Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62293

200
42853
Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population
Abstract:
We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.
199
27905
Proposals for Continuous Quality Improvement of Public Transportation Federal District Using SERVQUAL
Abstract:
The quality of public transport services has been considered as a critical factor by their users and also by users of individual transport. Thus, this dissertation aims to adapt a model that assesses the quality of public transport and determines its level of service based on the views of its users. The methodology is widely used by marketers and allows measuring the quality of services by assessing the perceptions and expectations of users. The adapted SERVQUAL was tested with users of public transport service users and car in Brasília-DF, city of Brazil. This research involved 241 questionnaires answered by people living in the various administrative regions of Brasília-DF. The analysis of the determinants pointed out that the quality of the public transport service offered in the city is low and users of public transport and cars have a high degree of expectations for improvement in all tested determinants. This method enabled the identification of the most critical determinants and those needing strategic actions for continuous improvement of quality. Adapting the SERVQUAL for a public transport service was satisfactory and demonstrated applicability to internal and external services, including measuring the public transport services in other cities with the opinion of the users.
198
19471
Implementation of Total Quality Management in Public Sector: Case of Tunisia
Abstract:
The public administration is currently experiencing in the field of quality unprecedented effervescence. However, in a globalized world more and more competitive, public services are confronted with the need to improve their performances which push public companies to implement quality approaches. Quality approaches have taken diverse forms such as service commitment, labels, certifications and the Common Assessment Framework. This paper provides an overview on the strategy for administrative development in Tunisia since the Carthaginian civilization until today. It outlines the evolution of quality management in the Tunisian public context while focusing on the National Referential of Quality of Administrative Services.
197
42181
Sustainability Study of Government Procurement of Public Services in Guangzhou: a Perspective Based on the Resources Dependence of Social Work
Authors:
Abstract:
The recently prevalent government procurement of public services in China boasts a new form of government’s provision of public service through the purchasing of social work from social organizations, a new measure of the transformation in governmental functions as well as an unprecedented opportunity for the development of social organizations. For the past few years, the phenomenon of a surge in the number of social work organizations and social work staff emerged right with the initiatives of energetically carrying out the purchase of public services by the government. Such efforts have presented the strong determination of the Chinese government in building a small government by streamlining administration and delegating part of the governmental power to social organizations. This paper is based on the 2012-2014 performance appraisal project of the Guangzhou municipal government’s purchasing of public services and the project was carried out in the summer of 2015. During the process of the appraisal, several general problems hindering the sustainable development of government purchasing of public service have been observed. As Guangzhou is among the rank of pioneer cities in the conduct of the reform, it is representative and imperative to study the sustainability of government purchasing of public service. In 2012, Guangzhou local government started contracting out public service to the community social organizations to provide general family services and special services to community residents, since when integrated family service centers and special service centers were established as platforms to provide public social service in a city-wide range. Consequently, taking an example of the current rapid development of government purchase of the integrated family services and special services in Guangzhou, this paper puts up several proposals for the sustainable development of Guangzhou municipal government’s procurement of public services on the perspective of social work’s resource dependence.
196
12500
Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P< 0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.
195
64080
Influencing Factors to Mandatory versus Non-Mandatory E-Government Services Adoption in India: An Empirical Study
Abstract:
Government agencies around the world, including India, are incorporating digital technologies and processes into their day-to-day operations to become more efficient. Despite low internet penetration (around 34.8% of total population) in India, Government of India has made some public services mandatory to access online (e.g. passport, tax filing).This is insisting citizens to access mandatory public services online. However, due to digital divide, all citizens do not have equal access to internet. In light of this, it is an interesting topic to explore how citizens are able to access mandatory online public services. It is important to understand how citizens are adopting these mandatory e-government services and how the adoption behavior of these mandatory e-government services is different or similar to adoption behavior of non-mandatory e-government services. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that influence adoption of mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services in India. A quantitative technique is employed in this study. A conceptual model has been proposed by integrating the influencing factors to adopt e-government services from previous studies. The proposed conceptual model highlights a comprehensive set of potential factors influencing the adoption of e-government services. The proposed model has been validated by keeping in view the local context of Indian society. Online and paper based survey was administered, collected data was analyzed and results have been discussed. A total of 463 valid responses were received and further the responses were analyzed. The research reveals that the influencing factors to adopt e-government services are not same for both mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services. There are some factors that influence adoption of both mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services but there are some which are relevant for either of mandatory and non-mandatory e-government services. The research findings may help government or concerned agencies in successfully implementing e-government services.
194
56683
Satisfaction Evaluation on the Fundamental Public Services for a Large-Scale Indemnificatory Residential Community: A Case Study of Nanjing
Abstract:
In order to solve the housing problem for the low-income families, the construction of affordable housing is booming in China. However, due to various reasons, the service facilities and systems in the indemnificatory residential community meet many problems. This article established a Satisfaction Evaluation System of the Fundamental Public Services for Large-scale Indemnificatory Residential Community based on the national standards and local criteria and developed evaluation methods and processes. At last, in the case of Huagang project in Nanjing, the satisfaction of basic public service is calculated according to a survey of local residents.
193
68895
Predatory Pricing at Services Markets: Incentives, Mechanisms, Standards of Proving, and Remedies
Abstract:
The paper concerns predatory pricing incentives and mechanisms in the markets of services, as well as its anti-competitive effects. As cost estimation at services markets is more complex in comparison to markets of goods, predatory pricing is more difficult to detect in the provision of services. For instance, this is often the case for professional services, which is analyzed in the paper. The special attention is given to employment markets as de-facto main supply markets for professional services markets. Also, the paper concerns such instances as travel agents' services, where predatory pricing may have implications not only on competition but on a wider range of public interest as well. Thus, the paper develops on effective ways to apply competition law rules on predatory pricing to the provision of services.
192
7742
Simple Infrastructure in Measuring Countries e-Government
Abstract:
As alternative to existing e-government measuring models, here proposed a new customer centric, service oriented, simple approach for measuring countries e-Governments. If successfully implemented, built infrastructure will provide a single e-government index number for countries. Main schema is as follows. Country CIO or equal position government official, at the beginning of each year will provide to United Nations dedicated web site 4 numbers on behalf of own country: 1) Ratio of available online public services, to total number of public services, 2) Ratio of interagency inter ministry online public services to total number of available online public services, 3) Ratio of total number of citizen and business entities served online annually to total number of citizen and business entities served annually online and physically on those services, 4) Simple index for geographical spread of online served citizen and business entities. 4 numbers then combined into one index number by mathematical Average function. In addition to 4 numbers 5th number can be introduced as service quality indicator of online public services. If in ordering of countries index number is equal, 5th criteria will be used. Notice: This approach is for country’s current e-government achievement assessment, not for e-government readiness assessment.
191
11088
Measuring Government’s Performance (Services) Oman Service Maturity Model (OSMM)
Abstract:
To measure or asses any government’s efficiency we need to measure the performance of this government in regards to the quality of the service it provides. Using a technological platform in service provision became a trend and a public demand. It is also a public need to make sure these services are aligned to values and to the whole government’s strategy, vision and goals as well. Providing services using technology tools and channels can enhance the internal business process and also help establish many essential values to government services like transparency and excellence, since in order to establish e-services many standards and policies must be put in place to enable the handing over of decision making to a mature system oriented mechanism. There was no doubt that the Sultanate of Oman wanted to enhance its services and move it towards automation and establishes a smart government as well as links its services to life events. Measuring government efficiency is very essential in achieving social security and economic growth, since it can provide a clear dashboard of all projects and improvements. Based on this data we can improve the strategies and align the country goals to them.
190
80157
From E-Government to Cloud-Government Challenges of Jordanian Citizens' Acceptance for Public Services
Abstract:
On the inception of the third millennium, there is much evidence that cloud technologies have become the strategic trend for many governments not only developed countries (e.g., UK, Japan, and USA), but also developing countries (e.g. Malaysia and the Middle East region), who have launched cloud computing movements for enhanced standardization of IT resources, cost reduction, and more efficient public services. Therefore, cloud-based e-government services considered as one of the high priorities for government agencies in Jordan. Although of their phenomenal evolution, government cloud-services still suffering from the adoption challenges of e-government initiatives (e.g. technological, human-aspects, social, and financial) which need to be considered carefully by governments contemplating its implementation. This paper presents a pilot study to investigate the citizens' perception of the extent in which these challenges affect the acceptance and use of cloud computing in Jordanian public sector. Based on the data analysis collected using online survey some important challenges were identified. The results can help to guide successful acceptance of cloud-based e-government services in Jordan.
189
55438
Integrated Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Bus System in Singapore: MRT Ridership and the Provision of Feeder Bus Services
Abstract:
With the aim of improving the quality of life of people of Singapore with provision of better transport services, Land and Transport Authority Singapore recently published its Master Plan 2013. The major objectives mentioned in the plan were to make a comprehensive public transport network with better quality Mass Rapid Transit, bus services along with cycling and walking. MRT is the backbone of the transport system in Singapore, and to promote and increase the MRT ridership, good accessibility to access the MRT stations is a necessity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between MRT ridership and the provision of feeder bus services in Singapore planning areas and also to understand the hub and spoke model adopted by Singapore for provision of transport services. The findings of the study will lead to conclusions made from the Regression model developed by the various factors affecting MRT ridership, and hence will benefit to enhance the services provided by the system.
188
107026
Imputing the Minimum Social Value of Public Healthcare: A General Equilibrium Model of Israel
Abstract:
The rising demand for healthcare services, without a corresponding rise in public supply, led to a debate on whether to increase private healthcare provision - especially in hospital services and second-tier healthcare. Proponents for increasing private healthcare highlight gains in efficiency, while opponents its risk to social welfare. None, however, provide a measure of the social value and its impact on the economy in terms of a monetary value. In this paper, we impute a minimum social value of public healthcare that corresponds to indifference between gains in efficiency, with losses to social welfare. Our approach resembles contingent valuation methods that introduce a hypothetical market for non-commodities, but is different from them because we use numerical simulation techniques to exploit certain market failure conditions. In this paper, we develop a general equilibrium model that distinguishes between public-private healthcare services and public-private financing. Furthermore, the social value is modelled as a by product of healthcare services. The model is then calibrated to our unique health focused Social Accounting Matrix of Israel, and simulates the introduction of a hypothetical health-labour market - given that it is heavily regulated in the baseline (i.e., the true situation in Israel today). For baseline parameters, we estimate the minimum social value at around 18% public healthcare financing. The intuition is that the gain in economic welfare from improved efficiency, is offset by the loss in social welfare due to a reduction in available social value. We furthermore simulate a deregulated healthcare scenario that internalizes the imputed value of social value and searches for the optimal weight of public and private healthcare provision.
187
39167
Regional Problems of Electronic Governance in Autonomous Republic of Adjara
Abstract:
Research has shown that public institutions in Autonomous Republic of Ajara try their best to make their official electronic data (web-pages, social websites) more informative and improve them. Part of public institutions offer interesting electronic services and initiatives to the public although they are seldom used in communication process. The statistical analysis of the use of web-pages and social websites of public institutions for example their facebook page show lack of activity. The reason could be the fact that public institutions give people less possibility of interaction in official web-pages. Second reason could be the fact that these web-pages are less known to the public and the third reason could be the fact that heads of these institutions lack awareness about the necessity of strengthening citizens’ involvement. In order to increase people’s involvement in this process it is necessary to have at least 23 e-services in one web-page. The research has shown that 11 of the 16 public institutions have only 5 services which are contact, social networks and hotline. Besides introducing innovative services government institutions should evaluate them and make them popular and easily accessible for the public. It would be easy to solve this problem if public institutions had concrete strategic plan of public relations which involved matters connected with maximum usage of electronic services while interaction with citizens. For this moment only one governmental body has a functioning action plan of public relations. As a result of the research organizational, social, methodological and technical problems have been revealed. It should be considered that there are many feedback possibilities like forum, RSS, blogs, wiki, twitter, social networks, etc. usage of only one or three of such instruments indicate that there is no strategy of regional electronic governance. It is necessary to develop more mechanisms of feedback which will increase electronic interaction, discussions and it is necessary to introduce the service of online petitions. It is important to reduce the so-called “digital inequality” and increase internet access for the public. State actions should decrease such problems. In the end if such shortcomings will be improved the role of electronic interactions in democratic processes will increase.
