The Modern Paradigm Features of Social Management Based on Postindustrial Theory
Nowadays, society is in a postindustrial/informational phase of its development. Certain changes have occurred in different parts of society life as a result of the social reality transformations due to the influence of changes in the productive forces. As a result, the personality has received autonomy and independence, as in her or his hands appeared new means of production–information, knowledge, creativity. In such a society, there is a new middle class, which is called meritocratic. It consists of personalities, who are engaged in highly intelligent, creative work; who independently pursue their own well-being and status; who are active in the economic and social spheres. At the forefront there are such qualities as independence, commitment and self-actualization. This modern, intellectual and sovereign personality is no longer in need of care. The role of management has transformed from a paternalistic to the "service", which is aimed at creating the conditions for citizens’ self-realization to meet their needs through the rendering of public services. Such society alterations motivate the need to change the key parameters of social management, which are identified in this article on the basis of the postindustrial society key features.
Post-Soviet Georgia in Visual History Analysis
Contemporary era and society are called postindustrial era and postindustrial society and/or informational era and informational society. Today science intends to define concept of information and comprehend informations role and function in contemporary society. Organization of social environment and governance of public processes on the base of information and tools of communication are main characteristics of informational era. This was defined by technological changes which were accomplished in culture in the second half of twentieth century.
Today Georgia as an independent state needs to create an informational discourse of the country and therefore it is very important to study political and social cases which accomplished in the country after collapse of the Soviet Union because they start to define the present and the future of the country.
The purpose of this study is to analyze political cases of the latest history of Georgia in terms of culture and information, concretely to elucidate which political cases transformed social life of post Soviet Georgia most of all who accomplished these political cases which visual and verbal messages was each political case spread with.
The research is conducted on the base of interview. Participants of the interview are people of various specializations. Their professional activity is related to reflections on culture and theme of visual communication. They are philosophers sociologists a journalist media researcher a politologist a painter. The participants of the interview enumerated political cases and characterized them separately.
Every expert thinks that declaration of independence of Georgia is the most important fact among all facts which were implemented in Georgia after collapse of the Soviet Union. The research revealed important social and political cases. Most of the cases are related to independence and territorial integrity of the state. Presidents of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia Eduard Shevardnadze Mikheil Saakashvili Catholocos-Patriarch of All Georgia, the Archbishop of Mtskheta Tbilisi and Metropolitan bishop of Bichvinta and Tskhum Abkhazia Ilia II, businessman Bidzina Ivanishvili assumed dominating roles in cases. Verbal narrative of the cases accomplished during Zviad Gamsakhurdia presidential term expresses national freedom and visual part of cases of the same period expresses ruin of social-political structure. Verbal narrative of the cases accomplished during Eduard Sevardnadze presidential term expresses Free State and stability and reestablishment of Georgias political function in international relations and visual part of cases of the same period describes the most important moment of his presidential term and Eduard Shevardnadzes face appears too. Verbal narrative of the cases accomplished during Mikheil Saakashvilis presidential term expresses social renewal and visual part of cases of the same period describes August war and Mikheil Saakashvilis face appears too.
The results of the study also reveal other details of visual verbal narrative of political and social cases of post Soviet Georgia. This gives a chance to start further reflection.
The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions
This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.
Building Knowledge Society: The Imperative Role of Library and Information Centres (LICs) in Developing Countries
A critical examination of the emerging knowledge society reveals that library and information centres have a significant role to play in the building of knowledge society. The major highlights of this paper include: the conceptual analysis of knowledge society, overview of library and information centres in developing countries, role of libraries and information centre in building up of knowledge society, library and information professionals as factor in building knowledge, challenges faced by Library and Information Centres (LICs) in building knowledge society, strategies for building knowledge society. The position of this paper is that in spite of the influx of varied information and communication technologies in the information industry which is the driving force of knowledge society, there is a dire need for Libraries and Information Centres (LIC) to contribute positively to the migration and transition processes from the information society to knowledge-based society.
Transformation of the Postindustrial City - The Conversion of a Smelter in Restaurant with a Panoramic Views
In Ostrava there are a lot of former post-industrial areas and areas that have gradually through conversions and their subsequent reuse. One of the largest is the national cultural monument Lower Vítkovice area where there is a large complex transformation of the former iron production. Industrial heritage today visited by tourists for entertainment, culture, history, sports and other activities. This is a unique example of reuse of technical monuments and introduction of new life into the historic area. The main task of not only find the right function and use, in terms of re integration into city life and finding a balance between history and current lifestyle, looking at the history of the area and its technical condition before reconstruction. It is not only very expensive but also time consuming. Transformations industrial monument is the result of a dialogue architect, the idea of the investor and expert opinion heritage institute.
Technoscience in the Information Society
This paper focuses on the Technoscience phenomenon and its role in modern society. It gives a review of the latest research on Technoscience. Based on the works of Paul Forman, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, Bruno Latour, Maria Caramez Carlotto and others, the authors consider the concept of Technoscience, its specific character and prospects of its development.
Child Marriage and the Law in Nigeria
Children are the most vulnerable members of the society. The child is a foundation of the society and he/she assures its continuity. Thus, the survival, continuity and the standard of development of human society depends upon the protection, preservation, nurture and development of the child. In other words, the rights of a child must be protected and guaranteed for the assurance of a healthy society. The law is an instrument of social change in any society as well as a potent weapon to combat crime, achieve justice for the people and protect their rights. In Nigeria, child marriage still occurs, though its prevalence varies from one region to another. This paper shall Centre on child rights under the law in Nigeria, child marriage and its impact on the child, obstacles in eliminating child marriages and measures that have been adopted as well as the role of the law and its effect in deterring child marriage in Nigeria.
Role of Monks in Civil Society and Democracy in Thailand
This study is an analysis of the roles of the Thai monks i.e. the Sangha in the development of the civil society, democracy and politics in Thailand. This study may be significant for determining the relation of Buddhism and its Sangha to the Thai society and polity. This study is based upon the documentary research from the sources of Pali Scripture, historical documents, and other publications and related matter, including with the interviews concerning political thought and role of high senior monk, scholarly monks and Dhamma-espousing monk who are well known and accepted by people in general for their political role in contemporary Thai society.
Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries
Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.
Strengthening Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in ASEAN Community: The Case of Nahdlatul Ulama
The establishment of ASEAN Community 2015 was proposed to integrate concretely, in terms of regional cooperation. All of the members of the ASEAN itself compete to prepare themselves in the actual place. Regarding to the Bali Concord III, subsequently ASEAN Community was categorized by three elements, such as (1) ASEAN Political-security Community (APC), (2) ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), and (3) ASEAN Socio-cultural Community (ASC). Preparing on three components above, civil society organizations must be prioritized as the main body, which ensure grassroots society itself obtain maximum benefits or advantage of these declarations. NU, as the representative of mass-based organizations, was choose, due to the highly influences toward Moslem rural-traditionalist, which has the largest followers in Indonesia. This paper was aimed to explain the contribution of NU in developing and empowering society. Furthermore, it will use historical perspective, by looking for related data, which contain basic- knowledge and explanatory facts in literary desk. It would elaborate in NU’s urgency for promoting civil societies roles in ASEAN Community. In the ends, this paper was proposed to measure to what extend NU’s roles in promoting the Civil Society in Indonesia and its potential capability to get involved at the upcoming regional communities. Hopefully, the attempt to strengthen Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), like NU can push faster in creating good governance and democracy, toward social configurations amongst state, market and civil society.
Society and Cinema in Iran
There is no doubt that ‘Art’ is a social phenomena and cinema is the most social kind of art. Hence, it’s clear that we can analyze the relation’s of cinema and art from different aspects. In this paper sociological cinema will be investigated which, is a subdivision of sociological art. This term will be discussed by two main approaches. One of these approaches is focused on the effects of cinema on the society, which is known as “Effects Theory” and the second one, which is dealing with the reflection of social issues in cinema is called ” Reflection Theory”.
"Reflect theory" approach, unlike "Effects theory" is considering movies as documents, in which social life is reflected, and by analyzing them, the changes and tendencies of a society are understood.
Criticizing these approaches to cinema and society doesn’t mean that they are not real. Conversely, it proves the fact that for better understanding of cinema and society’s relation, more complicated models are required, which should consider two aspects. First, they should be bilinear and they should provide a dynamic and active relation between cinema and society, as for the current concept social life and cinema have bi-linear effects on each other, and that’s how they fit in a dialectic and dynamic process. Second, it should pay attention to the role of inductor elements such as small social institutions, marketing, advertisements, cultural pattern, art’s genres and popular cinema in society.
In the current study, image of middle class in cinema of Iran and changing the role of women in cinema and society which were two bold issue that cinema and society faced since 1979 revolution till 80s are analyzed.
Films as an artwork on one hand, are reflections of social changes and with their effects on the society on the other hand, are trying to speed up the trends of these changes. Cinema by the illustration of changes in ideologies and approaches in exaggerated ways and through it’s normalizing functions, is preparing the audiences and public opinions for the acceptance of these changes. Consequently, audience takes effect from this process, which is a bi-linear and interactive process.
The Foundation of Islamic Center of Thailand Made Valuable Contributions to Thai Society
The foundation of the Islamic center of Thailand plays a vital role in order to bring diverse Muslim communities in a common place. The center itself is a bridge between Muslims in Thailand and Islamic world. The operational task of the center runs by many organizations through the funds and funds use for different activities for empowerment of Thai society in general and Muslim community in particular. This paper aims to focus on the role of the foundation of the Islamic center of Thailand to the Thai society. This paper also finds out the historical background of the center in term of building structure and design and functions.
Comparative Study of Globalization and Homogenous Society: South Korea and Greek Society Reaction to Foreign Culture
The development of current technology is simplifying globalization process. An easier globalization process and mobilization are increasing interactions among individuals and societies in different countries. It is also easier for foreign culture to enter a country and create changes to the society. Differences brought by foreign culture will most likely affect any society. It will be easier for heterogeneous society to accept new culture, considering that they have various cultures, and they are used to differences. So it will be easier for a heterogeneous society to accept new culture as long as the culture is not contrary to their essential values. However for a homogenous society, where they have only one language and culture, it will take a longer adjustment time to fully accept the new culture. There will be a tendency for homogenous societies to react in a more negative way to new culture. Greece and South Korea are the examples for homogeneous societies. Greece, a destination country for immigrants, is having a hard time adjusting themselves to accept many immigrants with many cultures. There are various discrimination cases of immigrants in Greece, when the Greek society cannot fully accept the new culture brought by immigrants. South Korea, a newly popular country with K-pop and K-dramas, is attracting people from all over the world to come to South Korea. However a homogenous South Korean society is also having a hard time to fully accept foreign cultures, resulting in many discrimination cases based on race and culture in South Korea. With a qualitative method through a case study and literature review, this article will discuss about Greek and South Korean societies reaction to new cultures as an effect of globalization.
Descriptive Analysis of the Relationship between State and Civil Society in Hegel's Political Thought
Civil society is one of the most important concepts of the twentieth century and even so far. Modern and postmodern thinkers have provided different definitions of civil society. Of course, the concept of civil society has undergone many changes over time. The relationship between government and civil society is one of the relationships that attracted the attention of many contemporary thinkers. Hegel, the thinker we discussed in this article also explores the relationship between these concepts and emphasizing the dialectical method, he has drawn three lines between family, state, and civil society. In Hegel's view, the creation of civil society will lead to a reduction of social conflict and increased social cohesion. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. This paper, which uses a descriptive-analytic method to examine Hegel's dialectical theory of civil society, after examining the relationship between the family and the state and finding the concept of civil society as the interface and the interconnected circle of these two, investigates tripartite economic, legal, and pluralistic systems. In this article, after examining the concepts of the market, the right and duty, the individual interests and the development of the exchange economy, Hegel's view is to examine the concept of freedom and its relation with civil society. The results of this survey show that, in Hegel's thought, the separation between the political system and the social system is a natural and necessary thing. In Hegel's view, because of those who are in society, they have selfish features; the community is in tension and contradiction. Therefore, the social realms within which conflicts emerge must be identified and controlled by specific mechanisms. It can also be concluded that the government can act to reduce social conflicts by legislating, using force or forming trade unions. The bottom line is that Hegel wants to reconcile between the individual, the state and civil society and it is not possible to rely on ethics.
Gender Differences in E-Society: The Case of Slovenia
The ever-increasing presence and use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences the different social relationships of today's society. Gender differences are especially important from the viewpoint of modern society since ICT can either deepen the existing inequalities or diminish them. In a developed Western world, gender equality has been a well-focused area for decades in many parts of society including education, employment or politics and has led to a decrease in the inequality of women and men in these and other areas. The area of digital equality, or inequality for that matter, is one of the areas where gender differences still exist in many countries of the world. The research presented in this paper focuses on Slovenia, one of the smallest EU member states, being an average achiever in the area of e-society according to the many different European benchmarking indexes. On the other hand, Slovenia is working in an alignment with many European gender equality guidelines and showing good results. The results of our research are based on the analysis of survey data from 2014 to 2017 dealing with Slovenian citizens and their households and the use of ICT. Considering gender issues, the synthesis showed that cultural differences influence some measured ICT indicators but on the other hand the differences are low and only sometimes statistically significant.
Preparedness of the Mae Hong Son Province for the Aging Society
This survey study aims 1) to investigate the preparation of Mae Hong Son people for entering into the aging society 2) to study awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. The samples used in this study were people aged 55-60 years in Mae Hong Province. Located at Khun Yuam Sub district, Khun Yuam District, Pang Ma Pha Sub district, Pang Ma Pha District, Thung Yao Sub district, Pai District, Mae ka Tuan Sub district, Sob Moei District, Mae Sariang Sub district, Mae Sariang District, Mae Tho Sub district, Mae La Noi District. And Huai Pha Sub district, Muang Mae Hong District. The data were collected from 1,088 people by Stratified sampling Method. The instrument used in this study were 36 items of questionnaire that contains three parts: 1) Sample’s general information 2) The Interview of Mae Hong Son people’s preparation before entering aging society. 3) The Interview about preparedness of health for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. Then analyzed the data by using percentage and standard deviation. The research found that Mae Hong Son people are preparing for an aging society as followed; psychological, residence, physical health, careers and leisure time on a large scale with an average of 3.81 (SD=0.88), 3.66 (SD=0.99), 3.53(SD=1.04) and 3.51(SD=0.89), respectively. However finances and saving were prepared on moderate scale with an average of 2.84(SD=0.89) and in the awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization were moderate with an average of 2.99 (SD=1.07).
Child Mental Abuse: An Unseen Scar
Future of society is built on the foundations built by the parents of today and how they raise their children. Strong foundations are made by accepting environments, good morals, and sound educations. Child abuse is a harm that immediately corrupts a child and everything that could do for society. Every child is a segment of modern society and future society, every child corrupted is a segment of society corrupted. Physical abuse is a clear abuse that leaves bruises and can traumatize a child for life, it can leave scars but effect a child’s mind for life. Another form of abuse, however, still impacts a child for life but with no scars to be seen. Child mental abuse directly targets children’s minds to control, manipulate, and belittle them. It becomes close to impossible to escape as there is no clear law defining mental abuse, the parent manipulates the child to stay quiet, and finally the child must come to terms that there parent is harming them. Society does not react to mental and physical abuse in the same manner. In a society that works to protect it future and it children, mental abuse is given a strange lack of attention. In order to protect children, all forms of abuse must be treated and given attention to. Mental abuse comes in many forms and can be extremely hard to spot, unlike physical abuse, but can still lead to the trauma other abuse can cause. While no abuse is worse than others, mental abuse should not be treated like it is nonexistent.
Aesthetic and Social Vision in Abubakar Gimba’s a Toast in the Cemetery
Being the prolific writer that he is, Gimba’s collection of Short Stories, A Toast in the Cemetery, brings out the themes of decay and corruption in the urban setting through the use of images, symbols, setting and character. Gimba seeks through these media to reveal the decay and corruption in the society. Gimba uses aesthetics to convey his message, thus making a call for change in the fabrics of society.
The Effects of Logistical Centers Realization on Society and Economy
Presently it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of passenger and freight transport. Increasing performance of road freight have been a negative impact to environment and society. It is therefore necessary to increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport, which is more environmentally friendly. The study describe the effectiveness of logistical centers realization for companies and society and research how the partial internalization of external costs reflected in the efficient use of these centers and increase the competitiveness of intermodal transport to road freight. In our research, we use the method of comparative analysis and market research to describe the advantages of logistic centers for their users as well as for society as a whole. Method normal costing is used for calculation infrastructure and total costs, method of conversion costing for determine the external costs. We modelling of total society costs for road freight transport and inter modal transport chain (we assumed that most of the traffic is carried by rail) with different loading schemes for condition in the Slovak Republic. Our research has shown that higher utilization of inter modal transport chain do good not only for society, but for companies providing freight services too. Increase in use of inter modal transport chain can bring many benefits to society that do not bring direct immediate financial return. They often bring the multiplier effects, such as greater use of environmentally friendly transport mode and reduce the total society costs.
Counter-Terrorism and Civil Society in Nigeria
Since 2009, the Nigerian Government has established diverse counter-terrorism legislations and practices in response terrorism in North Eastern part of the country. However, these measures have hampered not only the ability of civil society organizations to sustain the autonomous spaces that define/locate them at the intersection between the state and public but also the balance between freedom and security. Hence, this study examines the various elements associated with the interface between the counter terrorism security framework of the government and the capacity of civil society organizations to carry out their mandates in Nigeria. In order to achieve this, the survey research of the ex-post facto type will be adopted using the multi-stage sampling technique. A total of two hundred (200) copies of questionnaire will be administered to members of the civil society organizations and 24 In-Depth Interviews (IDI) will be conducted for officials of security agencies, Ministry of Defence and operators of civil society organizations. Fifty respondents will be drawn from each civil society organisations in the areas of humanitarian assistance, human rights Advocacy, development-oriented, peace-building. Moreover, 24 interviewees drawn from the key members of the security agencies (6), Ministry of Defence (6) and 12 operators of civil society organizations-three respondents each will represent the four civil society organizations mentioned above. Also, secondary data will be used to complement In-depth Interview (IDI) sessions. All collected data will be coded and analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and simple percentage in the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Content analysis will be used for the In-depth interview and secondary data.
Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society
In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.
The Representation of J. D. Salinger’s Views on Changes in American Society in the 1940s in The Catcher in the Rye
The objectives of this study aim to analyze both the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye in terms of ideological concepts and narrative techniques which influence the construction of the representation and the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s. This area of study might concern two theories: namely, a theory of representation and narratology. In addition, this research is intended to answer the following three questions. Firstly, how is the production of meaning through language in The Catcher in the Rye constructed? Secondly, what are J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s? Lastly, how is the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views? The findings showed that the protagonist’s views, J. D. Salinger’s views, and changes in American society in the 1940s are obviously interrelated. The production of meaning which is the representation of the protagonist’s views was constructed of narrative techniques. J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s were the same antisocial perspectives as Holden Caulfield’s which are phoniness, alienation and meltdown.
Change in Value System: The Way Forward for Africa
Corruption is a ‘monster’ that can consume a whole nation, continent and even the world if it is not destroyed while it is still immature; It grows in the mind of the people, takes over their thinking and guides their decision-making process. Corruption snowballs into socio-economic catastrophe that might be difficult to deal with. Corruption which is a disease of the mind can be alleviated in Africa and the world at large by transforming a Corruption-Prone Mind to a Corruption-Immune Mind and to achieve this, we have to change our value system because the use of anti-graft agencies alone is not enough. Therefore, we have to fight corruption from the inside and the outside. Value System is the principle of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group; the reviewing and reordering of our value system is the solution to the problem of corruption as proposed by this research because the African society has become a ‘Money and Power Driven Society’ where the ‘I am worth concept’ which is a problematic concept has created an ‘Aggressive Society’ with grasping and money-grabbing individuals. We place more priority on money and the display of opulence. Hence, this has led to a ‘Triangular Society’ where minority is lavishing in plenty and majority is gasping for little. The get rich quick syndrome, the ethnicity syndrome, weakened educational system are signs of the prevalence of corruption in Africa This research has analyzed role and impact of the change in our value system in the fight against corruption in Africa and has therefore proposed the change in our value system as the way forward in the fight against corruption in Africa.
Pali-Sanskrit Terms and Their Uses in Reflecting Political Society of Thailand
Through analysis of the Pali-Sanskrit (PL-SKT) terms and their uses in reflecting political society of Thailand, the objectives of this study were to explore PL-SKT word formation and its semantic changes employed in the political society of Thailand and to explore the political reflection of Thai society through their uses. Conceptual framework of this study consists of (1) use of PL-SKT word formation namely, primary derivative (Kitaka), secondary derivative (Tathita), compound (Samasa) and prefix (Upasagga), (2) semantic changes namely; widening, narrowing and transferring of meaning, and (3) political reflection of Thai society. Qualitative method was employed in this study and data were collected from Thai Newspapers. It was found that there were uses of the four kinds of word formation in formatting the new political terms concerned namely, primary derivative, secondary derivative, compound and prefix leading by compound through the following three semantic changes; widening, narrowing and transferring, in order to make clear in understanding. Furthermore, PL-SKT terms were employed in reflecting Thai politics caused by democratic conflicts through the bureaucracy, plutocracy, businessocracy and juristocracy respectively. Later, there have been political business groups and their corruption problems in political society of Thailand.
Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014
The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.
A Sustainable Society and Its Order Principles: Implications of Common Grace and the Man as the Image of God
The discussion on the social sustainability in existing literature is limited to two-dimension epistemology space with only two elements: the human and nature. Using the revelation of the Bible God, the paper adds a moral component to the two-dimension space. With the new variable being introduced, the authors formulate a to three-dimension epistemology space and discuss its implications. Based on the space, the authors explore the hierarchical structure of order principles for a sustainable society. The social order principle system hierarchically consists of three principles: moral, relational, and rational. The justification of every principle is analyzed briefly. The paper concluded that all these order principles are necessary assurance of building a sustainable society.
Adult and Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Economic Development in the 21st Century
The concept ‘lifelong learning’ gained prominence in educational discourse as a fundamental right of human being. The adults in the society are affected by the day-to-day economic trends. This challenge may present their survival if the educational system is not made profitable and appetitive sector to ensure the success of knowledge-based global economy of the 21st century. Hence, this paper is aimed at a lifelong learning approach to significantly shape the global economic policies in the name of emancipation of adults in the society. It examined the strategies for promoting lifelong learning in contemporary society. However, this paper concludes that adults in a learning society can adequately survive the harsh economic measures being experienced in developing nations like Nigeria if lifelong learning is vigorously pursued and implemented to pave a smooth way for a sustainable economic development.
