrial cluster. This research will show the difference between the current cluster and future cluster following the target provinces of the textile and garment. The current cluster is analysed from secondary data. The four characteristics of the numbers of plants in Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles, Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel, Manufacture of knitted and crocheted fabrics, and Manufacture of other textiles, not elsewhere classified in particular 77 provinces (in total) are clustered by K-means cluster analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. In addition, the cluster can be confirmed and showed which variables contribute the most to defined cluster solution with ANOVA test. The results of analysis can identify 22 provinces (which the textile or garment plants are located) into 3 clusters. Plants in cluster 1 tend to be large numbers of plants which is only Bangkok, Next plants in cluster 2 tend to be moderate numbers of plants which are Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon and Nakhon Pathom. Finally plants in cluster 3 tend to be little numbers of plants which are other 18 provinces. The same methodology can be implemented in other industries for future study.
65
63781
A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications
Abstract:
In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.
64
18418
Developing Open-Air Museum: The Heritage Conservation Effort, Oriented to Geotourism Concept and Education
Abstract:
The discovery of historical objects in Indonesia, especially in the area around Bandung and Priangan zone in general, have been inventorized and recorded by Dutch geologists during the colonial time. Among artefacts such as axes made of chalcedony and quartzite; arrowheads, knives, shrivel, and drill bit all made from obsidian; grindstones, even bracelet from stones. Ceramic mold for smelting bronze or iron were also found. The abundance of artefacts inspired DR. W. Docters van Leeuwen and his colleagues to initiate the establishment of Sunda Open-air Museum "Soenda Openlucht Museum" in 1917, located in the hills of North Bandung area, the site of pre-historic settlements that needs conservation. Unfortunately, this plan was not implemented because shortly after, World War II occurred. The efforts of heritage conservation is one of our responsibilities as a geologist today. Open-air Museum may be one of the solutions of heritage conservation for historic sites around the world. In this paper, the study of the development of Open-air Museum will be focused on the area of Dago, North Bandung. Method used is data analysis of field surveys, and data analysis of the remaining artefacts stored at both the National Museum in Jakarta, and the Bandung Museum of Geology. The museum is based on Geotourism and further research on pre-historic culture, while its purpose is to give people a common interest and to motivate them to participate in the research and conservation of pre-historic relics. This paper will describe more details about the concept, form, and management of the geopark and the Open-air Museum within.
63
105314
Open Science Philosophy, Research and Innovation
Authors:
Abstract:
Open Science translates the understanding and application of various theories and practices in open science philosophy, systems, paradigms and epistemology. Open Science originates with the premise that universal scientific knowledge is a product of a collective scholarly and social collaboration involving all stakeholders and knowledge belongs to the global society. Scientific outputs generated by public research are a public good that should be available to all at no cost and without barriers or restrictions. Open Science has the potential to increase the quality, impact and benefits of science and to accelerate advancement of knowledge by making it more reliable, more efficient and accurate, better understandable by society and responsive to societal challenges, and has the potential to enable growth and innovation through reuse of scientific results by all stakeholders at all levels of society, and ultimately contribute to growth and competitiveness of global society. Open Science is a global movement to improve accessibility to and reusability of research practices and outputs. In its broadest definition, it encompasses open access to publications, open research data and methods, open source, open educational resources, open evaluation, and citizen science. The implementation of open science provides an excellent opportunity to renegotiate the social roles and responsibilities of publicly funded research and to rethink the science system as a whole. Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods. Open Science represents a novel systematic approach to the scientific process, shifting from the standard practices of publishing research results in scientific publications towards sharing and using all available knowledge at an earlier stage in the research process, based on cooperative work and diffusing scholarly knowledge with no barriers and restrictions. Open Science refers to efforts to make the primary outputs of publicly funded research results (publications and the research data) publicly accessible in digital format with no limitations. Open Science is about extending the principles of openness to the whole research cycle, fostering, sharing and collaboration as early as possible, thus entailing a systemic change to the way science and research is done. Open Science is the ongoing transition in how open research is carried out, disseminated, deployed, and transformed to make scholarly research more open, global, collaborative, creative and closer to society. Open Science involves various movements aiming to remove the barriers for sharing any kind of output, resources, methods or tools, at any stage of the research process. Open Science embraces open access to publications, research data, source software, collaboration, peer review, notebooks, educational resources, monographs, citizen science, or research crowdfunding. The recognition and adoption of open science practices, including open science policies that increase open access to scientific literature and encourage data and code sharing, is increasing in the open science philosophy. Revolutionary open science policies are motivated by ethical, moral or utilitarian arguments, such as the right to access digital research literature for open source research or science data accumulation, research indicators, transparency in the field of academic practice, and reproducibility. Open science philosophy is adopted primarily to demonstrate the benefits of open science practices. Researchers use open science applications for their own advantage in order to get more offers, increase citations, attract media attention, potential collaborators, career opportunities, donations and funding opportunities. In open science philosophy, open data findings are evidence that open science practices provide significant benefits to researchers in scientific research creation, collaboration, communication, and evaluation according to more traditional closed science practices. Open science considers concerns such as the rigor of peer review, common research facts such as financing and career development, and the sacrifice of author rights. Therefore, researchers are recommended to implement open science research within the framework of existing academic evaluation and incentives. As a result, open science research issues are addressed in the areas of publishing, financing, collaboration, resource management and sharing, career development, discussion of open science questions and conclusions.
62
19099
Expanded Access through Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria
Abstract:
Education is the bedrock of development in every nation of the world, and it is very useful in ensuring quality of life for every individual and a better world for the people. Education, therefore, is the basic instrument of economic growth and technological advancement in any society. It is in recognition of this fact that the Nigerian government commits immense resources to ensuring that its citizens acquire education and also policies are being made to ensure the accessibility of education, qualitative higher education is highly recognized as a vital driving force for the socio-economic growth and technological development of nations yet the problem of access to University education in the country persists and therefore brought about the introduction of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) which has as its main objective, the attainment of mass literacy and providing opportunities for those who could not gain admission through designated entrance examination agencies as well as those who could not afford to leave their job to attend a full-time educational programme. Open and distance learning seeks to improve skilled manpower and also improve the skills for those already at work.
61
83541
An Improved K-Means Algorithm for Gene Expression Data Clustering
Abstract:
Data mining technique used in the field of clustering is a subject of active research and assists in biological pattern recognition and extraction of new knowledge from raw data. Clustering means the act of partitioning an unlabeled dataset into groups of similar objects. Each group, called a cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Several clustering methods are based on partitional clustering. This category attempts to directly decompose the dataset into a set of disjoint clusters leading to an integer number of clusters that optimizes a given criterion function. The criterion function may emphasize a local or a global structure of the data, and its optimization is an iterative relocation procedure. The K-Means algorithm is one of the most widely used partitional clustering techniques. Since K-Means is extremely sensitive to the initial choice of centers and a poor choice of centers may lead to a local optimum that is quite inferior to the global optimum, we propose a strategy to initiate K-Means centers. The improved K-Means algorithm is compared with the original K-Means, and the results prove how the efficiency has been significantly improved.
60
103160
Critical Psychosocial Risk Treatment for Engineers and Technicians
Abstract:
This study explores how management addresses psychosocial risks in seven teams of engineers and technicians in the midst of the fourth industrial revolution. The sample is from an ongoing quasi-experiment about psychosocial risk management in a manufacturing company in Sweden. Each of the seven teams belongs to one of two clusters: a positive cluster or a negative cluster. The positive cluster reports a significantly positive change in psychosocial risk levels between two time-points and the negative cluster reports a significantly negative change. The data are collected using semi-structured interviews. The results of the computer aided thematic analysis show that there are more differences than similarities when comparing the risk treatment actions taken between the two clusters. Findings show that the managers in the positive cluster use more enabling actions that foster and support formal and informal relationship building. In contrast, managers that use less enabling actions hinder the development of positive group processes and contribute negative changes in psychosocial risk levels. This exploratory study sheds some light on how management can influence significant positive and negative changes in psychosocial risk levels during a risk management process.
59
22177
Pattern and Trend of Open Burning Occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region Countries: Case Study Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar
Abstract:
This research focused on open burning occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region countries that influences the increase of PM10concentrations. Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos were chosen as a case study, and 2009, 2010, and 2012 were chosen as the year for case study. Hotspot detected by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Specto radiometer) sensor on board of Terra/Aqua satellites and provided by Rapid Response System was used to represent open burning location in the region. Hotspot was selected through fire confidence with confidence levels of 80-100%. The spatial analysis by GIS was used as the main tool for analyzing and defining the location of open burning at study sites as hotspot with the pixel size of 1 km by 1 km. The total hotspot counts in the study period of four years (2007, 2009, 2010, and January-April 2012) at the regional level, including Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar were 255,177 hotspots or a very high yearly average of 63,795 hotspots. The highest amount was seen in Myanmar (50%), followed by Laos (36%), and Thailand (14%). For Thailand, the majority of burning or 64% occurred in the northern region with the density of 5 hotspots per 100 km2. According to statistics of the 4 years, the increasing rate of hotspot from January to February was 10 times and from February to March was 4 times. After that period, the hotspot started to decline by 2 times from March to April. Therefore, in order to develop a policy which aims to lessen open burning conduction, the government should seriously focus on this problem during the peak period—February to March in every year when hotspot and open burning area is significantly increased.