186
8430
The Impact of Quality Management System Establishment over the Performance of Public Administration Services in Kosovo
Abstract:
Quality and quality management are key factors of success nowadays. Public sector and quality management in this sector contains many challenges and difficulties, most notably in a new country like Kosovo. This study analyses the process of implementation of quality management system in public administration institutions in this country. The main objective is to show how to set up a quality management system and how does the quality management system setup affect the overall public administration services in Kosovo. This study shows how the efficiency and effectiveness of public institution services/performance is rapidly improving through the establishment and functionalization of Quality Management System. The specific impact of established QMC within the organization has resulted with the identification of mission related processes within the entire system including input identification, the person in charge and the way of conversion to the output of each activity though the interference with other service processes within the system. By giving detailed analyses of all steps of implementation of the Quality Management System, its effect and consequences towards the overall public institution service performance, we try to go one step further, by showing it as a very good example or tool of other public institutions for improving their service performance. Interviews with employees, middle and high level managers including the quality manager and general secretaries are also part of analyses in this paper.
185
91097
Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province
Abstract:
The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.
184
50280
Development of Electronic Services in Georgia: Analysis of Current Situation
Abstract:
Public online services in Georgia are concentrated on main target segments: public administration, business, population, non-governmental and other interested organizations. Therefore, the strategy of digital Georgia is focused on providing G2C, G2B/B2G, G2NGO and G2G services. In G2C framework sophisticated and high-technological online services have been developed in order to provide passports, identity cards, documentations concerning residence and civil acts (birth, marriage, divorce, child adoption, change of name and surname, death, etc) as well as other services. Websites like my.gov.ge and sda.gov.ge have distance services like electronic application, processing and decision making. In line with international standards automatic services like electronic tenders, product catalogues, invoices and payment have been developed. This creates better investment climate for foreign companies in Georgia in the framework of G2B politics. The website mybusiness.gov.ge creates better conditions for local business. Among electronic services is e-NRMS (electronic system for national resource management) which was introduced by the Ministry of Finance of Georgia. The system was created in order to ensure management of national resources by state and business organizations. It is integrated with bank services and provides G2C, G2B and B2G representatives with electronic services. Also a portal meteo.gov.ge was created which gives electronic services concerning air, geological, environmental and pollution issues. Also worknet.gov.ge should be mentioned which is an electronic hub of information management for employers and employees. The information portal of labor market will facilitate receipt of information, its analysis and delivery to interested people like employers and employees. However, nowadays it’s been two years that only employees portal is activated. Therefore, awareness about the portal, its competitiveness and success is undermined.
183
26130
Analysis of Farmer's Involvement in Public and Private Extension Services in Southwestern Nigeria
Abstract:
There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. This study was designed to examine farmers’ involvement in public and private extension services in southwestern Nigeria, specifically to explore the farmers’ participation in the two types of organizations involved. It also evaluates the performances of personnel in the organizations. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected with interview schedule and analyzed both at descriptive and inferential levels. Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the participation of beneficiaries who are farmers under the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued to them from the various extension organizations involved in the study. Results revealed that private extension organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2 = 0.709) S no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however showed significant difference (X2 =12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations. These include: increased quantity of crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly privatization in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots in production, processing and marketing of agricultural produce.
182
3944
Public and Private Involvement in Agricultural Extension Services: Factors of Farmers’ Preference in Southwestern Nigeria
Abstract:
There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. The study was therefore designed to examine the farmers’ preference for public and private extension services in Southwestern Nigeria, specifically to determine the farmers’ level of participation in the two types of organizations involved and also to evaluate the Performance level of personnel in the two organizations in order to ascertain the beneficiaries’ satisfaction. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to samples 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in each of the three states sampled in Southwestern Nigeria. Hence, 270 respondents were sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance to test the difference between the participation of beneficiaries in the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued from the two organizations involved in the study. Results generally revealed that private organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2=0.709) indicates no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however shows significant difference (X2=12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations, such benefits include: increased quantity of Crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved Education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly “merging” of public and private sectors in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots both in production and processing.
181
65587
The Impact of the Fitness Center Ownership Structure on the Service Quality Perception in the Fitness in Serbia
Abstract:
As with the provision of other services, the service quality perception is one of the key factors that the modern manager must pay attention to. Countries in which the state regulation is in transition also have specific features in providing fitness services. Identification of the dimensions in which the most significant different service quality perception between different types of fitness centers, enables managers to profile the offer according to the wishes and expectations of users. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the quality of services perception in the field of fitness in Serbia between three categories of fitness centers: the privately owned centers, the publicly owned centers, and the Public-private partnership centers. For this research 350 respondents of both genders (174 men and 176 women) were interviewed, aged between 18 and 68 years, being beneficiaries of fitness services for at least 1 year. Administered questionnaire with 100 items provided information about the 15 basic areas in which they expressed the service quality perception in the gym. The core sample was composed of 212 service users in private fitness centers, 69 service users in public fitness centers and 69 service users in the public-private partnership. Sub-samples were equal in representation of women and men, as well as by age and length of use of fitness services. The obtained results were subject of univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric analysis of variance. Significant differences between the analyzed sub-samples were not found solely in the areas of rapid response and quality outcomes. In the multivariate model, the results were processed by backward stepwise discriminant analysis that extracted 3 areas that maximize the differences between sub-samples: material and technical basis, secondary facilities and coaches. By applying the classification function 93.87% of private centers services users, 62.32% of public centers services users and 85.51% of the public-private partnership centers users of services were correctly classified (total 86.00%). These results allow optimizing the allocation of the necessary resources in profiling offers of a fitness center in order to optimally adjust it to the user’s needs and expectations.
180
41634
Problems concerning Legal Regulation of Electronic Governance in Georgia
Abstract:
In the legal framework of regulation of electronic governance, those norms are considered which include measures for improvement of functions of public institutions and a complex of actions for raising their standard such as websites of public institutions, online services, some forms of internet interactions and higher level of internet services. An important legal basis for electronic governance in Georgia is Georgian Law about Electronic Communications which defines legal and economic basis for utilizing electronic communication systems in Georgia. As for single electronic basis for e-governance regulation, it can be said that it does not exist at all. The official websites of public institutions do not have standards for proactive spreading of information. At the same time, there is no common legal norm which would make all public institutions have an official website for public relations, accountability, publicity, and raising information quality. Electronic governance in Georgia needs comprehensive legal regulation. Public administration in electronic form is on the initial stage of development. Currently existing legal basis has a low quality for public institutions and officials as well as citizens and business. Services of e-involvement and e-consultation have also low quality. So far there is no established legal framework for e-governance. Therefore, a single legislative system of e-governance should be created which will help develop effective, comprehensive and multi component electronic systems in the country (central, regional, local levels). Such comprehensive legal framework will provide relevant technological, institutional, and informational conditions.
179
78156
Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia
Abstract:
Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.
178
75502
Qualitative Data Analysis for Health Care Services
Abstract:
This study was designed enable application of multivariate technique in the interpretation of categorical data for measuring health care services satisfaction in Turkey. The data was collected from a total of 17726 respondents. The establishment of the sample group and collection of the data were carried out by a joint team from The Ministry of Health and Turkish Statistical Institute (Turk Stat) of Turkey. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used on the data of 2882 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full. The multiple correspondence analysis indicated that, in the evaluation of health services females, public employees, younger and more highly educated individuals were more concerned and complainant than males, private sector employees, older and less educated individuals. Overall 53 % of the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services in the past three years. This study demonstrates the public consciousness in health services and health care satisfaction in Turkey. It was found that most the respondents were pleased with the improvements in health care services over the past three years. Awareness of health service quality increases with education levels. Older individuals and males would appear to have lower expectancies in health services.
177
19346
Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia
Abstract:
E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.
176
78828
Determinants of E-Government Services Adoption from the African Students’ Perspective
Abstract:
The patronage of e-government services (demand side of e-government) is vital to the successful implementation of e-government initiatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors determining the willingness of African students in China to adopt and use e-government services. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this research. Research instrument will be developed and administered to 500 African students in China. Factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and culture will be investigated to determine its significant impact on the willingness to use e-government services. This study is a research in progress. The outcome of this study will provide valuable recommendations to improve the provision of public services through e-government.
175
60969
Adoption and Diffusion of E-Government Services in India: The Impact of User Demographics and Service Quality
Abstract:
This study attempts to analyze the impact of demography and service quality on the adoption and diffusion of e-Government services in the context of India. The objective of this paper is to study the users&#39; perception about e-Government services and investigate the key variables that are most salient to the Indian populace. At the completion of this study, a research model that would help to understand the relationship involving the demographic variables and service quality dimensions, and the willingness to adopt e-Government services is expected to be developed. Dedicated authorities, particularly those in developing economies, may use that model or its augmented versions to design and update e-Government services and promote their use among citizens. After all, enhanced public participation is required to improve efficiency, engagement and transparency in the implementation of the aforementioned services.
174
27719
Increasing The Role of Civil Society through LAPOR!: National Complaint Handling System in Indonesia
Abstract:
The role of civil society has become an important issue in national and international level nowadays. Government all over the world started to realize that the involvement of civil society can boost up public services and better policy making. Global Policy Forum stated that there are five good reasons for civil society to be engaged in global governance; (1) to conferring legitimacy on policy decisions; (2) to increasing the pool of policy ideas; (3) to support less powerful governments; (4) countering a lack of political will; and (5) helping states to put nationalism aside. Indonesia also keeps up with this good trend. In November 2011, Indonesian Government set up LAPOR! (means “to report” in Indonesian), an online portal for complaints about public services, which is accessible through its website lapor.ukp.go.id. LAPOR! also accessible through social media (Twitter, Facebook) and text message. This program is an initiative from the government to provide an integrated and accessible portal for the Indonesian public to submit complaints and inquiries as a means of enhancing public participation in national development programs. LAPOR! aims to catalyze public participation as well as to have a more coordinated national complaint handling mechanism. The goal of this program is to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services. Thus, LAPOR! works in a simplest way possible. Public can submit any complaints or report their problem concerning development programs and public services simply through the website, short message services to 1708 and mobile applications for BlackBerry and Android. LAPOR! will then transfer every validated input to relevant institutions to be featured and responded on the website. LAPOR! is now integrated with 81 Ministries, 5 local government, and 44 State Owned Enterprise. Public can also give comments, likes or share them through Facebook and Twitter to have a discussion and to ensure the completeness of the reports. LAPOR! has unexpectedly contributed to various successful cases concerning public services. So far the portal has over 280,704 registered users, receiving an average of 1,000 reports every day. Government's response rate increase time to time, with 81% of complaints and inquiries have been solved or are being investigated. This paper will examine the effectiveness of LAPOR! as a tools to increase the role of civil society in order to develop better public services in Indonesia. Beside their promising story, there still are various difficulties that need to be solved. With qualitative approach as methodology for this research, writers will also explore potential improvement of LAPOR! so it can perform effectively as a leading national complaint handling system in Indonesia.
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Improving Public Service Delivery by E-Governance
Abstract:
Governments of the countries around the world have started utilizing the potential of technology to deliver online information and services to their citizens. Using ICT in the form of e-governance could yield great benefits in the reform and modernization of the public sector. The experience of e-governance in a number of developed and developing countries has shown that ICT can be a tool for greater service delivery with the goal of improving service quality. E-governance can also promote ‘good governance’, greater civic engagement can increase opportunities for direct representation and voice, and support for increased democracy. This paper discusses and presents the survey findings that seek to test the role of e-governance in improving service delivery by altering the principal-agent relationship. It further seeks to elucidate the quality aspects of public service. Strong leadership is required to implement e-governance to capture and internalize the benefits of quality services and satisfied citizens.
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57587
Perceived Ease-of-Use and Intention to Use E-Government Services in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Perceived Usefulness
Abstract:
Public sector organizations, ministries, departments and local government agencies are adopting e-government as a means to provide efficient and quality service delivery to citizens. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the extent to which perceived usefulness (PU) of e-government services moderates between perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of e-government services and intention to use (IU) e-government services in Ghana. A structured research questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 700 potential respondents in Ghana, of which 693 responded, representing 99% of the questionnaires distributed. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to capture and analyze the data. The results indicate that even though predictors such as PU and PEOU are main determiners of citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Ghana, it failed to show that PEOU and IU e-government services in Ghana is significantly moderated by the PU of e-government services. The implication of this finding on theory and practice is further discussed.