The World View of Tere Liye in Negeri Para Bedebah an Analysis of Genetic Structuralism Lucien Goldmann
Negeri Para Bedebah is known as one of the works of Tere Liye, an Indonesia author. In the literary works, the fiction as always tries to reflect the reality of the society where the author or the social groups lived in. The essential or nature of society is generally a reality while literary work is fiction and both of them are social fact. Negeri Para Bedebah is a novel fiction which is a social fact and which holds an important role in reality. It is more likely as the representation of social, economy and politic aspects in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to reveal the world view of Tere Liye throughout novel Negeri Para Bedebah. By analyzing the object using genetic structuralism Lucien Goldmann which chiefly focuses on world view, it is stated that the literary work is an structure and it has homology with the structure in society. The structure of literary work is not chiefly homolog to the structure of society but homolog to the world view which is growing and developing inside the society. The methodological research used in this paper is a dialectic method which focuses on the starting and ending points lied in the literary text by paying attention to the coherent meanings. The result of this study is that Tere Liye shows us his world view about the structure of the society where he is living in, but one is an imaginative form of the world and the homology to the reality itself.
Neo-Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014
The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.
The Motivation of Israeli Arab Students to Study Education and Society at Multicultural College
This study examined what motivated Israeli Arab students to choose to study for a degree in education and society and the influence of this academic choice on them while they were studying. The study follows the qualitative paradigm of data collection and analysis, in a case study of a homogeneous group of Arab students in a Jewish multicultural academic institution. 33 students underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Findings show that the choice stemmed from a desire to lead social change within their own society; to imitate an educational role-model and to realize a dream of higher education. Among the female students, this field suits the role of the woman in Arab society. The interviewees claimed that the influence of their studies was that they felt more openness towards others and those who are different; they felt pride and self-confidence in their abilities, and the women mentioned that they felt empowered.
The Role of Libraries in the Context of Indian Knowledge Based Society
We are living in the information age. Information is not only important to an individual but also to researchers, scientists, academicians and all others who are doing work in their respective fields. The 21st century which is also known as the electronic era has brought several changes in the mechanism of the libraries in their working environment. In the present scenario, acquisition of information resources and implementation of new strategies have brought a revolution in the library’s structures and their principles. In the digital era, the role of the library has become important as new information is coming at every minute. The knowledge society wants to seek information at their desk. The libraries are managing electronic services and web-based information sources constantly in a democratic way. The basic objective of every library is to save the time of user which is based on the quality and user-orientation of services. With the advancement of information communication and technology, the libraries should pay more devotion to the development trends of the information society that would help to adjust their development strategies and information needs of the knowledge society. The knowledge-based society demands to re-define the position and objectives of all the institutions which work with information, knowledge, and culture. The situation is the era of digital India is changing at a fast speed. Everyone wants information 24x7 and libraries have been recognized as one of the key elements for open access to information, which is crucial not only to individual but also to democratic knowledge-based information society. Libraries are especially important now a day the whole concept of education is focusing more and more independent e-learning and their acting. The citizens of India must be able to find and use the relevant information. Here we can see libraries enter the stage: The essential features of libraries are to acquire, organize, store and retrieve for use and preserve publicly available material irrespective of the print as well as non-print form in which it is packaged in such a way that, when it is needed, it can be found and put to use.
Gender and Change of Socio-Cultural Behavior: A Case Study of Sarangkot VDC of Kaski District
As a consequence of being a patrimonial society, most of the Nepalese women work inside the house and take care their children. Men are always regarded to be responsible for managing fund to fulfill the family requirement. Outgoing men of 25-35 for employment in foreign country is a common practice. In the absence of man, women aged of 20-45 have to be active in society. The responsibility of women is not only looking after inside the house but also leading the society. This study analysis gender aspect of household work and involvement in the society. This study shows that women are leading 56% different organizations in the society where 51% women spend more than 54% time in community development work. The involvement of man in the house work has significantly increased. The women leadership has succeeded to show the transparency in all the community development activities. It shows a model of social harmony, solidarity, and unity in the Sarankot Village Development Committee. Social behavior change towards women is a milestone of sustainable community development. This study recommends that the equal participation is essential to sustain community development.
Sustainability Education among the Malaysian Media
This paper provides a discussion of the importance of sustainability education among the Malaysian media. Without doubt, media play a crucial role in promoting the sustainable or so called “eco-system” society for a better future. Since 2002, the role of media as one of the vital stakeholders particularly in educating the society in three main areas of sustainable education including on environment, economy and society has been clearly highlights on the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) that was held in Johannesburg. In this paper, six media practitioners from two local Malaysia newspapers organization were interviewed by the researcher in order to identify their understanding about sustainability education; their perception about the pivotal role in sustainability education and the challenges faced by them in the process of educating society about sustainability issues. The findings of this study showed that most of Malaysian media practitioners have displayed clear understanding about sustainability education and they also realize their huge responsibility for not only informing but also educating society in having a sustainable lifestyle. The ultimate challenge in sustainability education faced by the media is to make the public really understand the importance of sustainable lifestyle. Overall, from this study, it is hoped to provide more possible direction in sustainability education not only among the Malaysian media but also all media in the entire world, particularly the developing and Southeast Asian countries.
What are the Factors Underlying the Differences between Young Saudi Women in Traditional Families that Choose to Conform to the Society Norms, and Young Saudi Women who do not Conform?
This research suggests that women in traditional families of Saudi Arabia are divided into two groups, the one who conform to the society and the new type of women that has been emerged due to the changing and development of the culture, who do not want to conform to the rules. The factors underlying the differences were explored by using a test and an interview. That concluded some of the main factors that were a real effect of why some women still want to follow the society and traditional rules, and other want to break free.
The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children
The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.
Realization of Sustainable Urban Society by Personal Electric Transporter and Natural Energy
In regards to the energy sector in the modern period, two points were raised. First is a vast and growing energy demand, and second is an environmental impact associated with it. The enormous consumption of fossil fuel to the mobile unit is leading to its rapid depletion. Nuclear power is not the only problem. A modal shift that utilizes personal transporters and independent power, in order to realize a sustainable society, is very effective. The paper proposes that the world will continue to work on this. Energy of the future society, innovation in battery technology and the use of natural energy is a big key. And it is also necessary in order to save on energy consumption.
Social Media's Roles in the Change of Vietnamese Society: Emerging Public Sphere for Citizens
The Internet in Vietnam has developed significantly over the last 20 years and made impressive advances, permeating into every part of daily life, changing people's habits as well as the way people's communication. Under this situation, social media have become useful tools for the citizen to get and share information. About 10 years ago, most Vietnamese people got the information through state media, but thanks to the development of the Internet, nowadays, social media have been giving them rich sources of information at any area of society. By using case study research methods, documentary research method and in-depth interviews conducted with social media users, NGO activists, and Vietnamese scholars in 2017, the paper found that social media has been bringing a cyber public sphere to whom wish to discuss social and political issues. And, more importantly, it gives them a chance to connect with the government and policy makers quickly and effectively. Moreover, people use social media to supervise activities in society to prevent social evils and corruption in Vietnam. However, besides these positive points, people also have to cope with the rising situation of fake news which causing consequences for the society, such as pulling off crimes or cheating money and others. The paper concluded that social media plays important roles in the change of Vietnamese society, giving citizens a cyber public sphere unrestrictedly to discuss social and political issues but also bringing many bad risks to citizens.
Socializing Young Females towards Sports
Sports are considered as the very prominent social institution in almost every society because it reflects the mores, values, and general culture of a society. Sports activity tend to pave the foundation for learning acceptable values and beliefs and for acquiring desirable character traits such as self-discipline, sportsmanship, and an appreciation for hard work, fairness, self-respect, leadership, followership, justice, perseverance, competition, and goal attainment. The present study focuses on ideal ways of socializing youngsters into sports. Influences of some socializing agents (e.g. family, school, community) are reviewed and suggestions made as to how these socializing agents can be oriented and made effective in carrying out functional processes toward target ends.
Identity Crisis and Class Difference in Charles Dickens' 'Great Expectations'
In Victorian era, the society had been surrounded by extreme class ranking in order to identify the people of the classes and to intensify power relationships due to the growth of industry in Charles Dickens's (1812-1870) Great Expectations (2003) in which he illustrates the clash and dichotomy in the 19th century London. The classes in Victorian period have socially divided the population into two parts, the lower and the upper class of the community. In such a panopticon society, the major character Pip was the best example of the working class who was under the domination of violence, malice, and abuse of Miss Havisham as a member of the ruling class in order to take revenge on her failures. The conflict and disunity represented in vindictiveness and the sense of revenge applied by Miss Havisham against his victim Pip, made him experience alienation and eventually suffer from identity crisis. This paper considers New Historicism based on the theories of the French critic Michel Foucault (1926-1984). The social concept, panopticism, was called after the panopticon society, basically elaborated by Foucault in his book Discipline and Punish (1975) and he considers the panopticon as a sign of punitive community of surveillance. This paper evaluates the problems of a dual society to show that the people of the lower class are under the domination of capitalist society.
Continuity and Changes on Traditional Puppetry in Java: The Existences of Wayang Hip Hop
Wayang is a traditional puppet show originated from Java. This traditional art is characterized by distinctive Hinduism influence. Wayang reflects the social life of the Javanese society. It contains Javanese philosophy, myths, magical stories, and religion, as well as educational media and transmission for noble values of Javanese society conveyed through the story. Nowadays, the performance of wayang has faced a new challenge to maintain its existence in the public life of Javanese society. Modernity has penetrated into every shape of culture. Many people consider traditional culture as old fashioned, particularly the young generation. That is one of the reasons why many people have left traditional culture. For maintaining the existence of wayang, a new art called ‘wayang hip hop’ has arisen. Wayang hip hop seeks to modify wayang show into a more modern form, but without removing any principles and main functions of wayang art. This article will discuss theoretically the changes and traditional continuity in wayang hip hop based on a literature review and qualitative approaches. Wayang hip hop uses hip-hop music as the background music in the show. It will discuss about the impact that comes with the existential strengthening of wayang hip hop especially among the Javanese society and discuss the opportunities that arise regarding the function of wayang hip-hop as a medium of education, social criticism, and cultural revitalization of the Javanese society.
Maintaining Discipline in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria
Discipline is an issue that tends to undermine the provision of quality education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This is because the overall goals of tertiary institutions, as enunciated in the National Policy of Education, can hardly be achieved by all the stakeholders without strict conformity and adherence to the rules and regulations and the ideals of the entire society. The adherence is essential for the general welfare of the society. This paper critically X-rayed the causes of indiscipline in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Such courses include laxity in home control and parental supervision, school, teacher and societal factors as well as government influence. The paper recommended among others such strategies as enculturation, acculturation as well as the acquisition of a certain number of generic skills for dealing with discipline and ethical issues in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice
The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.
The Contribution of Woman Towards Social Development: A Case of Saudi Arabia
The study has contributed to determine the degree to which the women of Saudi Arabia play an imperative role in the developmental processes. This research provided a twofold objective to motivate Saudi females to take part in the development of society. The quantitative design has been implied for assessing outcomes through descriptive statistics techniques. The data has been analyzed by regression analysis. The outcomes of the study showed that when women were provided with health and educational necessities and adequate opportunities, they were able to contribute effectively in achieving desired developmental objectives for the nation. Saudi women constitute approximately half of the society; thus, they are equally provided health and justice rights. It has been concluded through the results of the study that the nature of Saudi society, customs, traditions, and beliefs affect the role played by women of Saudi Arabia. This study examines the tangible changes that comprised all aspects of life due to international exposure.
Effectiveness of Public Health Laws and Study of Social Aspects: With Special Reference to India
Health is one of the basic requirements of human being. And today India is facing a major degradation of health at every age group. As society evolves and flourishes, there are different types of rules, norms, standards which are required to control the conduct of the human being for its well-being and growth. Right to health is one of those aspects that can be counted, discovered and examined under the purview of constitutional provisions of India. The condition of health is at downfall despite the fact that there are several policies framed by the government. There is an urgent call for rigid public health laws to ensure safe and disease free society. The effectiveness of health law has to be examined by keeping in mind that it is hampering growth and economy and society establishment. Health in any society is a main social aspect as it plays a major role for economic development. The multidimensional approach to determine it is by discussing i) rational selection and use of medicines ii) sustainable adequate financing iii) affordable prices iv)reliable health and supply systems.
A Detailed Study of Sexism in Mizo Language
Mizo is a language spoken by the natives of Mizoram in North-East India. The Mizo society is a patriarchal society and hence is encumbered with trails of sexism in its language. Sexist language expresses discrimination on the basis of gender. While women are primarily affected, it is not however limited to just the female gender. This paper focuses on the sexist language that reflects the discrimination of women in the male-dominated, male-centered society of the Mizo. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize with details, sexism that can be found in three aspects of language: in the naming of animate and inanimate objects or words in general, in the idioms and phrases and proverbs. This study will also take into account the gender neutral terms that are in use in the language.
The Imperative of Adult Education in the Knowledge Society
Adult Education is a multi and interdisciplinary in nature that cut across different fields of study which includes education, social sciences, engineering even information technologies that dominate the contemporary world among others. In the past, Adult Education has been used as an instrument of civilization by teaching people how to read and write as well as earning a better living. The present world has witnessed a transition from industrial age to information age which is also known as knowledge society needs Adult Education for knowledge acquisition and update of existing knowledge. An individual needs Adult Education in either of its various forms (on-the-job-training, in-service training, extramural classes, vocational education, continuing education among others) in order to develop towards the information society trends; this is because Adult Education is a process of transforming an individual through acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge for personal as well as societal development. Evidence abounds in the literature that Adult Education has not only assisted people in the medieval period but still assisting people in this modern society in changing and transforming their lives for a better living. This study, therefore, raised a salient question that with different ideas and innovations brought by the contemporary world, is Adult Education relevant? It is on this basis that this study intends to examine the relevance of Adult Education in the past and present in order to determine its future relevance.
Ethic Society of Tengger Tribe in Indonesia as a Nation Strength to Make Good Character to Advance Country
Indonesia is a multicultural society. A wide variety of arts and culture spread throughout in all of part of Indonesia with natural appearance will cause the social behavior differentiation. Similarly, with Tengger people's lives also have different social behaviors that distinguish them from other ethnic groups spread across the Indonesian archipelago. Tengger tribe has an appropriate ethic to build nation character. If all the people of Indonesia who heterogeneous and multicultural can understand, and follow the example of ethical behavior of Tengger tribe, it will be a force in the development of the character of the nation in this modern and globalization era.
Power Relation, Symbolic Rules and the Position of Belis in the Habitus of the East Nusa Tenggara Society’s Customary Marriage
This study employs sociological-ethnographic basic method and the cultural studies paradigm as the approach in understanding the habitus within the customary marriage of the East Nusa Tenggara society who require belis as a bride-price. The conceptual basis underlying the application of habitus theory and symbolic power in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) society refers to the Bourdieu’s framework. This study is a result of participatory observation on habitus of a marital system using belis observed by the NTT society as a cognitive structure which connects individuals to the social activities of the customary marriage and makes it unquestionable habits. Knowledge of the social world under the pretext of prosperity for the recipients (family) of a bride-price can be a political instrument for the sustainability of power relations. The ritual-mythical system in the society has never been fully present as a neutral habit. The habitus reflected in the marital relationship among the NTT society enables the men to obtain and exercise their power relations. The sustainability of power relations can be seen from the representation of the social status of a girl and the properties attached to her. This is what gave birth to a symbolic rule, in which the social rules about bride-price or belis eventually will serve the interests of those who occupy a dominant position in the social structure, namely the rich men.
Study on Media Literacy and Its Role in Iranian Society (Case Study: Students of Mahmoudabad City)
This paper is about the study of media literacy and its role in Iranian society. Determine the research hypothesis by the use of James Patter theory and us stratification and also culture theory. By the use of traversal method and by the aim of the survey on 375 students in Mahmoudabad which was selected randomly, the data was gathered and analyzed by SPSS software. Coefficient alpha for Crohn Bach is used in order to reach to the justifiability of indexes. The research findings show that the variable like duration, rate and type of media use, the realization of media content, audience goal and motivation, economical and social base and the rate of education has a meaningful relation with media literacy.
Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability
The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.
Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski
Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.
Language and Political Manipulation: A Critical Analysis of Okediran's Tenants of the House
Language is a veritable tool in the hands of politicians. They use it to shape social realities; create new meanings and ultimately to acquire, exercise and sustain power in the society. Language and politics both share a symbiotic relationship. The former is the medium through which members of the society communicate and cohabitate while the later is used to gain and exercise power in the society. Language therefore is the epicenter of every human activity and politicians explore, deploy and manipulate it to advance their personal interests. This paper examines the ideological use of language in Okediran’s Tenants of the House. The study further shows that language is used as an instrument of political domination and manipulation through the display of emotiveness. The study concludes that politicians do not innocently use language but deliberately employ them to foreground their ideological position.
Human Trafficking the Kosovar Perspective of Fighting the Phenomena through Police and Civil Society Cooperation
The rationale behind this study is considering combating and preventing the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings from a multidisciplinary perspective that involves many layers of the society. Trafficking in human beings is an abhorrent phenomenon highly affecting negatively the victims and their families in both human and material aspect, sometimes causing irreversible damages. The longer term effects of this phenomenon, in countries with a weak economic development and extremely young and dynamic population, such as Kosovo, without proper measures to prevented and control can cause tremendous damages in the society. Given the fact that a complete eradication of this phenomenon is almost impossible, efforts should be concentrated at least on the prevention and controlling aspects. Treating trafficking in human beings based on traditional police tactics, methods and proceedings cannot bring satisfactory results. There is no doubt that a multi-disciplinary approach is an irreplaceable requirement, in other words, a combination of authentic and functional proactive and reactive methods, techniques and tactics. Obviously, police must exercise its role in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, a role sanctioned by the law, however, police role and contribution cannot by any means considered complete if all segments of the society are not included in these efforts. Naturally, civil society should have an important share in these collaborative and interactive efforts especially in preventive activities such as: awareness on trafficking risks and damages, proactive engagement in drafting appropriate legislation and strategies, law enforcement monitoring and direct or indirect involvement in protective and supporting activities which benefit the victims of trafficking etc.
Programmatic Actions of Social Welfare State in Service to Justice: Law, Society and the Third Sector
This paper proposes to dissect the meanings and / or directions of the State, in order, to present the State models to elaborate a conceptual framework about its function in the legal scope. To do so, it points out the possible contracts established between the State and the Society, since the general principles immanent in them can guide the models of society in force. From this orientation arise the contracts, whose purpose is by the effect to modify the status (the being and / or the opinion) of each of the subjects in presence - State and Society. In this logic, this paper announces the fiduciary contracts and “veredicção”(portuguese word) contracts, from the perspective of semiotics discourse (or greimasian). Therefore, studies focus on the issue of manifest language in unilateral and bilateral or reciprocal relations between the State and Society. Thus, under the biases of the model of the communicative situation and discourse, the guidelines of these contractual relations will be analyzed in order to see if there is a pragmatic sanction: positive when the contract is signed between the subjects (reward), or negative when the contract between they are broken (punishment). In this way, a third path emerges which, in this specific case, passes through the subject-third sector. In other words, the proposal, which is systemic in nature, is to analyze whether, since the contract of the welfare state is not carried out in the constitutional program on fundamental rights: education, health, housing, an others. Therefore, in the structure of the exchange demanded by the society according to its contractual obligations (others), the third way (Third Sector) advances in the empty space left by the State. In this line, it presents the modalities of action of the third sector in the social scope. Finally, the normative communication organization of these three subjects is sought in the pragmatic model of discourse, namely: State, Society and Third Sector, in an attempt to understand the constant dynamics in the Law and in the language of the relations established between them.
Perception of People with a Physical Disability towards Those with a Different Kind of Disability
People with physical disabilities, as with other people with differences in appearance or style of functioning come under negative social mechanisms. Therefore, it is worth asking what the relationship of the group is, who experience psychosocial effects because of their physical disability, towards people with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairments, visual impairments, mental illnesses, and their own physically disabled group. To analyse the perception of people with a physical disability, the study explores three areas: the acceptance or rejection of society’s stigmatization towards persons with disabilities; the importance of their own experience regarding their disability, in relation to another kind of disability; their level of acceptance to social interactions, in relation to various types of disabilities. The research sample consisted of 90 people with physical disabilities, who suffer from damage to the locomotor system. The data was collected using a questionnaire and the Adjective Check List by H. B. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun. This study utilized focus interviews to develop survey items for the questionnaire. The findings highlight that the response from those who were physically disabled agreed with the opinions of general society, not only with the issue of promoting integrated solutions and offering assistance but also having the same preferences and opinions about specific types of disability. However, their perception regarding their own group was noticeably different from that of general society. In the light of the study, for people with physical disabilities, just as for able-bodied people, it can be challenging to develop a meaningful relationship with people who have disabilities. All forms of disability suffer from negative attitudes and opinions that exist in society. The majority of those who were researched were focused primarily on their own problems, this inevitably hinders the integrity of the entire group, making it more difficult for it to find a cohesive voice, in which to promote their place within society.
A Study of Gender Awareness among College Students in Delhi
Gender is a social construction resulting in defining roles and responsibilities to carried out according to masculine and feminine traits. The main aim of the study was to explore gender awareness among college going students of Delhi. The objectives of studies were to find out (i) the understanding of term gender and roles and responsibilities associated with male and female as masculine and feminine traits in our society. (ii)Gender images representing the attributes and characteristics attached to particular gender. (iii) Gender discrimination prevailing among girls and boys in our society. (iv)Gender stereotypes resulting in gendering with respect to religion, culture, family and media. The sample of study consisted of 100 undergraduate college girl students. The findings of study stated that the students had this understanding that sex is a natural phenomenon and gender is socially constructed. Gender defines the roles and responsibilities among two sexes. On a gender image students concluded that males are represented as a powerful members of society showing physical strength and violence, force and society gave the power to men oppress and subjugate women in society that's why women are treated inferior and given secondary position in society. On gender discrimination, girl students stated that they faced discrimination at all level such as family, media ,education, workplace etc .There is strong prevailing gender stereotypes among girls and boys with respect to religious practices, choice of career ,preference of child etc. This study concluded that students were aware of gendered practices in various domains of life. The study helped to interpret the notions and perceptions of students towards gendering of social spaces and in their lives.
Woman: Her Identity and Strive for Existence Reflected English Literature
The study of images of women in literature and women writers has been a significant area of concern for the last four decades because it is as ‘the study of signification and meaning production’ play a vital role in shaping the perceptions and consciousness of various segment of society in relation to the lives, roles, problems and experiences of different categories of women as women and as autonomous citizen of society. In the history of worlds English literature the status of women and representation of her in the writings is an issue of discussion always. The essence of her existence in the literature is felt; the ecstasy of her feelings is always seen. The literature is full of facts and figures. She is one of them. Her contribution to the literature is undoubtedly a beginning of a new era. Multiple challenges and multiple identities as represented in majority of the literary texts and in real provide much hope and assurance to the new generation of mothers and daughters in the direction of transformation of the individual and collective consciousness of society paving way for the emergence of an actually empowered new woman. This paper will focus on some of the prominent Indian and American women writers in English literature and the various dimensions of her image through some of the prominent works. This attempt of mine will be merely a salute to those women who have struggled to prove their identity as one of the members of society.