58
86790
Open Innovation for Crowdsourced Product Development: The Case Study of Quirky.com
Abstract:
In a narrow sense, innovation is the invention and commercialisation of a new product or service in the marketplace. The literature suggests places that support knowledge exchange and social interaction, e.g. coffee shops, to nurture innovative ideas. With the widespread success of Internet, interpersonal communication and interaction changed. Online platforms complement physical places for idea exchange and innovation – the rise of hybrid, ‘net localities.’ Further, since its introduction in 2003 by Chesbrough, the concept of open innovation received increased attention as a topic in academic research as well as an innovation strategy applied by companies. Open innovation allows companies to seek and release intellectual property and new ideas from outside of their own company. As a consequence, the innovation process is no longer only managed within the company, but it is pursued in a co-creation process with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. Quirky.com (Quirky), a company founded by Ben Kaufman in 2009, recognised the opportunity given by the Internet for knowledge exchange and open innovation. Quirky developed an online platform that makes innovation available to everyone. This paper reports on a study that analysed Quirky’s business process in an extended event-driven process chain (eEPC). The aim was to determine how the platform enabled crowdsourced innovation for physical products on the Internet. The analysis reveals that key elements of the business model are based on open innovation. Quirky is an example of how open innovation can support crowdsourced and crowdfunded product ideation, development and selling. The company opened up various stages in the innovation process to its members to contribute in the product development, e.g. product ideation, design, and market research. Throughout the process, members earn influence through participating in the product development. Based on the influence they receive, shares on the product’s turnover. The outcomes of the study’s analysis highlighted certain benefits of open innovation for product development. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research to look into opportunities of open innovation approaches to be adopted by tertiary institutions as a novel way to commercialise research intellectual property.
57
21809
A Quantitative Study of the Evolution of Open Source Software Communities
Abstract:
Typically, virtual communities exhibit the well-known phenomenon of participation inequality, which means that only a small percentage of users is responsible of the majority of contributions. However, the sustainability of the community requires that the group of active users must be continuously nurtured with new users that gain expertise through a participation process. This paper analyzes the time evolution of Open Source Software (OSS) communities, considering users that join/abandon the community over time and several topological properties of the network when modeled as a social network. More specifically, the paper analyzes the role of those users rejoining the community and their influence in the global characteristics of the network.
56
7918
Analysis of Entrepreneurship in Industrial Cluster
Abstract:
Except for the internal aspects of entrepreneurship (i.e. motivation, opportunity perspective and alertness), there are external aspects that affecting entrepreneurship (i.e. the industrial cluster). By comparing the machinery companies located inside and outside the industrial district, this study aims to explore the cluster effects on the entrepreneurship of companies in Taiwan machinery clusters (TMC). In this study, three factors affecting the entrepreneurship in TMC are conducted as “competition”, “embedded-ness” and “specialized knowledge”. The “competition” in the industrial cluster is defined as the competitive advantages that companies gain in form of demand effects and diversified strategies; the “embedded-ness” refers to the quality of company relations (relational embedded-ness) and ranges (structural embedded-ness) with the industry components (universities, customers and complementary) that affecting knowledge transfer and knowledge generations; the “specialized knowledge” shares the internal knowledge within industrial clusters. This study finds that when comparing to the companies which are outside the cluster, the industrial cluster has positive influence on the entrepreneurship. Additionally, the factor of “relational embedded-ness” has significant impact on the entrepreneurship and affects the adaptation ability of companies in TMC. Finally, the factor of “competition” reveals partial influence on the entrepreneurship.
55
85051
Open Source Knowledge Management Approach to Manage and Disseminate Distributed Content in a Global Enterprise
Abstract:
Red Hat is the world leader in providing open source software and solutions. A global enterprise, like Red Hat, has unique issues of connecting employees with content because of distributed offices, multiple teams spread across geographies, multiple languages, and different cultures. Employees, of a global company, create content that is distributed across departments, teams, regions, and countries. This makes finding the best content difficult since owners keep iterating on the existing content. When employees are unable to find the content, they end up creating it once again and in the process duplicating existing material and effort. Also, employees may not find the relevant content and spend time reviewing obsolete duplicate, or irrelevant content. On an average, a person spends 15 minutes/day in failed searches that might result in missed business opportunities, employee frustration, and substandard deliverables. Red Hat Knowledge Management Office (KMO) applied 'open source strategy' to solve the above problems. Under the Open Source Strategy, decisions are taken collectively. The strategy aims at accomplishing common goals with the help of communities. The objectives of this initiative were to save employees' time, get them authentic content, improve their content search experience, avoid duplicate content creation, provide context based search, improve analytics, improve content management workflows, automate content classification, and automate content upload. This session will describe open source strategy, its applicability in content management, challenges, recommended solutions, and outcome.
54
103325
Barriers to Tuberculosis Detection in Portuguese Prisons
Abstract:
Background: Prison establishments constitute high-risk environments for the transmission and spread of tuberculosis (TB), given their epidemiological context and the difficulty of implementing preventive and control measures. Guidelines for control and prevention of tuberculosis in prisons have been described as incomplete and heterogeneous internationally, due to several identified obstacles, for example scarcity of human resources and funding of prisoner health services. In Portugal, a protocol was created in 2014 with the aim to define and standardize procedures of detection and prevention of tuberculosis within prisons. Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify and describe barriers to tuberculosis detection in prisons of Porto and Lisbon districts in Portugal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2ⁿᵈ January 2018 till 30ᵗʰ June 2018. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to health care professionals working in the prisons of the districts of Porto (n=6) and Lisbon (n=8). As inclusion criteria we considered having work experience in the area of tuberculosis (either in diagnosis, treatment, or follow up). The questionnaires were self-administered, in paper format. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire variables were made using frequencies and median. Afterwards, a hierarchical agglomerative clusters analysis was performed. After obtaining the clusters, the chi-square test was applied to study the association between the variables collected and the clusters. The level of significance considered was 0.05. Results: From the total of 186 health professionals, 139 met the criteria of inclusion and 82 health professionals were interviewed (62,2% of participation). Most were female, nurses, with a median age of 34 years, with term employment contract. From the cluster analysis, two groups were identified with different characteristics and behaviors for the procedures of this protocol. Statistically significant results were found in: elements of cluster 1 (78% of the total participants) work in prisons for a longer time (p=0.003), 45,3% work > 4 years while 50% of the elements of cluster 2 work for less than a year, and more frequently answered they know and apply the procedures of the protocol (p=0.000). Both clusters answered frequently the need of having theoretical-practical training for TB (p=0.000), especially in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention and that there is scarcity of funding to prisoner health services (p=0.000). Regarding procedures for TB screening (periodic and contact screening) and procedures for transferring a prisoner with this disease, cluster 1 also answered more frequently to perform them (p=0.000). They also referred that the material/equipment for TB screening is accessible and available (p=0.000). From this clusters we identified as barriers scarcity of human resources, the need to theoretical-practical training for tuberculosis, inexperience in working in health services prisons and limited knowledge of protocol procedures. Conclusions: The barriers found in this study are the same described internationally. This protocol is mostly being applied in portuguese prisons. The study also showed the need to invest in human and material resources. This investigation bridged gaps in knowledge that could help prison health services optimize the care provided for early detection and adherence of prisoners to treatment of tuberculosis.
53
22802
Decision Support System in Air Pollution Using Data Mining
Abstract:
Environmental pollution is not limited to a specific region or country; that is why sustainable development, as a necessary process for improvement, pays attention to issues such as destruction of natural resources, degradation of biological system, global pollution, and climate change in the world, especially in the developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, as a developing city, Tehran (capital of Iran) is one of the most polluted cities in the world in terms of air pollution. In this study, three pollutants including particulate matter less than 10 microns, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were evaluated in Tehran using data mining techniques and through Crisp approach. The data from 21 air pollution measuring stations in different areas of Tehran were collected from 1999 to 2013. Commercial softwares Clementine was selected for this study. Tehran was divided into distinct clusters in terms of the mentioned pollutants using the software. As a data mining technique, clustering is usually used as a prologue for other analyses, therefore, the similarity of clusters was evaluated in this study through analyzing local conditions, traffic behavior, and industrial activities. In fact, the results of this research can support decision-making system, help managers improve the performance and decision making, and assist in urban studies.
52
25256
The Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Degree in the Soils Around the Zangezur Copper and Molybdenum Combine
Abstract:
The heavy metal pollution degree in the soils around the Zangezur copper and molybdenum combine in Syunik Marz, Armenia was aessessed. The results of the study showed that heavy metal pollution degree in the soils mainly decreased with increasing distance from the open mine and the ore enrichment combine which indicated that the open mine and the ore enrichment combine were the main sources of heavy metal pollution. The only exception was observed in the northern part of the open mine where pollution degree in the sites (along the open mine) situated 600 meters far from the mine was higher than that in the sites located 300 meters far from the mine. This can be explained by the characteristics of relief and air currents as well as the weak vegetation cover of these sites and the characteristics of soil structure. According to geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (Cf), contamination degree (Cd) and pollution load index (PLI) values, the pollution degree in the soils around the open mine and the ore enrichment combine was higher than that in the soils around the tailing dumps which was due to the proper and accurate operation of the Artsvanik tailing damp and the recultivation of the Voghji tailing dump. The high Cu and Mo pollution of the soils was conditioned by the character of industrial activities, the moving direction of air currents as well as the physicochemical peculiarities of the soils.
51
17301
Institutional Repository ePrints at Indian Institute of Science: A Special Reference to JRD Tata Memorial Library, Bangalore, India
Abstract:
Over the past decade there has been substantial progress in the usage of ePrints resources national and international research community. JRD Tata Memorial Library has hosting for the web based ePrints services and maintenance to online user community. This paper provides an overview how to share JRDTML experiences in using GNU EPrints.org software to create and maintain the open-access institutional repository of IISc, [email protected] This paper states that the GNU EPrints.org is the first generic software for creating Open Access Initiative (OAI)-compliant repositories, which enables the researchers to self-archive their research publications thus facilitating open access to their publications. IISc has been using this software since early 2002. This paper tells that the GNU EPrints.org software is an excellent tool for creating and maintaining OAI-compliant repositories. It can be setup easily even by those who are not too much experts in computer. In this paper, author is sharing JRDTML experiences in using GNU ePrints.org software.