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59860
Public Values in Service Innovation Management: Case Study in Elderly Care in Danish Municipality
Abstract:
Background: The importance of innovation management has traditionally been ascribed to private production companies, however, there is an increasing interest in public services innovation management. One of the major theoretical challenges arising from this situation is to understand public values justifying public services innovation management. However, there is not single and stable definition of public value in the literature. The research question guiding this paper is: What is the supposed added value operating in the public sphere? Methodology: The study takes an action research strategy. This is highly contextualized methodology, which is enacted within a particular set of social relations into which on expects to integrate the results. As such, this research strategy is particularly well suited for its potential to generate results that can be applied by managers. The aim of action research is to produce proposals with a creative dimension capable of compelling actors to act in a new and pertinent way in relation to the situations they encounter. The context of the study is a workshop on public services innovation within elderly care. The workshop brought together different actors, such as managers, personnel and two groups of users-citizens (elderly clients and their relatives). The process was designed as an extension of the co-construction methods inherent in action research. Scenario methods and focus groups were applied to generate dialogue. The main strength of these techniques is to gather and exploit as much data as possible by exposing the discourse of justification used by the actors to explain or justify their points of view when interacting with others on a given subject. The approach does not directly interrogate the actors on their values, but allows their values to emerge through debate and dialogue. Findings: The public values related to public services innovation management in elderly care were identified in two steps. In the first step, identification of values, values were identified in the discussions. Through continuous analysis of the data, a network of interrelated values was developed. In the second step, tracking group consensus, we then ascertained the degree to which the meaning attributed to the value was common to the participants, classifying the degree of consensus as high, intermediate or low. High consensus corresponds to strong convergence in meaning, intermediate to generally shared meanings between participants, and low to divergences regarding the meaning between participants. Only values with high or intermediate degree of consensus were retained in the analysis. Conclusion: The study shows that the fundamental criterion for justifying public services innovation management is the capacity for actors to enact public values in their work. In the workshop, we identified two categories of public values, intrinsic value and behavioural values, and a list of more specific values.
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85034
Good Banks, Bad Banks, and Public Scrutiny: The Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Times of Financial Volatility
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This article examines the relationship between the global financial crisis and corporate social responsibility activities of financial services firms. It challenges the general consensus in existing studies that firms, when faced with economic hardship, tend to jettison CSR commitments. Instead, and building on recent insights into the institutional determinants of CSR, it is argued that firms are constrained in their ability to abandon CSR by the extent to which they are subject to intense public scrutiny by regulators and the news media. This argument is tested in the context of the European sovereign debt crisis drawing on a unique dataset of 170 firms in 15 different countries over a six-year period. Controlling for a battery of alternative explanations and comparing financial service providers to firms operating in other economic sectors, results indicate considerable evidence supporting the main argument. Rather than abandoning CSR during times of economic hardship, financial industry firms ramp up their CSR commitments in order to manage their public image and foster public trust in light of intense public scrutiny.
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62482
Cost of Outpatient Procedures for Ostomized Patients Treated in the Public Health Network in Brazil and Its Impact on the Budget of the Unified Health System
Abstract:
This study has the purpose of planning and instituting monitoring actions as a way of knowing the scenario of assistance to the patient with stoma, treated in the public health network in Brazil, from January to November of the year 2016, from the elaboration of a technical document containing the survey of the number of procedures offered and the value of the ostomy services, accredited in the Unified Health System-SUS. The purpose of this document is to improve the quality of these services in the efficient management of available financial resources, making it indispensable for the creation of strategies for the implementation and implementation of care services for people with stomata as a strategic tool in the promotion, prevention, qualification and efficiency in health care.
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69350
Public-Public Partnership and Tourism Development Strategy: The Case of Municipality of Gazi Baba in Macedonia
Abstract:
Tourism development strategies are an important link in the tourism policy that is used to make its management better and easier. A public-public partnership (PUP) is a partnership between two or more public authorities or between a public authority and any non-profit organization with the goal of providing services and facilities or transferring technical skills. The paper presents this kind of partnership between two public authorities in Macedonia, the Municipality of Gazi Baba on one hand, and the University of Goce Delcev on the other. The main idea of this partnership is the development of a tourism strategy for the Municipality of Gazi Baba by the University on one side, and on the other, the construction of a mini park in the court of the University by the Municipality. This paper presents the causes and analyzes the procedures relating to this partnership and the methodology of the tourism development strategy. It contains a relevant literature review related to PUPs and tourism development strategy. The results and benefits of this partnership are presented with figures.
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2250
Cost-Effective Hybrid Cloud Framework for HEI’s
Abstract:
Present Financial crisis in Higher Educational Institutes (HEIs) facing lots of problems considerable budget cuts, make difficult to meet the ever growing IT-based research and learning needs, institutions are rapidly planning and promoting cloud-based approaches for their academic and research needs. A cost effective Hybrid Cloud framework for HEI’s will provide educational services for campus or intercampus communication. Hybrid Cloud Framework comprises Private and Public Cloud approaches. This paper will propose the framework based on the Open Source Cloud (OpenNebula for Virtualization, Eucalyptus for Infrastructure, and Aneka for programming development environment) combined with CSP’s services which are delivered to the end-user via the Internet from public clouds.
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35187
Overview of E-government Adoption and Implementation in Ghana
Abstract:
E-government has been adopted and used by many governments/countries around the world including Ghana to provide citizens and businesses with more accurate, real-time, and high quality services and information. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the Government of Ghana’s (GoG) adoption and implement of e-government and its usage by the Ministries, Departments and its agencies (MDAs) as well as other public sector institutions to deliver efficient public service to the general public i.e. citizens, business etc. Government implementation of e-government focused on facilitating effective delivery of government service to the public and ultimately to provide efficient government-wide electronic means of sharing information and knowledge through a network infrastructure developed to connect all major towns and cities, Ministries, Departments and Agencies and other public sector organizations in Ghana. One aim for the Government of Ghana use of ICT in public administration is to improve productivity in government administration and service by facilitating the exchange of information to enable better interaction and coordination of work among MDAs, citizens and private businesses. The study was prepared using secondary sources of data from government policy documents, national and international published reports, journal articles, and web sources. This study indicates that through the e-government initiative, currently citizens and businesses can access and pay for services such as renewal of driving license, business registration, payment of taxes, acquisition of marriage and birth certificates as well as application for passport through the GoG electronic service (eservice) and electronic payment (epay) portal. Further, this study shows that there is an enormous commitment from GoG to adopt and implement e-government as a tool not only to transform the business of government but also to bring efficiency in public services delivered by the MDAs. To ascertain this, a further study need to be carried out to determine if the use of e-government has brought about the anticipated improvements and efficiency in service delivery of MDAs and other state institutions in Ghana.
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108752
Microclimate Variations in Rio de Janeiro Related to Massive Public Transportation
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Urban public transportation in Rio de Janeiro is based on bus lines, powered by diesel, and four limited metro lines that support only some neighborhoods. This work presents an infrastructure built to better understand microclimate variations related to massive urban transportation in some specific areas of the city. The use of sensor nodes with small analytics capacity provides environmental information to population or public services. The analyses of data collected from a few small sensors positioned near some heavy traffic streets show the harmful impact due to poor bus route plan.
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13584
Local Politics in Taiwan: The Comparison among Magistrates’ Administrative Satisfaction
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Abstract:
The efficiency of public policies depends on customer's satisfaction, and the change directions of public policies hinge on customer's assessment; i.e., the performance of public policies in governments is decided by the citizen's administrative satisfaction! The governments in all levels must heave their efficiency and effectiveness of public services to meet the people's substantially multiple needs in order to make citizens trust the governmental operation styles. To pursue the societal equality and justice, governments should treat people equally and provide more services for the disadvantages. The recent Dapu protest event involves Miaoli county Magistrate Liu cheng-hung who arbitrarily demolished houses and destroyed farmlands, and it shifts his popularity into disaffection. Liu case tells us that the political events are lethal to politicians; it cut almost 20% satisfaction degree for Magistrate Liu and hurt KMT support levels nationally. In terms of administrative satisfaction levels, political factors do matter, especially for the derogated events.
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78387
Attributes of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Guidelines in Malaysian Public Sector
Abstract:
Malaysian Public Sector departments or agencies are responsible to provide efficient public services with zero corruption. However, corruption continues to occur due to the absence of ethical leadership and well-execution of ethical guidelines. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore the attributes of ethical leadership and ethical guidelines. This study employs a qualitative research by analyzing data from interviews with key informers of public sector using conceptual content analysis (NVivo11). The study reveals eight attributes of ethical leadership which are role model, attachment, ethical support, knowledgeable, discipline, leaders&rsquo; spirituality encouragement, virtue values and shared values. Meanwhile, five attributes (guidelines, communication, check and balance, concern on stakeholders and compliance) of ethical guidelines are identified. These identified attributes should become the ethical identity and ethical direction of Malaysian Public Sector. This could enhance the public trust as well as the international community trust towards the public sector.
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78811
Electronic Government Services Adoption from Multi-Nationalities Perspectives
Abstract:
Electronic government is the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by the government to improve public service delivery to citizens and businesses. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the adoption and use of e-government services from different nationalities perspectives. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) will be used as the theoretical framework for the study. A questionnaire would be developed and administered to 500 potential respondents who are students from different nationalities in China. Predictors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy, trust in both the internet and government, social influence and perceived service quality would be examined with regard to their impact on the intention to use e-government services. This research is currently at the design and implementation stage. The completion of this study will provide useful insights into understanding factors impacting the decision to use e-government services from a cross and multi nationalities perspectives.
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108001
Using the Geographical Information Systems Story Maps in the Planning and Implementation of the Integrated Development Plan at the City of Umhlathuze, South Africa
Abstract:
In South Africa local governments which are charged with the provision of services and amenities, frequently, face challenges of public protests against what the public perceives to be poor services. Public protests are common, even though the Integrated Development Plan, a central public participation document, which informs local government planning and resources management, ought to be a reflection of the voices of the beneficiary communities. The Integrated Development Plan concept –which evolved from the international discourse on governance, planning, and urban management of the 1990s, and, which bears similarities to the UK’s approaches to urban management and planning– is a significant concept in the planning practice in South Africa. Against this backdrop of the spread of public protests and the supposedly public participation in IDP formulation, this study investigated the extent to which residents of the city of uMhlathuze municipality, South Africa, could use Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Story Maps to enhance public participation in the provision of services and amenities. To this effect, this study collected and analysed data obtained through interactive web maps or hard copy maps; this map data was accompanied by research participants’ attributes data. Research participants identified positive or negative service delivery areas. Positive places were the places which the residents represented as good infrastructural, and amenities areas and weak places were marked as poor amenities. Participants then located each of their identified strong or weak places as points on the GIS Story Maps or on hard copy maps of the city. The information which participants provided was subsequently analysed to produce maps of patterns of service provision. In this way, the study succeeded to identify places that needed attention regarding delivery of services and amenities. Thus, this study advanced service provision through GIS Story Maps.
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67264
Transition towards a Market Society: Commodification of Public Health in India and Pakistan
Authors:
Abstract:
Market Economy can be broadly defined as economic system where supply and demand regulate the economy and in which decisions pertaining to production, consumption, allocation of resources, price and competition are made by collective actions of individuals or organisations with limited government intervention. On the other hand Market Society is one where instead of the economy being embedded in social relations, social relations are embedded in the economy. A market economy becomes a market society when all of land, labour and capital are commodified. This transition also has effect on people’s attitude and values. Such a transition commence impacting the non-material aspect of life such as public education, public health and the like. The inception of neoliberal policies in non-market norms altered the nature of social goods like public health that raised the following questions. What impact would the transition to a market society make on people in terms of accessibility to public health? Is healthcare a commodity that can be subjected to a competitive market place? What kind of private investments are being made in public health and how do private investments alter the nature of a public good like healthcare? This research problem will employ empirical-analytical approach that includes deductive reasoning which will be using the existing concept of market economy and market society as a foundation for the analytical framework and the hypotheses to be examined. The research also intends to inculcate the naturalistic elements of qualitative methodology which refers to studying of real world situations as they unfold. The research will analyse the existing literature available on the subject. Concomitantly the research intends to access the primary literature which includes reports from the World Bank, World Health Organisation (WHO) and the different departments of respective ministries of the countries for the analysis. This paper endeavours to highlight how the issue of commodification of public health would lead to perpetual increase in its inaccessibility leading to stratification of healthcare services where one can avail the better services depending on the extent of one’s ability to pay. Since the fundamental maxim of private investments is to churn out profits, these kinds of trends would pose a detrimental effect on the society at large perpetuating the lacuna between the have and the have-nots.The increasing private investments, both, domestic and foreign, in public health sector are leading to increasing inaccessibility of public health services. Despite the increase in various public health schemes the quality and impact of government public health services are on a continuous decline.