Institutional Preferences of Elites and Society: Paradoxes of Economic Development in Georgia
Article aims to discuss the controversial character of the institutional preferences of elites and society in modern Georgia. Desktop research method is used to formulate the findings and analyze the outcomes. It is accepted that transformation process in Post-Soviet Georgia went with the prevalence of elites’ institutional preferences over the needs of the society that induced voluntarism in the process of formation of institutions. Hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap' is put forward in the article as an effect of authoritarian modernization that is proved by instable paces of wealth and economic growth in the post-authoritarian period. On the one hand, monopolization of institutional choice by the elites, blocking formation of inclusive political and economic institutions for fear of losing status-quo worsen perspectives for achieving free availability regime. On the other hand, consciousness of the society is dominated by informal institutions, judicial nihilism and orientation on 'self-survival values.' This hinders its consolidation as a 'collective principal' against 'institutional utilitarianism,' result of which is hindered economic development.
Sexual Harassment at Workplace in Cuttack District
Today's workplace is diverse and keeps changing continuously. Sexual harassment in the work place has emerged as a growing obstacle in women’s progress and being a sex discrimination issue has made the society vulnerable.Such issues indicate that, today women are comparatively more insecure in our society irrespective of their social status, position, and educational qualification. Hence, it needs to be addressed in the academic pedagogy.The study aimed to learn how far people are gender-sensitized, how far they are aware about the laws related to the issue, and how far women employees raise their voice against it. The findings revealed that even being educated and working in the organized sectors, people are unaware and are not sensitized. The study therefore recommends both the Government and managers of institutions how to critically identify the root causes of sexual harassment, its implications on our society and how best to address it.
Problems and Prospects of an Intelligent Investment in Kazakh Society
The development of any nation is directly related to the development of human capital in it. A human development is an increase its intellectual potential, its compliance with the requirements of time, present and future society. Demands of globalization cannot limit the processes of national traditions. The education system must be formed on the basis of international practice of cultural development. In Kazakhstan, where modernization changes are rapidly developing, the education system should be formed in two ways: first, on a national basis, and secondly, based on global best practices. There is the need to recognize and promote the importance of education as a value. The world community considers the problem of spiritual values. Along with individual values, spiritual values are also universal values. Formation of values such as the presence in young people a sense of respect for their homeland, social responsibility, respect the culture and traditions of its people is the most important task than the possession of material goods. When forming the intellectual nation, values in the field of education and science become investments for the development of the society, as well as education and science today transformed into the most important capital.
True Religious Piety and Its Social Implications an Analysis of Calvin’s Thought
Despite the positive contributions that religion has impacted human society, religious discrimination and violence also have been growing globally with extreme negative effects on human life and social relationships. Believers in religious extremism are motivated by a sense of exhibiting true religious piety in which case they do not only withhold their practical benevolence from those who do not belong to their faith but they even seek the elimination of other adherents from human existence. This phenomenon has a very high magnitude in Nigeria over the years, which deserves more research for the purpose of finding sustainable solutions to the problem. Calvin believed that true religious piety must, among other things, be categorized in personal and corporate positive social actions that esteem human needs irrespective of ethnic, ideological and belief differences. It is therefore appropriate to pose the following questions: Should true religious piety be seen in terms of how the actions of adherents positively impact human society? Could Calvin’s idea on this issue be very significant and helpful in the context of the Nigerian situation? In answering these questions, this research will limit its investigation to Calvin’s Institutes and some of his Commentaries. The goal of this research is to offer an instructive orientation to the readers that will help in building a more tolerable, peaceful, and a free and virtuous society.
Public Administrators, Code of Conduct and the Nigerian Society
The issue of ethics and values of public office holders in Nigerian has been and still is a matter of great mystery. Their behaviours in the discharge of their official responsibility remain unsatisfactory. The paper looks at the code of conduct and the societal values with which the Nigerian Administrators function today. Secondary sources of data were used. In conclusion, a change in attitude, reorientation, harsh and enforceable laws is required to reverse the trend.
Beyond Taguchi’s Concept of the Quality Loss Function
Dr. Genichi Taguchi looked at quality in a broader term and gave an excellent definition of quality in terms of loss to society. However the scope of this definition is limited to the losses imparted by a poor quality product to the customer only and are considered during the useful life of the product and further in a certain situation this loss can even be zero. In this paper, it has been proposed that the scope of quality of a product shall be further enhanced by considering the losses imparted by a poor quality product to society at large, due to associated environmental and safety related factors, over the complete life cycle of the product. Moreover, though these losses can be further minimized with the use of techno-safety interventions, the net losses to society however can never be made zero. This paper proposes an entirely new approach towards defining product quality and is based on Taguchi’s definition of quality.
Reconstruction of the 'Bakla' as an Identity
Homosexuality has been adapted as the universal concept that defines the deviations from the heteronormative parameters of society. Sexual orientation and gender identities have been used in a concretely separate manner the same way as the dynamics between man and woman, male and female, gender and sex operate. These terms are all products of human beings’ utilization of language. Language has proven its power to define and determine the status and the categories of the subjects in society. This tool developed by human beings provides a definition of their own specific cultural community and their individual selves that either claim or oppugn their space in the social hierarchy. The label ‘bakla’ is reasoned as an identity which is a reaction to the spectral disposition of gender and sexuality in the Philippine society. To expose the Filipino constitutes of bakla is the major attempt of this study. Through the methods of Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology), namely Pagtatanung-tanong (asking questions) and Pakikipagkuwentuhan (story-telling), the utterances of the bakla were gathered and analyzed in a rhetorical and ideological manner. Furthermore, the Dramatistic Pentad of Kenneth Burke was adapted as a methodology and also utilized as a perspective of analysis. The results suggest that the bakla as an identity carries the hurdles of class. The performativity of the bakla is proven to be a cycle propelled by their guilt to be identified and recognized as subjects in a society where heteronormative power contests their gender and sexual expressions as relatively aberrational to the binary gender and sexual roles. The labels, hence, are potent structures that control the disposition of the bakla in the society, reflecting an aspect of the disposition of Filipino identities. After all, performing kabaklaan in the Philippine society is interplay between resistance and conformity to the hegemonic dominions as a result of imperial attempts to universalize the concept of homosexuality between and among distant cultural communities.
Projection of Health Issues in Contemporary Indian Cinema: A Study on Selected Bollywood Movies
Films are considered as the most influential form of mass media. To attract audience films are made on various themes and issues which are assumed to have an impact on the behavioural pattern of the society. Among the various issues that have been bothering Indian society, health is primary. Thus it is important and interesting to study how health is being projected in Bollywood which is largely considered by the world as Indian cinema. This study tries to focus its attention on some select popular movies made in the recent decade and will try to analyse its content and significance of the same with the contemporary Indian society. It is evident that some of the movies made projecting health issues have earned good box office revenues, but have they been successful in making the public understand the significance of health issues they have been trying to project, is an interesting area to understand.
Family Models in Contemporary Multicultural Society: Exploratory Study Applied to Immigrants of Second and Third Generations
A qualitative research based on twenty-eight semi-structured interviews of students in Social Work, in Brussels (Belgium), showed specific results for the Arab and Muslim students: second and third generations immigrants build their identity on the basis of a mix of differentiation with and recognition of their parents' culture of origin. Building a bridge between Modernity and Tradition, they claim active citizenship; at the same time they show and live by values and religious believes which reinforce the link to their parents’ origins. But they present those values and believes as their own rational choices among other choices, all available and rich for our multicultural society. The way they speak of themselves is highly modern. But, they still have to build a third way to find a place for themselves in society: one allowing them to live their religion as a partially public matter (when the Occidental society leaves no such place for religion) while ensuring, at the same time, the development of independent critical thought. On this basis, other semi-structured interviews are being laid with Social workers working with families from diverse ethnic backgrounds. They will verify the reality of those identity and cultural bricolages when those young adults of second and third generations build their own family. In between the theoretical models of traditional family and modern family, shall we find a new model, hybrid and more or less stable, combining some aspects of the former and the latter? The exploratory research phase focuses on three aspects of building a family life in this context : the way those generations play, discursively or not, in between their parents and the society in which they grew up; the importance of intercultural dialogue in this process of building; and testing the hypothesis that some families, in our society, show a special way of courting Modernity.
The Importance of Right Speech in Buddhism and Its Relevance Today
The concept of right speech is the third stage of the noble eightfold path as prescribed by the Buddha and followed by millions of practicing Buddhists. The Buddha lays a lot of importance on the notion of right speech (Samma Vacca). In the Angutara Nikaya, the Buddha mentioned what constitutes right speech, which is basically four kinds of abstentions; namely abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh or hateful speech and abstaining from idle chatter. The Buddha gives reasons in support of his view as to why abstaining from these four kinds of speeches is favourable not only for maintaining the peace and equanimity within an individual but also within a society. It is a known fact that when we say something harsh or slanderous to others, it eventually affects our individual peace of mind too. We also know about the many examples of hate speeches which have led to senseless cases of violence and which are well documented within our country and the world. Also, indulging in false speech is not a healthy sign for individuals within a group as this kind of a social group which is based on falsities and lies cannot really survive for long and will eventually lead to chaos. Buddha also told us to refrain from idle chatter or gossip as generally we have seen that idle chatter or gossip does more harm than any good to the individual and the society. Hence, if most of us actually inculcate this third stage (namely, right speech) of the noble eightfold path of the Buddha in our daily life, it would be highly beneficial both for the individual and for the harmony of the society.
Perception of Young Consumers about SMS Marketing in Pakistan
This study examines the role of SMS marketing on perception of young consumers and its impact on society by keeping in mind the culture, values and communication norms of Pakistan. The study focused on the consumer’s perception towards SMS Marketing of Entertainment, Informativeness, Credibility and Irritation factor which can have influence on the perception of young consumer positively or negatively. It’s also observed that some of the message contents do have good or bad impact on the society’s norm. The result derived from a sample of 200 consumers indicate that communication medium ‘SMS marketing’ positively influence the consumers perception but the messages that consumers receive from these companies are against the social norms and have bad impact. So Pakistani entrepreneurs of cellular industries should be more aware that there is need to somehow modify their message content strategies according to culture, norms and values of our society and environmental situation.
The Lightener of Love: The World Peace Religion
It is known that every human society throughout the world and throughout history, the various religions and their theologies, ethics, and traditions influence everything in their life, shaping socio-economic and political ideas, attitudes and institutions. It is observed that religious teachings and traditions shape how people respond to each other in their daily social inter-course and interaction in the community at large. The majorities of us preserves and protect our own religious beliefs and traditions as generally they symbolize our essential identities, theologically, historically, culturally, socially, and even politically. Our religious faiths symbolize our dignity as persons and our very souls as communities and individuals. It thus goes without saying that in our multi-racial and multi-religious society, the only way for us to live in peace and harmony is for us to live in peaceful co-existence. It is important for us to recognize, understand, accept and respect each other regardless of our respective belief. The history of interfaith is as ancient as the religions since men and women when not at war with their neighbors have always made an effort to understand them (not least because understanding is a strategy for defense, but also because for as long as there is dialogue wars are delayed).
An Epistemological Approach of the Social Movements Studies in Cali (Colombia) between 2002 and 2016
While Colombian’s society has changed, the way that Colombian’s civil society participates has changed too. Thus, the social movements as a form of participation should be research to understand as the society structure as the groups’ interactions. In fact, in the last decades, the social movements in Colombia have been transformed in three categories: actors, spaces, and demands. For this reason, it is important to know from what perspectives have been researched this topic, allowing to recognize an epistemological and ontological reflections of it. The goal of this research has been characterizing the social movements of Cali – Colombia between 2002 and 2016. Cali is the southwest largest Colombian city; for this reason, it could be considered as a representative data for the social dynamic of the region. Qualitative methods as documental analysis have been used, in order to know the way that the research on social movements has been done. Thus taking into account this methodological technique, it has been found the goals that are present in most of the studies, which represents what are the main concerns around this topic. Besides, the methodology more used, to understand the way that the data was collected, its problems and its advantages. Finally, the ontological and epistemological reflections are important to understand which have been the theory and conceptual approach of the studies and how its have been contextualized to Cali, taking into account its own history.
The Effect of Law on Society
Openness cosmic shares dramatically in the order of something quite a bit of neglected priorities within the community at the level of thought and consciousness, and these priorities provider of legal and human rights awareness after a long delay in the process of awareness of human rights, there is no doubt that the long and arduous road.
As is obvious to any observer public affairs as well as the specialist and the observer that there is growth and development in the scene and the legal movement is unprecedented, many when dealing with many of the details sought and tries as much as possible to know what is the natural rights, and duties that must comply with legally in no charge with the issue of what is going on, any attempt of weakness and lack of self-reliance and obstacles level during the search show him by virtue of the difficulty of the availability of legal information in some cases on a particular issue, whether or not the image is complete, legally insufficient. Law relationship to society basically a close relationship, there is no law society, a society is impossible without both at the level of domestic relations or international law: «There is a close link between law and society. The law remains influenced by the society in which it grew, as well as the law affects the society, which is governed by, the relationship between the community and law affected and the impact of relationship ». The law of the most important objectives of protecting members of society, and its role is based on the distribution of rights and duties in a fair way, and protect the public interest of the citizen’s basis. The word community when some sociologists are limited to the group that gathered, including cultural unity Cultural Group distinguish between society and the last. In the recent period issued a set of regulations in the various branches of law, which is different from the class and important one hand, and here is important study of the interaction between law and society, and how to make the laws effective in the community? The opposite is true as well. The law as a social phenomenon is impossible to understand and analyzed without taking into account the extent of their impact and vulnerability within the community and accepted. Must evoke the basis that it was developed to address the problems faced by citizens. The over-age and amplify the sanctions are a contradiction of that fundamental reform of the basic objectives of the offender more than anything else Calantqam and revenge, and if the process is not human mistakes.
Michel Foucault believes that «tighten laws and regulations against criminals will not reduce the crime rate in the community, so you must activate the system of moral values of society after more deterrent, and the threat of scandal on a social level.» Besson and refers to the legislators, saying the law: «The only way to reduce the crime rate to strengthen the ethical system of the society, especially in the social Amnhoha sanctity of conscience, then you will not be forced to issue harsh sentences against criminals».In summary, it is necessary to combine the enactment of laws and activate the system of moral values and educational values on the ground, and to understand the causes of social problems at the root of all for the equation is complete, and that the law was drafted to serve the citizens and not to harm him.
Cultural Analysis of Dowry System with Relation to Women Prestige in District Swabi
The practice of giving dowry was meant to assist a newly-wed couple to start their life together with ease; however, now it has turned into a commercial transaction in which monetary considerations receive priority over the personal merits of the bride. The present study was designed to explore the causes and consequences of dowry system and to measure the association between dowry and women prestige in district Swabi. A sample size of 378 household (female) Respondents was randomly selected through proportional allocation method. The data was interpreted into frequency and percentages while to measure the relationship between Dowry system and Women Prestige, Chi-Square statistic was applied. Result indicated that majority of the 316(83.6%) respondents stated that Family members are in favor of high dowry because high dowry is today’s women need which is disclosed by 302(79.9%) of the sample size. In addition to this, most 320(84.7%) of the respondents has opined that low dowry leads to broken families in the society. Moreover, a strong association (p=0.000) was determined between high dowry and women prestige. Similarly, a strong significant relation was found (p=0.000) between women prestige and low dowry mortifying women prestige in our society. The study concluded that dowry, deeply rooted in the society is an immorality which must be strictly banned in the country. It is a herculean task to completely eliminate dowry system from the nation but slowly and gradually efforts are being made in this direction. Dowry is a sure cause of promoting intense conflicts between the families, quarrels and inculcates greed in the society. Government and the builders of the social fabric should strictly work on it, banning this system for each and every class in Pakistan. Moreover, for curbing this mal practice we must put effort to bring social awareness to the society are some of the recommendation.
The Emotional Experience of Urban Ruins and the Exploration of Urban Memory
The ruins is a kind of historical intention, which is also the current real existence of developing city. Zen culture of ancient China has a profound esthetic emotion, similarly, the west establish the concept of aesthetics of relic along with the Romanism’s (such as Rousseau etc.) sentiment to historical ruins at the end of 18th century. Nowadays, with the decline of traditional industrial society as well as the rise of post-industrial age, contemporary society must face the ruins and garbage problem which is left by industrial society. Commencing from the perspective of emotion and memory, this paper analyzes the importance for emotional needs as well as their existing status of several projects, such as the Capital Steelworks in Beijing (industrial devastation), the Shibati old section in Chongqing (urban slums) and the Old Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem (ruins of war). It emphasizes urban design which is started from emotion and the sustainable development of city memory through managing the urban ruins which is criticized by people with the perspective of ecology and art.
Consumer Values in the Perspective of Javanese Mataraman Society: Identification, Meaning, and Application
Culture is the important determinant of human behavior and desire. Culture influences the consumer through the norms and values established by the society in which they live and reflect it. The cultural values of Javanese society certainly have united in the Javanese society behavior in consumption. This research is expected to give big enough theoretical benefits in the findings of cultural value in consumption in Javanese society. These can be an incentive in finding the local cultural value in many tribes in Indonesia, so one time, the local cultural value in Indonesia about consumption can be fundamental part in education and consumption practice in Indonesia. The approach used in this research is non positivist research or is known as qualitative approach. The method or type of research used in this research is ethnomethodology. The collection data is done in Central Java region. The research subject or informant is determined by the purposive technique by certain criteria determined by the researcher. The data is collected by deep interview and observation. Before the data analysis, the researcher does the storing method data stage and implements the data validity procedures. Then, the data is analyzed by the theme and interactive analysis technique. The Javanese Mataraman society has such consumption values such as has to be sufficient, be careful, economical, submit to the one who creates the life, the way life flow, and the present problem is thought in the present also. In the financial management for consumption, the consumer should have the simple life principles, has to be sufficient, has to be able to eat, has to be able to self-press, well-managed/diligent/accurate/careful, the open or transparent management, has the struggle effort, like to self-sacrifice and think about the future. The meaning of consumption value in family is centered to the submission and full-trust to God. These consumption values are applied in consumer behavior in self, family, investment and credit need in short term and long term perspective.
Patriarchy in Caste Society and Control over Women’s Sexuality in India
The caste system in Indian society plays an important role in subjugation of women. It creates divides and controls over women’s sexuality in various ways. This paper attempts to look into various modes in which the institution of caste makes some forms of sexuality as socially “acceptable” norms, while deems others as obscene, immoral and against social ethos. Based on a review of existing literature in this area this paper attempts to understand the notion of sexuality in Indian context. It tries to understand how the emergence of norms and values of sexual behaviour has been entwined with the evolution of caste system and the subjugation of many sections of Indian society. It also attempts to trace the internalisation of patriarchal values in Indian society, and the role played by the colonial rulers in creating and maintaining stringent division of space into public and private ones. It is argued here that brahmanical patriarchy, which is a unique phenomenon of the Indian Subcontinent, plays a crucial role in subjugating and controlling women in general and their sexuality in particular. It also creates a divide among women of different castes. Furthermore, the process of colonisation played an important role in shaping the discourse of sexuality in its present form. There were contradictions as well as consensus between the colonial rulers over the questions of regulation of the private domain, as in introducing reform legislation in the nineteenth century informed the debate on sexuality in postcolonial India. The process of emergence of the dichotomous notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sexuality, and the resistance to any ‘deviation’ from the ‘normal’ sexuality is located, not merely in the ‘passive’ evolution of society, but in the actual politics of it.
A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format
Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.
Interrogating the Theoretical Basis of the Freedom Charter in South Africa
The “adoption” of the Freedom Charter in 1955 at Kliptown south of Johannesburg, South Africa represented a desire to create a society that is based on common citizenship, and democracy. The architects of the Charter had a vision of a society that lived in peace with itself. Today, the Charter is still promoted as the best thing that ever happened to a society ravaged by racism, dispossession, oppression and exploitation – a society divided in all aspects of its life. This paper moves from the understanding that land is fundamental to all life. It interrogates the Charter’s claim on land. At a time when the colonised world sought to free themselves from the chains of colonialism and Africans throughout the continent demanded Africa for the Africans, the Freedom Charter claimed South Africa for all who lived in it. To the extent that this paper problematizes the philosophical underpinnings of the Charter, it uses the methodology of dialectic materialism to understand the theoretical basis of the Freedom Charter. The paper argues that the understanding, desire and the vision of the Freedom Charter were, as they are today, irreconcilable. To that effect and in pursuit of narrow class interests, the Charter justified land dispossession and unsustainable living conditions for the dispossessed majority. The paper then concludes that, by misrepresenting the critically fundamental land question, the Charter tried to reconcile the dispossessed with their dispossession and thus reflected coloniality and whiteness long before colonialism and settler-colonialism came to an end in South Africa.
Power, Pluralism, and History: Norms in International Societies
On the question of norms in international politics, scholars are divided over whether norms are a tool for power politics or a genuine reflection of an emergent international society. The line is drawn between rationalism and idealism, but this dialectical relationship needs to be broken down if we hope to come to a comprehensive understanding of how norms play out in international society. The concept of an elusive international society is a simplification of a more pluralistic, cosmopolitan, and diverse collection of international societies. The English School effectively overcomes realist-idealist dichotomies and provides a pluralistic, comprehensive explanation and description of international societies through its application to two distinct areas: human rights as well as security and war. We argue that international norms have always been present in human rights, war, and international security, forming international societies that can be complimentary or oppositional, beneficial or problematic. Power politics are present, but they can only be regarded as partially explanatory of the role of norms in international politics, which must also include history, international law, the media, NGOs, and others to fully represent the normative influences in international societies. A side-by-side comparison of international norms of war/security and human rights show how much international societies converge. World War II was a turning point in terms of international law, these forces of international society have deeper historical roots. Norms of human rights and war/security are often norms of restraint, guiding appropriate treatment of individuals. This can at times give primacy to the individual over the sovereign state. However, state power politics and hegemony are still intact. It cannot be said that there is an emergent international society—international societies are part of broader historical backdrops. Furthermore, states and, more generally, power politics, are important components in international societies, but international norms are far from mere tools of power politics. They define a more diverse, complicated, and ever-present conception of international societies.