50
53237
Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques
Abstract:
Renewable energy is referred to as &quot;clean energy&quot; and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions.&nbsp;This study provides useful insight into the European&nbsp;Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward&rsquo;s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.
49
36467
Management of Tibial Bone Defects Following Grade Three Injury in Adults
Abstract:
Background; Massive bone gaps are common following road side accidents and injury to the tibia, specially open grade three fractures. It has been seen that the diaphyseal fractures in the tibia are prone to non-union, there are certain reasons known very well, like less soft tissues around the lower third tibia, less vascularity, less options of fixation of the fractures after trauma and prolonged surgical time, operation theatre time and special surgical means. Aim of study; To know the suitability of the ilizarov ring fixators in staged treatment of the fracture of the both bones leg, including tibia, we wish to see the role of ilizarov in management of open grade three fractures which have been operated and debrided, for getting the length use of ilizaorv ring in a tertiary canter is the aim of the study.
48
39509
Value Clusters of Grade 9 Teachers in the District of Trece Martires City, Division of Cavite: Basis for a Revised Values Education Program (RVEP)"
Abstract:
With numerous innovations introduced in the Philippine educational system, the country’s struggle of materializing its national goal of transforming lives ends with great loss. Many agree that the failure to emerge the integral values of the program, framework and the implementers impedes realization. Employing a descriptive-correlational method, it aimed to determine the value clusters of the Grade 9 teachers as assessed by themselves and by the students, the significant difference of the assessed values and the significant difference on the values based on their profile. Respondents were composed of sixty-nine (69) teachers and three hundred forty (340) students using simple random sampling. Through a survey-questionnaire, the study revealed that the teachers have high regards on their self-reliance, honesty and trustworthiness, obedience, politeness and respect and self-discipline and spirituality. In contrast, they have ranked the following values fairly: justice and fairness, courage, responsibility and punctuality and nationalism and patriotism. Having assessed by the students, they have highly regarded their teachers’ self-reliance, responsibility and punctuality, obedience, politeness and respect and fair play and sportsmanship. On the other hand, the student-respondents made a low assessment on the level of the teachers’ justice and fairness, nationalism and patriotism, honesty and trustworthiness and excellence. Using t-test, it showed that there is a significant difference between the assessments of the respondents. Finally, among the demographic profiles, only civil status and age rejected the hypothesis. The following were recommended: provide educators value-enhancement trainings and conferences, organize value-oriented organizations and activities, and make intensive value-campaigns heightening the low-assessed values. Thus, a Revised Values Education Program (RVEP) was made to further meet the objectives of the program, address the needs of its clienteles, and responding to the demands of both education and society towards excellence in service, social and economic revolution, and constructive national goals which are based from integral values.
47
43674
Concept Mapping of Teachers Regarding Conflict Management
Abstract:
The global need for conflict management is greater now in the early 21st century than ever before. According to UNESCO, half of the world’s 195 countries will have to expand their stock of educationist significantly, some by tens of thousands, if the goal development targets are desired to achieve. Socioeconomic inequities, political instability, demographic changes and crises such as the HIV/AIDs epidemic have engendered huge shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality in many developing countries. Education serves as back bone in development process. Open learning and distance education programs are serving as pivotal part of development process. It is now clear that ‘bricks and mortar’ approaches to expanding teacher education may not be adequate if the current and projected shortfalls in teacher supply and low teacher quality are to be properly addressed. The study is designed to measure the perceptions of teaching learning community about conflict management with special reference to open and distance learning. It was descriptive study which targeted teachers, students, community members and experts. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical techniques served by SPSS. Findings reflected that audience perceives open and distance learning as change agent and as development tool. It is noticed that target audience has driven prominent performance by using facility of open and distance learning.
46
57192
Identifying Factors for Evaluating Livability Potential within a Metropolis: A Case of Kolkata
Abstract:
Livability is a holistic concept whose factors include many complex characteristics and levels of interrelationships among them. It has been considered as people&rsquo;s need for public amenities and is recognized as a major element to create social welfare. The concept and principles of livability are essential for recognizing the significance of community well-being. The attributes and dimensions of livability are also important aspects to measure the overall quality of environment. Livability potential is mainly considered as the capacity to develop into the overall well-being of an urban area in future. The intent of the present study is to identify the prime factors to evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. For ground level case study, the paper has selected Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) as it has wide physical, social, and economic variations within it. The initial part of the study deals with detailed literature review on livability and its significance of evaluating its potential within a metropolis. The next segment is dedicated for identifying the primary factors which would evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. In pursuit of identifying primary factors, which have a direct impact on urban livability, this study delineates the metropolitan area into various clusters, having their distinct livability potential. As a final outcome of the study, variations of livability potential of those selected clusters are highlighted to explain the complexity of the metropolitan development.
45
126940
Focus Group Study Exploring Researchers Perspective on Open Science Policy
Authors:
Abstract:
Knowledge about the factors that influence the exchange between research and society is of the utmost importance for developing collaboration between different actors, especially in future science policy development and the creation of support structures for researchers. Among other things, how researchers look at the surrounding open science policy environment and what conditions and attitudes they have for interacting with it. This paper examines the Finnish researchers' attitudes towards open science policies in 2020. Open science is an integrated part of researchers' daily lives and supports not only the effectiveness of research outputs but also the quality of research. Open science policy in ideal situation is seen as a supporting structure that enables the exchange between research and society, but in other situation, it can end up being red tape generating obstacles and hindering possibilities of making science in an efficient way. Results of this study were carried out through focus group interviews. This qualitative research method was selected because it aims to understand the phenomenon under study. In addition, focus group interviews produce diverse and rich material that would not be available with other research methods. Focus group interviews have well-established applications in social science, especially in understanding the perspectives and experiences of research subjects. In this study, focus groups were used in studying the mindset and actions of researchers. Each group's size was between 4-10 people, and the aim was to bring out different perspectives on the subject. The interviewer enabled the presentation of different perceptions and opinions, and the focus group interviews were recorded and written as text. The material was analysed using grounded theory method. The results are presented as thematic areas, theoretical model, and as direct quotations. Attitudes towards open science policy can vary greatly depending on the research area. This study shows that the open science policy demands in medicine, technology, and natural sciences compared to social sciences, educational sciences, and the humanities, varies somewhat. The variation in attitudes between different research areas can thus be largely explained by the fact that the research output and ethical code vary significantly between certain subjects. This study aims to increase understanding of the nuances to what extent open science policies should be tailored for different disciplines and research areas.
44
35637
Healthcare Big Data Analytics Using Hadoop
Abstract:
Healthcare industry is generating large amounts of data driven by various needs such as record keeping, physician’s prescription, medical imaging, sensor data, Electronic Patient Record(EPR), laboratory, pharmacy, etc. Healthcare data is so big and complex that they cannot be managed by conventional hardware and software. The complexity of healthcare big data arises from large volume of data, the velocity with which the data is accumulated and different varieties such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured nature of data. Despite the complexity of big data, if the trends and patterns that exist within the big data are uncovered and analyzed, higher quality healthcare at lower cost can be provided. Hadoop is an open source software framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity hardware using a simple programming model. The core components of Hadoop include Hadoop Distributed File System which offers way to store large amount of data across multiple machines and MapReduce which offers way to process large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. Hadoop ecosystem also includes various other tools such as Hive (a SQL-like query language), Pig (a higher level query language for MapReduce), Hbase(a columnar data store), etc. In this paper an analysis has been done as how healthcare big data can be processed and analyzed using Hadoop ecosystem.
43
27021
An Approach to Integrate Ontologies of Open Educational Resources in Knowledge Base Management Systems
Abstract:
There are a real needs to integrate types of Open Educational Resources (OER) with an intelligent system to extract information and knowledge in the semantic searching level. Those needs raised because most of current learning standard adopted web based learning and the e-learning systems does not always serve all educational goals. Semantic Web systems provide educators, students, and researchers with intelligent queries based on a semantic knowledge management learning system. An ontology-based learning system is an advanced system, where ontology plays the core of the semantic web in a smart learning environment. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potentials of ontologies and mapping different kinds of ontologies; heterogeneous or homogenous to manage and control different types of Open Educational Resources. The important contribution of this research is to approach a methodology uses logical rules and conceptual relations to map between ontologies of different educational resources. We expect from this methodology to establish for an intelligent educational system supporting student tutoring, self and lifelong learning system.
42
21229
Spatial Cluster Analysis of Human Cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Reported in Pakistan
Abstract:
Background : Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick born viral zoonotic disease that has been notified from almost all regions of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate spatial distribution of CCHF cases reported to National Institue of Health , Islamabad during year 2013. Methods : Spatial statistics tools were applied to detect extent spatial auto-correlation and clusters of the disease based on adjusted cumulative incidence per million population for each district. Results : The data analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high values in the uplands of Balochistan province near Afghanistan border. Conclusion : The cluster included following districts: Pishin; Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Quetta, Sibi; Zhob; and Ziarat. These districts may be given priority in CCHF surveillance, control programs, and further epidemiological research . The location of the cluster close to border of Afghanistan and Iran highlight importance of the findings for organizations dealing with disease at national, regional and global levels.
41
3705
From Customer Innovations to Manufactured Products: A Project Outlook
Abstract:
This paper gives insights into the research project "InnoCyFer" (in the form of an outlook) which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. Enabling the integrated customer individual product design as well as flexible manufacturing of these products are the main objectives of the project. To achieve this, a web-based open innovation-platform containing an integrated Toolkit will be developed. This toolkit enables the active integration of the customer’s creativity and potentials of innovation in the product development process. Furthermore, the project will show the chances and possibilities of customer individualized products by building and examining the continuous process from innovation through the customers to the flexible manufacturing of individual products.