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1524
Cost-Effective Hybrid Cloud Framework for Higher Educational Institutes
Abstract:
Present financial crisis in Higher Educational Institutes (HEIs) is causing lots of problems such as considerable budget cuts, which makes it difficult to meet the ever growing IT based research and learning needs. Institutions are rapidly planning and promoting cloud based approaches for their academic and research needs. A cost-effective hybrid cloud framework for HEIs will provide educational services for campus or intercampus communication. Hybrid cloud framework comprises private and public cloud approaches. This paper will propose the framework based on the Open Source Cloud (OpenNebula for Virtualization, Eucalyptus for Infrastructure and Aneka for programming development environment) combined with CSPs services which are delivered to the end-user via the internet from public clouds such as Google, Microsoft, Zoho, and Salesforce.
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8920
Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud: A Method for Inclusion of ID-PKC Schemes in OpenStack Cloud
Abstract:
The term data security refers to the degree of resistance or protection given to information from unintended or unauthorized access. The core principles of information security are the confidentiality, integrity and availability, also referred as CIA triad. Cloud computing services are classified as SaaS, IaaS and PaaS services. With cloud adoption the confidential enterprise data are moved from organization premises to untrusted public network and due to this the attack surface has increased manifold. Several cloud computing platforms like OpenStack, Eucalyptus, Amazon EC2 offer users to build and configure public, hybrid and private clouds. While the traditional encryption based on PKI infrastructure still works in cloud scenario, the management of public-private keys and trust certificates is difficult. The Identity based Public Key Cryptography (also referred as ID-PKC) overcomes this problem by using publicly identifiable information for generating the keys and works well with decentralized systems. The users can exchange information securely without having to manage any trust information. Another advantage is that access control (role based access control policy) information can be embedded into data unlike in PKI where it is handled by separate component or system. In OpenStack cloud platform the keystone service acts as identity service for authentication and authorization and has support for public key infrastructure for auto services. In this paper, we explain OpenStack security architecture and evaluate the PKI infrastructure piece for data confidentiality. We provide method to integrate ID-PKC schemes for securing data while in transit and stored and explain the key measures for safe guarding data against security attacks. The proposed approach uses JPBC crypto library for key-pair generation based on IEEE P1636.3 standard and secure communication to other cloud services.
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44549
Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government
Authors:
Abstract:
E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.
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64081
The Role of Intermediaries in E-Government Adoption in India: Bridging the Digital Divide
Abstract:
Despite the transparency and benefits of e-government, and its potential to serve citizens better, there is low diffusion and adoption of e-government services in India. Limited access to computer and internet, lack of computer and internet skills, low trust in technology, and risk associated in using e-government services are major hindrances in e-government adoption in India. Despite a large number of citizens belonging to the non-adopter category, the government has made some services mandatory to be accessed online where citizens have no other choice. Also despite the digital divide, a large number of citizens prefer online access to government services. In such cases intermediaries like common service centers, internet café and services agents’ roles are significant for accessing e-government services. Hence research is needed to explore this. The study aims to investigate the role of intermediaries in online access to public services by citizens. Qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interview was used. The results show that intermediaries play an important role in bridging the digital divide. The study also highlights on what circumstances citizens are taking help of these intermediaries. The study then highlights its limitations and discusses scope for future study.
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80007
Digital Libraries: Definitions, Challenges, and the Impact of Cloud Computing
Abstract:
There has been an exponential growth in data in the last few years. Storing and sharing of this big data in an economic way has become a challenge. It is especially important for libraries all over the world to adapt to the latest trends in technology that can help them scale better while providing improved services to its users. In this paper, we have reviewed some of the significant contributions made in the field of digital libraries in the last few years, and how cloud computing can contribute in their development. This paper will help librarians and researchers to understand how they can use the public clouds like Amazon Web Services (AWS) to grow their libraries, and potentially cut down their information technology (IT) expenditure.
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22927
The Implementation of Level of Service for Development of Kuala Lumpur Transit Information System using GIS
Authors:
Abstract:
Due to heavy traffic and congested roads, it is crucial that the most popular main public transport services in Kuala Lumpur i.e. Putra LRT, Star LRT, KTM Commuter, KL Monorail and Rapid Bus must be continuously monitored and improved to fulfill the rider’s requirement and kept updated by the transit agencies. Evaluation on the current status of the services has been determined out by calculating the transit supportive area (TSA) and level of service (LOS) for each transit station. This research study has carried out the TSA and LOS mapping based on GIS techniques. The detailed census data of the region along the line of services has been collected from the Department of Statistics Malaysia for this purpose. The service coverage has been decided by 400 meters buffer zone for bus stations and 800 meters for rails station and railways in measurement the Quality of Service along the line of services. All the required information has been calculated by using the customized GIS software called Kuala Lumpur Transit Information System (KLTIS). The transit supportive area was calculated with the employment density at least 10 job/hectare or household density at 7.5 unit/hectare and total area covered by transit supportive area is 22516 hectare and the total area that is not supported by transit is 1718 hectare in Kuala Lumpur. The level of service is calculated with the percentage of transit supportive area served by transit for each station. In overall the percentage transit supportive areas served by transit for all the stations were less than 50% which falls in a very low level of service category. This research has proven its benefit by providing the current transit services operators with vital information for improvement of existing public transport services.
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105041
A3 Strategy Deployment: A Case Study Applied to a City Government Department for Healthcare in Brazil
Abstract:
This paper aims to apply the A3 strategy deployment in a local department for healthcare. As a literature review, it was evaluated articles related to the period 2009 - 2018, considering the key-words A3, healthcare, public services and strategy deployment. The methodology used was action research, involving all the actors inside the secretary, beginning with the top management and deploying it through meetings and evaluation conferences with the participation of all secretary coordination. As main results, it is possible to highlight the development of 8 A3, one as the "mother A3" and 7 as "son A3", each one related to each coordination. In each A3, past results, new goals, new projects to achieve these goals and control deadlines were defined and implemented to a management strategy. In addition to this result, this paper is planning to present the use of this A3 during 6 months in 2019.
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22572
Participatory Democracy to the Contemporary Problems of Polish Social Policy
Abstract:
Nowadays the participation of citizens in public life increasingly effect on management at all levels of public authority. Today, however, democratic systems in many countries, also in Poland, based on the first - on the institutions of representative democracy, which is mainly on elections, party activity, on the other hand - on the basic instruments of direct democracy, which, in particular, we can include a referendum or initiative of citizenship - although these are often rather complementary. Other forms of participatory democracy, such as deliberative democracy, participatory budgeting, public consultation in practice in many countries are still rare. Appropriate use of the potential invested in participatory democracy can bring enormous and multilateral benefits. On the one hand, local and regional communities taking an active part in public life express their needs, point out problems and thus affect the decisions of public authorities. Authorities using knowledge acquired from the citizens also implement the policy tailored to their needs, thus obtaining support in the next election. The purpose of this study is to show how the Polish citizens affect to resolve issues of social policy pursued at different levels of government. This problem is very important because today the observed changes seen in virtually all fields of life create new social problems, which nowadays are no longer only the problems of the region, the country but they are international, global issues. From such this perspective we should talk about them, discuss, try to solve at all levels. Article will be useful not only theorists involved in the management of the public, local government, or social but also practitioners - local government acting as their functions at different levels of government. Conclusions drawn from the publication will also be useful to politicians and those directly affecting for: functioning social security systems, the scope and quality of public services and the overall shape of the contemporary social policy in different countries.
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43771
Patients' Satisfaction about Private Sector Primary Care Nurses in Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Introduction: Patient satisfaction of services provided by primary care health services depends on many factors. One key factor in this depends on is the nursing services received in primary care. Since majority of the primary care in Sri Lanka is provided by the private sector, it is important to assess patient satisfaction on this. Objective: To assess the satisfaction among the public on nurses working in dispensaries in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done on 200 individual selected using convenient sampling among dispensaries in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Results: 59.3% of the sample had long term illnesses or disabilities and all of them preferred speaking to a nurse. 70.9% of the sample used to make appointments with nurses while 57.8% out of them were comfortable in discussing their health concerns. 98.9 % agreed that they get individual attention by the nurses. Majority of the sample that is 34.2% spends around 20 minutes with the nurse without even making any pay. Significantly, the whole sample believes that the nurses are professional and admits that the care given is of high quality. All 100% of the sample said that the nurses could understand their concerns while 93.5% admitted that it was very useful in their recovery. Conclusions: Majority of the public were very much satisfied with the nurses and their practice at the dispensaries.
150
51623
The Contract for Educational Services: Civil and Administrative Aspects
Abstract:
The legal nature of the contract for educational services causes a lot of controversies. In particular, it raises the question about industry sector relationships, which require making a contract for educational services. The article describes the different types of contracts classifications for services provision from the perspective of civil law, deals with the specifics of the contract on rendering educational services; the author makes the conclusion that the contract for the provision of educational services is a complex institution that includes elements of the civil and administrative law. The following methods were used to conduct the study: dialectical method of cognition, the historical method, systemic analysis, classification.
149
33585
Accountability Issues in Nigeria
Abstract:
The ills of the Nigerian public sector have been identified at various fora to include lack of financial accountability and poor reporting of government performance. With the enthronement of democracy, citizens’ expectations from the government are drifting from the mere provision of public services to efficiency and accountability. One of the major challenges to achieving accountability in Nigeria is the capability of the cash basis of accounting to meet the reporting requirements of policies and programmes of the government. This paper discussed the growing trend in the debate about the adoption of private sector financial management processes in the public sector as part of the public sector reform programmes. The paper does not claim the ultimate superiority of accrual over cash accounting but shows how it will help to further strengthen the quality of government accounting and reporting.
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4204
Public Health Informatics: Potential and Challenges for Better Life in Rural Communities
Abstract:
Public health informatics (PHI) which has seen successful implementation in the developed world, become the buzzword in the developing countries in providing improved healthcare with enhanced access. In rural areas especially, where a huge gap exists between demand and supply of healthcare facilities, PHI is being seen as a major solution. There are factors such as growing network infrastructure and the technological adoption by the health fraternity which provide support to these claims. Public health informatics has opportunities in healthcare by providing opportunities to diagnose patients, provide intra-operative assistance and consultation from a remote site. It also has certain barriers in the awareness, adaptation, network infrastructure, funding and policy related areas. There are certain medico-legal aspects involving all the stakeholders which need to be standardized to enable a working system. This paper aims to analyze the potential and challenges of public health informatics services in rural communities.
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53993
Measuring Impacts of Agroforestry on Soil Erosion with Field Devices: Quantifying Potential for Water Infiltration, Soil Conservation, and Payments for Ecosystems Services Schemes
Abstract:
Throughout the second half of the 20th Century, estimates indicate that soil losses due to erosion have impacted one-third of worldwide arable lands. As such, these losses are amongst the largest threats to agriculture sustainability and production potential. Increasing tree cover is considered one of the most efficient methods to mitigate this phenomenon. The present study describes soil erosion measurements in different land cover situations in Alto Huayabamba, Peru, using the experimental plot methodology. Three parcels were studied during a one-year period (starting September 2015) with 3 different land cover scenarii evaluated: 10-year-old secondary tropical forest (P1), 3-year-old native species reforestation (P2) and bare soil (P3). Information was collected systematically after each rain to assess the average rainfall, water runoff and soil eroded. The results indicate that variance in land cover has a strong impact on the level of soil erosion. In our study, it was found that P1, P2 and P3 had erosion rates of 92 kg/ha/yr, 11 tons/ha/yr and 59,7 tons/ha/year respectively. Using a replacement cost method, the potential of limiting erosion by reforesting bare soil was estimated to be 561 $/ha/yr after three years and 687 $/ha/yr after ten years. Finally, the results of the study allow us to assess the potential soil services provided by vegetation, which could be an important building block for a payment for ecosystems services (PES) scheme. The latter has been increasingly spread all over the world through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP).
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21933
Improving Library Service Quality in Local City of Indonesia
Abstract:
Library as a public service should be able to provide excellent and quality service. The criteria that should be available in the library is having the collection which relevant, actual and reliable, qualified and professional employee, delivery system that prompt and appropriate as well as supported by proper infrastructure. The aim of this study is to show the performance as an effort to provide quality of services that appropriate with the needs and desires of user. Then, in this research has been carried out the calculation of the gap between the perceptions and expectations of user about the services of the library. The Sevqual and QFD methods are used in this study. Servqual method for measuring the value of the gap that occurs in the dimensions of service quality and QFD method for determine priority repairment that need to be done to improve the quality of services that occur in the dimensions of service quality. From 97 questionaires, shows that value of the gap that occurs in the dimensions of service quality using by Servqual is 27.7% dimensions of responsiveness. It show how much user expectations are not met by the quality of existing services. Construction of the library and standard library becomes priority improvements that need to be done to improve the quality of service that occurs in the dimensions of service quality using the QFD.