The Tradition of Drinking Tuak in Batak Society againts the Law of Alcohol Usage in Indonesia
This study aims to examine how the Batak tribe in the Village Lumban Sitorus Parmaksian District, Toba Samosir (Tobasa) interpret the culture of drinking Tuak as a social interaction. This research uses qualitative method with case study approach. Through this approach, the researchers obtained primary data by looking at and observing the social interaction that occurs when the activity of drinking tuak takes place on the daily life of the Batak Toba community in the village of Lumban Sitorus. The technique of data collecting is done by observation and in-depth interview. This study focuses on Batak Toba community, especially men who daily drink tuak. The results obtained from this study is Batak Toba society has a habit of drinking Tuak (a type of alcoholic beverage derived from water sapphire juice that is fermented). In Batak Toba society, tuak is not only considered as an alcoholic drink which is usually drunk in the afternoon at lapotuak (tuak shop), but tuak is also understood as a drink of honor in a traditional party at Toba Batak society. On the other hand, the activity of drinking of tuak was also considered as a medium or a means of connecting the formation of a sense of solidarity among the people of LumbanSitorous Village. In its existence, drinking tuak is defined as a mean that can facilitate the establishment to open communication with fellow members of Batak Toba community, such as at leisure, birth party, death or as medicine. Specifically, tuak in a special sense in Batak Toba society is also a symbol of intimacy, gratitude, and respect which is manifested in the activity of daily drinking tuak. In Indonesia, if we refer to the Criminal Code in articles 300 and 536 it is clear that whoever intentionally sells and consumes intoxicating / alcoholic drinks will be subject to a maximum jail term of one year. It became interesting then when looking at Indonesia as a country that has a diversity of cultures in which the law implies the prohibition of alcoholic / intoxicating beverages. However, the existence of drinking of tuak as a drink that categorized intoxicating in Batak Toba society still continues to.
Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan
The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.
Engineering Practice in Nigerian University: A Microcosm of Engineering Development and Practice in Developing Countries
There is a strong link between engineering and development. Engineering as a profession is a call to service by the society. Perhaps next to soldiers, engineers are the most patriotic professionals. However, unlike soldiers, they remain servants of society at all times and in all circumstances. Despite their role to the society, engineering profession seems not to be enjoying the respect due to it probably because of failures associated with some engineering projects. This paper focuses on the need to improve on engineering practices for developments in developing countries using Engineering practice in Nigerian Universities as a tool for argument. Purposeful Survey, interview and focus group discussion were carried out among one hundred and twenty (120) reputable firms in Nigeria. The topic was approached through a few projects that the firms have been involved in from the planning stage, some to completion and beyond into the stage of maintenance and monitoring. It is revealed that some factors which are not determined by the engineers themselves impeded progress and full success of engineering practice in developing countries. The key culprit is corruption whose eradication will put the nation on the solid path of effective engineering development and poverty alleviation.
The Comparative Analysis on Pre-Trial in Relation to the Reform of Pre-Trial in Indonesian Criminal Procedural Code
Criminal Procedural Law is established to protect the society from the abuse of authority. To achieve that purpose, the criminal procedural law shall be established in accordance with the laws of human right and the protection of the society. One of the mechanisms to protect human rights and to ensure the compliance of authorities in criminal procedural law is pre-trial mechanism. In many countries, there are various mechanisms of pre-trial. In the recent cases in Indonesia, pre-trial has been an interesting issue. The issue is also addressed by the Constitutional Court Decision Number 21/PUU-XII/2014 which enhance the competence of pre-trial which includes the suspect determination and the legality of seizure and search. Before that decision, some pre-trial decisions have made landmark decision by enhancing the competence of pre-trial, such as the suspect determination case in Budi Gunawan Case and legality of the investigation in Hadi Purnomo Case. These pre-trial cases occurred because the society needs protection even though it is not provided by written legislations, in this matter, The Indonesian Criminal Procedural Code (KUHAP). For instance, a person can be a suspect for unlimited time because the Criminal Procedural Code does not regulate the limit of investigation, so the suspect enactment shall be able to be challenged to protect human rights. Before the Constitutional Court Decision Suspect Determination cannot be challenged so that the society is not fully protected. The Constitutional Court Decision has provided more protections. Nowadays, investigators shall be more careful in conducting the investigation. However, those decisions, including the Constitutional Court Decision are not sufficient for society to be protected by abuse of authority. For example, on 7 March 2017, a single judge, in a Pre-Trial, at the Surabaya District Court, decided that the investigation was unlawful and shall be terminated. This is not regulated according to the Code and also any decisions in pre-trial. It can be seen that the reform of pre-trial is necessary. Hence, this paper aims to examine how pre-trial shall be developed in the future to provide wide access for society to have social justice in criminal justice system. The question will be answered by normative, historical, and comparative approaches. Firstly, the paper will examine the history of pre-trial in Indonesia and also landmark decisions on pre-trial. Then, the lessons learned from other countries regarding to the pre-trial mechanism will be elaborated to show how pre-trial shall be developed and what the competences of a pre-trial are. The focus of all discussions shall be on how the society is protected and provided access to legally complain to the authority. At the end of the paper, the recommendation to reform the pre-trial mechanism will be suggested.
Literary Works as Historical Documents: A New Historicist Reflection on Ahmadou Kourouma's Texts
Literary works are often devalued to mere fictions and are left with no essence and contributions to history. The sub-structured rational delineating literary works from history is anchored on the aesthetic and flowery expressions that are therein embedded for artistic enrichment. This does not distance a literary work (from whichever genres it is drawn) reflecting the socio-economic, cultural and political cum religious perspectives of a given people and society. This is the very reason justifying the veracity that a writer does not anchor his writing outside of his society. He writes mirroring (his or a given society’s) events, places and duration of consciousness thereby making history evident. In the light of this reality, literary works are not just seen as fictions, imaginative and unrealistic pieces; for they are never unconnected to history. Thus, making authors of literary works historians and their works engrafted useful historical documents. Using the works of Ahmadou Korouma, a renown Ivorian writer, the praxis of this paper therefore in New Historicism approach postulates that literary works are underlying unexplored historic materials, and literature a jumelle to history.
The Achievement Model of University Social Responsibility
On the research question of 'how to achieve USR', this contribution reflects the concept of university social responsibility, identify three achievement models of USR as the society - diversified model, the university-cooperation model, the government - compound model, also conduct a case study to explore characteristics of Chinese achievement model of USR. The contribution concludes with discussion of how the university, government and society balance demands and roles, make necessarily strategic adjustment and innovative approach to repair the shortcomings of each achievement model.
A Phenomenological Study on the Role of Civil Society Organizations in Supporting Urban Refugees in Thailand
Thailand is host to the largest number of refugees in the region. The country has been one of the most accessible points of entry to refugees around the world because it has relatively lenient visa requirements, enabling asylum seekers to enter the country and subsequently search for legal assistance. However, because Thailand is not a signatory to the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees which governs the refugee status determination and safeguards several rights of the refugees, there are no national laws or administrative framework on the protection of refugees. Refugees are considered as illegal migrants, and certain groups are permitted to stay temporarily only upon executive discretion. Aside from the documented group of refugees from the Myanmar border, there are many others who came from different parts of the world. They are known as urban refugees believed to be in the thousands and are scattered in the impoverished areas of Bangkok and the suburbs. This study aims to advance understanding of the role of civil society organizations in supporting refugees, with particular focus on urban refugees. Using the method of triangulation in qualitative research, the study investigates the life journey of a refugee family from Pakistan, their difficulties and struggles to survive in perilous situations. The study presents the dynamics of how civil society works and collaborates to fill the gap for much-needed social services. It also discusses the depth and scope of the role of faith actors in the protection and support of this vulnerable sector. The engagement of civil society reveals framework and structure that aims to create long-term impact. The help provided is not merely monetary or material dole-outs but a platform for refugees to integrate with community, develop skills and make productive use of their time.
The Making of a Male: Narrative Analysis of the Protagonist in Cholera District
Cinema is a reflection of the society, as much as it captures the social codes. These codes are learned within the society; and through movies these practices of the gender order are reproduced as well. One of the best examples engendering these codes is a modern classic of Turkish cinema, Cholera District (1997), originally Ağır Roman in Turkish. It is a coming of age movie of a teenage boy in an old neighborhood of Istanbul, where he learns to be a 'man' through the hegemonic masculinity codes of the society. The corporal and verbal practices that are used in the representation of the male protagonist's portrayal is based on his performativity. This paper, through narrative analysis of the aforementioned movie, reviews how gender and narrative are intertwined within the context of queer theory. The methodology follows the protagonist's object of desire while evaluating his heterosexuality which requires affirmative performances. The framework of the study firstly focuses on the protagonist's own life and his interactions with the males of his kinship. Later, the focus gravitates towards his interactions with the female object of desire while evaluating how this relationship shapes his status in society. Lastly, the study focuses on the relationship between the protagonist and non-relative males of the neighborhood. The journey of a young male becoming a man by copying the other males delivers a clear representation of how heterosexuality is favored in terms of gender order.
Modeling Influence on Petty Corruption Attitudes
Corruption is an influential and widespread problem. One part of it is so-called petty corruption, related to large-scale bribe giving by ordinary citizens trying to influence the works of public administration or public services. As it is with all means of corruption, petty corruption is related to the level of democracy (or administration efficiency) in a society. The developed model captures some of the factors related to corruptive behavior, as well as people’s attitude towards petty corruption. It has four basic elements: user’s perception of corruption in the society of interest, the influence of social interactions, the influence of penalizing mechanism, and influence of campaigns against petty corruption. The model is agent-based, developed in NetLogo, with a lot of random settings that provide a wider scope of responses. Interactions of different settings for variables of elements provide insight into the influence of each element on attitude towards petty corruption, as well as petty corruptive behavior.
Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood
Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.
Elaboration Development Strategy and the Analysis of Trends Shaping the Information Economy in Azerbaijan on the Basis of the Experience of Foreign Countries
In the paper information on economic development trends in developed countries are analyzed. The current status of information society and economy of the country is reviewed and some recommendations are given for future development. The problems of Information Society and establishment of its innovative economy are studied. In this turn, development trends information economy in developed countries are analyzed.
Voluntary Work Monetary Value and Cost-Benefit Analysis with 'Value Audit and Voluntary Investment' Technique: Case Study of Yazd Red Crescent Society Youth Members Voluntary Work in Health and Safety Plan for New Year's Passengers
Voluntary work has a lot of economic and social benefits for a country, but the economic value is ignored because it is voluntary. The aim of this study is reviewing Monetary Value of Voluntary Work methods and comparing opportunity cost method and replacement cost method both in theory and in practice. Beside monetary value, in this study, we discuss cost-benefit analysis of health and safety plan in the New Year that conducted by young volunteers of Red Crescent society of Iran. Method: We discussed eight methods for monetary value of voluntary work including: Alternative-Employment Wage Approach, Leisure-Adjusted OCA, Volunteer Judgment OCA, Replacement Wage Approach, Volunteer Judgment RWA, Supervisor Judgment RWA, Cost of Counterpart Goods and Services and Beneficiary Judgment. Also, for cost benefit analysis we drew on 'value audit and volunteer investment' (VIVA) technique that is used widely in voluntary organizations like international federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. Findings: In this study, using replacement cost approach, voluntary work by 1034 youth volunteers was valued 938000000 Riyals and using Replacement Wage Approach it was valued 2268713232 Riyals. Moreover, Yazd Red Crescent Society spent 212800000 Riyals on food and other costs for these volunteers. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, using cost benefit analysis method that is Volunteer Investment and Value Audit (VIVA), VIVA rate showed that for every Riyal that the Red Crescent Society invested in the health and safety of New Year's travelers in its volunteer project, four Riyals returned, and using the wage replacement approach, 11 Riyals returned. Therefore, New Year's travelers health and safety project were successful and economically, it was worthwhile for the Red Crescent Society because the output was much bigger than the input costs.
Bridging the Digital Divide in India: Issus and Challenges
The cope the rapid change of technology and to control the ephemeral rate of information generation, librarians along with their professional colleagues need to equip themselves as per the requirement of the electronic information society. E-learning is purely based on computer and communication technologies. The terminologies like computer based learning. It is the delivery of content via all electronic media through internet, internet, Extranets television broadcast, CD-Rom documents, etc. E-learning poses lot of issues in the transformation of literature or knowledge from the conventional medium to ICT based format and web based services.
Race, Class, Gender, and the American Welfare State (1930s-1990s)
The American society, like all societies, is fractured by social divisions between different groups of people. It is divided by race, class, gender, and other social and cultural characteristics. Social divisions affect the way and the manner welfare is delivered for citizens within the American society. The welfare state exists to guarantee the promotion of well –being for all the different components within a society without taking into account their age, gender, their ethnicity/race, or their social belonging (class). Race, class, and even gender issues are the main factors that affected the formal structure, the nature, as well as the evolution of the American welfare state and led to its uniqueness. They have affected the structure and the evolution of the American welfare state since its creation in the 1930s, and led to its uniqueness in an international level. This study aims therefore at enhancing the readers’ awareness of social divisions: race, class, gender and their implications for the distribution of welfare resources and life chances in the USA from the early 1930s to the late 1990s.
Dao Din Student Activists: From Hope to Victims under the Thai Society of Darkness
The Dao Din group is a gathering of students from the Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, a leading university in the northeast of Thailand. The Dao Din group has been one of the most prominent student movements in the past four decades since the bloody massacre of the 6th of October 1976. The group of student is a movement who gather to oppose and protest against different capitalist-run projects that have impacted upon the environment since 2009. The students have become heroes in Thai society and receive support from various groups, especially the middle class who regard the students as role models for the youth. Subsequently, the Dao Din group has received numerous awards between 2011-2013. However, the Dao Din group opposed the military coup d’état of 2014 and the subsequent military junta. Under the military dictatorship regime (2014-present), security officials have hunted, insulted, arrested, and jailed members of the group many times amidst silence from most of the from the middle class. Therefore, this article posits the question of why the Dao Din group which was once the hero and hope of Thai society, has become a political victim in only a few years. The study methods used are the analysis of documentaries, news articles, and interviews with representatives of the Dao Din group. The author argues that Thailand’s middle class previously demonstrated a positive perception of the Dao Din group precisely because that group had earlier opposed policies of the elected Yingluck Shinawatra government, which most of the middle class already despised. However, once the Dao Din group began to protest against the anti-Yingluck military government, then the middle class turned to harshly criticize the Dao Din group. So it can be concluded that the Thai middle class tends to put its partisan interests ahead of a civil society group which has been critical of elected as well as military administrations. This has led the middle class to support the demolishing of Thai democracy. Such a Thai middle-class characteristic not only poses a strong bulwark for the perpetuation of military rule but also destroys a civil society group (composed of young people) who should be the future hope of the nation rather than under the Thai society of darkness.
Evaluating the Evolution of Public Art across the World and Exploring Its Growth in Urban India
Public Art is a tool with the power to enrich and enlighten any place; it has been accepted and welcomed effortlessly by many cultures around the World. In this paper, we discuss the implications Public Art has had on the society and how it has evolved over the years, and how in India, art in this aspect is still overlooked and treated as an accessory. Urban aesthetics are still substantially limited to the installation of deities, political figures, and so on. The paper also discusses various possibilities and opportunities on how Public Art can boost a society; it also suggests a framework that can be incorporated in the legal system of the country to make it a part of the city development process.
The National Idea and Selthindentification of Nation is the Foundation of the Society’s Development
The article is told about the factors influencing the formation of the national idea and national identity. Paying attention to the idea and purpose of 'Eternal county', historical dates and examples are given. The structure of the idea 'The eternal country' by ancient Turks is discussed and the history of the legend prevalent among the Kazakh people, the image of the mythical historical figures are analyzed. Al-Farabi’s philosophical work 'Honest city', Zhysip Balasagun’s poem 'Happy Knowledge' are told, the opinions of scholars researching the nation's history, literature, and culture are given. As international experience shows, the idea of a new stage in the development of the country's great national society and the state for the purpose of political, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, and the other efforts are consolidated. The idea of the national, ethnic, religious, cultural and other communities united by a group of people sharing a collective memory, goals, ideas and dreams and , world view, a complex set of beliefs and values are expressed.
The Woman in Arabic Popular Proverbs, Stereotypical Roles and Actual Pain: The Woman in the Institution of Marriage as a Sample
This study deals with the subject of Popular Arabic Proverbs and the stereotypical roles and images that they create about the woman in general and Arab woman in particular. Popular proverbs in general are considered to be essence of experiences of society and the extract of its collective thought establish wisdom in a distinguished concise tight mold or style that affects the majority of people and keep them alive by virtue of constant use and oral currency through which they are transmitted from one generation to another. Proverbs deal with different aspects and types of people, different social relations, including the society's attitude about the woman. Proverbs about women in the human heritage in general and the Arab heritage in particular are considered of a special characteristics and remarkable in their being dynamic ones that move in all directions of life. Most of them carry the essence of the social issues and are distributed in such a way that they have become part of the private life of the general public. This distribution covers all periods and fields of the woman's life, the social, the economic and psychological ones. The woman occupies a major space in the Popular Proverbs because she is the center of social life inside and outside the house. The woman's statuses and images in the provers are numerous and she is often described in parallel images but each one differs from the other. These images intertwine due to their varieties and multiplicity and ultimately, they constitute a general stereotypical image of the woman, which degrades her status as a woman, a mother and a wife. The study shows how Popular Proverbs in Arabic reflect the Arab woman's position and status in her society.
New Types of Fitness Equipment for Seniors-Based on Beginning Movement Load Training
Ageing society has been spread around the world. The global population is not only ageing but also declining. The structure of population has changed, which has a significant impact on both the economies and industries. Thus, how to be a healthy senior citizen to relieve the burden to the family and society will be a popular issue.
Although fitness equipment manufacturing industry has been mature, the ageing population is still increasing. Therefore, this study aims to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for senior citizens, based on BMLT presented by Dr. Koyama Hirofumi. The analysis of current fitness equipment on the market and the future trend will be applied in the study. With the coming of information age, senior citizens in the future are the users of information product for sure, and the new style of fitness equipment will be combined with information technology as well. Through this study, it is believed to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for seniors and help them live heartier and happier lives.
Musical Education of Preschool Children: From the Average to the Gifted
The contemporary society, which is, whether we like it or not, oriented towards utilitarianism, pragmatics and professional flexibility, lives in a certain paradox. On the one hand, at least declaratively, the accent of modern society is on knowledge; knowledge is even considered to be a commodity, the popularity of education is increased as the only means of survival in the market-oriented world, while on the other hand modern society is moving towards simplification and decreasing the amount of information and areas which are considered necessary in the generally excepted concept of education. We cannot talk about the preschool teacher profession without mentioning work with gifted children. The preschool teacher knowing the characteristics of gifted children is of utmost importance because their early identification and professional guidance are of cardinal importance for the direction in which the children will develop. When we talk about musical ability, in the first phase, the role of preschool teachers in the identification and stimulation of gifted children naturally refers to monitoring children’s musical manifestation. The identification process and work with the gifted presupposes a good relationship with the family, synergy of these two important influences in the child’s education and upbringing.
Hair Symbolism and Changing Perspective of Women’s Role in Children’s and Young Adult Literature
Social rules and guidelines specify how a body should be clothed and how it should look. The social rules have made the body a space for expression, oppression and sexual 'commodification'. Being a malleable aspect of the human body, hair has always been worn in a number of ways and this characteristic of hair has made it an essential vehicle for conveying symbolic meaning. Hair, particularly women’s hair has always been considered to be associated with richness and beauty, apart from being associated with sexual power. Society has always had a preoccupation with hair bordering on obsession and has projected its moral and political supremacy by controlling and influencing how an individual wears their hair. Irrespective of the gender of the individual, society has tried to control an individual’s hair to express its control. However, with time, there has been a marked change in the way hair has been used by the individual. Hair has always been the focus of scholarly studies; not just aesthetically, but also in the cultural and social context. The fascination with hair rises from the fact that it is the only part of the human body that is always on display. Fetishization of hair is common in literature and goes ahead to reveal the character’s social and moral status. Modern authors for children and young adults have turned this concept on its head to point out how characters are breaking away from the mould and establishing their personal, moral and social boundaries. This paper will trace the change in hair symbolism in literature for children and young adults to understand how it has changed over the course of the time and what light it throws on the changing pattern of women’s position in society.
Case Study: Linking Career Education to University Education in Japan
Japanese society is experiencing an aging population and declining birth rate along with the popularization of higher education, spread of economic globalization, rapid progress in technical innovation, changes in employment conditions, and emergence of a knowledge-based society. Against this background, interest in career education at Japanese universities has increased in recent years. This paper describes how the government has implemented career education policies in Japan, and introduces the cases of two universities that have successfully linked career education to university education in Japan.
Analyzing the Representations of Afro-Peruvians in National TV Comedy Shows: The Construction of Parody and the Contradictory Responses to Afro-Peruvian TV Characters
Media is believed to be the reflection of Peruvian society. However, the context in which media content is generated not always respond to an accurate representation of its cultural diversity, since many of the contents portray images of cultural minorities (indigenous and Afro-Peruvian) that contribute to the reproduction of negative stereotypes, having an impact on society. The current research paper aims to discuss the use of parody as a way of representing Afro-Peruvian population in the national television, through the reproduction of negative stereotypes and the construction of the black body, specifically relating the analysis to El Negro Mama, a very popular character in Peruvian television thought to be a portrait of the Afro-Peruvian men. In order to analyze these representations, the research will use the theory of simulation and simulacra, explained by James Baudrillard to understand the replacement of reality as a consequence of both of these concepts. This research paper will also focus on the social reaction to the existence of this character, in order to construct a hypothesis based on the theory of cultural hegemony, conceived by Jackson Lears as a legitimized group of patterns and behaviors that shape social interaction. This theoretical framework will be used to explain the popularity of this character among Peruvian society and the reactions caused by the controversy generated by the demands of civil society to remove the character from national television.
Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective
Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.
Forecasting Future Society to Explore Promising Security Technologies
Due to the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT), a substantial transformation is currently happening in the society. As the range of intelligent technologies and services is continuously expanding, ‘things’ are becoming capable of communicating one another and even with people. However, such “Internet of Things” has the technical weakness so that a great amount of such information transferred in real-time may be widely exposed to the threat of security. User’s personal data are a typical example which is faced with a serious security threat. The threats of security will be diversified and arose more frequently because next generation of unfamiliar technology develops. Moreover, as the society is becoming increasingly complex, security vulnerability will be increased as well. In the existing literature, a considerable number of private and public reports that forecast future society have been published as a precedent step of the selection of future technology and the establishment of strategies for competitiveness. Although there are previous studies that forecast security technology, they have focused only on technical issues and overlooked the interrelationships between security technology and social factors are. Therefore, investigations of security threats in the future and security technology that is able to protect people from various threats are required. In response, this study aims to derive potential security threats associated with the development of technology and to explore the security technology that can protect against them. To do this, first of all, private and public reports that forecast future and online documents from technology-related communities are collected. By analyzing the data, future issues are extracted and categorized in terms of STEEP (Society, Technology, Economy, Environment, and Politics), as well as security. Second, the components of potential security threats are developed based on classified future issues. Then, points that the security threats may occur –for example, mobile payment system based on a finger scan technology– are identified. Lastly, alternatives that prevent potential security threats are proposed by matching security threats with points and investigating related security technologies from patent data. Proposed approach can identify the ICT-related latent security menaces and provide the guidelines in the ‘problem – alternative’ form by linking the threat point with security technologies.