40
45393
Development of a Psychometric Testing Instrument Using Algorithms and Combinatorics to Yield Coupled Parameters and Multiple Geometric Arrays in Large Information Grids
Abstract:
The undertaking to develop a psychometric instrument is monumental. Understanding the relationship between variables and events is important in structural and exploratory design of psychometric instruments. Considering this, we describe a method used to group, pair and combine multiple Philosophical Assumption statements that assisted in development of a 13 item psychometric screening instrument. We abbreviated our Philosophical Assumptions (PA)s and added parameters, which were then condensed and mathematically modeled in a specific process. This model produced clusters of combinatorics which was utilized in design and development for 1) information retrieval and categorization 2) item development and 3) estimation of interactions among variables and likelihood of events. The psychometric screening instrument measured Knowledge, Assessment (education) and Beliefs (KAB) of New Addictions Research (NAR), which we called KABNAR. We obtained an overall internal consistency for the seven Likert belief items as measured by Cronbach’s α of .81 in the final study of 40 Clinicians, calculated by SPSS 14.0.1 for Windows. We constructed the instrument to begin with demographic items (degree/addictions certifications) for identification of target populations that practiced within Outpatient Substance Abuse Counseling (OSAC) settings. We then devised education items, beliefs items (seven items) and a modifiable “barrier from learning” item that consisted of six “choose any” choices. We also conceptualized a close relationship between identifying various degrees and certifications held by Outpatient Substance Abuse Therapists (OSAT) (the demographics domain) and all aspects of their education related to EB-NAR (past and present education and desired future training). We placed a descriptive (PA)1tx in both demographic and education domains to trace relationships of therapist education within these two domains. The two perceptions domains B1/b1 and B2/b2 represented different but interrelated perceptions from the therapist perspective. The belief items measured therapist perceptions concerning EB-NAR and therapist perceptions using EB-NAR during the beginning of outpatient addictions counseling. The (PA)s were written in simple words and descriptively accurate and concise. We then devised a list of parameters and appropriately matched them to each PA and devised descriptive parametric (PA)s in a domain categorized information grid. Descriptive parametric (PA)s were reduced to simple mathematical symbols. This made it easy to utilize parametric (PA)s into algorithms, combinatorics and clusters to develop larger information grids. By using matching combinatorics we took paired demographic and education domains with a subscript of 1 and matched them to the column with each B domain with subscript 1. Our algorithmic matching formed larger information grids with organized clusters in columns and rows. We repeated the process using different demographic, education and belief domains and devised multiple information grids with different parametric clusters and geometric arrays. We found benefit combining clusters by different geometric arrays, which enabled us to trace parametric variables and concepts. We were able to understand potential differences between dependent and independent variables and trace relationships of maximum likelihoods.
39
104422
Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Postharvest Life and Quality of Some Grape Cultivars
Abstract:
Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are an important crop worldwide. Postharvest problems like berry shattering, decay and stem dehydration are some of the important factors that limit the marketing of table grapes. Edible coatings are an alternative for increasing shelf-life of fruits, protecting fruits from humidity and oxygen effects, thus retarding their deterioration. This study aimed to compare different grape seed oil applications (GSO, 0.5 g L-1, 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1) and SO2 generating pads effects (SO2-1, SO2-2). Treated grapes with GSO and generating pads were packaged into polyethylene trays and stored at 0 &plusmn; 1&deg;C and 85-95% moisture. Effects of the applications were investigated by some quality and sensory evaluations with intervals of 15 days. SO2 applications were determined the most effective treatments for minimizing weight loss and changes in TA, pH, color and appearance value. Grape seed oil applications were determined as a good alternative for grape preservation, improving weight losses and &deg;Brix, TA, the color values and sensory analysis. Commercially, &lsquo;Alphonse Lavall&eacute;e&rsquo; clusters were stored for 75 days and &lsquo;Antep Karası&rsquo; clusters for 60 days. The data obtained from GSO indicated that it had a similar quality result to SO2 for up to 40 days storage.
38
54441
Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling
Abstract:
Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.
37
135054
Women's Parliamentary Representation in Uganda: A Relative Analysis of the Pathways of Women on the Open vs. Affirmative Action Seat
Abstract:
While women's parliamentary representation has increased over the years, most women contest the affirmative action seat (A.A). There is a lack of knowledge on why women prefer the affirmative seat vis- a- vis the open seat. This study argues that comparing women's path on the reserved and open seat to parliamentary representation enables us to pass judgment on why this trend continues. This paper provides a narrative analysis of women members of parliament's (MPs) trajectory in the open seat and Affirmative Action seat to parliamentary representation. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from the Northern Uganda districts of Kitgum, Pader, Oyam, Agago, and Gulu. The eight women MPs chosen for the study completed in-depth interviews exploring their qualifications, careers, and experiences before joining the political office, their party affiliation, and the kind of seat they currently occupy in the 10th parliament. Findings revealed similarities between women on the open and reserved to include; women generally irrespective of the seat they choose to contest for find it difficult to win elections because voters doubt women's effectiveness as leaders. All women as incumbents find it difficult to be re-elected because their evaluation is harsher than that for men. Findings also revealed that women representatives are motivated by their personal lived experiences, community work, educational leadership, and local leadership. The study establishes that the popularity of the party in a given geographical location and the opponents' quality will determine the success of the parliamentary candidate in question irrespective of whether one is contesting on the open or Affirmative seat. However, the study revealed differences between MPs' experiences in the quest for the parliamentary seat, females on the open seat are subjected to gender discrimination in elections by party leadership, stereotyped, and are victims of propaganda in the initial contesting stages. Women who win elections in the open seat have to be superior to their male opponents. In other circumstances where a woman emerges successful, she may be voted for due to other reasons beyond capability, such as physical appearance or sociability. On the other hand, MPs' revelations on affirmative action seats show that the political terrain is smoother despite larger constituencies. Findings show that women on the Affirmative Action seat do not move to the open seat because of the comfort associated with the seat and maintain consistency, since the constituencies doubt the motives of representatives who change from one seat to another. The study concludes that women MPs who contest on the open seat are likely to suffer structural barriers such as gender discrimination and political recruitment bias instead of women on the affirmative seat. This explains why the majority of women contest on the affirmative seat.
36
13413
Effect of Open-Ended Laboratory toward Learners Performance in Environmental Engineering Course: Case Study of Civil Engineering at Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Abstract:
Laboratory activities have produced benefits in student learning. With current drives of new technology resources and evolving era of education methods, renewal status of learning and teaching in laboratory methods are in progress, for both learners and the educators. To enhance learning outcomes in laboratory works particularly in engineering practices and testing, learning via hands-on by instruction may not sufficient. This paper describes and compares techniques and implementation of traditional (expository) with open-ended laboratory (problem-based) for two consecutive cohorts studying environmental laboratory course in civil engineering program. The transition of traditional to problem-based findings and effect were investigated in terms of course assessment student feedback survey, course outcome learning measurement and student performance grades. It was proved that students have demonstrated better performance in their grades and 12% increase in the course outcome (CO) in problem-based open-ended laboratory style than traditional method; although in perception, students has responded less favorable in their feedback.
35
86771
Emotion Oriented Students' Opinioned Topic Detection for Course Reviews in Massive Open Online Course
Abstract:
Massive Open education has become increasingly popular among worldwide learners. An increasing number of course reviews are being generated in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platform, which offers an interactive feedback channel for learners to express opinions and feelings in learning. These reviews typically contain subjective emotion and topic information towards the courses. However, it is time-consuming to artificially detect these opinions. In this paper, we propose an emotion-oriented topic detection model to automatically detect the students’ opinioned aspects in course reviews. The known overall emotion orientation and emotional words in each review are used to guide the joint probabilistic modeling of emotion and aspects in reviews. Through the experiment on real-life review data, it is verified that the distribution of course-emotion-aspect can be calculated to capture the most significant opinioned topics in each course unit. This proposed technique helps in conducting intelligent learning analytics for teachers to improve pedagogies and for developers to promote user experiences.
34
75031
Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action
Abstract:
The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.
33
31648
Extended Multi-Modulus Divider for Open Loop Fractional Dividers and Fractional Multiplying Delay Locked Loops
Abstract:
Solutions for the wrong division problem of the Extended Multi-Modulus Divider (EMMD) that occurs during modulus extension (i.e. switching the modulus value between two different ranges of division ratios), in open loop fractional dividers and fractional multiplying delay locked loop, is proposed. A detailed study for the MMD with Sigma-Delta is also presented. Moreover, extensive simulations for the divider are presented to ensure and verify its functionality and compared with the conventional dividers.
32
35153
Regional Dynamics of Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Optics and Photonics Industry
Abstract:
The economic entities in innovation ecosystems form various industry clusters, in which they compete and cooperate to survive and grow. Within a successful and stable industry cluster, the entities acquire different roles that complement each other in the system. The universities and research centers have been accepted to have a critical role in these systems for the creation and development of innovations. However, the real effect of research institutions on regional economic growth is difficult to assess. In this paper, we present our approach for the identification of the impact of research activities on the regional entrepreneurship for a specific high-tech industry: optics and photonics. The optics and photonics has been defined as an enabling industry, which combines the high-tech photonics technology with the developing optics industry. The recent literature suggests that the growth of optics and photonics firms depends on three important factors: the embedded regional specializations in the labor market, the research and development infrastructure, and a dynamic small firm network capable of absorbing new technologies, products and processes. Therefore, the role of each factor and the dynamics among them must be understood to identify the requirements of the entrepreneurship activities in optics and photonics industry. There are three main contributions of our approach. The recent studies show that the innovation in optics and photonics industry is mostly located around metropolitan areas. There are also studies mentioning the importance of research center locations and universities in the regional development of optics and photonics industry. These studies are mostly limited with the number of patents received within a short period of time or some limited survey results. Therefore the first contribution of our approach is conducting a comprehensive analysis for the state and recent history of the photonics and optics research in the US. For this purpose, both the research centers specialized in optics and photonics and the related research groups in various departments of institutions (e.g. Electrical Engineering, Materials Science) are identified and a geographical study of their locations is presented. The second contribution of the paper is the analysis of regional entrepreneurship activities in optics and photonics in recent years. We use the membership data of the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) and the regional photonics clusters to identify the optics and photonics companies in the US. Then the profiles and activities of these companies are gathered by extracting and integrating the related data from the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database, ES-202 database and the data sets from the regional photonics clusters. The number of start-ups, their employee numbers and sales are some examples of the extracted data for the industry. Our third contribution is the utilization of collected data to investigate the impact of research institutions on the regional optics and photonics industry growth and entrepreneurship. In this analysis, the regional and periodical conditions of the overall market are taken into consideration while discovering and quantifying the statistical correlations.