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76803
The Influence of Travel Experience within Perceived Public Transport Quality
Abstract:
The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by passengers. Among the “traditional” public transport quality attributes there are, for example: travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, and ticket price. By contrast, there are some “non-conventional” attributes that could significantly influence customer satisfaction jointly with the “traditional” ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how munch) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a “long trip” (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as “low” the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the “short trip” passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if confirmed through other case studies, will allow to conclude that the “travel experience impact" must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.
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48793
The Effect of Innovation Capability and Activity, and Wider Sector Condition on the Performance of Malaysian Public Sector Innovation Policy
Abstract:
Successful implementation of innovation is a key success formula of a great organization. Innovation will ensure competitive advantages as well as sustainability of organization in the long run. In public sector context, the role of innovation is crucial to resolve dynamic challenges of public services such as operating in economic uncertainty with limited resources, increasing operating expenditure and growing expectation among citizens towards high quality, swift and reliable public services. Acknowledging the prospect of innovation as a tool for achieving high-performance public sector, the Malaysian New Economic Model launched in the year 2011 intensified government commitment to foster innovation in the public sector. Since 2011 various initiatives have been implemented, however little is known about the performance of public sector innovation in Malaysia. Hence, by applying the national innovation system theory as a pillar, the formulated research objectives were focused on measuring the level of innovation capabilities, wider public sector condition for innovation, innovation activity, and innovation performance as well as to examine the relationship between the four constructs with innovation performance as a dependent variable. For that purpose, 1,000 sets of self-administrated survey questionnaires were distributed to heads of units and divisions of 22 Federal Ministry and Central Agencies in the administrative, security, social and economic sector. Based on 456 returned questionnaires, the descriptive analysis found that innovation capabilities, wider sector condition, innovation activities and innovation performance were rated by respondents at moderately high level. Based on Structural Equation Modelling, innovation performance was found to be influenced by innovation capability, wider sector condition for innovation and innovation activity. In addition, the analysis also found innovation activity to be the most important construct that influences innovation performance. The implication of the study concluded that the innovation policy implemented in the public sector of Malaysia sparked motivation to innovate and resulted in various forms of innovation. However, the overall achievements were not as well as they were expected to be. Thus, the study suggested for the formulation of a dedicated policy to strengthen innovation capability, wider public sector condition for innovation and innovation activity of the Malaysian public sector. Furthermore, strategic intervention needs to be focused on innovation activity as the construct plays an important role in determining the innovation performance. The success of public sector innovation implementation will not only benefit the citizens, but will also spearhead the competitiveness and sustainability of the country.
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56567
An E-Government Implementation Model for Peruvian State Companies Based on COBIT 5.0: Definition and Goals of the Model
Abstract:
As part of the regulatory compliance process and the streamlining of public administration, the Peruvian government has implemented the National E-Government Plan in all state institutions with the aim of providing citizens with solid services based on the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). As part of the regulations, the requisites to be met by public institutions have been submitted. However, the lack of an implementation model was detected, one that can serve as a guide to such institutions in order to materialize the organizational and technological structures needed, which allow them to provide the required digital services. This paper develops an implementation model of electronic government (e-government) for Peru&rsquo;s state institutions, in compliance with current regulations based on a COBIT 5.0 framework. Furthermore, the paper introduces phase 1 of this model: business and IT goals, the goals cascade and the future model of processes.
142
110045
Notions of Criticality in Strategic Management of Hospitality Services in Nigeria
Abstract:
While the needs of the traveling public are becoming more evolving due to the ever-changing tourism ecosphere; there is a seeming inability to sustain competitive advantage through hospitality enterprise service quality differentials and effective service delivery. Contending with these evolving needs demands a re-assessment of the notions that drive service evolvement thoughts pattern and service delivery processes management in the hospitality enterprise. The intent of this study was to explicate the trends of the evolving needs of the traveling public that are critical to hospitality enterprise service management. The hypothetical study used customer satisfaction to dissect the strategic implication of perception, experience, and socio-cultural engagements in customization of hospitality enterprise services. The study found out that customer perception is cognitive and does not shape service customization. The study also elucidated that customer experience which can be evaluated, is critical in service structure determination and delivery. Socio-cultural engagement is intrinsic in driving service diversification. The study recommends tourists’ audit and cognitive insights as strategic actions for re-designing service efficiency and delivery in hospitality enterprise service management.
141
111972
‘Free’ Services on Net: Move from Barter to Money
Abstract:
Consumers routinely use services on the web by accessing these from laptops and mobile. Many services are provided free of cost and are actually paid by the user’s time, attention, and data. Consumers depend on regulators and authorities to protect their interests. The barter trade of service can move to a system of money, say ‘Cyberdollar’. Whenever a service is used, the consumer of service shall pay Cyberdollars for services used by her. Service-provider shall pay Cyberdollars to the consumer for time spent by her, the attention given by the user, and for the data shared by the consumer. Cyberdollars based marketplace for web services shall be more efficient and vibrant than present barter. Consumers shall be able to influence the price of various services based on utility and quality, and service providers shall be able to optimize their earnings by dynamic pricing of services offered. Consumers shall have a choice of gracefully opting out of services, and service providers may seek compensation for loss of business. Cyberdollar may emerge as the most powerful currency used all over the globe for transacting on the world wide web.
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32309
Investigation of Public Perception of Air Pollution and Life Quality in Tehran
Abstract:
Backgrounds and objectives: This study was undertaken at four different sites (north polluted, south polluted, south healthy and north healthy) in Tehran, in order to examine whether there was a relationship between publicly available air quality data and the public’s perception of air quality and to suggest some guidelines for reducing air pollution. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 people were accidentally filled out the research questionnaires at mentioned sites and air quality data were obtained simultaneously from the Air Quality Control Department. Data was analyzed in Excel and SPSS software. Results: Clean air and secure job were of great importance to people comparing to other pleasant aspect of life. Also air pollution and fear of dangerous diseases were the most important of people concerns. The Indies bored /news paper services on air quality were little used by the public as a means of obtaining information on air pollution. Using public transportation and avoid unessential journeys are the most important ways for reducing air pollution. Conclusion: The results reveal that the public’s perception of air quality is not a reliable indicator of the actual levels of air pollution. Current earths to down actions are not effective and enough in reducing air pollution, therefore it seems participatory management and public participation is suitable guideline.
139
39963
Protection towards Investor: Enforcement of the Authorities of Indonesian Financial Services Authority (OJK) during Capital Market Integration
Abstract:
The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) was set up in 2003 with the objectives of creating a single market and production base, enhancing equitable economic development as well as facilitating the integration into the global economy. The AEC involves liberalization and facilitation of trade in goods, skilled labour, services, and investment, as well as protection and promotion of investment. The thesis outlines the AEC Blueprint actions in scope of globalization of investment and capital market. Free flows of investment and freer flows of capital market urge countries in South East Asia to coordinate and to collaborate in securing the interest of public, and this leads to the importance of financial services authorities in ASEAN to prepare the mechanism of guarding the flows of investment. There is no exception, especially for Indonesian Financial Services Authority (OJK) as one of the authorized body in capital market supervision, to enforce its authorities as supervisory body.
138
21308
IT Perspective of Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise
Abstract:
The focal aspire of e-Government (eGovt) is to offer citizen-centered service delivery. Accordingly, the citizenry consumes services from multiple government agencies through national portal. Thus, eGovt is an enterprise with the primary business motive of transparent, efficient and effective public services to its citizenry and its logical structure is the eGovernment Enterprise Architecture (eGEA). Since eGovt is IT oriented multifaceted service-centric system, EA doesn’t do much on an automated enterprise other than the business artifacts. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) manifestation led some governments to pertain this in their eGovts, but it limits the source of business artifacts. The concurrent use of EA and SOA in eGovt executes interoperability and integration and leads to Service-Oriented e-Government Enterprise (SOeGE). Consequently, agile eGovt system becomes a reality. As an IT perspective eGovt comprises of centralized public service artifacts with the existing application logics belong to various departments at central, state and local level. The eGovt is renovating to SOeGE by apply the Service-Orientation (SO) principles in the entire system. This paper explores IT perspective of SOeGE in India which encompasses the public service models and illustrated with a case study the Passport service of India.
137
18932
The Access to the City in the Medellín Urban Experience
Abstract:
According to many studies, public space in the cities of Global South is constantly morcellated and captured by a multiplicity of actors in a permanent struggle for power. This imposed public space restricts the access to services and political actions to many inhabitants. The author has conducted several focus group sessions using video in a reflective mode with low-income communities in Medellín, Colombia in order to study how people in this city are shift from a physical public space to a hybrid public space shaped by internet. Beyond the fragmented city and the violent urban context manifested by participants, these activities have highlighted how the access to the city is currently going through a dialectic movement between the physical and the digital space. The purpose of this article is to make explicit the link between this hybrid public space and the boundaries of exclusion in the city. Urban marginality is closely related with the idea of access and space. Low-income communities in Medellín assume the digital realm like a “not controlled space” of resistance, where alternative ways of expression like hip hop movement, graffiti, dance, video and virtual communities produce effective changes in the physical realm.
136
21610
Limitations of Selected e-Governance Services in India: Policy Change as Solution for Experience Enhancement of Citizen Services
Abstract:
This paper identifies limitations of existing two e-Governance services viz. railway ticket booking and passport service in India. The comparison has been made as to how in the past these two citizen services were operating manually and how these services are taken online via e-Governance. Different e-Governance projects, investment aspects, and role of corporate are discussed. For Indian Railway online ticketing a comparison has been made between state run booking website and popular private firm run booking website. For passport service, observation through personal visit to passport center is described. Suggestions are made to improve these services further to improve citizen service experiences.
135
35199
Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.
134
77132
An Application of Contingent Valuation Method in Valuing Protected Area: A Case Study of Pulau Kukup National Parks
Abstract:
Wetland ecosystem has valuable resources that contribute to national income generation and public well-being, either directly by resources that have a market value or indirectly by resources that have no market value. Economic approach is used to evaluate the resources to determine the best use of wetland resources and should be emphasized in policy development planning. This approach is to prevent imbalance in the allocation of resources and welfare benefits. A case study was conducted in 2016 to assess the economic value of wetland ecosystem services at Pulau Kukup National Parks (PKNP). This study has applied dichotomous choice survey design Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to investigate empirically the willingness-to-pay (WTP) by the public. The study interviewed 400 household respondents at Pontian, Johor. Analysis showed 81% of household interviewed were willing to contribute to the Wetland Conservation Trust Fund. The results also indicated that on average a household was willing to pay RM87 annually. By taking into account 21,664 households in Pontian district in 2016, public’s contribution to conserves wetland ecosystem at PKNP was calculated to be RM1, 884,334. From the public’s interest to contribute to the conservation of wetland ecosystem services at PKNP, it indicates that more concerted effort is needed by both the federal and state governments to conserve and rehabilitate the mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia.
133
1741
Relationship Between Expectation (Before) and Satisfaction (After) Receiving Services of Thai Consumers from Domestic Low-Cost Airlines
Abstract:
This study employs sampling of 400 Thai people who live in Bangkok and have used air transportation to travel. A random convenience sampling technique is used to collect data. The results found that at 0.05 significance level the differences of means of Thai consumers’ expectations (before) and satisfaction (after) receiving services in the service marketing mix, the results of all aspects are different both in general and for each aspect of the service marketing mix. Average levels of expectations before receiving services are higher than satisfaction after receiving services in all aspects, as well. When analyzing further to the correlation between average means, the means of expectations before receiving services are higher than those of satisfaction after receiving services in general. As in all aspects of the service marketing mix, any aspect that has a big difference between expectations before receiving services and satisfaction after receiving services has low correlation.