Nigerian Movies as a Medium for Repositioning the Nigerian Woman
Over the past two decades, since it came into existence, the Nigerian film industry, also known as Nollywood, has taken a global phenomenon and is reckoned with by most Africans at home or in Diaspora. The themes portrayed in these movies are supposedly made to reflect the social, cultural, economic and religious situations prevalent in Nigeria as well as most African countries. Stories are especially effective in cultural processes because they involve audiences by entertaining them and by challenging them to make sense of the story's symbolic meaning. Using two Nigerian movies, Mammi and Arugba, this paper aims at critically examining the pressures that society places on the Nigerian female and how this same society fails to lend a helping hand in making this possible, but rather turns back to heap blames and question the virtues of the females if, on the long run, these expectations are not met inconsiderate of the circumstances that stood in their ways and how these pressures have stood against the progress of the Nigerian woman. Furthermore, female respondents will be randomly selected and their opinions will be sorted through questionnaires to see what they feel could be done to help in overcoming these challenges and how the movie industry can help in repositioning the Nigerian woman.
Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society
The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.
Smashed Mirror: Immigrant Students’ Constructions of South Africa
The image of post-apartheid South African Society that is reflected in the social mirror of the world is largely one of hope, faith, and aspiration. But is this reality? Utilizing social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this chapter set out to explore the reflection of South African students from the lens of immigrant students. The picture that unfolds is troublesome in its negativity. In this chapter, we establish in detail what this picture is about and what implications it holds for South African Society.
Entrepreneurship under the Effect of Information Technology
An entrepreneur is a manager or the owner of the commercial company that creates resources and money by risking and initiative. The Netpreneur is the capability to run an online business. It needs only the Connectivity. An Entrepreneur, as long as he has a service which the market demands can set up a feasible and viable trade with his Intellectual Capital as the principle input and the Connectivity Infrastructure as the only physical input. The internet is possibly the most significant revolution in science and technology that our generation could fantasize or imagine. It has introduced in various benefits to the society, culture, economics and politics. The entrepreneur is a premium member in the community. She/he provides services to the society and community including employment.
Human Rights in Islam: A Critique on Critiques
The concept of human right is not alien to Islam. The Shari‘ah requires all its followers the sense of responsibility to perform their duties first and then claim their rights. This eventually guarantees the protection of human rights and ensures a peaceful society. The ultimate goal of Shari‘ah is to preserve five basic necessities which are also known as Maqasid ul Shari‘ah or Objectives of Islamic Law. This goal ensures for the members of society their rights without harming public welfare. Despite of the fact that human rights have been fully guaranteed by Islam and their compliance is required by Allah Almighty; not by any legislative body or other sovereign such as kings etc. However, many western writers, organizations and so called liberal thinkers try to create concerns, doubts and misconceptions in minds of the society members. A number of issues are pointed out and people are misguided about the concept of human rights in Islam. This paper aims to discuss main the concept of human rights in the light of perfect and balanced system of laws and principles of Shari‘ah and address those misconceptions and doubts by analyzing them and answering to questions raised about the subject. It would be an effort to prove that human rights are much more significant to Shari‘ah more than any other national or international legislative body.
Preparing Entrepreneurial Women: A Challenge for Indian Education System
Education as the most important resource in any country has multiplying effects on all facets of development in a society. The new social realities, particularly, the interplay between democratization of education; unprecedented developments in the IT sector; emergence of knowledge society, liberalization of economy, and globalization have greatly influenced the educational process of all nations. This turbulence entails upon education to undergo dramatic changes to keep up with the new expectations. Growth of entrepreneurship among Indian women is highly important for empowering them and this is highly essential for the socio-economic development of a society. Unfortunately, in India, there is poor acceptance of entrepreneurship among women as unfounded myths and fears restrain them to be enterprising. To remove these inhibitions, the education system needs to be re-engineered to make entrepreneurship more acceptable. This paper empirically analyses the results of a survey done on around 500 female graduates in North India to measure and evaluate various entrepreneurial traits present in them. A formative model has been devised in this context, which should improve the teaching-learning process in our education system, which can lead to a sustainable growth of women entrepreneurship in India.
Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study
Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine perspectives of classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school drew classmates with disabilities. Drawings were analysed according to the colors children used and the position of the character on paper. Results were analysed using quantitative methodology. Students attending high school fulfilled questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Results were analyzed by qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.
Rasch Analysis in the Development of 'Kohesif-Ques': An Instrument to Measure Social Cohesion
Social cohesion, or closeness among members of society, is an important determinant of population health. A cohesive society is a crucial societal condition for a positive life evaluation and subjective wellbeing, and people living in a cohesive society are happier and more satisfied with life and achieve better health status. The objective of this study was to compose and validate a questionnaire for measuring social cohesion with Rasch analysis. We develop a set of 13 questions to measure 4 dimensions of social cohesion. Random samples of 166 Bandung citizens’ were selected to answer the questionnaire. To evaluate the questionnaire’s validity and reliability, Rasch analysis (a psychometric model for analyzing categorical data on questionnaire responses) was carried out using Winsteps version 3.75.0. Rasch analysis was performed on the response given to 13 items included in the questionnaire. The reliability coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.70, model RMSE 0.08, SD 0.54, separation 7.14, and reliability of 0.98. ‘Kohesif-Ques’ is a useful instrument to assess social cohesion.
Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment
Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.
The Social Reaction to the Wadi Salib Riots (1959) as Reflected in Contemporary Israeli Press
Social reactions to deviant groups with political goals follow two central patterns; one that associates personal characteristics with deviant behavior, and the other that claims that society is to be blamed for deviant behavior. The establishment usually tends towards the former notion and thus disclaims any responsibility for the distress of the underprivileged, while it is usually those who oppose government policies who believe that the fault lies with society. The purpose of the present research was to examine social reactions to the Wadi Salib riots that occurred in Haifa in 1959. These riots represented the first ethnic protest within Israeli society with its ideology of the ingathering of the exiles. The central question was whether this ideology contributed to the development of a different reaction when compared to reactions to similar events abroad. This question was examined by means of analyzing articles in the Israeli press of that period. The Israeli press representing the views of the establishment was at pains to point out that the rioters were criminals, their object being to obstruct the development of society. Opposition party leaders claimed that the rioters lived in poor circumstances, which constituted a direct result of government policies. An analysis of press reports on the Wadi Salib riots indicates a correspondence between the reaction to these events and similar events abroad. Nevertheless, the reaction to the Wadi Salib riots did not only express a conflict between different political camps, but also different symbolic universes. Each group exploited the events at Wadi Salib to prove that their ideology was the legitimate one.
Highlighting Strategies Implemented by Migrant Parents to Support Their Child's Educational and Academic Success in the Host Society
The academic and educational success of migrant students is a current issue in education, especially in western societies such in the province of Quebec, in Canada. For people who immigrate with school-age children, the success of the family’s migratory project is often measured by the benefits drawn by children from the educational institutions of their host society. In order to support the academic achievement of their children, migrant parents try to develop practices that derive from their representations of school and related challenges inspired by the socio-cultural context of their country of origin. These findings lead us to the following question: How does strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the representational distance between school of their country of origin and school of their host society support or not the academic and educational success of their child? In the context of a qualitative exploratory approach, we have made interviews in the French , English and Spanish languages with 32 newly immigrated parents and 10 of their children. Parents were invited to complete a network of free associations about «School in Quebec» as a premise for the interview. The objective of this paper is to present strategies implemented by migrant parents to manage the distance between their representations of schools in their country of origin and in the host society, and to explore the influence of this management on their child’s academic and educational trajectories. Data analysis led us to develop various types of strategies, such as continuity, adaptation, resources mobilization, compensation and "return to basics" strategies. These strategies seem to be part of a continuum from oppositional-conflict scenario, in which parental strategies act as a risk factor, to conciliator-integrator scenario, in which parental strategies act as a protective factor for migrant students’ academic and educational success. In conclusion, we believe that our research helps in highlighting strategies implemented by migrant parents to support their child’s academic and educational success in the host society and also helps in providing a more efficient support to migrant parents and contributes to develop a wider portrait of migrant students’ academic achievement.
Impacts of Electronic Dance Music towards Social Harmony: The Malaysian Perspective
Electronic Dance Music (EDM), a musical event that so sought-after amongst the youth, is getting prevailed around the world. The emergence of this à la mode event has magnetized lots of attentions from the media as well as the public due to its high probabilities in creating social problems and menacing social harmony of one destination, for instance, two death cases occurred during the EDM events in Malaysia caused a feeling of consternation of the society. The arguments over the impacts of such events towards the society are endless. This paper focuses on the study of the impacts of EDM towards social harmony in Klang Valley area, Malaysia by scrutinizing the contradiction of statements from several experts and the local communities. This study sampled 15-20 people that represent different social background with face-to-face and online interview through snowball sampling method. This study helps to understand the social context as a whole based on the impacts of EDM events that take place in Malaysia. It also provides valuable information to EDMs’ organizer as well as local authorities for a proper event management to minimize EDM impacts towards society as part of the sustainable growth of the event industry.
PrEP and Risk: Challenges for an Emerging Sanitary Pact
This article discusses the use and the incorporation of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) within a risk society context. Considering contemporary social theoreticians, we discuss implications of biotechnological uses for health enhancement. Firstly, we explore examples of biological manipulation and its consequences of use on given ecological dynamics, particularly taking into account other Sexually Transmitted Infections. In addition, we discuss how HIV resistance cases occurred with people on PrEP and its possible consequences on population-based interventions. Moreover, we present recent studies that analyze biological modifications on bodies of those who are on consistent use of PrEP, and how these body modifications are addressed on common practices of Public Health. Secondly, we present our theoretical references, which are intended to the analysis that situates our contemporary society in the reflexive stage of modernization. We discuss limits of biological use by individuals and how this can fabric feelings of freedom and autonomy within the individualization process and health. Finally, we argue that biotechnological uses on health, specifically on Public Health, tackling the risk aspects of its application, shows that another sanitary pact is needed.
Conceptual Model Design for E-Readiness of Entrepreneurial City Case Study: Entrepreneurial Cities in Iran
Cities are the principal ground for manifestation of an information society. To create an entrepreneurial city, it is required that just and equal access to opportunities are provided for all segments of the city and technologies are intelligently employed. Furthermore, it is necessary for us to be electronically ready in all political, economic, social, cultural, and technological aspects. Also e-city creates enormous potentials and opportunities for development of the entrepreneurial city. After improvement of e-readiness for establishment of entrepreneurial e-city, potentials, and capitals of the city become productive and more suitable opportunities are offered to citizens, state sectors, and private sectors in order to become entrepreneurs. To create and develop an entrepreneurial city, we need to have readiness to detection and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and finally exploitation of these opportunities which, in turn, lead to use of entrepreneurial events and their quality in the city. In this model, the quality of entrepreneurial events, the productivity of activities, the necessity of reducing the digital gap, positive and active attendance in information society and compatibility and aligning with the global society are emphasized. In an entrepreneurial city, citizens are not help seekers, private sector is not passive, and the government is entrepreneurial.
Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students
In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.
Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study
Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.
Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health
Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.
Belonging without Believing: Life Narratives of Six Social Generations of Members of the Apostolic Society
This article addresses the religious beliefs of members of the Apostolic Society –a Dutch religious community wherein the oldest living members were raised with very different beliefs than those upheld today. Currently, the Apostolic Society is the largest liberal religious community of the Netherlands, consisting of roughly 15,000 members. It is characterized by its close-knit community life and the importance of its apostle: the spiritual leader who writes a weekly letter around which the Sunday morning service is centered. The society sees itself as ‘religious-humanistic’, inspired by its Judeo-Christian roots without being dogmatic. Only a century earlier, the beliefs of the religious community revolved more strongly around the Bible, the apostle is a link to Christ. Also, the community believed in the return of the Lord, resonating with the millenarian roots of community in 1830. Thus, the oldest living members have experienced fundamental changes in beliefs and rituals, yet remained members. This article reveals how members experience(d) their religious beliefs and feelings of belonging to the community, how these may or may not have changed over time, and what role the Apostolic Society played in their lives. The article presents a qualitative research approach based on two main pillars. First, life narrative interviews were conducted, to work inductively and allow different interview topics to emerge. Second, it uses generational theory, in three ways: 1) to select respondents; 2) to guide the interview methodology –by being sensitive to differences in socio-historical context and events experienced during formative years of interviewees of different social generations, and 3) to analyze and contextualize the qualitative interview data. The data were gathered from 27 respondents, belonging to six social generations. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed, using the Atlas.ti software program. First, the elder generations talk about growing up with the Apostolic Society being absolutely central in their daily and spiritual lives. They spent most of their time with fellow members and dedicated their free time to Apostolic activities. The central beliefs of the Apostolic Society were clear and strongly upheld, and they experienced strong belonging. Although they now see the set of central beliefs to be more individually interpretable and are relieved to not have to spend all that time to Apostolic activities anymore, they still regularly attend services and speak longingly of the past with its strong belief and belonging. Second, the younger generations speak of growing up in a non-dogmatic, religious-humanist set of beliefs, but still with a very strong belonging to the religious community. They now go irregularly to services, and talk about belonging, but not as strong as the elderly generations do. Third, across the generations, members spend more time outside of the Apostolic Society than within. The way they speak about their religious beliefs is fluid and differs as much within generations as between: for example, there is no central view on what God is. It seems the experience of members of the Apostolic Society across different generations can now be characterized as belonging without believing.
Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.
, guiding principle
, human resources
, public trust
Adolescents’ Role in Family Buying Decision Making
Buying decision making is a complicated process, in which consumer’s decision is under the impact of others. The buying decision making is directed in a way that they have to act as customers in the society. Media and family are key socialising agents for adolescents’. Moreover, changes in the socio-cultural environment in India necessitate that adolescents’ influence in family’s buying decision-making should be investigated. In comparison to Western society, Indian is quite different, when compared in terms of family composition and structure, behaviour, values and norms which effect adolescents’ buying decision-making.
Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Official Recognition of Palestine State in Europe
Diplomatic public relations gives an ideal concept for recognition of palestine state in all over the europe. The first step of official recognition is approval of palestine state in international political organisations such as United Nations and Nato. So, diplomatic public relations provides a recognition process in communication scale. One of the aims of the study titled “Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Recognition of Palestine State in Europe” is to present some communication projects on diplomatic way. The study also aims at showing communication process at diplomatic level. The most important level of such kind of diplomacy is society based diplomacy. Moreover,The study provides a wider perspective that gives some creative diplomatic communication strategies for attracting society. To persuade the public for official recognition also is key element of this process. The study also finds new communication routes including persuasion techniques for society. All creative projects are supporting parts in original persuasive process of official recognition of Palestine.
Right to Information in Egypt and the Prospects of Renegotiating a New Social Order
Right to information is the public's right to know through having access to public information held by state bodies. Recognized as a cornerstone in transparent, participatory and open democracies, the right to information is increasingly perceived today as an emerging human right on the international level. While this right is conceptualized in a range of different contexts, the paper focuses on its conceptualization as a force for socio-economic change for disadvantaged groups. The paper's goal is study the instrumental capacity of this right in empowering the public to access state-held information pertinent to their socio-economic rights. In this regard, the paper views the right to information as an inclusionary tool that is capable of spurring inclusion for individuals excluded from the ambits of both: public participation and social justice. For exploring this, the paper examines the advocacy role played by civil society groups in furthering this instrumental capacity. In particular, the paper presents a focused account on the Egyptian case. While Egypt has recently adopted its constitutional provision on access to information, doubts arise on Egyptian citizens' genuine ability to access information held by state bodies. The politico-economic environment, long term culture of bureaucratic secrecy, and legal framework do not provide promising outcomes on access to public information. Within the particular context of the Egyptian case, this paper questions the extent to which civil society in Egypt is capable of instrumentally employing the political opportunity offered by the constitutional entitlement to information access for pressuring public authorities to disclose information. Through four lawsuits brought by civil society groups in Egypt, the paper argues that the right to information has instrumentally provided civil society actors with new domains of mobilization for furthering the realization of social and economic rights, and ultimately, for renegotiating a new social order lining the relationship between the Egyptian state and its citizens marginalized by socio-economic imbalances.
A New Profile of Engineer: From Management Engineering to Entrepreneurial Engineering
The relevance and the strategic importance of engineering skills in innovation and in the development of businesses and organizations push to investigate the role of the engineer in society today. In the twentieth century the emergence of a variety of technical and scientific knowledge has led to the rise of new areas of skills going from a "all-comprehensive" engineering to an engineering characterized by many specializations. Organizational and structural changes within companies and the emergence of an industrial society based on multiple interrelationships led to the transformation of engineering education. The objective of this work is to report main steps and many pioneering experiences, both national and international, that have led to establish a graduate degree program in Engineering Management and its subsequent evolution in Entrepreneurial Engineering. The first section of this article focuses on the origins and precursors of Engineering Management education. The second section concerns main Italian education programs. Then the attention is focused on the evolution of Engineering Management in Naples, on the intersectoral nature of this degree program, on the relationship with business community, associations, labor market, small businesses and environment. Finally, the discussion of recent years about the skills that characterize entrepreneurial engineer in society are presented.
Detonating Culture, Statistic and Developmenet in Imo State of Nigeria
In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.
Art and Society: Greek Migrant Artists in Paris during 1970s
From the early 1960s and until the middle of the next decade, the lack of favorable conditions for the development of art along with the imposition of the 1967 military dictatorship resulted in a great flow of Greek artists abroad. The fall of the dictatorship and the change of the political scene after 1974 constitute crucial milestones in the cultural life of the country. In the field of visual arts significant changes are attempted in the state's effort to formulate a national cultural policy. This article examines the presence of Greek migrant artists (painters and sculptors) in Paris during the 1970s. Since the mid-1970s, and particularly in the early 1980s, Modern Greek Diaspora undergoes a new transition phase, when the concept of immigration changes. The aim of this study is to record and give prominence to the presence of the Greek artists -through archival research in the daily and periodical press- as well as present the impact of their artistic activity on French intellectual life and on the country’s society during this period. Furthermore, the presence and work of these artists are discussed in an environment of cultural coexistence which, to a certain extent, can be regarded as the result of the social phenomenon of their migration in the era of postmodernity. Finally, their contribution to the development of the cultural life of Greece, inside and outside its borders, is also being examined.
Social Structure of Corporate Social Responsibility Programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya village is cultivation of mangrove and fishery capital distribution, to achieve the goal the CSR programme needed participation from the society in it. Moeliono in Fahrudin (2011) mentioned that participation from society is based by intrinsic reason from inside people it self and extrinsic reason from the other who related to him. The fundamental connection who caused more boundaries from action which the organization can do called the social structure. The purpose of this research is to know the form of public participation and the social structure typology of the villager and people who is participated in CSR programme. The key actors of the society and key actors of the people who’s participated also can be known. This research use Social Network Analysis method by knew the Rate of Participation, Density and Centrality. The result of the research is people who is involved in the programme is lived in Dusun Pondok Dua and they work in fisheries field. The density value from the participant is 0.516 it’s mean that 51.6% of the people that participated is involved in the same step of CSR programme.
The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Citizens’ Perceptions of Social Justice in China
The Gini coefficient indicates that the inequality of income distribution is rising in China. How individuals viewing the equality of current society is an important predicator of social turbulence. Perceptions of social justice may vary according to the social stratification. People usually use socioeconomic status to identify divisions between social stratifications. The objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of socioeconomic status on citizens’ perceptions of social justice in China. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually reflected by either an SES indicator or a composite of three core dimensions: education, income and occupation. With data collected in the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study uses OLS regression analyses to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and citizens’ perceptions of social justice. This study finds that most Chinese citizens believe that the current society is fair or more than fair. Socioeconomic status (SES) has a positive impact on citizens’ perceptions of social justice, which means individuals with higher indicator of socioeconomic status prefer to believe current society is fair. However, the three core dimensions which are used to measure socioeconomic status (SES) have different influences on perceptions of social justice: First, income helps enhance citizens’ sense of social justice. Second, education weakens citizens’ sense of social justice. Third, compared to the middle occupational status, people of both higher occupational status and lower occupational status have higher levels of perceptions of social justice. Though education creates a negative influence on perceptions of social justice, its effect is much weaker than that of income, which indicates income is a determining factor for enhancing people’s perceptions of social justice in China’s market society. Policy implications are discussed.
The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)
This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.
Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges
Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.
Innovating Development: An Exploratory Study of Social Enterprises in Nigeria
Entrepreneurs are heralded as a very vital force in the growth of economies. This is because they create businesses, employ people, have direct access to the local consumer, and primarily utilize local sources of raw materials, have an understanding of the immediate need of consumers, and they have the capacity to keep in motion the economy. The rise of social enterprises takes these advantages further beyond the business and economic benefits. These Social enterprises help address developmental issues in the society while maintaining a profit for their investors and shareholders. These combined roles create a unique synergy between the civil society and the market, therefore placing the social enterprise in a position where they can access directly, the benefits of the market while meeting the needs of the citizens and their environment. With such a unique position, social enterprises hold a place in the development discourse that has previously been left unexplored. This hybridisation of the functions of civil societies and the market can provide to development, practices, and benefits that have previously been only available in trace amounts. It, therefore, is imperative to understand the efficacy of social enterprises. With the discourse of social enterprises still in its early stages. This paper looks at selected social enterprise cases in Nigeria and analyses their approach and contribution to development.
Transition towards a Market Society: Commodification of Public Health in India and Pakistan
Market Economy can be broadly defined as economic system where supply and demand regulate the economy and in which decisions pertaining to production, consumption, allocation of resources, price and competition are made by collective actions of individuals or organisations with limited government intervention. On the other hand Market Society is one where instead of the economy being embedded in social relations, social relations are embedded in the economy. A market economy becomes a market society when all of land, labour and capital are commodified. This transition also has effect on people’s attitude and values. Such a transition commence impacting the non-material aspect of life such as public education, public health and the like. The inception of neoliberal policies in non-market norms altered the nature of social goods like public health that raised the following questions. What impact would the transition to a market society make on people in terms of accessibility to public health? Is healthcare a commodity that can be subjected to a competitive market place? What kind of private investments are being made in public health and how do private investments alter the nature of a public good like healthcare? This research problem will employ empirical-analytical approach that includes deductive reasoning which will be using the existing concept of market economy and market society as a foundation for the analytical framework and the hypotheses to be examined. The research also intends to inculcate the naturalistic elements of qualitative methodology which refers to studying of real world situations as they unfold. The research will analyse the existing literature available on the subject. Concomitantly the research intends to access the primary literature which includes reports from the World Bank, World Health Organisation (WHO) and the different departments of respective ministries of the countries for the analysis. This paper endeavours to highlight how the issue of commodification of public health would lead to perpetual increase in its inaccessibility leading to stratification of healthcare services where one can avail the better services depending on the extent of one’s ability to pay. Since the fundamental maxim of private investments is to churn out profits, these kinds of trends would pose a detrimental effect on the society at large perpetuating the lacuna between the have and the have-nots.The increasing private investments, both, domestic and foreign, in public health sector are leading to increasing inaccessibility of public health services. Despite the increase in various public health schemes the quality and impact of government public health services are on a continuous decline.