31
58451
Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns
Abstract:
Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.
30
110012
Design and Optimization of Open Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network Using Hybrid K-Means Cluster Based Heuristic Algorithm
Abstract:
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been attracting considerable attention with the expectation of improved supply chain visibility for consumer goods, apparel, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as retailers and government procurement agencies. It is also expected to improve the consumer shopping experience by making it more likely that the products they want to purchase are available. Recent announcements from some key retailers have brought interest in RFID to the forefront. A modified K- Means Cluster based Heuristic approach, Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) - Simulated Annealing (SA) approach, Hybrid K-Means Cluster based Heuristic-GA and Hybrid K-Means Cluster based Heuristic-GA-SA for Open Loop Supply Chain Network problem are proposed. The study incorporated uniform crossover operator and combined crossover operator in GAs for solving open loop supply chain distribution network problem. The algorithms are tested on 50 randomly generated data set and compared with each other. The results of the numerical experiments show that the Hybrid K-means cluster based heuristic-GA-SA, when tested on 50 randomly generated data set, shows superior performance to the other methods for solving the open loop supply chain distribution network problem.
29
63263
Analysis of Shrinkage Effect during Mercerization on Himalayan Nettle, Cotton and Cotton/Nettle Yarn Blends
Abstract:
The Himalayan Nettle (Girardinia diversifolia) has been used for centuries as fibre and food source by Himalayan communities. Himalayan Nettle is a natural cellulosic fibre that can be handled in the same way as other cellulosic fibres. The Uttarakhand Bamboo and Fibre Development Board based in Uttarakhand, India is working extensively with the nettle fibre to explore the potential of nettle for textile production in the region. The fiber is a potential resource for rural enterprise development for some high altitude pockets of the state and traditionally the plant fibre is used for making domestic products like ropes and sacks. Himalayan Nettle is an unconventional natural fiber with functional characteristics of shrink resistance, degree of pathogen and fire resistance and can blend nicely with other fibres. Most importantly, they generate mainly organic wastes and leave residues that are 100% biodegradable. The fabrics may potentially be reused or re-manufactured and can also be used as a source of cellulose feedstock for regenerated cellulosic products. Being naturally bio- degradable, the fibre can be composted if required. Though a lot of research activities and training are directed towards fibre extraction and processing techniques in different craft clusters villagers of different clusters of Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Bageshwar of Uttarakhand like retting and Degumming process, very little is been done to analyse the crucial properties of nettle fiber like shrinkage and wash fastness. These properties are very crucial to obtain desired quality of fibre for further processing of yarn making and weaving and in developing these fibers into fine saleable products. This research therefore is focused towards various on-field experiments which were focused on shrinkage properties conducted on cotton, nettle and cotton/nettle blended yarn samples. The objective of the study was to analyze the scope of the blended fiber for developing into wearable fabrics. For the study, after conducting the initial fiber length and fineness testing, cotton and nettle fibers were mixed in 60:40 ratio and five varieties of yarns were spun in open end spinning mill having yarn count of 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s. Samples of 100% Nettle 100% cotton fibers in 8s count were also developed for the study. All the six varieties of yarns were tested with shrinkage test and results were critically analyzed as per ASTM method D2259. It was observed that 100% Nettle has a least shrinkage of 3.36% while pure cotton has shrinkage approx. 13.6%. Yarns made of 100% Cotton exhibits four times more shrinkage than 100% Nettle. The results also show that cotton and Nettle blended yarn exhibit lower shrinkage than 100% cotton yarn. It was thus concluded that as the ratio of nettle increases in the samples, the shrinkage decreases in the samples. These results are very crucial for Uttarakhand people who want to commercially exploit the abundant nettle fiber for generating sustainable employment.
28
46932
Integration Process and Analytic Interface of different Environmental Open Data Sets with Java/Oracle and R
Abstract:
The main objective of our work is the comparative analysis of environmental data from Open Data bases, belonging to different governments. This means that you have to integrate data from various different sources. Nowadays, many governments have the intention of publishing thousands of data sets for people and organizations to use them. In this way, the quantity of applications based on Open Data is increasing. However each government has its own procedures to publish its data, and it causes a variety of formats of data sets because there are no international standards to specify the formats of the data sets from Open Data bases. Due to this variety of formats, we must build a data integration process that is able to put together all kind of formats. There are some software tools developed in order to give support to the integration process, e.g. Data Tamer, Data Wrangler. The problem with these tools is that they need data scientist interaction to take part in the integration process as a final step. In our case we don’t want to depend on a data scientist, because environmental data are usually similar and these processes can be automated by programming. The main idea of our tool is to build Hadoop procedures adapted to data sources per each government in order to achieve an automated integration. Our work focus in environment data like temperature, energy consumption, air quality, solar radiation, speeds of wind, etc. Since 2 years, the government of Madrid is publishing its Open Data bases relative to environment indicators in real time. In the same way, other governments have published Open Data sets relative to the environment (like Andalucia or Bilbao). But all of those data sets have different formats and our solution is able to integrate all of them, furthermore it allows the user to make and visualize some analysis over the real-time data. Once the integration task is done, all the data from any government has the same format and the analysis process can be initiated in a computational better way. So the tool presented in this work has two goals: 1. Integration process; and 2. Graphic and analytic interface. As a first approach, the integration process was developed using Java and Oracle and the graphic and analytic interface with Java (jsp). However, in order to open our software tool, as second approach, we also developed an implementation with R language as mature open source technology. R is a really powerful open source programming language that allows us to process and analyze a huge amount of data with high performance. There are also some R libraries for the building of a graphic interface like shiny. A performance comparison between both implementations was made and no significant differences were found. In addition, our work provides with an Official Real-Time Integrated Data Set about Environment Data in Spain to any developer in order that they can build their own applications.
27
62691
A Psychophysiological Evaluation of an Effective Recognition Technique Using Interactive Dynamic Virtual Environments
Abstract:
Recording psychological and physiological correlates of human performance within virtual environments and interpreting their impacts on human engagement, &lsquo;immersion&rsquo; and related emotional or &lsquo;effective&rsquo; states is both academically and technologically challenging. By exposing participants to an effective, real-time (game-like) virtual environment, designed and evaluated in an earlier study, a psychophysiological database containing the EEG, GSR and Heart Rate of 30 male and female gamers, exposed to 10 games, was constructed. Some 174 features were subsequently identified and extracted from a number of windows, with 28 different timing lengths (e.g. 2, 3, 5, etc. seconds). After reducing the number of features to 30, using a feature selection technique, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods were subsequently employed for the classification process. The classifiers categorised the psychophysiological database into four effective clusters (defined based on a 3-dimensional space &ndash; valence, arousal and dominance) and eight emotion labels (relaxed, content, happy, excited, angry, afraid, sad, and bored). The KNN and SVM classifiers achieved average cross-validation accuracies of 97.01% (&plusmn;1.3%) and 92.84% (&plusmn;3.67%), respectively. However, no significant differences were found in the classification process based on effective clusters or emotion labels.
26
114648
Design Considerations for the Construction of an Open Decontamination Facility for Managing Civil Emergencies
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: Rapid population growth and land constraints in Singapore results in a possible situation in which we face a higher number of casualties and lack of operational space in healthcare facilities during disasters and HAZMAT events, collectively known as Civil Emergencies. This creates a need for available working space within hospital grounds to be amphibious or multi-functional, to ensure the institution’s capability to respond efficiently to Civil Emergencies. The Emergency Department (ED) mitigates this issue by converting the Ambulance Assembly Area used during peacetime into an Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) during Civil Emergency Response, for decontamination of casualties before they proceed to treatment areas into Ambulance Assembly Area used during peacetime. Aims: To effectively operationalize the Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) through the reduction of manual handling. Methods: From past experiences on Civil Emergency exercises, it was labor-intensive for staff to set up the Open Decontamination Facility (ODF). Manual handling to set up the Decontamination lanes by bringing down the curtains and supply of water was required to be turned on. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the design construction of an Open Decontamination Facility (ODF) is based on the use of automation of bringing down the curtains on the various lanes. The use of control panels for water supply to decontaminate patients. Safety within the ODF was considered with the installation of panic buttons, intercom for staff communication, and perimeter curtains were installed with stability arm to manage the condition with high wind velocity.
25
36930
Education System Development: Challenges and Barriers
Authors:
Abstract:
Education is to be anticipated for Human resource development and then national development. However, in most of the developing countries, due to the inadequacy of resources it is almost unattainable to educate all of their citizens through on-campus teaching. Huge amount of money is necessary to establish the infrastructure for on-campus teaching which is out of the reach of the developing countries. In these circumstances, to educate their huge inhabitants the developing countries are to depend on open learning and distance education system. However, a question still stands: can the educators dissimulate knowledge to the learners smoothly through this new system of education? Some recent research shows that the graduates of the open and distance learning institutions in the developing countries are treated as second-grade graduates. This paper aims to identify the challenges or barriers in the development of distance and Open learning system in India and suggest possible alternatives may be followed to overcome the barriers.