132
51045
E-Government, China Internet Plus, and the One Belt One Road Initiative: The Africa Connection
Abstract:
The lack of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure in African countries is hampering the successful adoption, development and implementation of e-government in Africa. Electronic government is the use of ICTs to modernize government public administration processes and to provide government services to citizens with a purpose to enhance efficiency, accountability, and transparency in government’s interaction with the citizenry. ICT application in public administration has the potential to modernize and create smarter government and improvement in public service delivery. China’s Internet Plus policy and One Belt One Road strategy present a golden opportunity for countries in Africa to attract the huge financial investment through Chinese IT companies to develop and close Africa’s ICT infrastructure gap. This study recommends the establishment of One Belt One Road ICT Infrastructure Fund for Africa (OBOR ICT Fund for Africa) to enable countries in Africa to source solely for the purpose of ICT infrastructure development in the public sector/government machinery which would in turn promote the adoption and development of e-government in the public sectors of respective countries in Africa.
131
85702
The Comparison between Public's Social Distances against Syrian Refugees and Perceptions of Access to Healthcare Services: Istanbul Sample
Abstract:
Syrian refugees who sheltering due to war has protected by the Government of Turkey since 2011. Since Syria was a medium-low income country prior to the war, it is known that chronic health problems weren’t common among citizens. However, it is also known that they frequently use health services in our country because of the spread of infectious and acute diseases due to insufficient sanitation and crowding after the war. This study was planned to compare the social distances of the community against the Syrian refugees and the perceptions of accessing health care services. The descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 1262 individuals living in Istanbul. A questionnaire form consisted of Personal Information Form, The Bogardus Social Distance Scale (BSDS) and The Survey of Access to Healthcare Services (AHS) was used as data collection tool. Descriptive tests and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. It was found that the majorities of participants was satisfied with the health services and were waiting for more than 40 minutes to be examined. It was determined that participants have high scores from BSDS. At the same time, the majority of participants stated that their level of access to health care is diminishing due to refugees. Participants who experienced disruption in access to health services due to refugees were found to have higher scores from BSDS. The data collection process in the study will continue until 2400 individuals are reached. With these conclusions, it is considered necessary that the effect of the presence of the refugees in reaching the health services and nursing care of the society should be revealed through extensive researches to be conducted in Turkey.
130
109705
Environmental Law and Payment for Environmental Services: Perceptions of the Family Farmers of the Federal District, Brazil
Abstract:
Payment for Environmental Services (PSA) has been a strategy used since the late 1990s by Latin American countries to finance environmental conservation. Payment for Environmental Services has been absorbing a growing amount of time in the discussions around environmentally sustainable development strategies in the world. In Brazil, this theme has permeated the discussions since the publication of the new Forest Code. The objective of this work was to verify the perception of the resident farmers in the region of Ponte Alta, Gama, Federal District, Brazil, on environmental legislation and Payments for Environmental Services. The work was carried out in 99 rural properties of the family farmers of the Rural Nucleus Ponte Alta, Administrative Region of Gama, in the city of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. The present research is characterized methodologically as a quantitative, exploratory, and descriptive nature. The data treatment was performed through descriptive statistical analysis and hypothesis testing. The perceptions about environmental legislation in the rural area of Ponte Alta, Gama, DF respondents were positive. Although most of the family farmers interviewed have some knowledge about environmental legislation, it is perceived that in practice, the environmental adequacy of property is ineffective given the current situation of sustainable rural development; there is an abyss between what is envisaged by legislation and reality in the field. Thus, as in the reports of other researchers, it is verified that the majority of respondents are not aware of PSA (62.62%). Among those interviewed who were aware of the subject, two learned through the course, three through the university, two through TV and five through other people. The planting of native forest species on the rural property was the most informed practice by farmers if they received some Environmental Service Payment (PSA). Reflections on the environment allow us to infer that the effectiveness and fulfillment of the incentives and rewards in the scope of public policies to encourage the maintenance of environmental services, already existing in all spheres of government, are of great relevance to the process of environmental sustainability of rural properties. The relevance of the present research is an important tool to promote the discussion and formulation of public policies focused on sustainable rural development, especially on payments for environmental services; it is a space of great interest for the strengthening of the social group dedicated to production. Public policies that are efficient and accessible to the small rural producers become decisive elements for the promotion of changes in behavior in the field, be it economic, social, or environmental.
129
24893
Model for Assessment of Quality Airport Services
Abstract:
As a result of the rapid growth of the Brazilian Air Transport, many airports are at the limit of their capacities and have a reduction in the quality of services provided. Thus, there is a need of models for assessing the quality of airport services. Because of this, the main objective of this work is to propose a model for the evaluation of quality attributes in airport services. To this end, we used the method composed by literature review and interview. Structured a working method composed by 5 steps, which resulted in a model to evaluate the quality of airport services, consisting of 8 dimensions and 45 attributes. Was used as base for model definition the process mapping of boarding and landing processes of passengers and luggage. As a contribution of this work is the integration of management process with structuring models to assess the quality of services in airport environments.
128
42867
The Modern Paradigm Features of Social Management Based on Postindustrial Theory
Abstract:
Nowadays, society is in a postindustrial/informational phase of its development. Certain changes have occurred in different parts of society life as a result of the social reality transformations due to the influence of changes in the productive forces. As a result, the personality has received autonomy and independence, as in her or his hands appeared new means of production–information, knowledge, creativity. In such a society, there is a new middle class, which is called meritocratic. It consists of personalities, who are engaged in highly intelligent, creative work; who independently pursue their own well-being and status; who are active in the economic and social spheres. At the forefront there are such qualities as independence, commitment and self-actualization. This modern, intellectual and sovereign personality is no longer in need of care. The role of management has transformed from a paternalistic to the "service", which is aimed at creating the conditions for citizens’ self-realization to meet their needs through the rendering of public services. Such society alterations motivate the need to change the key parameters of social management, which are identified in this article on the basis of the postindustrial society key features.
127
82483
Qualitative Profiling Model and Competencies Evaluation to Fighting Unemployment
Abstract:
Overtaking competence mismatches and fostering career pathways congruent with the individual skills profile would significantly contribute to fighting unemployment. The aim of this paper is to examine the usefulness and efficiency of qualitative tools in supporting and improving the quality of caseworkers’ activities during the jobseekers’ profile analysis and career guidance process. The selected target groups are long-term and middle term unemployed, job seekers, young people at the end of the vocational training pathway and unemployed woman with social disadvantages. The experimentation is conducted in Italy at public employment services in 2017. In the framework of Italian labour market reform, the experimentation represents the first step to develop a customized qualitative model profiling; the final general object is to improve the public employment services quality. The experimentation tests the transferability of an OECD self-assessment competences tool in the Italian public employment services. On one hand, the first analysis results will indicate the user’s perception concerning the tool’s application and their different competence levels (literacy, numeracy, problem solving, career interest, subjective well-being and health, behavioural competencies) with reference to the specific target. On the other hand, the experimentation outcomes will show caseworkers understanding regarding the tool’s usability and efficiency for career guidance and reskilling and upskilling programs.
126
95013
An Exploratory Study on Challenges of Public Private Partnership Projects in Oman
Abstract:
The limitation of the public funds for the infrastructure projects and with the deterioration of international oil prices and the negative consequences on the economies of oil producing and exporting countries, Oman has encouraged the partnership between the public and private sectors. As the private sector has a role in planning, financing, designing, operating and the maintenance of the public services. There is no doubt that, the adoption of Public Private Partnership (PPP) strategy faces many challenges which might affect the project seriously if it is not overcome in earlier time. These challenges depend on the level of understanding of the strategy, the roles and regulations and the availability of resources as well. This research aims at identifying the challenges facing the PPP infrastructure projects in Oman based on the similar previous studies supported by questionnaire survey and semi structured interviews. It also seeks to discuss the rationale for adoption in Oman and uncover the current status of PPP strategy. The identified challenges were ranked according to the importance index of each challenge. After analysis of data, it has observed that, the main challenges facing PPPs projects in Oman are high participation cost, high projects cost and regulation changes. The PPP strategy has to be adopted well and with a high level of experience in order to ensure a successful implementation of PPP projects in Oman.
125
48020
Public Transportation Demand and Policy in Kabul, Afghanistan
Abstract:
Kabul is the heart of political, commercial, cultural, educational and social life in Afghanistan and the Kabul fifth fastest growing city in the world, since 2001 with the establishment of new government Lack of adequate employment opportunities and basic utility services in remote provinces have prompted people to move to Kabul and other urban areas. From 2001 to the present, a rapid increase in population, and also less income of the people most of residence tend to use public transport, especially buses, however there is no proper bus system exist in Kabul city, because of wars, from 1992 to 2001 Kabul suffered damage and destruction of its transportation facilities including pavements, sidewalks, traffic circles, drainage systems, traffic signs and signals, trolleybuses and almost all of the public transit buses (e.g. Millie bus). This research is a primary and very important phase into Kabul city transportation and especially an initial and important step toward using large bus in Kabul city, which the main purpose of this research is to find the demand of Kabul city residence for public transport (Large Bus) and compare it with the actual supply from government. Finding of this research shows that the demand of Kabul city residence for the public transport (Large Bus) exceed the supply from the government, means that current public transportation (Large Bus) is not sufficient to serve people of Kabul city, it is mentionable that according to this research there is no need to build a new road or exclusive way for bus, this research propose to government for investment on the public transportation and exceed the number of large buses to can handle the current demand for public transport.
124
49330
Information and Communication Technologies-Based Urban Spaces: From Planning and Design to Implementation
Abstract:
As to the development of the capitalist economy, local governments put their focuses on economic growth and quality of life including the management of declined urban area. Together with the rapid advances in ICTs (information and communication technologies) Korean government tried to adapt ICTs to urban spaces to catch these two goals. Ubiquitous city, concept introduced by Mark Weiser in 1988, is a kind of ICTs based urban space which can provide IT services anytime and anywhere. This paper introduces the experience of developing ICTs-based urban planning and it’s implementation process and discusses the effect of the R&D based U-City test-bed project. For a community center of a residential zone in a newly developing city, spatial problems and citizen’s needs were identified to plan IT-based urban services. The paper also describes the structure and functions of Community O/S (COS) as an IT platform which controls data and urban devices such as media facades and U-poles. Not only one-way information but also Interactive services were included. Public creating activities using this platform also added –CO2 emission management and citizen making safety map, etc. The effects of the comprehensive U-City planning in S/W, H/W and human-ware were discussed on the case study of similar individual projects.
123
106984
Factors Influencing Intention to Engage in Long-term Care Services among Nursing Aide Trainees and the General Public
Authors:
Abstract:
Rapid aging and depopulation could lead to serious problems, including workforce shortages and health expenditure costs. The current and predicted future LTC workforce shortages could be a real threat to Taiwan&rsquo;s society. By means of comparison of data from 144 nursing aide trainees and 727 general public, the main purpose of the present study was to determine whether there were any notable differences between the two groups toward engaging in LTC services. Moreover, this study focused on recognizing the attributes of the general public who had the willingness to take LTC jobs but continue to ride the fence. A self-developed questionnaire was designed based on Ajzen&rsquo;s Theory of Planned Behavior model. After conducting&nbsp;exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis, the questionnaire was a reliable and valid instrument for both nursing aide trainees and the general public. The main results were as follows: Firstly, nearly 70% of nursing aide trainees showed interest in LTC jobs. Most of them were middle-aged female (M = 46.85, SD = 9.31), had a high school diploma or lower, had unrelated work experience in healthcare, and were mostly unemployed. The most common reason for attending the LTC training program was to gain skills in a particular field. The second most common reason was to obtain the license. The third and fourth reasons were to be interested in caring for people and to increase income. The three major reasons that might push them to leave LTC jobs were physical exhaustion, payment is bad, and being looked down on. Secondly, the variables that best-predicted nursing aide trainees&rsquo; intention to engage in LTC services were having personal willingness, perceived behavior control, with high school diploma or lower, and supported from family and friends. Finally, only 11.80% of the general public reported having interest in LTC jobs (the disapproval rating was 50% for the general public). In comparison to nursing aide trainees who showed interest in LTC settings, 64.8% of the new workforce for LTC among the general public was male and had an associate degree, 54.8% had relevant healthcare experience, 67.1% was currently employed, and they were younger (M = 32.19, SD = 13.19) and unmarried (66.3%). Furthermore, the most commonly reason for the new workforce to engage in LTC jobs were to gain skills in a particular field. The second priority was to be interested in caring for people. The third and fourth most reasons were to give back to society and to increase income, respectively. The top five most commonly reasons for the new workforce to quitting LTC jobs were listed as follows: physical exhaustion, being looked down on, excessive working hours, payment is bad, and excessive job stress.