Media Coverage on Child Sexual Abuse in Developing Countries
Print and Broadcast media are considered to be the most powerful social change agents and effective medium that can revolutionize the deter society into the civilized, responsible, composed society. Beside all major roles, imperative role of media is to highlight the human rights’ violation issues in order to provide awareness and to prevent society from the social evils and injustice. So, by pointing out the odds, media can lessen the magnitude of happenings within the society. For centuries, the “Silent Crime” i.e. Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is gulping down the developing countries. This study will explore that how the appropriate Print and Broadcast media coverage can eliminate Child Sexual Abuse from the society. The immense challenge faced by the journalists today; is the accurate and ethical reporting and appropriate coverage to disclose the facts and deliver right message on the right time to lessen the social evils in the developing countries, by not harming the prestige of the victim.
In case of CSA most of the victims and their families are not in favour to expose their children to media due to family norms and respect in the society. Media should focus on in depth information of CSA and use this coverage is to draw attention of the concern authorities to look into the matter for reforms and reviews in the system. Moreover, media as a change agent can bring such issue into the knowledge of the international community to make collective efforts with the affected country to eliminate the ‘Silent Crime’ from the society. The model country selected for this research paper is South Africa. The purpose of this research is not only to examine the existing reporting patterns and content of print and broadcast media coverage of South Africa but also aims to create awareness to eliminate Child Sexual abuse and indirectly to improve the condition of stake holders to overcome this social evil. The literature review method is used to formulate this paper. Trends of media content on CSA will be identified that how much amount and nature of information made available to the public through the media General view of media coverage on child sexual abuse in developing countries like India and Pakistan will also be focused. This research will be limited to the role of print and broadcast media coverage to eliminate child sexual abuse in South Africa. In developing countries, CSA issue needs to be addressed on immediate basis. The study will explore the CSA content of the most influential broadcast and print media outlets of South Africa. Broadcast media will be comprised of TV channels and print media will be comprised of influential newspapers. South Africa is selected as a model for this research paper.
Detonating Culture, Statistics and Development in Imo State of Nigeria
In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.
The Essence of Culture and Religion in Creating Disaster Resilient Societies through Corporate Social Responsibility
In this era where issues like climate change and disasters are the topics of discussion at national and international forums, it is very often that humanity questions the causative role of corporates in such events. It is beyond any doubt that rapid industrialisation and development has taken a toll in the form of climate change and even disasters, in some case. Thus, demanding to fulfill a corporate's responsibilities in the form of rescue and relief in times of disaster, rehabilitation and even mitigation and preparedness to adapt to the oncoming changes is obvious. But how can the responsibilities of the corporates be channelised to ensure all this, i.e., develop a resilient society? More than that, which factors, when emphasised upon, can lead to the holistic development of the society. To answer this query, an extensive literature review was done to identify several enablers like legislations of a nation, the role of brand and reputation, ease of doing Corporate Social Responsibility, mission and vision of an organisation, religion and culture, etc. as a tool for building disaster resilience. A questionnaire survey, interviews with experts and academicians followed by interpretive structural modelling (ISM) were used to construct a multi-hierarchy model depicting the contextual relationship among the identified enablers. The study revealed that culture and religion are the most powerful driver, which affects other enablers either directly or indirectly. Taking cognisance of the fact that an idea of separation between religion and workplace (business) resides subconsciously within the society, the study tries to interpret the outcome of the ISM through the lenses of past researches (The Integrating Box) and explores how it can be leveraged to build a resilient society.
Eradicating Rural Poverty in Nigeria through Entrepreneurship Education
Rural poverty in Nigeria has been the bake of the society. It has been a canker worm which has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. Different models and principles have been applied to eradicate it, such as operation feed the nation, green revolution, NAPEP etc. Little or nothing has been done in the area of entrepreneurship education to tame this monster. It is based on this that the author wants to x-ray the role entrepreneurship education which studies “the process of identifying, bringing a vision to life” could play in the eradication of rural poverty in Nigeria. This will go along in providing appropriate principles for poverty alleviation and eradication in Nigeria. Some selected states in the eastern Geo-political region could be x-rayed in this circumstance. It is hoped that policy makers etc will find the work cogent in formulating and implementing policy decisions.
The Role of Ethical Orientation in Two Countries: Different Outcomes in Perception of Corporate Authenticity and Pro-Firm Behavior Intention
This study identifies and examines the impact of factors on two types of CSR outcomes, consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intentions. Specifically we investigated the roles of two factors - the consumers’ perceptions of CSR motives of a company (i.e. business-oriented vs. society-oriented) and their ethical orientations (i.e. deontology vs. consequentialism). A web-based survey was conducted in South Korea and the United States respectively to compare the differences of consumer reactions between the two countries. The results show that consumers in two countries behave differently to a firm’s CSR motives. In the United States, when consumers perceive a company’s CSR motive as society-oriented, they are more likely to perceive the company authentic and as a result more likely to engage in pro-firm behavior. However, when consumers’ ethical orientation is considered, only consumers’ consequential orientation led to their pro-firm behavioral intention. In South Korea, interpretation of two different CSR motives affects the valence in consumers’ perceptions of corporate authenticity (i.e. society-oriented CSR motive and positive perception of corporate authenticity vs. business-oriented CSR motive and negative perception of corporate authenticity). Korean consumers also showed same pattern in terms of relationship among society-oriented CSR motive, perception of corporate authenticity, and pro-firm behavior intention. Interestingly, Korean consumers’ consequential orientation affects both their perception of corporate authenticity and their pro-firm behavior intention positively. In addition, there was an interaction effect of business-oriented CSR motive and deontological orientation on perception of corporate authenticity. Theoretical and practical implications will be discussed.
The Experience of Grandparenthood among Grandparents of Children with Autism in the Arab–Bedouin Society
Studies have investigated grandparents' perceptions relating to their grandchildren with disabilities. Literature on grandparenthood focuses on the Western grandparents. Autism within the Arab populations has also being investigated. Moreover, the Bedouin population can also be seen in various studies related to different experiences and different perceptions about disabilities in general and among children in particular. However, as far as we know, no studies were found on grand parenting a child with autism in Bedouin society. This study combines three areas of knowledge, to create another knowledge domain. The aim of this study was to learn about the experience of grand parenting an autistic child in the Bedouin Arab society, to examine how it affects the grandparents' relationships, feelings, and functioning within the family, and as individuals, as well as to examine their coping mechanisms and their social support networks. This study is significant and as it examines autism and grandparents among the Bedouin Arab population in Israel, a population that has unique socio-demographic, cultural and traditional characteristics. The study revealed three themes concerning the meaning of grandparenthood to be associated with family continuity, how autism is perceived, and the importance of religion. It also suggests another category – the status of the elderly in the Arab-Bedouin family. It is recognized that the role of the elderly is held in high esteem, and can be affected by the grandchild’s’ autism.
Factors Influencing Disclosure and CSR Spending in Indian Companies: An Econometric Analysis
The New Companies Bill-2013 in India has mandated all the companies with a certain profit to spend on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Despite the Corporate Governance (CG) compliances at the strategic level the firms have to engage in social good. For both the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSE) and the private companies in India the need for strategic CSR focus through operational efficiency measures are mandated. In this paper the focus is to find out if the Indian companies understand their responsibility towards the society despite government making CSR mandatory. Analyzing both the CPSEs and Private companies the researchers find out which set of companies behave responsibly towards the society. Does any particular industry group(s) impact the society by disclosing their CSR spending activities. The key financial and non-financial parameters that influence CSR spending were identified and through econometric analysis methodologies (logistic regression and OLS models) the results were analyzed. The innovative methods were developed to identify if the firms operate efficiently and at the same time complying with the new CSR laws. An innovative matrix was developed to explain how companies could operate efficiently and be compliant in parallel how some of the companies can strategically realign their spending by operating efficiently.
Increasing The Role of Civil Society through LAPOR!: National Complaint Handling System in Indonesia
The role of civil society has become an important issue in national and international level nowadays. Government all over the world started to realize that the involvement of civil society can boost up public services and better policy making. Global Policy Forum stated that there are five good reasons for civil society to be engaged in global governance; (1) to conferring legitimacy on policy decisions; (2) to increasing the pool of policy ideas; (3) to support less powerful governments; (4) countering a lack of political will; and (5) helping states to put nationalism aside. Indonesia also keeps up with this good trend. In November 2011, Indonesian Government set up LAPOR! (means “to report” in Indonesian), an online portal for complaints about public services, which is accessible through its website lapor.ukp.go.id. LAPOR! also accessible through social media (Twitter, Facebook) and text message. This program is an initiative from the government to provide an integrated and accessible portal for the Indonesian public to submit complaints and inquiries as a means of enhancing public participation in national development programs. LAPOR! aims to catalyze public participation as well as to have a more coordinated national complaint handling mechanism. The goal of this program is to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services. Thus, LAPOR! works in a simplest way possible. Public can submit any complaints or report their problem concerning development programs and public services simply through the website, short message services to 1708 and mobile applications for BlackBerry and Android. LAPOR! will then transfer every validated input to relevant institutions to be featured and responded on the website. LAPOR! is now integrated with 81 Ministries, 5 local government, and 44 State Owned Enterprise. Public can also give comments, likes or share them through Facebook and Twitter to have a discussion and to ensure the completeness of the reports.
LAPOR! has unexpectedly contributed to various successful cases concerning public services. So far the portal has over 280,704 registered users, receiving an average of 1,000 reports every day. Government's response rate increase time to time, with 81% of complaints and inquiries have been solved or are being investigated. This paper will examine the effectiveness of LAPOR! as a tools to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services in Indonesia. Beside their promising story, there still are various difficulties that need to be solved. With qualitative approach as methodology for this research, writers will also explore potential improvement of LAPOR! so it can perform effectively as a leading national complaint handling system in Indonesia.
[Keynote Talk]: Swiss Scientific Society for Developing Countries: A Concept of Relationship
Cultural setup is varied from country to country and nation to nation, but the ability to adapt successfully to the new cultural setup may pave the way toward the development of cultural intelligence. Overcoming differences may require to build up our personality with the ability to learn, exchange thoughts, and have a constructive dream. Adaptation processes can be accelerated if we effectively utilize our cultural diversity. This can be done through a unified body or society; people with common goals can collectively work to satisfy their values. Narrowing the gap between developed and developing countries is of prime importance. Many international organizations are trying to resolve these issues by rational and peaceful means. Failing to understand the cultural differences, mentalities, strengths and weaknesses of developed and developing countries led to the collapse of many partnerships. Establishment of a neutral body influenced by developed countries intellectuality and developing countries personality may offer a better understanding and reasonable solutions, suggestions, advice that may assist in narrowing gaps and promote-strengthening relationship between developed and developing countries. The key issues, goals, and potential concepts associated with initiating Swiss scientific society for developing countries as a model to facilitate integration of highly skilled scientists are discussed.
Citizenship Education and Access to Information for Political Socialization and Unity in Nigeria
The main purpose of citizenship education if properly executed is to create awareness and enlightenment in the society to bring tolerance and political unity among the people. For the citizenry to have a meaningful participation for the achievement of this objective in a modern society where democracy thrives, all citizens should also have access to information on all matters affecting their lives and well-being. The paper therefore examines the scope of citizenship education and the complementary role of information providers in the quest for political socialization and national unity. It emphasizes some issues of national unity which should be addressed through proper enlightenment of the citizenry and access to relevant and timely information at the grassroots.
An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society
The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.
Role of Renewable Energy in Foreign Policy of China
China’s dependency on coal for energy is causing pollution in China and abroad. To supply the increasing energy demand and being under the pressure from international society to reduce the emissions, China was pushed to develop renewable energy. The increasing subsidies in Renewable energy sources (RES) led not only to the price-cutting but also affecting the international trade in green technology sector. In order to evaluate the role of RES in foreign policy of China, I am going to give an (i) overview of RES development in China and examine the cooperation between China and (ii) developed, (ii) developing and emerging countries. The conclusive remarks are intended to address the question of how the present Chinese renewable energy development is impacting its foreign policy and international society.
Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City
This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.
[Keynote Talk]: Let Us Move to Ethical Finance: A Case Study of Takaful
Ethicality is essential in our daily activities, including personal and commercial activities. This is evidenced by referring to the historical development of the corporate governance and ethical guidelines. The first corporate governance guideline, i.e. Cadbury Report from U.K. focuses the responsibility of board members towards the shareholders only. Gradually, realising the need to take care of the society and community, stakeholders are now concerns of business entities. Consequently, later codes of corporate governance started extending the responsibility to the other stakeholders in addition to the shareholders. One prevailing corporate governance theory, i.e. stakeholder theory, has been widely used in the research to explore the effects of business entities on society. In addition, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is the leading organisation which promotes social care from businesses for sustainable development. Conventionally, history shows that ethics is key to the long term success of businesses. Many organisations, societies, and regulators give full attention and consideration to ethics. Several countries have introduced ethical codes of conduct to direct trade activities. Similarly, Islam and other religions prohibit the practice of interest, uncertainty, and gambling because of its unethical nature. These prohibited practices are not at all good for the society, business, and any organisation especially as it is detrimental to the well-being of society. In order to avoid unethicality in the finance industry, Shari’ah scholars come out with the idea of Islamic finance which is free from the prohibited elements from the Islamic perspective. It can also be termed ethical finance. This paper highlights how Takaful as one of the Islamic finance products offers fair and just products to the contracting parties and the society. Takaful is framed based on ethical guidelines which are extracted from Shari’ah principles and divine sources such as the Quran and Sunnah. Takaful products have been widely offered all over the world, including in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. It seems that it is gaining acceptance regardless of religion. This is evidence that Takaful is being accepted as an ethical financial product.
Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream
Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users’ needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children’s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.
Effects on Spiritual Intelligence on Young Adult Muslim Female: Integration of Planned Behaviour Theory in Predicting Consumer Attitude towards Halal Cosmetic
Although 'Spiritual Intelligence' (SI) is hard to measure, it is impossible without a noble value that may affect the attitude in purchasing behavior process, so this paper aims to report on a pilot study analysis results in order to evaluate the degree of SI towards consumers’ attitude in purchasing halal cosmetics and, in turn, to reaffirm intention to purchase by using Theory Planned Behaviour (TPB). It is a descriptive cross-sectional study among the Muslim women as the subjects, working and staying in Klang valley area in Malaysia. The purpose of the study is to develop a new measurement scale to unravel and decompose the underlying dimensions of SI from the perspective of the Muslim deemed imperative. About 200 respondents of users and non-users of halal cosmetics are selected. The structure equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the relationships among god, society and self, which are the dimensions of SI. A finding indicates that, in influencing attitude, those who obligate high spiritual intelligence have a good relationship with god, society and self which may influence them to purchase halal cosmetic product. This study offers important findings and implications for future research as it presents a framework on the importance of SI.
Motivation for Higher Education: An Exploration of Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University
The social construction of disability in a Ghanaian society has created a restriction on the development of the academic potentials of persons with disabilities. Ghanaian societal perceptions position persons with disabilities as needy, evil, feeble and 'abnormal' that a person with disability cannot contribute anything meaningful to their own development, society, and the nation as well. Almost all Ghanaian cultures believe the Gods visit evil people with disability as such they erect barriers that limit them to select and enroll in education. The few people with disabilities who gain admission to schools drop out due to these barriers erected by the society and institutions. However, there are very few of these students who are able to pursue their education at the higher education level despite these challenges. This qualitative study explores the motivation of students with disabilities to select and enroll in a Ghanaian university. The study used semi-structured interview to solicit information from students with disabilities in a Ghanaian university. Although the quality of students with disabilities experience was affected by culture, discrimination, marginalisation, and lack of support, the prospect of using themselves as role models, employment opportunities and family impingement were among others that pushed them to embark on their educational journey. The findings of this study have implications for societal and institutional levels for restructuring and refining societal perception and institutional policies on disabilities.
Judicial Institutions in a Post-Conflict Society: Gaining Legitimacy through a Holistic Reform
This paper focuses on how judiciaries in post-conflict society gain legitimacy through reformation. Legitimacy plays a pivotal role in shaping peoples’ behavior to submit to the law and verifies the rightfulness of an organ for taking binding decisions. Among various dynamics, judicial independence, access to justice and behavioral changes of the judicial officials broadly contribute in legitimation of judiciary in general, and the court in particular. Increasing the independence of judiciary through reform limits the interference of governmental branches in judicial issues and protects basic rights of the citizens. Judicial independence does not only matter in institutional terms, individual independence also influences the impartiality and integrity of judges, which can be increased through education and better administration of justice. Finally, access to justice as an intertwined concept both at the legal and moral spectrum of judicial reform avails justice to the citizen and increases the level of public trust and confidence. Efficient legal decisions on fostering such elements through holistic reform create a rule of law atmosphere. Citizens do not accept illegitimate judiciary and do not trust its decisions. Lack of such tolerance and confidence deters the rule of law and, thus, undermines the democratic development of a society.
The Lightener of Love, the World Peace
The current study reveals that Muslim society losing their basics concepts of courtesy which are the part of Islam. It is known that Muslims played a key role for providing piece in society throughout the history. Humanities always accept the changes through time, ideologies, ethics and traditions, various religious changes, culture, social behaviors and social problems, attitudes, political situations, literature, historical stress, economic clashes, wars and daily routine’s life. It also observed that religious people have their mind set due to their different religious teachings. All the religions have their different religious teachings which have different approaches for their followers. All the religions have same lesson of peace and prosperity. After 09/11 the entire scenario changed, even tried to connect terrorism and extremism with Islam and Muslims. It created a gap among religions and there was not attempt to use for reducing that gap. There were many meetings called at different places of religious scholars in different countries, but not able to get acceptable results. It also created a gap within the country in different religious sects. In the last 15 years there were14000 people have been killed from different religious incidents and even in different sects’ activities. The current study based on survey from 25 Imams and 10 Khatibs from South Punjab. The results show that they knew the word interfaith harmony and the role of Imams and Khatibs for peace in the inter-religious societies.
Reclaiming Corporate Social Responsibility: A Research Agenda for Socio-Industrial Interdependence
By many accounts, the most recent economic recession and subsequent lack-luster recovery has demonstrated that corporate social responsibility is in a state of crisis. This crisis represents an opportunity for CSR scholars to play a role in restoring long-term economic growth and consumer confidence. In its current state however, CSR may not be in a position to facilitate positive change. In an attempt to remain relevant, the field has shifted toward a performance-based agenda that demonstrates in practical terms, how CSR can positively affect the financial and strategic performance of the firm. This paper argues that if CSR is to play a central role in helping to create a more equitable balance of power between industry and society, it must demonstrate the symbiotic nature of the relationship between these two entities, not just in terms of compartmentalized strategic and financial gain for the firm, but also toward maintaining a 'do no harm' imperative. Given the evidence that harm done to society is ultimately turned back on the firm, this is not simply a moralistic imperative. In order to affect change, CSR must also create an activist agenda to raise consciousness among the general citizenry toward mobilizing, uncovering, and repairing breeches in the implicit social contract between business and society.
Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs
Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.
Rational Thinking and Forgiveness in Pakistan: The Role of Democratic Values and Mass Media Attitude
Every society has a set of beliefs, norms, values, folkways, mores and laws. All the principles, customs, traditions and procedures of societies are directly or indirectly related to the religion of the society and changed with the passage of time by the mediation of democratic values attitudes and mass media influence. The main objective of the present study is to examine the effects of rational thinking values on forgiveness attitude by the mediation of democratic values and mass media attitude among family members. As many other developing settings, Pakistani society is undergoing a rapid and multifaceted social change, in which traditional thinking coexists and often clashes with modern thinking. Rational thinking attitude has great effects on the forgiveness attitude among family members as well as all the members of Pakistani society. For the present study 520 respondents were sampled from two urban areas of Punjab province; Lahore and Faisalabad, through proportionate random sampling technique. A survey method was used as a technique of data collection and an interview schedule was administered to collect information from the respondents. The results support that the net of other factors, favorable democratic values attitudes are positively associated rational thinking attitudes. The results also provide support that all other things equal, mass media attitudes also have a significant positive effect on rational thinking attitudes. Favorable democratic values attitudes have a significant net positive effect and the effect of mass media attitudes is positive and statistically highly significant. It shows that the effects of both democratic values attitudes and mass media attitudes diminish in magnitude when the rational thinking attitudes scale is included. However, the effect of democratic values remains highly significant. In comparison, the effect of mass media attitudes is only marginally significant.
A Three Step Approach Analysis of the Portrayal of Images of Women in Three Ghanaian Newspapers: Newsone, Ebony and the Mirror
Media portrayal of women in traditional stereotypical roles such as mothers, or seductress has been the norm for years. However, the changing socioeconomic and political environment and advancement of women in today’s society have given rise to questions on the appropriate portrayal of women in the media today. The purpose of the study is to analyze the portrayal of women in Ghanaian newspapers and find women’s perception on the issue. The study uses a three step approach in gathering data for analysis. Using the stratified sampling method, it analyzes front page images of women from 210 issues of the selected newspapers. Further, it administers questionnaires to 100 female students to find out how they relate to the images of women in the selected newspapers. Finally, editors of the newspapers are interviewed to find their rational for portraying women as seen on their front pages. The findings suggest that the newspapers portray women for varied reasons such as promoting sales and influencing the public agenda. Further, the female students claim that in spite of women’s vast contribution to the growth of society, the media continue to marginalize them. They add that such portrayals promote and reinforce social construct, however, refuse to see themselves through the male gaze concept. The study concludes that the stereotyped portrayal of women is likely to continue if the government, regulatory bodies, the media and society do not make a conscious effort to address this problem.
A Comparative Study of Language Used in English Newspaper Dailies of Mumbai in Addressing Disability Related Issues
Mass media may be categorized into print and digital, former being the traditional form of reaching the masses to inform and educate on various issues. The Indian print media is more than two centuries old. Its strengths have largely been shaped by its historical experience and, in particular, by its association with the freedom struggle as well as movements for social emancipation, reform, and amelioration. Therefore, it is highly regarded in the Indian society. Persons with disability are part of Indian Society. Persons with Disability have always been looked down upon and not considered as part of the society. People with disabilities were commonly feared, pitied, and neglected. Much of the literature on disability in India has pointed to the importance of the concept of karma in attitudes to disability, with disability perceived either as punishment for misdeeds in the past lives of the PWD, or the wrongdoings of their parents. Some Indian authors consider the passage of the PWD Act as a landmark step in the history of rehabilitation services in India have put it, ‘At a profoundly serious and spiritual level, disability represents divine justice’. The newspaper has to play a role where it changes this attitude of the people. A short comparative content analysis of two English newspapers of Mumbai edition was selected, to analyze the language that is used for reporting disability issues. Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to gather and analyze data.