24
40077
Opening up Government Datasets for Big Data Analysis to Support Policy Decisions
Abstract:
Policy makers are increasingly looking to make evidence-based decisions. Evidence-based decisions have historically used rigorous methodologies of empirical studies by research institutes, as well as less reliable immediate survey/polls often with limited sample sizes. As we move into the era of Big Data analytics, policy makers are looking to different methodologies to deliver reliable empirics in real-time. The question is not why did these people do this for the last 10 years, but why are these people doing this now, and if the this is undesirable, and how can we have an impact to promote change immediately. Big data analytics rely heavily on government data that has been released in to the public domain. The open data movement promises greater productivity and more efficient delivery of services; however, Australian government agencies remain reluctant to release their data to the general public. This paper considers the barriers to releasing government data as open data, and how these barriers might be overcome.
23
127590
Research Networks and Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Study of Aquaculture in Europe
Abstract:
The collaborative European funded research and development landscape provides prime environmental conditions for multi-disciplinary teams to learn and enhance their knowledge beyond the capability of training and learning within their own organisation cocoons. Whilst the emergence of the academic entrepreneur has changed the focus of educational institutions to that of quasi-businesses, the training and professional development of lecturers and academic staff are often not formalised to the same level as industry. This research focuses on industry and academic collaborative research funded by the European Commission. The impact of research is scalable if an optimum research network is created and managed effectively. This paper investigates network embeddedness, the nature of relationships, links, and nodes within a research network, and the enhancement of the network’s knowledge. The contribution of this paper extends our understanding of establishing and maintaining effective collaborative research networks. The effects of network embeddedness are recognized in the literature as pertinent to innovation and the economy. Network theory literature claims that networks are essential to innovative clusters such as Silicon valley and innovation in high tech industries. This research provides evidence to support the impact collaborative research has on the disparate individuals toward their innovative contributions to their organisations and their own professional development. This study adopts a qualitative approach and uncovers some of the challenges of multi-disciplinary research through case study insights. The contribution of this paper recommends the establishment of scaffolding to accommodate cooperation in research networks, role appointment, and addressing contextual complexities early to avoid problem cultivation. Furthermore, it suggests recommendations in relation to network formation, intra-network challenges in relation to open data, competition, friendships, and competency enhancement. The network capability is enhanced by the adoption of the relevant theories; network theory, open innovation, and social exchange, with the understanding that the network structure has an impact on innovation and social exchange in research networks. The research concludes that there is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the impact of network reuse and network hoping that provides scaffolding for the network members to enhance and build upon their knowledge using a progressive approach.
22
20315
Developing a Test Specifications for an Internationalization Course: Environment for Health in Thai Context
Abstract:
Test specifications for open book or notes exams provide the essential information to identify the types of the test items with validity of the evaluations process. This article explains the purpose of test specifications and illustrates how to use it to help construct the approach of open book or notes exams. The complication of the course objectives is challenging for the test designing.
21
39499
Charge Carrier Mobility Dependent Open-Circuit Voltage in Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells
Abstract:
A better understanding of the open-circuit voltage (Voc) related losses in organic solar cells (OSCs) is desirable in order to assess the photovoltaic performance of these devices. We have derived Voc as a function of charge carrier mobilities (μe and μh) for organic and hybrid solar cells by optimizing the drift-diffusion current density. The optimum Voc thus obtained depends on the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and the quasi-Fermi level of holes of the donor material. We have found that the Voc depends on the ratio of the electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobilities and when μh > μe the Voc increases. The most important loss term in the Voc arises from the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials, which will be discussed in detail in this paper.
20
60783
Comparison of Selected Behavioural Patterns of German Shepherd Puppies in Open-Field Test by Practical Assessment Report
Abstract:
Over the past 80 years, open-field method has evolved as a commonly used tool for the analysis of animal behaviour. The study was carried out using 50 kennel-reared purebred puppies of the German Shepherd dog breed. All dogs were tested in 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. For the purpose of behavioural analysis, an open-field evaluation report was designed prior to testing to ensure the most convenient, rapid, and suitable way to assess selected behavioural patterns in field conditions. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity, response to sound, and overall behaviour was monitored in the study. Correlations between measures of height, weight and chest circumference, and behavioural characteristics in the 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age were not statistically significant. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity and response to sound differed on statistically significant level between 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. Results suggest that our practical assessment report may be used as an applicable method to evaluate the suitability of service dog puppies for future working roles.
19
28838
Assessment of E-Learning Facilities in Open and Distance Learning and Information Need by Students
Abstract:
Electronic learning is increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. This approach is important in human capital development. An investigation of open distance and e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students was carried out in Jalingo, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 registered ODL students of the NOUN. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Assessment of the effectiveness of ODL facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women. A large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students in ODL compared to the youth. A high proportion of the ODL students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate ODL students was high, and large number of the students does not own a laptop computer. Inadequate e -books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities in the study areas. Inadequate computer facilities and power back up caused inconveniences and delay in administering and use of e learning facilities. To a high extent, open and distance learning students needed information on university time table and schedule of activities, availability and access to books (hard and e-books) and reference materials. The respondents emphasized that contact with course coordinators via internet will provide a better learning and academic performance.
18
125882
Identification of Clinical Characteristics from Persistent Homology Applied to Tumor Imaging
Abstract:
The use of radiomics in measuring geometric properties of tumor images such as size, surface area, and volume has been invaluable in assessing cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In addition to analyzing geometric properties, radiomics would benefit from measuring topological properties using persistent homology. Intuitively, features uncovered by persistent homology may correlate to tumor structural features. One example is necrotic cavities (corresponding to 2D topological features), which are markers of very aggressive tumors. We develop a data pipeline in R that clusters tumors images based on persistent homology is used to identify meaningful clinical distinctions between tumors and possibly new relationships not captured by established clinical categorizations. A preliminary analysis was performed on 16 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) breast tissue segments downloaded from the 'Investigation of Serial Studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging and Molecular Analysis' (I-SPY TRIAL or ISPY1) collection in The Cancer Imaging Archive. Each segment represents a patient’s breast tumor prior to treatment. The ISPY1 dataset also provided the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status data. A persistent homology matrix up to 2-dimensional features was calculated for each of the MRI segmentation. Wasserstein distances were then calculated between all pairwise tumor image persistent homology matrices to create a distance matrix for each feature dimension. Since Wasserstein distances were calculated for 0, 1, and 2-dimensional features, three hierarchal clusters were constructed. The adjusted Rand Index was used to see how well the clusters corresponded to the ER/PR/HER2 status of the tumors. Triple-negative cancers (negative status for all three receptors) significantly clustered together in the 2-dimensional features dendrogram (Adjusted Rand Index of .35, p = .031). It is known that having a triple-negative breast tumor is associated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis when compared to non-triple negative breast tumors. The aggressive tumor growth associated with triple-negative tumors may have a unique structure in an MRI segmentation, which persistent homology is able to identify. This preliminary analysis shows promising results in the use of persistent homology on tumor imaging to assess the severity of breast tumors. The next step is to apply this pipeline to other tumor segment images from The Cancer Imaging Archive at different sites such as the lung, kidney, and brain. In addition, whether other clinical parameters, such as overall survival, tumor stage, and tumor genotype data are captured well in persistent homology clusters will be assessed. If analyzing tumor MRI segments using persistent homology consistently identifies clinical relationships, this could enable clinicians to use persistent homology data as a noninvasive way to inform clinical decision making in oncology.
17
54709
Mapping of Adrenal Gland Diseases Research in Middle East Countries: A Scientometric Analysis, 2007-2013
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to map scientific research on adrenal gland diseases in the Middle East countries through the Web of Science database using scientometric analysis. Data were analyzed with Excel software; and HistCite was used for mapping of the scientific texts. In this study, from a total of 268 retrieved records, 1125 authors from 328 institutions published their texts in 138 journals. Among 17 Middle East countries, Turkey ranked first with 164 documents (61.19%), Israel ranked second with 47 documents (15.53%) and Iran came in the third place with 26 documents. Most of the publications (185 documents, 69.2%) were articles. Among the universities of the Middle East, Istanbul University had the highest science production rate (9.7%). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism had the highest TGCS (243 citations). In the scientific mapping, 7 clusters were formed based on TLCS (Total Local Citation Score) & TGCS (Total Global Citation Score). considering the study results, establishment of scientific connections and collaboration with other countries and use of publications on adrenal gland diseases from high ranking universities can help in the development of this field and promote the medical practice in this regard. Moreover, investigation of the formed clusters in relation to Congenital Hyperplasia and puberty related disorders can be research priorities for investigators.
16
3762
Research on Residential Block Fabric: A Case Study of Hangzhou West Area
Authors:
Abstract:
Residential block construction of big cities in China began in the 1950s, and four models had far-reaching influence on modern residential block in its development process, including unit compound and residential district in 1950s to 1980s, and gated community and open community in 1990s to now. Based on analysis of the four models’ fabric, the article takes residential blocks in Hangzhou west area as an example and carries on the studies from urban structure level and block special level, mainly including urban road network, land use, community function, road organization, public space and building fabric. At last, the article puts forward semi-open sub-community strategy to improve the current fabric.