122
41797
Problems concerning Formation of Institutional Framework for Electronic Democracy in Georgia
Abstract:
Open public service and accountability towards citizens is an important feature of democratic state based on rule of law. Effective use of electronic resources simplifies bureaucratic procedures, makes direct communications, helps exchange information, ensures government’s openness and in general helps develop electronic/digital democracy. Development of electronic democracy should be a strategic dimension of Georgian governance. Formation of electronic democracy, its functional improvement should become an important dimension of the state’s information policy. Electronic democracy is based on electronic governance and implies modern information and communication systems, their adaptation to universal standards. E-democracy needs involvement of governments, voters, political parties and social groups in an electronic form. In the last years the process of interaction between the citizen and the state becomes simpler. This process is achieved by the use of modern technological systems which gives to a citizen a possibility to use different public services online. For example, the website my.gov.ge makes interaction between the citizen, business and the state more simple, comfortable and secure. A higher standard of accountability and interaction is being established. Electronic democracy brings new forms of interactions between the state and the citizen: e-engagement – participation of society in state politics via electronic systems; e-consultation – electronic interaction among public officials, citizens and interested groups; e-controllership – electronic rule and control of public expenses and service. Public transparency is one of the milestones of electronic democracy as well as representative democracy as only on mutual trust and accountability can democracy be established. In Georgia, institutional changes concerning establishment and development of electronic democracy are not enough. Effective planning and implementation of a comprehensive and multi component e-democracy program (central, regional, local levels) requires telecommunication systems, institutional (public service, competencies, logical system) and informational (relevant conditions for public involvement) support. Therefore, a systematic project of formation of electronic governance should be developed which will include central, regional, municipal levels and certain aspects of development of instrumental basis for electronic governance.
121
41503
Risky Driving Behavior among Bus Driver in Jakarta
Abstract:
Public transport is a crucial issue for capital city in developing country, such as Jakarta. Inadequate number and low quality of public transport services resulting personal vehicles as the main option. As a result, traffic jams are getting worse in Jakarta. The low quality of public transport, particularly buses, compounded by the risk behavior of the driver. Traffic accidents involving public bus in Jakarta were often the case, even result in fatality. The purpose of this study is to get a description of risk behavior among the public bus drivers in Jakarta. 132 bus drivers become respondent of this study. Risky Driving Behavior scale of Dorn were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 51.5% of respondents felt often showing risky behavior while on driving. The highest type of risky driving behavior is still using the unsafe bus (62%). Followed by trespass the bus line (30%), over speed (21%), violate the road signs (15%) and driving with unhealthy physical condition (4%). Results of this study suggested that high understanding of the bus drivers on their risk behaviors have not lead to the emergence of safe driving behavior. Therefore, together with technical engineering and instrumentation work intervention over this issue, psychological aspects also need to be considered, such as: risk perception, safety attitude,safety culture, locus of control and Fatalism.
120
41103
A State-Of-The-Art Review on Web Services Adaptation
Abstract:
Web service adaptation involves the creation of adapters that solve Web services incompatibilities known as mismatches. Since the importance of Web services adaptation is increasing because of the frequent implementation and use of online Web services, this paper presents a literature review of web services to investigate the main methods of adaptation, their theoretical underpinnings and the metrics used to measure adapters performance. Eighteen publications were reviewed independently by two researchers. We found that adaptation techniques are needed to solve different types of problems that may arise due to incompatibilities in Web service interfaces, including protocols, messages, data and semantics that affect the interoperability of the services. Although adapters are non-invasive methods that can improve Web services interoperability and there are current approaches for service adaptation; there is, however, not yet one solution that fits all types of mismatches. Our results also show that only a few research projects incorporate theoretical frameworks and that metrics to measure adapters’ performance are very limited. We conclude that further research on software adaptation should improve current adaptation methods in different layers of the service interoperability and that an adaptation theoretical framework that incorporates a theoretical underpinning and measures of qualitative and quantitative performance needs to be created.
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54843
Secure Cryptographic Operations on SIM Card for Mobile Financial Services
Abstract:
Mobile technology is very popular nowadays and it provides a digital world where users can experience many value-added services. Service Providers are also eager to offer diverse value-added services to users such as digital identity, mobile financial services and so on. In this context, the security of data storage in smartphones and the security of communication between the smartphone and service provider are critical for the success of these services. In order to provide the required security functions, the SIM card is one acceptable alternative. Since SIM cards include a Secure Element, they are able to store sensitive data, create cryptographically secure keys, encrypt and decrypt data. In this paper, we design and implement a SIM and a smartphone framework that uses a SIM card for secure key generation, key storage, data encryption, data decryption and digital signing for mobile financial services. Our frameworks show that the SIM card can be used as a controlled Secure Element to provide required security functions for popular e-services such as mobile financial services.
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43705
Availability and Uses of Public Access Computers in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State
Abstract:
The study is set up to investigate the availability and uses of Public Access Computers (PACs) in academic libraries in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The Objectives of this study include among others identifying uses of Public Access Computers (PACs). Three research questions were formulated to find out the available PACs, the uses of PACs and the problems encounter while using PACs in Academic Libraries in Kaduna State. Qualitative research approach was adopted, semi-constructed interview and Observation constituted the instruments for data collection, while descriptive method was used to analyze the collected data. Fifty two (52) staff consisting of System librarians, System analysts and e-library Assistance from seven (7) academic libraries in Kaduna State were selected as sample of the study. The findings of the study showed that access to the internet, electronic resources, library catalogue and training were the major purpose of providing PACs in the academic libraries studied. It was also revealed that there are inadequate public computers and the study recommended among others that the academic libraries in Kaduna State should acquire more public computers to be able to cater for the need of their users and give them equal opportunity to have access to the available computers, the academic libraries in Kaduna State should provide computers for access to all services of PACs to ensure standard, adequate and quality service which satisfy the need of users.
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59830
Using Focus Group Method to Identify Citizen Requirements to Saudi Mobile Government Services
Abstract:
Mobile government services implementation faces several challenges in developing countries. This paper studies some of those challenges in the context of Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate factors affecting m-government acceptance in Saudi Arabia, including ease of use, usefulness, service quality, trust, intention to use and users&rsquo; satisfaction. Our investigation will help in integrating the m-government services in citizens&rsquo; everyday life. We collected and analyzed our data from focus groups. These focus groups are from King Saud University and Imam Muhammed Bin Saud University, so the samples size are five and seven participants, respectively. We found that there are some factors to identifying citizen requirements to Saudi mobile government services. These services should be easy to use and not require too much effort. Also, these services must be fully trusted.
116
22445
Mapping of Risks and Opportunities for Adolescents Girls’ Sexual and Reproductive Health in Peri-Urban Setting in Mwanza, Tanzania
Abstract:
In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls living in urban and periurban settings are among the groups at increased risk of getting sexually transmitted infections. One of the challenges to improve uptake of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among adolescents is linked to little appreciation about their vulnerability and the knowledge on availability of the SRH services. Objective: This study assesses adolescents’ perceptions on risks for SRH problems and the availability of services to prevent against SRH problems. Methodology: The study was conducted in March 2011 in Mwanza region, Tanzania. Data collection techniques included 18 Participatory Group Discussions and 17 In-depth Interviews with adolescents and young mothers aged 15-20 years. Results: Adolescents indicated that risk places included their homes, bushes, commercial centers, roadsides as well as school settings. Risk for having unprotected sex varied depending on where you are, and the time of the day. For example, collection of firewood in the bushes or water from the wells exposed girls to men who forced or lured them to have sex. The girls reported to encounter motorcyclists who offered the ride in exchange for sex. Girls also knew myriads places to seek SRH services, including public and private clinics, drug shops and traditional healers. Despite being aware of risky environment, and places to seek the services, access to SRH services were limited due to the stigma and negative attitude of community regarding adolescents’ utilization of SRH services. Conclusion: Adolescents are exposed to various risky environments, yet due to social stigma they have difficult to access the available SRH services.
115
23938
Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh
Abstract:
This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.
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41057
Heritage Preservation and Cultural Tourism; The 'Pueblos Mágicos' Program and Its Role in Preserving Traditional Architecture in Mexico
Abstract:
The Pueblos Mágicos federal program tries to preserve the traditional environment of small towns (under 20,000 inhabitants), through economic investments, legislation, and legal aid. To access the program, it’s important to cover 8 requirements; one of them is the fourth, which considers ‘Promotion of symbolic and differentiated touristic attractions, such as architecture, emblematic buildings, festivities and traditions, artisan production, traditional cuisine, and touristic services that guarantee their commercialization along with assistantship and security services’. With this objective in mind, the Federal government of Mexico had developed local programs to protect emblematic public buildings in each of the 83 towns included in the Pueblos Mágicos program that involved federal and local administrations as well as local civil associations, like Adopte una Obra de Arte. In this paper, we present 3 different intervention cases: first the restoration project (now concluded) of the 16th century monastery of Santa María Magdalena in Cuitzeo, an enormous building which took 6 years to be completely restored. Second case, the public spaces intervention in Pátzcuaro, included the Plaza Grande or Vasco de Quiroga square, and the access to the arts and crafts house known as Casa de los once patios or eleven backyards house. The third case is the recovery project of the 16th century atrium of the Tzintzuntzan monastery that included the original olive trees brought by Franciscans monks to this town in the middle 1500’s. This paper tries to present successful preservation projects in 3 different scales: building, urban spaces and landscape; and in 3 different towns with the objective to preserve public architecture, public spaces and cultural traditions. Learn from foreign experiences, different ways to manage preservation projects focused on public architecture and public spaces.
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92915
Management in Health Education Process among Spa Resorts in Poland
Abstract:
Spa facilities are being perceived as the ways of healing treatment in Poland and are guaranteed within the public financing. The universal health insurance (National Health Fund, NFZ), and the disability prevention programme held by Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) are the main sources of financing spa facilities. The dominant public payer of spa services is the NFZ. The Social Insurance Institution covers the cost of health treatment realized in spa facilities as medical rehabilitation, in the field of disability prevention. Health services delivered in the spa resorts are characterized by complexity, and the combination of various methods, typical for health prevention, education, balneotherapy, and physiotherapy. Healing with natural methods, believed to enhance the therapeutic effect, is also involved in health spa treatment. Regardless of the type of facility, each form of spa treatment includes health promotion, health education, prevention at all levels, including rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal organization of health education process. Its efficiency strongly depends on the type of service provider and the funding institution (NFZ vs ZUS). It results from the use of different measures of the effectiveness, the quality and the evaluation of the process being assessed by funding institutions. The methods of the study include a comparative and descriptive quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the empirical part, a questionnaire had been developed. It was then distributed among spa personnel, responsible directly for the health promotion, and among patients who are beneficiaries of health services in spa centers. The quantitative part of the study was based on interviews carried with the use of the online survey (CAWI: Computer-Assisted Web Interview), telephone survey (CATI: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview) and a conventional questionnaire (PAPI: Paper over Pencil Interview). As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the effectiveness of health education activities in spa resort facilities in Poland is higher when the services are organized using structured tools for managerial control. This applies to formalized procedures implemented by one of the dominant payers covering costs of services (ZUS) and involves the application of health education as one of the mandatory elements of treatment, subjected to the process of control during the course of spa therapy and evaluation after it is completed.
112
55240
The Public Relations Activities on Social Networking Sites for Communication to the Customer: Case Study the Company in Thailand
Abstract:
The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain Internet users’ behaviours towards companies’ public relations activities on social networking sites. In order to conduct a study of Internet users’ behaviour, data was collected using the quota sampling method from a total of 100 Internet users who are members of SNS and used the Internet during the period 10 December 2009 to 9 January 2010. An online self-administrated questionnaire was distributed through Facebook, Hi5 and Twitter to Internet users by using snowball sampling technique. Results of the study showed that the majority of the respondents were using social networking sites with the main purpose to contact their friends. Presently, most of the respondents were not regularly receiving companies’ public relations activities on social networking sites. The highest frequency of survey responses by the respondents was for hiding or deleting information introducing new products or services from companies on SNS also as well.