A Case Study in Montreal: Strategies Implemented by Immigrant Parents to Support Their Child's Educational and Academic Success: Managing Distance between School in the Country of Origin and School in the Host Society
The academic and educational success of immigrant students is a current issue in education, especially in western societies such in the province of Quebec, in Canada. For people who immigrate with school-age children, the success of the family’s migratory project is often measured by the benefits drawn by children from the educational institutions of their host society. In order to support the academic achievement of their children, immigrant parents try to develop practices that derive from their representations of school and related challenges inspired by the socio-cultural context of their country of origin. These findings lead us to the following question: How does strategies implemented by immigrant parents to manage the representational distance between school of their country of origin and school of the host society support or not the academic and educational success of their child? In the context of a qualitative exploratory approach, we have made interviews in the French-, English- and Spanish-languages with 32 newly immigrated parents and 10 of their children. Parents were invited to complete a network of free associations about «School in Quebec» as a premise for the interview. The objective of this communication is to present strategies implemented by immigrant parents to manage the distance between their representations of schools in their country of origin and in the host society, and to explore the influence of this management on their child’s academic and educational trajectories. Data analysis led us to develop various types of strategies, such as continuity, adaptation, resources mobilization, compensation and "return to basics" strategies. These strategies seem to be part of a continuum from oppositional-conflict scenario, in which parental strategies act as a risk factor, to conciliator-integrator scenario, in which parental strategies act as a protective factor for immigrant students’ academic and educational success. In conclusion, we believe that our research helps in providing a more efficient support to immigrant parents and contributes to develop a wider portrait of immigrant students’ academic achievement. In addition, we think that by improving the experience of immigrant families in Quebec schools, a greater number of migratory projects will be effective.
The Place of Inclusive Education in the Transformative Education of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria
The society has bastion of people with diverse kinds of special needs which invariably affect the kind of education that is provided to this category of children. Most schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities seem not to be achieving the objectives it was set out to achieve. Hence, there is the need to provide transformative education for these children with intellectual disabilities which can only be achieved in an inclusive educational setting. However, achieving this has been a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper, however, dealt with the urgent need for transformative teaching for persons with intellectual disabilities in readiness for them to be accepted in the society and also enhance their self-concept and perception which in turn will make a way for their self-sustenance. Suggestions and recommendations that will better enhance the full implementation of transformative teaching for pupils with intellectual disabilities in an inclusive environment were also made.
Making a Resilient Livable City: Explorations of Smart Management Mechanism for Aging Society’s Disaster Prevention
In the coming of an aging society, the issues of living quality, health care, and social security for the elderly have been gradually taken seriously. In order to maintain favorable living condition, urban societies are also facing the challenge of disasters caused by extreme climate change. However, in the practice of disaster prevention, elderly people are always weak due to their physiological conditions. That is to say, in the planning of resilient urbanism, the aging society is relatively in need of more care. Thus, this research aims to map areas where have high-density elderly population and fragile environmental condition in Taiwan, and to understand the actual situation of disaster prevention management in these areas, so as to provide suggestions for the development of intellectual resilient urban management. The research takes the cities of Taoyuan and Taichung as examples for explorations. According to GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential, the communities of Sihai and Fuyuan in Taoyuan and the communities of Taichang and Nanshih in Taichung are highlighted. In these communities, it can be found that there are more elderly population and less labor population with high-density living condition. In addition, they are located in the areas where they have experienced severe flooding in the recent past. Based on a series of interviews with community organizations, there is only one community out of the four using flood information mobile app and Line messages for the management of disaster prevention, and the others still rely on the traditional approaches that manage the works of disaster prevention by their community security patrol teams and community volunteers. The interview outcome shows that most elderly people are not interested in learning the use of intellectual devices. Therefore, this research suggests to keep doing the GIS mapping of areas with high aging index, high-density population and high flooding potential for grasping the high-risk communities and to help develop smart monitor and forecast systems for disaster prevention practice in these areas. Based on case-study explorations, the research also advises that it is important to develop easy-to-use bottom-up and two-way immediate communication mechanism for the management of aging society’s disaster prevention.
Order vs. Justice: The Cases of Libya and Syria from the Perspective of the English School Theory
This study aims to explicate the functionality of the responsibility to protect (R2P) in terms of order and justice within the context of the main traditions of the English School theory. The conflicts in Libya and Syria and the response of the international society to these crises are analyzed in the pluralism-solidarism dichotomy of the English School. In this regard, the intervention under R2P in Libya exemplifies the solidaristic side emphasizing justice, while the non-intervention in Syria exemplifies the pluralistic side emphasizing order. This study discusses the cases of Libya and Syria on the basis of Great Powers.
“Who Will Marry Me?”: The Marital Status of Disabled Women in India
The stigma attached to disability is very high in India and given its patriarchal society women and their interests have always been pushed to the background. The identity of disabled women is compromised under the social construction of disability which lowers their self-esteem and hampers their development. Disability policies in India have focused on provision of educational and employment opportunities to make them economically productive members of the society. This preoccupation with the materialistic spheres of lives of the disabled has led to a neglect of the private sphere concerning intimate social relationships and motherhood. This paper seeks to bring to forefront the private lives of disabled women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty seven women with physical disability (congenital/acquired) from Odisha, a state in India. Sampling was done in a manner to include women from various strata of the society to allow meaningful analysis. In a society where paramount importance is attached to wifehood and motherhood, the chances of marriage for disabled women were very low compared to disabled men. Majority believed that marriage and having a family was meant for non disabled women and had decided against getting married. Socialization process was found to be a major factor in determining the ideas and aspirations of disabled women. They were clearly sidelined by their families on the issue of marriage. Education and employment levels did not seem to increase the appeal of disabled women to prospective suitors. But not all the women interviewed were closed to the idea of intimate relationships and marriage. Disabled women who were married or hoped to get married in future were found to have a better body image and greater self motivation. It is interesting to understand the means by which these women, who have been brought up to internalize ideas of their unattractiveness, undesirability, asexuality and inability to care, established identities which have so long been denied to them. With these stories of personal triumphs an attempt is made for reclamation of private spheres which have been abandoned by disability policies and make them gender sensitive.
A Study on Children's Literature for Multiracial Asian American Children
American society is a racially diverse society and there are children books that tell the importance of respecting racial differences. Through reading books, children understand the world around them little by little along with their direct interaction with the world in reality. They find role models in books, strive to be like role models, and grow confidence in who they are. Books thus nurture the mind of children. On the other hand, because of their small presence, children books for multiracial Asian American children are scarce. Multiracial Asian American population is increasing but they are still minority in number. The lack of children’s books for these children may deprive the opportunities of them to embrace their multiraciality positively because they cannot find someone like them in any books. Children books for multiracial Asian American are still not that many, but a few have been being published recently. This paper introduces children books for multiracial Asian American children, and examines how they address issues pertaining to these children, and how they could nurture their self-esteem. Many states of the US used to ban interracial marriages and interracial families and their children once were discriminated against in American society. There was even a theory called the hybrid degeneracy theory which claimed that mixed race children were inferior mentally and physically. In this negative social environment, some multiracial Asian American people report that they had trouble embracing their multiracial identity positively. Yet, children books for these children are full of positive messages. This paper will argue the importance of children books for the mental growth of multiracial Asian American children, and how these books can contribute to the development of multiculturalism in the US in general.
A Critical Case Study of Women Police in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India: An Analysis of Work Life Balance of Women in Jharkhand, India
Women of today’s era are well educated and they are best and proficient at their skills that are key to success anywhere. Government played a major role in uplifting women in Indian society. Through all these efforts Indian women decided to move forward and started choosing career path which was itself a challenge in their life. The people in the society had a very hatred feeling for the women who chose a career and moved forward. Women in today’s times have achieved a lot but in reality they have to still travel a long way. Women started leaving the secured domains of their home and moved out, but a harsh, cruel, exploitative world awaits them, where women have to prove their talent against the world who see women as merely vassals of producing children. In spite all modernisation, a woman has her limits and emerges to claim traditional male space, juggling with many family problems and multiple roles to excel at a level that would have been perceived as impossible a generation ago. Still a woman in India is storming traditional male fields. Even the occupation which had male monopoly life defense services, merchant navy, administrative or police services, these are the best examples for women now. If these women are taken under consideration they never had any issues while fighting a battle ,or trying to encroach into the men’s world ,but rather, they adopts themselves in the situation and are good ,trying to justify their roles and proving themselves. The last few decades there have been noticed an enormous growth in levels of education, confidence and the most importantly, ambition noticed towards in women, who all are striving their rights and claiming a dignified place in the society. Previously women were educated for the sake to get married and start new family but nowadays they utilize their skill productively. Since the time after independence, considering both women in India in general and women in Jharkhand in particular has played a very prominent role in all walks of life including the professions. Any success and achievement in any organisation depends on their contribution as well. Due to these consequences, there has always been a need to study and focus light on issues affecting women professionals, empowerment and their work life balance.
Investigating Relationship between Use of Mobile Technologies and Employees’ Creativity
Nowadays, the world is going under a dramatic change from an industry-centered society to an information-centered one. In other words, we are experiencing a transition from real, physical world into a virtual one. Stepping into the information age and running an effective life within the information-centered society demands getting acquainted with characteristics peculiar to such society. Recently, new technologies such as telecommunication and mobile technologies have changed vehemently and accumulation of achievements and information has become so important and brought about changes in occupational structures. The intellectual structure of this day and age depends on deep attention to creative and knowledge-based human resource collaboration instead of merely functioning human resource. Present study scrutinizes the contribution of different dimensions of mobile technologies including perceived use, perceived enjoyment, continuance intention, confirmation and satisfaction to the creativity of personnel. The statistical population included infrastructure communications company employees totaling 2431 persons out of which 331 individuals were chosen as sample based on Morgan and Krejcie table. This research is descriptive and the questionnaire was used for data gathering and it was distributed among those who used telegram application. 228 questionnaires were analyzed by the researcher. Applying SPSS software, Pierson correlation coefficient was analyzed and it was found out that all dimensions of mobile technologies except satisfaction correlate with the creativity of employees.
History, Challenges and Solutions for Social Work Education and Recognition in Vietnam
Currently, social work in Vietnam is entering the first step in the development process to become a true profession with a strong position in society. However, Spirit of helping and sharing of social work has already existed in the daily life of Vietnamese people for a very long time, becoming a precious heritage passed down from ancestors to the next generations while expanding the territory, building and defending for the country. Following the stream of history, charity work in Vietnam has gradually transformed itself towards a more professional work, especially in the last 2 decades. Accordingly, more than 50 universities and educational institutions in Vietnam have been licensed to train social work, ensuring a stronger foundation on human resources working in this field. Despite the strong growth, social work profession, social work education and the recognition of the role of the social workers still need to be fueled to develop, responded to the increasing demand of Vietnam society.
Study on Spatial Structure and Evolvement Process of Traditional Villages’ Courtyard Based on Clannism
The origination and development of Chinese traditional villages have a strong link with clan society. Thousands of traditional villages are constituted by one big family who have the same surname. Villages’ basic social relationships are built on the basis of family kinship. Clan power controls family courtyards’ spatial structure and influences their evolvement process. Compared with other countries, research from perspective of clanism is a particular and universally applicable manner to recognize Chinese traditional villages’ space features. This paper takes traditional villages in astern Zhejiang province as examples, especially a single-clan village named Zoumatang. Through combining rural sociology with architecture, it clarifies the coupling relationship between clan structure and village space, reveals spatial composition and evolvement logic of family courtyards. Clan society pays much attention to the patrilineal kinship and genealogy. In astern Zhejiang province, clan is usually divided to ‘clan-branches-families’ three levels. Its structural relationship looks like pyramid, which results in ‘center-margin’ structure when projecting to villages’ space. Due to the cultural tradition of ancestor worship, family courtyards’ space exist similar ‘center-margin’ structure. Ancestor hall and family temple are respectively the space core of village and courtyard. Other parts of courtyard also shows order of superiority and inferiority. Elder and men must be the first. However, along with the disintegration of clan society, family courtyard gradually appears fragmentation trend. Its spatial structure becomes more and more flexible and its scale becomes smaller and smaller. Living conditions rather than ancestor worship turn out to be primary consideration. As a result, there are different courtyard historical prototype in different historic period. To some extent, Chinese present traditional villages’ conservation ignore the impact of clan society. This paper discovers the social significance of courtyard’s spatial texture and rebuilds the connection between society and space. It is expected to promote Chinese traditional villages’ conservation paying more attention to authenticity which defined in the historical process and integrity which built on the basis of social meaning.
The Use of Online Courses as a Tool for Teaching in Education for Youth and Adults
This paper presents the analysis of the information society as a plural, inclusive and participatory society, where it is necessary to give all citizens, especially young people, the right skills in order to develop skills so that they can understand and use information through of contemporary technologies; well as carry out a critical analysis, using and producing information and all sorts of messages and / or informational language codes. This conviction inspired this article, whose aim is to present current trends in the use of technology in distance education applied as an alternative and / or supplement to classroom teaching for Youth and Adults, concepts and actions, seeking to contribute to its development in the state of Amapá and specifically, the Center for Professional of Amapá Teaching Professor Josinete Oliveira Barroso - CEPAJOB.
Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development
Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which places us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the peculiarities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.
The Impact of Feuerstein Enhancement of Learning Potential to the Integration of Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds into Society
Aim: Aim of this study is to introduce the method of instrumental enrichment to people who works in the helping professions, and show further possibilities of its realization with children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds into society. Methods: We focused on Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment method, its theoretical grounds and practical implementation. We carried out questionnaires and directly observed children from the disadvantaged background in Partizánske district. Results: We outlined the issues of children from disadvantaged social environment and their opportunity of social integration using the method. The findings showed the utility of Feuerstein method. Conclusions: We conclude that Feuerstein methods are very suitable for children from socially disadvantaged background and importance of social workers and special educator co-operation.
Establishing a Cause-Effect Relationship among the Key Success Factors of Healthcare Waste Management in India
The increasing human resource has led to the rapid increment in the generation of healthcare waste across the world. Since, this waste consists of the infectious and hazardous components emerged from the patient care activities in different healthcare facilities; therefore, its proper management becomes vital for mitigating its negative impact on society and environment. The present research work focuses on the identification of the key success factors for developing a successful healthcare waste management plan. In addition, the key success factors have been studied by developing a causal diagram with the help of a decision making trial and evaluation (DEMATEL) approach. The findings of the study would help in the filtration of dominant key success factors which would further help in making a comparative assessment of the waste management plan of different hospitals.
Environmental Problems (with Examples from Georgia)
One of the main issues of state’s economic policy is the environmental problems. The development of society is implementing by the connection with nature. A human being needs different material resources which must be got by the influence on the nature. This relationship between nature and society is complicated and controversial and it was changing from time to time according to human’s evolution. The imprudent and unreasonable usage of natural resources, scientific-technological revolution and the hard pollution of nature related to it caused the disruption of environmental balance between nature and society which has been made for ages and destructively acted on society and environment. Environmental protection is one of the major issues of the European Union all over the world. The aim of EU environmental policy is to improve ecological conditions. Besides, it aims encouraging of careful and rational usage of natural resources. At the same time, the union tries to raise problems related to environmental protection at the international level. After that when scientists concluded anthropogenic impact of human on the nature causes climate changes, the special attention was paid to the environmental protection by developed countries. Global warming will cause floods, storms, draughts and desertification and to solve these results presumably will cost 20% of World GDP by 2050 for developed countries, if, of course, it does not make strict environmental policy. EU member countries have pretty strict environmental standards. Their defense is observed by different state institutions. According to impacts on nature throughout the world the most polluted fumes are made by electricity facilities (44%), transport (20%), industry (18%), domestic and service sector (17%). The special concern to the issues related to the importance of environment by environmentalists is caused by low self-esteem of population about the problems of environment. According to their mind, population is engaged with daily difficulties so that they don’t react much on environmental problems. Correspondingly, the main task for environmental organizations is to inform population and raise self-esteem about environmental issues.
The Role of DNA Evidence in Determining Paternity in India: A Study of Cases from the Legal and Scientific Perspective
A paradigm shift has been noticed in the interpretation of DNA evidence for determining paternity. Sometimes DNA evidence has been accepted while sometimes it was rejected by the Indian Courts. Courts have forwarded various justifications for acceptance and rejection of such evidence through legal and scientific means. Laws have also been changed to accommodate the necessities of society. Balances between both the legal and scientific approaches are required, to make the best possible use of DNA evidence for the well-being of the society. Specifications are to be framed as to when such evidence can be used in the future by pointing out the pros and cons. Judicial trend is to be formulated to find out the present situation. The study of cases of superior courts of India using an analytical and theoretical approach is driving the questions regarding the shared identity of the legal and scientific approaches. To assimilate the differences between the two approaches, the basic differences between them have to be formulated. Revelations are required to access the favorable decisions using the DNA evidence. Reasons are to be forwarded for the unfavorable decisions and the approach preferred in such cases. The outcome of the two methods has to be assessed in relation to the parties to the dispute, the society at large, the researcher and from the judicial point of view. The dependability of the two methods is to be studied in relation to the justice delivery system. A highlight of the chronological study of cases along with the changes in the laws with the aid of presumptions will address the questions of necessity of a method according to the facts and situations. Address is required in this respect whether the legal and scientific forces converge somewhere pushing the traditional identification of paternity towards a fundamental change.
History of Russian Women: The Historical Overview of the Images and Roles of Women in Old and Modern Russia
The status of Russian women has changed dramatically over the course of Russian history and under different leadership and economic, political, and social conditions. The perception of women, their submissive roles, and low social status cause gender conflict that affects society: demographical issues, increased numbers of divorces, alcoholism, drug abuse, and crime. Despite the fact that around the world women are becoming more independent, protected by law, and play more important roles in society, Russian women are still dependent on men financially, socially, and psychologically. This paper critically explores the experience of Russian women over the course of over a thousand year of Russian history and how the position and image of women changed in Russian Empire, Soviet and post-Soviet Russia and what role women play in contemporary Russia. This paper is a result of deep examination of historical and religious literature, mass media, internet sources, and documents. This analysis shows that throughout history, the role and image of women in society have repeatedly varied depending on ideological and social conditions. In particular, the history of Russian women may be divided into five main periods. The first was the period of paganism, when almost all areas of life were open for women and when women were almost equal in social roles with men. During the second period, starting with the beginning of the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the position of women was diminishing due to social transformation to the patriarchal society in which women started playing subordinate role in family and society. The third period – the period from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries - is a period of the total seclusion of Russian women from each part of social life. The fourth, Soviet period started after the Revolution of 1917. During that time, the position of women was drastically changed due to the transformation of traditional gender roles under the Bolshevik government. Woman's role was seen as worker-mothers who had a double duty: a worker and a mother. The final period began after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The restructuring (Perestroika) and post-Restructuring periods have had contradictory consequences and tremendous impact on Russian society. The image of women as partners and equal to men, which was promoted during the Soviet regime, has been replaced with the traditional functionalist views on family and the role of women, in which men and women have different but supposedly complementary roles. Modern Russia, despite publicly stating its commitment to equal rights, during last two decades has been reverting to an older social model with its emphasis on traditional gender roles, patriarchal ideas of dominant masculinity, and adverse attitudes to women, which are further supported and reinforced by the reviving Russian Orthodox Church. As demonstrated in this review, Russian women have never possessed the same rights as men and have always been subordinate to men. During all period of Russian history, patriarchal ideology maintained and reinforced in Russian society has always subjected women to manipulation, oppression, and victimization and portrayed women as not a ‘full human being’.
Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development
Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which place us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the particularities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.
Statistical Scientific Investigation of Popular Cultural Heritage in the Relationship between Astronomy and Weather Conditions in the State of Kuwait
The Kuwaiti society has long been aware of climatic changes and their annual dates and trying to link them to astronomy in an attempt to forecast the future weather conditions. The reason for this concern is that many of the economic, social and living activities of the society depend deeply on the nature of the weather conditions directly and indirectly. In other words, Kuwaiti society, like the case of many human societies, has in the past tried to predict climatic conditions by linking them to astronomy or popular statements to indicate the timing of climate changes. Accordingly, this study was devoted to scientific investigation based on the statistical analysis of climatic data to show the accuracy and compatibility of some of the most important elements of the cultural heritage in relation to climate change and to relate it scientifically to precise climatic measurements for decades. The research has been divided into 10 topics, each topic has been focused on one legacy, whether by linking climate changes to the appearance/disappearance of star or a popular statement inherited through generations, through explain the nature and timing and thereby statistical analysis to indicate the proportion of accuracy based on official climatic data since 1962. The study's conclusion is that the relationship is weak and, in some cases, non-existent between the popular heritage and the actual climatic data. Therefore, it does not have a dependable relationship and a reliable scientific prediction between both the popular heritage and the forecast of weather conditions.
The Characteristics of a Fair and Efficient Tax Auditing Information System as a Tool against Tax Evasion: A Theoretical Framework
Economic growth and social evolution are connected to trust relationships in a society. The quality of the accounting information, the tax information system and the tax audit mechanism evolve multiple benefits in an economy. Tax evasion, the illegal practice where people and companies do not pay taxes, is a crime because of the negative effect in economy and society. In this paper, we describe a theoretical framework on the characteristics of a fair and efficient tax auditing information system which could be a tool against tax evasion, a tool for an economy to grow, especially in countries that face fluctuations in economic activity. We conclude that a fair and efficient tax auditing information system increases the reliability of tax administration, improves taxpayers’ tax compliance and causes a developmental trajectory for the economy.
Multiracial Society and Oral Tradition: A Study through Secondary Data
In the early days, myths and taboos were used by our ancestors to give explanations to the existence of nature and man, as well as to propitiate fortunes and to avoid unluckiness and harm. Myths and taboos are deeply rooted in our cultures and environment, and they form certain characteristics of any society, even in modern societies. With decades of the three main ethnic communities in Singapore – Malay, Indian and Chinese – living together, there has been intermingling and intermixing of traditions and practices. This may mean that what we think is a ‘Malay’ practice is actually one that is a hybrid of the Chinese and Malay. A good example would be the practice of covering all mirrors in a house of mourning. Therefore, the proposed seeks to explore and understand the underlying social influences of Singapore’s oral tradition. As part of a bigger cultural research project: Designing Cultures, the proposed paper focused on using secondary data to contribute to the overall cultural understanding of the integral connections between oral traditions, people and landscapes. The proposed paper will discuss in details the initials findings of the research project, including the two manners that contributed to the intermixing of myths and taboos. The first is the presence of social institutions such as religions, and the second is the presence of cross-cultural minorities such as the Straits Chinese. As well as other observations included the use and influence of Chinese oral traditions such as folklore among the early Chinese immigrants through social institutions.