15
46605
An Open Source Advertisement System
Abstract:
An online advertisement system and its implementation for the Yioop open source search engine are presented. This system supports both selling advertisements and displaying them within search results. The selling of advertisements is done using a system to auction off daily impressions for keyword searches. This is an open, ascending price auction system in which all accepted bids will receive a fraction of the auctioned day&rsquo;s impressions. New bids in our system are required to be at least one half of the sum of all previous bids ensuring the number of accepted bids is logarithmic in the total ad spend on a keyword for a day. The mechanics of creating an advertisement, attaching keywords to it, and adding it to an advertisement inventory are described. The algorithm used to go from accepted bids for a keyword to which ads are displayed at search time is also presented. We discuss properties of our system and compare it to existing auction systems and systems for selling online advertisements.
14
111177
Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon within Silt+Clay Fraction in Shrub-Encroached Rangeland Shallow Soil at the University of Limpopo Syferkuil Experimental Farm
Abstract:
Shrub-encroachment leads to a gain or loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in previously open rangelands. The stabilization mechanisms controlling the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates of shrub-encroached grassland soils are poorly understood, especially in shallow plinthic soils. In this study, physical fractionation of surface soils (0- 10 cm) collected from open and shrub-encroached grasslands was conducted to determine the distribution of SOC within macro-and- microaggregates. Soil aggregates were classified into four fractions by a wet-sieving procedure, namely >2000 (large macro-aggregates), 212-2000 (small macro-aggregates), 50-212 (microaggregates) and < 50µm (silt+clay). In both shrub-encroached and open grassland soils, SOC was greater in the silt+clay fraction. In this fraction, SOC was on average 133% greater in shrub-encroached compared to open grassland. The greater SOC within the silt+clay fraction is due to the greater surface area and thus more exchange sites for carbon absorption. This implies that the SOC physically protected within the silt+clay is stored long-term.
13
90640
Finding the Longest Common Subsequence in Normal DNA and Disease Affected Human DNA Using Self Organizing Map
Abstract:
Bioinformatics is an active research area which combines biological matter as well as computer science research. The longest common subsequence (LCSS) is one of the major challenges in various bioinformatics applications. The computation of the LCSS plays a vital role in biomedicine and also it is an essential task in DNA sequence analysis in genetics. It includes wide range of disease diagnosing steps. The objective of this proposed system is to find the longest common subsequence which presents in a normal and various disease affected human DNA sequence using Self Organizing Map (SOM) and LCSS. The human DNA sequence is collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Initially, the human DNA sequence is separated as k-mer using k-mer separation rule. Mean and median values are calculated from each separated k-mer. These calculated values are fed as input to the Self Organizing Map for the purpose of clustering. Then obtained clusters are given to the Longest Common Sub Sequence (LCSS) algorithm for finding common subsequence which presents in every clusters. It returns nx(n-1)/2 subsequence for each cluster where n is number of k-mer in a specific cluster. Experimental outcomes of this proposed system produce the possible number of longest common subsequence of normal and disease affected DNA data. Thus the proposed system will be a good initiative aid for finding disease causing sequence. Finally, performance analysis is carried out for different DNA sequences. The obtained values show that the retrieval of LCSS is done in a shorter time than the existing system.
12
25842
Improving the Global Competitiveness of SMEs by Logistics Transportation Management: Case Study Chicken Meat Supply Chain
Abstract:
The Logistics Transportation techniques, Open Vehicle Routing (OVR) is an approach toward transportation cost reduction, especially for long distance pickup and delivery nodes. The outstanding characteristic of OVR is that the route starting node and ending node are not necessary the same as in typical vehicle routing problems. This advantage enables the routing to flow continuously and the vehicle does not always return to its home base. This research aims to develop a heuristic for the open vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery under time window and loading capacity constraints to minimize the total distance. The proposed heuristic is developed based on the Insertion method, which is a simple method and suitable for the rapid calculation that allows insertion of the new additional transportation requirements along the original paths. According to the heuristic analysis, cost comparisons between the proposed heuristic and companies are using method, nearest neighbor method show that the insertion heuristic. Moreover, the proposed heuristic gave superior solutions in all types of test problems. In conclusion, the proposed heuristic can effectively and efficiently solve the open vehicle routing. The research indicates that the improvement of new transport's calculation and the open vehicle routing with "Insertion Heuristic" represent a better outcome with 34.3 percent in average. in cost savings. Moreover, the proposed heuristic gave superior solutions in all types of test problems. In conclusion, the proposed heuristic can effectively and efficiently solve the open vehicle routing.
11
134891
A Supervised Embedding and Clustering Anomaly Detection Method for Classification of Mobile Network Faults
Abstract:
Several nodes and elements of the mobile network are continuously generating different alarm logs. The most frequent alarm types are normal and do not require special attention. However, a small portion of these alarms may result in anomaly and fault. In the network operating center, the operators monitor the enormous amount of alarm logs in their dashboards to acknowledge any possible anomaly; however, due to the large volume of alarms, the high rate of miss identification is inevitable. Recently, by moving toward the full automation of telecommunication networks, machine learning techniques have come to assist operators for anomaly detection and problem identification. In this paper, we propose a Supervised Embedding and Clustering Anomaly Detection (SEMC-AD) method to identify the faulty alarm logs in a fraction of a second, reduce the operator workload and enhance the network maintenance by reducing the time for problem resolution. However, because anomalies contain a very small portion of total data, so anomaly detection would be an imbalanced classification problem and the process of identification is quite challenging. Also, the dataset has numerous categorical features with enormous different values for each one. As a result, the ordinary one hot encoding approach will produce a large number of features. To overcome the curse of dimensionality while we work with numerical data, the history of alarm logs and their labels (anomaly and normal) are used in a supervised embedding approach based on a deep neural network to extract a numerical representation of each alarm log. To examine the robustness of the embedding, the scatter plot of the two most significant principle components of the embedded alarm logs is used. The plot shows that the alarms in the anomaly group are scattered in the same neighborhood, which means the embedding vectors of the anomalies are similar. The multivariate normal Gaussian clustering method is then applied to the two most important principle components of embedded alarm logs. The different number of clusters are examined to estimate the best possible clusters for anomalies. The clusters in which the ratio of the number of anomalies to normal alarms are higher than 90 percent are labeled as anomaly groups. The new alarm log will be classified as an anomaly if the two most significant principle components of its embedded vector are classified in clusters with the label of an anomaly. Considering the values of recall and precision metrics, the performance of the proposed SEMC_AD method is 18% better than the ordinary random forest and Gradient boosting method without embedding. 99% percent of anomalies are detected by SEMC-AD method, while 86% and 81% of anomalies are detected by random forest and XGBoost, respectively. Although it seems that in the labeled datasets, the supervised classification methods may have higher performance in anomaly detection, but the results demonstrate that in our dataset with high number of categorical features, the SEMC_AD method can classify the anomalies more efficiently.
10
93746
A Spatial Approach to Model Mortality Rates
Abstract:
Human longevity has been experiencing its largest increase since the end of World War II, and modeling the mortality rates is therefore often the focus of many studies. Among all mortality models, the Lee–Carter model is the most popular approach since it is fairly easy to use and has good accuracy in predicting mortality rates (e.g., for Japan and the USA). However, empirical studies from several countries have shown that the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant in time. Many modifications of the Lee–Carter model have been proposed to deal with this problem, including adding an extra cohort effect and adding another period effect. In this study, we propose a spatial modification and use clusters to explain why the age parameters of the Lee–Carter model are not constant. In spatial analysis, clusters are areas with unusually high or low mortality rates than their neighbors, where the “location” of mortality rates is measured by age and time, that is, a 2-dimensional coordinate. We use a popular cluster detection method—Spatial scan statistics, a local statistical test based on the likelihood ratio test to evaluate where there are locations with mortality rates that cannot be described well by the Lee–Carter model. We first use computer simulation to demonstrate that the cluster effect is a possible source causing the problem of the age parameters not being constant. Next, we show that adding the cluster effect can solve the non-constant problem. We also apply the proposed approach to mortality data from Japan, France, the USA, and Taiwan. The empirical results show that our approach has better-fitting results and smaller mean absolute percentage errors than the Lee–Carter model.
9
59661
Conceptual Model for Massive Open Online Blended Courses Based on Disciplines’ Concepts Capitalization and Obstacles’ Detection
Abstract:
Since its appearance, the MOOC (massive open online course) is gaining more and more intention of the educational communities over the world. Apart from the current MOOCs design and purposes, the creators of MOOC focused on the importance of the connection and knowledge exchange between individuals in learning. In this paper, we present a conceptual model for massive open online blended courses where teachers over the world can collaborate and exchange their experience to get a common efficient content designed as a MOOC opened to their students to live a better learning experience. This model is based on disciplines&rsquo; concepts capitalization and the detection of the obstacles met by their students when faced with problem situations (exercises, projects, case studies, etc.). This detection is possible by analyzing the frequently of semantic errors committed by the students. The participation of teachers in the design of the course and the attendance by their students can guarantee an efficient and extensive participation (an important number of participants) in the course, the learners&rsquo; motivation and the evaluation issues, in the way that the teachers designing the course assess their students. Thus, the teachers review, together with their knowledge, offer a better assessment and efficient connections to their students.
8
87483
Web Proxy Detection via Bipartite Graphs and One-Mode Projections
Abstract:
With the Internet becoming the dominant channel for business and life, many IPs are increasingly masked using web proxies for illegal purposes such as propagating malware, impersonate phishing pages to steal sensitive data or redirect victims to other malicious targets. Moreover, as Internet traffic continues to grow in size and complexity, it has become an increasingly challenging task to detect the proxy service due to their dynamic update and high anonymity. In this paper, we present an approach based on behavioral graph analysis to study the behavior similarity of web proxy users. Specifically, we use bipartite graphs to model host communications from network traffic and build one-mode projections of bipartite graphs for discovering social-behavior similarity of web proxy users. Based on the similarity matrices of end-users from the derived one-mode projection graphs, we apply a simple yet effective spectral clustering algorithm to discover the inherent web proxy users behavior clusters. The web proxy URL may vary from time to time. Still, the inherent interest would not. So, based on the intuition, by dint of our private tools implemented by WebDriver, we examine whether the top URLs visited by the web proxy users are web proxies. Our experiment results based on real datasets show that the behavior clusters not only reduce the number of URLs analysis but also provide an effective way to detect the web proxies, especially for the unknown web proxies.