Alternative Sources of Funding Tertiary Institution in Nigeria
Education has remained the greatest fulcrum on which the developmental aspirations of societies and the world over is Anchored. This has been the case from the antiquity. As a result of recognition of this fact, education occupies a crucial and centripetal position at different epochs of societal formation and transformation. This paper recognized the all-embracing role of education to society and it utilized the literary research and review of literature to espouse on the role of alternative sources of financing education. This position was borne out of the dwindling resources available to education. Especially to finance teaching, learning, research and retraining of staffers. This paper found among other things that alternative funding of education is possible and it can be achieved through selling of its research products like entrepreneurial skills, collaborative ventures in public private partnership, philanthropic of endowments, etc. These are capable of bridging the financial gap currently bedevilling the educational sectors.
Towards a More Inclusive Society: A Study on the Assimilation and Integration of the Migrant Children in Kerala
For the past few years, the state of Kerala has been witnessing a large inflow of migrant workers from other states of the country, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. The in-migration patterns in Kerala have changed over the time with the migrants having a higher residence history bringing their families to the state, thereby making the process more complicated and divergent in its approach. These developments have led to an increase in the young migrant population at least in some parts of the state, which has opened up doubts and questions related to their future in the host society.
At this juncture, the study ponders into the factors that are associated with the assimilation and wellbeing of migrant children in the society of Kerala. As one of the objectives, the study also analyzed the influence and role played by the educational institutions (both public and private) in meeting the needs and aspirations of both the children and their parents. The study gains significance as it tries to identify various impediments that hinder the cognitive skill formation and behaviour patterns of the migrant children in the host society. Data and Methodology: The study is based on the primary data collected through a series of interviews and interactions held with parents, children, and teachers of different educational institutions, including both public and private. The primary survey also made use of research techniques like observation, in-depth interviews, and case study method. The study was conducted in schools in the Kanjikode area of the Palakkad district in Kerala. The findings of the study are on the basis of a survey conducted in four schools and 40 migrant children. Findings: The study found that majority of the children have wholly integrated and assimilated into the host society. The influence of the peer group was quite visible in giving stimulus to the assimilation process. Most of the children do not have any emotional or cultural sentiments attached to their state of origin, and they consider Kerala as their ‘home state’ and the local language (Malayalam) as their ‘mother tongue'. The study could also find that the existing education system in the host society fails to meet the needs and aspirations of migrants as well as that of their children. On a comparative scale, to some extent, private schools have succeeded in fulfiling the special requirements of the migrant children. An interesting point that the study could pinpoint at is that the children of the migrants show better health conditions and wellbeing than compared to the natives, which is usually addressed as an epidemiologic paradox. As a concluding remark, the study recommends the inclusion concept of inclusive education into the education system of the state with giving due emphasis on those who are at higher risk of being excluded or marginalized, along with fostering increased interaction between diverse groups.
Rethinking Political Secularism in Iranian Context: Intellectual Struggle in Post-Reformist Period
Political secularism is different from philosophical secularism in terms of its inclusionary, peaceful, liberal and democratic aspects. Secularism as a political principle not only takes the separation of state and religion as a basis but also it aims to exclude any kind of ethnic, religious, racial, gender domination at the state level. Thus, although political secularism does not see any problem with the visibility and implementation of religious views and symbols in the public sphere, it stands against the fusion of political power and religious views or more generally any kind of identity.
Iranian context especially the post-reformist period, which starts in 2005, shows religious and/or reformist intellectuals try to put forward the political secularism and make it attractable to the large masses. Three prominent figures of reformist intellectualism Abdolkarim Soroush, Mohsen Kadivar and Akbar Ganji form the basic vocabulary of political secularism in the post-reformist period of Iran. Their intellectual and political struggle against the Islamic regime’s anti-democratic policies and actions do carry significance not only for Iranian democracy but also for all Muslim people around the world that demand a more equal, free, and just society. The political and intellectual discourses of Iranian intellectuals indicate that political secularism is a requirement of democratic state and society. In this paper, it is discussed the relationship between political secularism, state, society, and Islam. Thus, it will be argued that secularism as a political principle is increasingly held by Iranian intellectuals to show the relation between secularism and democracy.
Safeguarding Product Quality through Pre-Qualification of Material Manufacturers: A Ship and Offshore Classification Society's Perspective
Despite recent advances in the manufacturing sector, quality issues remain a frequent occurrence, and can result in fatal accidents, equipment downtime, and loss of life. Adequate quality is of high importance in high-risk industries such as sea-going vessels and offshore installations in which third party quality assurance and product control play an important essential role in ensuring manufacturing quality of critical components. Classification societies play a vital role in mitigating risk in these industries by making sure that all the stakeholders i.e. manufacturers, builders, and end users are provided with adequate rules and standards that effectively ensures components produced at a high level of quality based on the area of application and risk of its failure. Quality issues have also been linked to the lack of competence or negligence of stakeholders in supply value chain. However, continued actions and regulatory reforms through modernization of rules and requirements has provided additional tools for purchasers and manufacturers to confront these issues. Included among these tools are updated ‘approval of manufacturer class programs’ aimed at developing and implementing a set of standardized manufacturing quality metrics for use by the manufacturer and verified by the classification society. The establishment and collection of manufacturing and testing requirements described in these programs could provide various stakeholders – from industry to vessel owners – with greater insight into the state of quality at a given manufacturing facility, and allow stakeholders to anticipate better and address quality issues while simultaneously reducing unnecessary failures that are costly to the industry. The publication introduces, explains and discusses critical manufacturing and testing requirements set in a leading class society’s approval of manufacturer regime and its rationale and some case studies.
'English in Tourism' in the Project 'English for Community'
To the movement towards learning community, creating friendly, positive and appropriate learning environments which best suit the local features is the most salient and decisive factor of the development and success of that learning society. With the aim at building such an English language learning community for the inhabitants in Moc Chau - the national tourist zone, Tay Bac University has successfully designed and deployed the program ‘English in Tourism’ in the project ‘English for Community’. With the strong attachment to the local reality and close knit to the certain communicative situations, this program which was carefully designed and compiled with interesting and practical activities, has greatly helped the locals confidently introduce and popularize the natural beauty, unique culture and specific characteristics of Moc Chau to the foreign tourists; in addition, reinforce awareness of the native culture of the local people as well as improve the professional development in tourism and service.
A Series of Teaching Modules to Prepare International Students for Real-World China
Because of China’s continued economic growth and dominance, increasingly many students of Chinese from western countries are interested in pursuing careers related to China. Unless we do more to teach them about contemporary Chinese society and Chinese cultural codes, however, few will be able to do so successfully. Most traditional language textbooks treat these topics only cursorily, and, because of the rapid pace of China’s social and economic development, what they do cover is frequently outdated and insufficient. However, understanding contemporary Chinese society and Chinese cultural codes is essential to successfully negotiating real-world China. The current paper details one of the main ways in which the presenter has dealt with this educational lacuna: the development and implementation of a series of teaching modules for advanced Chinese language classes. Each module explores a particular area, provides resources, and raises questions to engage students in strengthening their language and cultural competencies. The teaching modules address four main areas: (1) Chinese behavioral culture; (2) critical issues in contemporary China; (3) current events in China; and (4) great social transformations in contemporary China. The presenter will also discuss lessons learned and insights gained during the development and implementation process as well as the benefits of using these modules. In addition, the presenter will offer suggestions for the application of these modules, so that other language teachers will be able to make better use of them in their own classrooms.
The Sociological and Legal Study of Sexual Assault in Nigeria
Sexual assault is often considered as the most extreme form of violence that degrades and humiliates women in society. It is a widespread public health and psychological problem in Nigeria. Criminologically, sexual assaults have been considered as one of the several violent crimes targeted specifically at women and perpetrated by men. This paper attempts to examine the types of sexual assaults in Nigeria, the strategies used by the offenders, the causes, the psychological effects on the victims and the possible solutions of sexual assaults. This work also, examines the law prohibiting sexual assault in Nigeria. The authors made use of three theories: the victim precipitation approach, the feminist approach, and the psychological approach which explain why sexual assault takes place in society. Finally, it takes the Stockholm Syndrome into consideration (the treatment of victims).
Creating Shared Value: A Paradigm Shift from Corporate Social Responsibility to Creating Shared Value
Businesses operating in the modern business world are faced with varying challenges; amongst which is the need to ensure that they are performing their societal function of being responsible in the society in which they operate. This responsibility to society is generally termed as corporate social responsibility. For many years, the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was solely philanthropic, where organizations gave ‘charity’ or ‘alms’ to society, without any link to the organization’s mission and objectives. However, there has arisen a shift in the application of CSR from an act of philanthropy to a strategy with a business model engaged in by organizations to create a win-win situation of performing their societal obligation, whilst simultaneously performing their economic obligation. In more recent times, the term has moved from CSR to creating shared value, which is simply corporate policies and practices that enhance the competitiveness of a business organization while simultaneously advancing social and economic conditions in the communities in which the company operates. Creating shared value has in more recent light found more meaning in underdeveloped countries, faced with deep societal challenges that businesses can solve whilst creating economic value. This study thus reviews literature on CSR, conceptualizing the shift to creating shared value and finally viewing its potential significance in Africa’s development.
The Morality of the Sensitive in Adorno: Suffering and Recognition in the Mimesis Model
Adorno's critique of totality, especially in a split society marked by reification, also rests on the impossibility of generalizing normative principles. Given the unfeasibility of normative universalizations, which conditions can justify the possibility of criticism and normativity in Adorno's thought? If reason itself is still entangled in alienation from the model of the domination of nature, how could be possible a critical theory? In political terms, if the notion of totality is challenged by the critique of identity, how can Adorno maintain the ideal of liberation and reconciliation between private interests and the possibility of some sort of ethics without giving up a materialist theory of society and without betting in a necessary link between redemption and history? Faced with this complex of questions, it is intended to reflect on the sense in which the notion of ‘suffering’ could throw help to the epistemological problem of the foundations of criticism in Adorno's work. The idea is that, in contrast to a universalizable model of justice, Adorno mobilizes in the notion of ‘suffering’ a gateway to the critical reflection of society. He would thus develop an approach to moral problems through the sensual-bodily perspective, fear, pain, and somatic factors. Nevertheless, due to the attention to the damaged experience and to the constitution of subjectivity -a sense in which the concept of mimesis continues to stand out- we understand suffering as an expression of an objective reification. Following the statement of other authors, the intention is to think how the resources linked to the idea of ‘suffering’ in Adorno's writings are engaged in the reflection of the problem of morality and of the contradictions between universal and particular (articulated in Hegel's tradition).
Civic E-Participation in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Analysis
Civic participation is an important aspect of democracy. The contemporary model of democracy is based on citizens' participation in political decision-making (deliberative democracy, participatory democracy). This participation takes many forms of activities like display of slogans and symbols, voting, social consultations, political demonstrations, membership in political parties or organizing civil disobedience. The countries of Central and Eastern Europe after 1989 are characterized by great social, economic and political diversity. Civil society is also part of the process of democratization. Civil society, funded by the rule of law, civil rights, such as freedom of speech and association and private ownership, was to play a central role in the development of liberal democracy. Among the many interpretations of concepts, defining the concept of contemporary democracy, one can assume that the terms civil society and democracy, although different in meaning, nowadays overlap. In the post-communist countries, the process of shaping and maturing societies took place in the context of a struggle with a state governed by undemocratic power. State fraud or repudiation of the institution is a representative state, which in the past was the only way to manifest and defend its identity, but after the breakthrough became one of the main obstacles to the development of civil society. In Central and Eastern Europe, there are many obstacles to the development of civil society, for example, the elimination of economic poverty, the implementation of educational campaigns, consciousness-related obstacles, the formation of social capital and the deficit of social activity. Obviously, civil society does not only entail an electoral turnout but a broader participation in the decision-making process, which is impossible without direct and participative democratic institutions. This article considers such broad forms of civic participation and their characteristics in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper is attempts to analyze the functioning of electronic forms of civic participation in Central and Eastern European states. This is not accompanied by a referendum or a referendum initiative, and other forms of political participation, such as public consultations, participative budgets, or e-Government. However, this paper will broadly present electronic administration tools, the application of which results from both legal regulations and increasingly common practice in state and city management. In the comparative analysis, the experiences of post-communist bloc countries will be summed up to indicate the challenges and possible goals for further development of this form of citizen participation in the political process. The author argues that for to function efficiently and effectively, states need to involve their citizens in the political decision-making process, especially with the use of electronic tools.
Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures
After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes the factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, absence of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.
Buddhism and Society: The History and Contribution of Buddhist Education in Taiwan
Buddhist monks and nuns have changed within the dynamic culture of Taiwan that they find themselves in. The diverse cultures, economic development, and advanced educational levels of the island are all part of this. Buddhist education has become an interesting aspect in the history of Taiwanese Buddhism. In recent years, Buddhists in Taiwan have made significant contributions to both academic and religious studies. This paper will focus on the following questions: What is Buddhist education? How does a Buddhist education change monastic role in Taiwanese Buddhism? Finally, how has Buddhist education benefited Taiwanese society? Research indicates that Buddhist education in Taiwan possesses four features: 1. Master teaching disciple: Buddhist masters teach monastic rules to monastic disciples only. 2. Monastic education: It is mainly focused on Buddhist doctrines and sangha rules. 3. From Buddhist education to secular education: Buddhist studies were introduced into secular educational environments that were the beginning for outsiders to study Buddhism. It also opened a door to recruit young college students to enter the monastery. 4. Academic Buddhist training: Buddhist monks and nuns have begun to study at secular colleges in various programs besides Buddhist studies. In recent years, Buddhist colleges and secular universities’ religious studies programs have begun to admit overseas students due to the low birth-rate in Taiwan. Therefore, the relationship between Buddhism and Taiwanese society is dynamic.
Mordechai Vanunu: “The Atomic Spy” as a Nuclear Threat to Discourse in Israeli Society
Using the case of Israeli Atomic Spy Mordechai Vanunu as an example, this study sought to examine social response to political deviance whereby social response can be mobilized in order to achieve social control. Mordechai Vanunu, a junior technician in the Dimona Atomic Research Center, played a normative role in the militaristic discourse while working in the "holy shrine" of the Israeli defense system for many years. At a certain stage, however, Vanunu decided to detach himself from this collective and launched an assault on this top-secret circle. Israeli society in general and the security establishment in particular found this attack intolerable and unforgivable. They presented Vanunu as a ticking time bomb, delegitimized him and portrayed him as "other". In addition, Israeli enforcement authorities imposed myriad prohibitions and sanctions on Vanunu even after his release from prison – "as will be done to he who desecrates holiness." Social response to Vanunu at the time of his capture and trial was studied by conducting a content analysis of six contemporary daily newspapers. The analysis focused on use of language and forms of expression. In contrast with traditional content analysis methodology, this study did not just look at frequency of expressions of ideas and terms in the text and covert content; rather, the text was analyzed as a structural whole, and included examination of style, tone and unusual use of imagery, and more, in order to uncover hidden messages within the text. The social response to this case was extraordinarily intense, not only because in this case of political deviance, involving espionage and treason, Vanunu’s actions comprised a real potential threat to the country, but also because of the threat his behavior posed to the symbolic universe of society. Therefore, the response to this instance of political deviance can be seen as being part of a mechanism of social control aiming to protect world view of society as a whole, as well as to punish the criminal.
Role of Education in the Transference of Global Values
Humans’ identity is not only under the influence of a certain society or social structure but also it is influenced by an international identity. This article is a research on role of education in the manifestation of universally accepted values such as, advancement of science, improvement in the quality of education, preservation of the natural environment, preservation, and spread of peace, exchange of knowledge and technology, equal educational opportunities, benefiting from a universal morality and etc. Therefore, the relation between universal beliefs and values and educational approaches and programs is the first thing to pay attention to. Studies indicate that the first step in achieving the above mentioned goals is offering learning strategies. Therefore the importance of educational approaches and programs as a tool for the transference of ideas, experiences and thoughts becomes quite clear. Proper education gives everyone the opportunity of acquiring knowledge while creating tendency toward social activities paves the way for achieving the universal values.
Oriental Tradition, Taoism:A Critical Option for Peace Building Initiative in the Contemporary Society
The 21st century seems to have been eclipsed by social conflict, giving vent to a mentality construct that accepts conflict as inextricable part of the social system. This is justified by the escalation of conflict in all the zones of the world. We therefore, query whether a peaceful society is a mere illusion? It is in an attempt to give lucid answer to this question that the researcher began critical investigations on various peace building and conflict management models. Here the researcher discovered that these models as good as they may be have not addressed the root of conflicts which revolves on the social structure in place in any society. Hence the current social structure is organized around class system, which gave birth to competition, greed, selfishness, power struggle etc. and also promotes mono-culture based on Euro-American traditions. This placed some cultures on a disadvantageous position, with conflict as its outgrowth. However, the researcher being interested to finding a peace building and conflict management model that will address this gap discovered that Taoism has the seed that can offer the world the desired peace. This tradition anchors on the principles of Tao, Yin-yang and Wu-wei. Basic to the trio concepts are the idea of Pluralism, non-interference, non-action and flowing with the order of nature. This paper, having adopted, historical and sociological methods of investigations opines that if Taoist tradition shall be adopted as a peace building model, the desired peace of our dream shall soon become a reality.
Transnational Rurality: Bridging Two Towns with Renewable Energy
The rural is no longer a space of only agricultural activities that gave into the global market demands; or an idyll to return after retirement; or only a reservoir of cultural values, but rather a vision to redefine the future in terms of production and consumption relations. Gulpınar in Turkey and Ashtarak in Armenia are two towns where a new ground of dialogue between two communities has been initiated: ‘energy democracy’, which is a significant driving force in a sense of gathering people of two historically conflicted communities around common future concerns; and in a sense of transforming the accepted knowledge on the rurality and all the social structures it represents. This paper seeks to provoke a discussion of to what extent such a rurality is attainable by contextualizing – through visits and meetings in person – two towns and two communities within a renewable energy project called 'Under the Same Sun' carried out by two local civil society organizations together at two public spaces.
Framing Opposition to Nuclear Power: Case of Akkuyu Nuclear Power
Although the Akkuyu nuclear power project has been in the planning the Akkuyu nuclear power plant in the Mersin Province of Southern Turkey, recent events have increased its visibility in the Turkish debate. The Fukushima accident, the 2010 nuclear deal with Russia followed by several consequent nuclear revelations of administrative deficiencies, and waste issues all spurted widespread protests across Turkey and have polarized the nation into two camps; supporters and detractors. Those who support a nuclear Turkey include energy entrepreneurs, local investors, and technical experts who are heavily involved in paving the way for the realization of a nuclear project. Civil society activists and environmentalists overwhelmingly oppose the nuclear program. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing how groups opposing nuclear power plants (NPPs) have framed the Akkuyu nuclear project as a dangerous, risky, disadvantageous, and irrational policy choice.
Electronic Transparency in Georgia as a Basis for Development of Electronic Governance
Technological changes have an impact not only on economic but also on social elements of society which in turn has created new challenges for states’ political systems and their regimes. As a result of unprecedented growth of information technologies and communications digital democracy and electronic governance have emerged. Nowadays effective state functioning cannot be imagined without electronic governance. In Georgia, special attention is paid to the development of such new systems and establishment of electronic governance. Therefore, in parallel to intensive development of information technologies an important priority for public sector in Georgia is the development of electronic governance. In spite of the fact that today Georgia with its economic indicators satisfies the standards of western informational society, and major part of its gross domestic product comes from the service sector (59.6%), it still remains a backward country on the world map in terms of information technologies and electronic governance. E-transparency in Georgia should be based on such parameters as government accountability when the government provides citizens information about their activities; e-participation which involves government’s consideration of external expert assessments; cooperation between officials and citizens in order to solve national problems. In order to improve electronic systems the government should actively do the following: Fully develop electronic programs concerning HR and exchange of data between public organizations; develop all possible electronic services; improve existing electronic programs; make electronic services available on different mobile platforms (iPhone, Android, etc.).
The Relationships Between Citizenship Acquisition and Ethnic Identity of Immigrant Women in Taiwan
Many southeast-Asia women migrate to Taiwan by marriage, and it usually takes 4 to 8 years for them to acquire Taiwanese citizenship. This study investigates the relationships between their citizenship acquisition and whether they develop Taiwanese identities. One hundred and ninety-two immigrant women were measured using Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised and a global 10-point ethnic identity question. Correlation tests and hierarchical regression were performed to explore whether acquiring citizenship would help immigrant women to develop Taiwanese identities. The results revealed that citizenship acquisition does help immigrant women to identify with Taiwanese society symbolically. However, the results also indicated that acquiring citizenship would not help these immigrant women become involved in deeper cultural exploration of Taiwan nor would it encourage them to make commitments to the host society.
Traditional Women's Clothes at Tekirdağ Region
Cloth is a special wearing style of a society for a period or of a profession. Clothes reflect the social status difference than the fashion. Within this context, society forms a wearing style in the direction of its customs, usage, traditions and social structure. One of the properties of a society indicating the social levels and cultural differences differing the societies from each other is clothing style. Clothing is one of the most important needs in life depending on the individual and social attributes. The clothing which first emerged as protection means is a social fact complementing the physical and psychological existence of human being, changing forms depending on technological developments and phases, and continuously changing under the affect of fashion today. Clothing is an aesthetic value fed by the feelings of individuals. So, clothing has an indispensable place in the structure and communication of cultural and social identity within this direction. The traditional Turkish clothing has a rich ethnography. It is also possible to see the winds coming from our predecessors in these cultural assets reflecting the feelings and thoughts of Anatolian women. When the long history of our nation and the cultures interacted by our nation are taken into account, it is seen that the magnificence of our nation has also reflected into the clothing culture.For this reason, we tried to keep the traditional women’s clothing of Tekirdağ region alive by investigating and documenting them. In this study, it is purposed to contribute a little bit to protect our culture and form a source for the future generations, to carry our national cultural values from the past up to now and to the future and deliver to the young people.
Role of Social Media for Institutional Branding: Ethics of Communication Review
Currently, the world of communication experiences a rapid development. There are many ways of communication utilized in line with the development of science which creates many technologies that encourage a rapid development of communication system. However, despite giving convenience for the society, the development of communication system is not accompanied by the development of applicable values and regulations. Therefore, it raises many issues regarding false information or hoax which can influence the society’s mindset. This research aims to know the role of social media towards the reputation of an institution using a communication ethics study. It is a qualitative research using interview, observation, and literature study for collecting data. Then, the data will be analyzed using philosophical methods which are hermeneutic and deduction methods. This research is expected to show the role of social media in developing an institutional reputation in ethical review.