7
54415
In the Spirit of Open Educational Resources: Library Resources and Fashion Merchandising
Abstract:
This presentation explores the adoption of library resources to engage students in a Visual Merchandising course during the 2016 spring semester. This study was a cross-disciplinary collaboration between the Fashion Merchandising Program and the Madden Library at California State University, Fresno. The goal of the project was to explore and assess the students’ use of library resources as a part of the Affordable Learning Solutions Initiative, a California State University (CSU) Office of the Chancellor Program that enables faculty to choose and provide high-quality, free or low-cost educational materials for their students. Students were interviewed afterwards and the results were generally favorable and provided insight into how students perceive and use library resources to support their research needs. This study reveals an important step in examining how open educational resources impact student learning.
6
81052
Catalytic Thermodynamics of Nanocluster Adsorbates from Informational Statistical Mechanics
Abstract:
We use an informational statistical mechanics approach to study the catalytic thermodynamics of platinum and palladium cuboctahedral nanoclusters. Nanoclusters and their adatoms are viewed as chemical graphs with a nearest neighbor adjacency matrix. We use the Morse potential to determine bond energies between cluster atoms in a coordination type calculation. We use adsorbate energies calculated from density functional theory (DFT) to study the adatom effects on the thermodynamic quantities, which are derived from a Hamiltonian. Oxygen radical and molecular adsorbates are studied on platinum clusters and hydrogen on palladium clusters. We calculate the entropy, free energy, and total energy as the coverage of adsorbates increases from bridge and hollow sites on the surface. Thermodynamic behavior versus adatom coverage is related to the structural distribution of adatoms on the nanocluster surfaces. The thermodynamic functions are characterized using a simple adsorption model, with linear trends as the coverage of adatoms increases. The data exhibits size effects for the measured thermodynamic properties with cluster diameters between 2 and 5 nm. Entropy and enthalpy calculations of Pt-O2 compare well with previous theoretical data for Pt(111)-O2, and our Pd-H results show similar trends as experimental measurements for Pd-H2 nanoclusters. Our methods are general and may be applied to wide variety of nanocluster adsorbate systems.
5
109644
The Geographic Distribution of Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Medicine in the United States in 2018
Abstract:
Most of what is known about complementary, alternative or traditional medicine (CATM) in the United States today is known from either the National Health Interview Survey a cross-sectional survey with a few questions or from small cross-sectional or cohort studies with specific populations. The broad geographical distribution in CATM use or providers is not known. For this project, we used geospatial cluster analysis to determine if there were clusters of CATM provider by county in the US. In this analysis, we used the National Provider Index to determine the geographic distribution of providers in the US. Of the 215,769 CAMT providers 211,603 resided in the contiguous US: Acupuncturist (26,563); Art, Poetry, Music and Dance Therapist (2,752); Chiropractor (89,514); Doula/Midwife (3,535); Exercise (507); Homeopath (380); Massage Therapist (36,540); Mechanotherapist (1,888); Naprapath (146); Naturopath (4,782); Nutrition (42,036); Reflexologist (522); Religious (2,438). ESRI® spatial autocorrelation was used to determine if the geographic location of CATM providers were random or clustered. For global analysis, we used Getis-Ord General G and for Local Indicators of Spatial Associations with an Optimized Hot Spot Analysis using an alpha of 0.05. Overall, CATM providers were clustered with both low and high. With Chiropractors, focusing in the Midwest, religious providers having very small clusters in the central US, and other types of CAMT focused in the northwest and west coast, Colorado and New Mexico, the great lakes areas and Florida. We will discuss some of the implications of this study, including associations with health, economic, social, and political systems.
4
66144
Regression Approach for Optimal Purchase of Hosts Cluster in Fixed Fund for Hadoop Big Data Platform
Abstract:
Given a fixed fund, purchasing fewer hosts of higher capability or inversely more of lower capability is a must-be-made trade-off in practices for building a Hadoop big data platform. An exploratory study is presented for a Housing Big Data Platform project (HBDP), where typical big data computing is with SQL queries of aggregate, join, and space-time condition selections executed upon massive data from more than 10 million housing units. In HBDP, an empirical formula was introduced to predict the performance of host clusters potential for the intended typical big data computing, and it was shaped via a regression approach. With this empirical formula, it is easy to suggest an optimal cluster configuration. The investigation was based on a typical Hadoop computing ecosystem HDFS+Hive+Spark. A proper metric was raised to measure the performance of Hadoop clusters in HBDP, which was tested and compared with its predicted counterpart, on executing three kinds of typical SQL query tasks. Tests were conducted with respect to factors of CPU benchmark, memory size, virtual host division, and the number of element physical host in cluster. The research has been applied to practical cluster procurement for housing big data computing.
3
18089
Genomic and Proteomic Variation in Glycine Max Genotypes towards Salinity
Authors:
Abstract:
In order to investigate the influence of genetic background on salt tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max) ten soybean genotypes released/notified in India were selected. (Pusa-20, Pusa-40, Pusa-37, Pusa-16, Pusa-24, Pusa-22, BRAGG, PK-416, PK-1042, and DS-9712). The 10-day-old seedlings were subjected to 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mM NaCl for 15 days. Plant growth, leaf osmotic adjustment, and RAPD analysis were studied. In comparison to control plants, the plant growth in all genotypes was decreased by salt stress, respectively. Salt stress decreased leaf osmotic potential in all genotypes however the maximum reduction was observed in genotype Pusa-24 followed by PK-416 and Pusa-20. The difference in osmotic adjustment between all the genotypes was correlated with the concentrations of ion examined such as Na+ and the leaf proline concentration. These results suggest that the genotypic variation for salt tolerance can be partially accounted for by plant physiological measures. The genetic polymorphisms between soybean genotypes differing in response to salt stress were characterized using 25 RAPD primers. These primers generated a total of 1640 amplification products, among which 1615 were found to be polymorphic. A very high degree of polymorphism (98.30%) was observed. UPGMA cluster analysis of genetic similarity indices grouped all the genotypes into two major clusters. Intra-clustering within the two clusters precisely grouped the 10 genotypes in sub-cluster as expected from their physiological findings. Our results show that RAPD technique is a sensitive, precise and efficient tool for genomic analysis in soybean genotypes.
2
13561
Promoting Open Educational Resources (OER) in Theological/Religious Education in Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
One of the biggest challenges facing Theological/Religious Education in Nigeria is access to quality learning materials. For instance at the Trinity (Union) Theological College, Umuahia, it was difficult for lecturers to access suitable and qualitative materials for instruction especially the ones that would suit the African context and stimulate a deep rooted interest among the students. Some textbooks written by foreign authors were readily available in the School Library, but were lacking in the College bookshops for students to own copies. Even when the College was able to order some of the books from abroad, it did not usher in the needed enthusiasm expected from the students because they were either very expensive or very difficult to understand during private studies. So it became necessary to develop contextual materials which were affordable and understandable, though with little success. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)’s innovation in the development and sharing of learning resources through its Open Course ware is a welcome development and of great assistance to students. Apart from NOUN students who could easily access the materials, many others from various theological/religious institutes across the nation have benefited immensely. So, the thesis of this paper is that the promotion of open educational resources in theological/religious education in Nigeria would facilitate a better informed/equipped religious leadership, which would in turn impact its adherents for a healthier society and national development. Adopting a narrative and historical approach within the context of Nigeria’s educational system, the paper discusses: educational traditions in Nigeria; challenges facing theological/religious education in Nigeria; and benefits of open educational resources. The study goes further to making recommendations on how OER could positively influence theological/religious education in Nigeria. It is expected that theologians, religious educators, and ODL practitioners would find this work very useful.
1
84111
The Preliminary Study of the Possible Relationship between Urban Open Space System and Residents' Health Outcome
Abstract:
It is generally accepted that community residents with abundant open space have better health status on average, and thus more and more cities around the world began their pursuit of the greatest possible amount of green space within urban areas through urban planning approach. Nevertheless, only a few studies managed to provide empirical evidence regarding the actual relationship between 'providing' green space and 'improving' human health at city level. There is also lack of evidence of direct positive improvement of health by increasing the amount of green space. For urban planning professional, it is important to understand citizens’ usage behaviour towards green space as a critical evidence for future planning and design strategies. There is a research need to further investigate the amount of green space, user behaviour of green spaces and the health outcome of urban dwellers. To this end, we would like to find out other important factors for urban dwellers’ usage behaviours of green spaces. 'Average green spaces per person' is one of the National well-being Indicators in Taiwan as in many other countries. Through our preliminary research, we collected and analyzed the official data of planned open space coverages, average life expectancy, exercise frequency and obesity ratio in all cities of Taiwan. The study result indicates an interesting finding that Kaohsiung city, the second largest city in Taiwan, tells a completely different story. Citizens in Kaosiung city have more open spaces than any other city through urban planning, yet have relatively unhealthy condition in contrary. Whether it pointed out that the amount of the open spaces per person has would not direct to the health outcome. Therefore, the pre-established view which states that open spaces must have positive effects on human health should be examined more prudently. Hence, this paper intends to explore the relationship between user behaviour of open spaces and citizens’ health conditions by critically analyzing past related literature and collecting selective data from government health database in 2015. We also take Kaohsiung city, as a case study area to conduct statistical analysis first followed by questionnaire survey to gain a better understanding. Finally, we aim to feedback our findings to the current planning system in Taiwan for better health promotion urbanized areas.