111
12553
To Cloudify or Not to Cloudify
Abstract:
As an emerging business model, cloud computing has been initiated to satisfy the need of organizations and to push Information Technology as a utility. The shift to the cloud has changed the way Information Technology departments are managed traditionally and has raised many concerns for both, public and private sectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of cloud computing services replacing services provided traditionally by IT departments. Therefore, it aims to 1) explore whether organizations in Oman are ready to move to the cloud; 2) identify the deciding factors leading to the adoption or rejection of cloud computing services in Oman; and 3) provide two case studies, one for a successful Cloud provider and another for a successful adopter. This paper is based on multiple research methods including conducting a set of interviews with cloud service providers and current cloud users in Oman; and collecting data using questionnaires from experts in the field and potential users of cloud services. Despite the limitation of bandwidth capacity and Internet coverage offered in Oman that create a challenge in adopting the cloud, it was found that many information technology professionals are encouraged to move to the cloud while few are resistant to change. The recent launch of a new Omani cloud service provider and the entrance of other international cloud service providers in the Omani market make this research extremely valuable as it aims to provide real-life experience as well as two case studies on the successful provision of cloud services and the successful adoption of these services.
110
33117
Friendly Public Spaces in Iran
Abstract:
According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.
109
36281
Criticality of Socio-Cultural Factors in Public Policy: A Study of Reproductive Health Care in Rural West Bengal
Authors:
Abstract:
Public policy is an intriguing terrain, which involves complex interplay of administrative, social political and economic components. There is hardly any fit-for all formulation of public policy as Lindbloom has aptly categorized it as a science of muddling through. In fact, policies are both temporally and contextually determined as one the proponents of policy sciences Harold D Lasswell has underscored it in his ‘contextual-configurative analysis’ as early as 1950s. Though, a lot of theoretical efforts have been made to make sense of this intricate dynamics of policy making, at the end of the day the applied area of public policy negates any such uniform, planned and systematic formulation. However, our policy makers seem to have learnt very little of that. Until recently, policy making was deemed as an absolutely specialized exercise to be conducted by a cadre of professionally trained seasoned mandarin. Attributes like homogeneity, impartiality, efficiency, and neutrality were considered as the watchwords of delivering common goods. Citizen or clientele was conceptualized as universal political or economic construct, to be taken care of uniformly. Moreover, policy makers usually have the proclivity to put anything into straightjacket, and to ignore the nuances therein. Hence, least attention has been given to the ground level reality, especially the socio-cultural milieu where the policy is supposed to be applied. Consequently, a substantial amount of public money goes in vain as the intended beneficiaries remain indifferent to the delivery of public policies. The present paper in the light of Reproductive Health Care policy in rural West Bengal has tried to underscore the criticality of socio-cultural factors in public health delivery. Indian health sector has traversed a long way. From a near non-existent at the time of independence, the Indian state has gradually built a country-wide network of health infrastructure. Yet it has to make a major breakthrough in terms of coverage and penetration of the health services in the rural areas. Several factors are held responsible for such state of things. These include lack of proper infrastructure, medicine, communication, ambulatory services, doctors, nursing services and trained birth attendants. Policy makers have underlined the importance of supply side in policy formulation and implementation. The successive policy documents concerning health delivery bear the testimony of it. The present paper seeks to interrogate the supply-side oriented explanations for the failure of the delivery of health services. Instead, it identified demand side to find out the answer. The state-led and bureaucratically engineered public health measures fail to engender demands as these measures mostly ignore socio-cultural nuances of health and well-being. Hence, the hiatus between supply side and demand side leads to huge wastage of revenue as health infrastructure, medicine and instruments remain unutilized in most cases. Therefore, taking proper cognizance of these factors could have streamlined the delivery of public health.
108
82679
R-Killer: An Email-Based Ransomware Protection Tool
Abstract:
Ransomware has become a common threat in past few years and the recent threat reports show an increase of growth in Ransomware infections. Researchers have identified different variants of Ransomware families since 2015. Lack of knowledge of the user about the threat is a major concern. Ransomware detection methodologies are still growing through the industry. Email is the easiest method to send Ransomware to its victims. Uninformed users tend to click on links and attachments without much consideration assuming the emails are genuine. As a solution to this in this paper R-Killer Ransomware detection tool is introduced. Tool can be integrated with existing email services. The core detection Engine (CDE) discussed in the paper focuses on separating suspicious samples from emails and handling them until a decision is made regarding the suspicious mail. It has the capability of preventing execution of identified ransomware processes. On the other hand, Sandboxing and URL analyzing system has the capability of communication with public threat intelligence services to gather known threat intelligence. The R-Killer has its own mechanism developed in its Proactive Monitoring System (PMS) which can monitor the processes created by downloaded email attachments and identify potential Ransomware activities. R-killer is capable of gathering threat intelligence without exposing the user’s data to public threat intelligence services, hence protecting the confidentiality of user data.
107
110975
Social Business Model: Leveraging Business and Social Value of Social Enterprises
Abstract:
This paper aims to analyze the barriers faced by social enterprises and based on that to propose a social business model framework that helps them to leverage their businesses and the social value delivered. A business model for social enterprises should amplify the value perception including social value for the beneficiaries while generating enough profit to escalate the business. Most of the social value beneficiaries are people from the base of the economic pyramid (BOP) or the ones that have specific needs. Because of this, products and services should be affordable to consumers while solving social needs of the beneficiaries. Developing products and services with social value require tie relationship among the social enterprises and universities, public institutions, accelerators, and investors. Despite being focused on social value and contributing to the beneficiaries’ quality of life as well as contributing to the governments that cannot properly guarantee public services and infrastructure to the BOP, many barriers are faced by the social enterprises to escalate their businesses. This is a work in process and five micro- and small-sized social enterprises in Brazil have been studied: (i) one has developed a kit for cervical uterine cancer detection to allow the BOP women to collect their own material and deliver to a laboratory for U$1,00; (ii) other has developed special products without lactose and it is about 70% cheaper than the traditional brands in the market; (iii) the third has developed prosthesis and orthosis to surplus needs that health public system have not done efficiently; (iv) the fourth has produced and commercialized menstrual panties aiming to reduce the consumption of dischargeable ones while saving money to the consumers; (v) the fifth develops and commercializes clothes from fabric wastes in a partnership with BOP artisans. The preliminary results indicate that the main barriers are related to the public system to recognize these products as public money that could be saved if they bought products from these enterprises instead of the multinational pharmaceutical companies, to the traditional distribution system (e.g. pharmacies) that avoid these products because of the low or non-existing profit, to the difficulty buying raw material in small quantities, to leverage investment by the investors, to cultural barriers and taboos. Interesting strategies to reduce the costs have been observed: some enterprises have focused on simplifying products, others have invested in partnerships with local producers and have developed their machines focusing on process efficiency to leverage investment by the investors.
106
42466
Comparison of Patient Satisfaction and Observer Rating of Outpatient Care among Public Hospitals in Shanghai
Abstract:
Background: The patient satisfaction survey is becoming of increasing importance for hospitals or other providers to get more reimbursement and/or more governmental subsidies. However, when the results of patient satisfaction survey are compared among medical institutions, there are some concerns. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals of Shanghai and to compare the satisfaction rating on physician services between patients and observers. Methods: Two hundred outpatients were randomly selected for patient satisfaction survey in each of 28 public tertiary hospitals of Shanghai. Four or five volunteers were selected to observe 5 physicians’ practice in each of above hospitals and rated observed physicians’ practice. The outpatients that the volunteers observed their physician practice also filled in the satisfaction questionnaires. The rating scale for outpatient survey and volunteers’ observation was: 1 (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied). If the rating was equal to or greater than 5, we considered the outpatients and volunteers were satisfied with the services. The validity and reliability of the measure were assessed. Multivariate regressions for each of the 4 dimensions and overall of patient satisfaction were used in analyses. Paired t tests were applied to analyze the rating agreement on physician services between outpatients and volunteers. Results: Overall, 90% of surveyed outpatients were satisfied with outpatient care in the tertiary public hospitals of Shanghai. The lowest three satisfaction rates were seen in the items of ‘Restrooms were sanitary and not crowded’ (81%), ‘It was convenient for the patient to pay medical bills’ (82%), and ‘Medical cost in the hospital was reasonable’ (84%). After adjusting the characteristics of patients, the patient satisfaction in general hospitals was higher than that in specialty hospitals. In addition, after controlling the patient characteristics and number of hospital visits, the hospitals with higher outpatient cost per visit had lower patient satisfaction. Paired t tests showed that the rating on 6 items in the dimension of physician services (total 14 items) was significantly different between outpatients and observers, in which 5 were rated lower by the observers than by the outpatients. Conclusions: The hospital managers and physicians should use patient satisfaction and observers’ evaluation to detect the room for improvement in areas such as social skills cost control, and medical ethics.
105
64790
E-Governance: A Key for Improved Public Service Delivery
Authors:
Abstract:
Public service delivery has witnessed a significant improvement with the integration of information communication technology (ICT). It not only improves management structure with advanced technology for surveillance of service delivery but also provides evidence for informed decisions and policy. Pakistan’s public sector organizations have not been able to produce some good results to ensure service delivery. Notwithstanding, some of the public sector organizations in Pakistan has diffused modern technology and proved their credence by providing better service delivery standards. These good indicators provide sound basis to integrate technology in public sector organizations and shift of policy towards evidence based policy making. Rescue-1122 is a public sector organization which provides emergency services and proved to be a successful model for the provision of service delivery to save human lives and to ensure human development in Pakistan. The information about the organization has been received by employing qualitative research methodology. The information is broadly based on primary and secondary sources which includes Rescue-1122 website, official reports of organizations; UNDP (United Nation Development Program), WHO (World Health Organization) and by conducting 10 in-depth interviews with the high administrative staff of organizations who work in the Lahore offices. The information received has been incorporated with the study for the better understanding of the organization and their management procedures. Rescue-1122 represents a successful model in delivering the services in an efficient way to deal with the disaster management. The management of Rescue has strategized the policies and procedures in such a way to develop a comprehensive model with the integration of technology. This model provides efficient service delivery as well as maintains the standards of the organization. The service delivery model of rescue-1122 works on two fronts; front-office interface and the back-office interface. Back-office defines the procedures of operations and assures the compliance of the staff whereas, front-office equipped with the latest technology and good infrastructure handles the emergency calls. Both ends are integrated with satellite based vehicle tracking, wireless system, fleet monitoring system and IP camera which monitors every move of the staff to provide better services and to pinpoint the distortions in the services. The standard time of reaching to the emergency spot is 7 minutes, and during entertaining the case; driver‘s behavior, traffic volume and the technical assistance being provided to the emergency case is being monitored by front-office. Then the whole information get uploaded to the main dashboard of Lahore headquarter from the provincial offices. The latest technology is being materialized by Rescue-1122 for delivering the efficient services, investigating the flaws; if found, and to develop data to make informed decision making. The other public sector organizations of Pakistan can also develop such models to integrate technology for improving service delivery and to develop evidence for informed decisions and policy making.
104
98539
The Potential of On-Demand Shuttle Services to Reduce Private Car Use
Abstract:
Findings of an ongoing discrete choice study of future transport mode choice will be presented. Many urban centers face the triple challenge of having to cope with ever increasing traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and greenhouse gas emission brought about by private car use. In principle, private car use may be diminished by extending public transport systems like bus lines, trams, tubes, and trains. However, there are limits to increasing the (perceived) spatial and temporal flexibility and reducing peak-time crowding of classical public transport systems. An emerging new type of system, publicly or privately operated on-demand shuttle bus services, seem suitable to ameliorate the situation. A fleet of on-demand shuttle busses operates without fixed stops and schedules. It may be deployed efficiently in that each bus picks up passengers whose itineraries may be combined into an optimized route. Crowding may be minimized by limiting the number of seats and the inter-seat distance for each bus. The study is conducted as a discrete choice experiment. The choice between private car, public transport, and shuttle service is registered as a function of several push and pull factors (financial costs, travel time, walking distances, mobility tax/congestion charge, and waiting time/parking space search time). After the completion of the discrete choice items, the study participant is asked to rate the three modes of transport with regard to the pull factors of comfort, safety, privacy, and opportunity to engage in activities like reading or surfing the internet. These ratings are entered as additional predictors into the discrete choice experiment regression model. The study is conducted in the region of Stuttgart in southern Germany. N=1000 participants are being recruited. Participants are between 18 and 69 years of age, hold a driver’s license, and live in the city or the surrounding region of Stuttgart. In the discrete choice experiment, participants are asked to assume they lived within the Stuttgart region, but outside of the city, and were planning the journey from their apartment to their place of work, training, or education during the peak traffic time in the morning. Then, for each item of the discrete choice experiment, they are asked to choose between the transport modes of private car, public transport, and on-demand shuttle in the light of particular values of the push and pull factors studied. The study will provide valuable information on the potential of switching from private car use to the use of on-demand shuttles, but also on the less desirable potential of switching from public transport to on-demand shuttle services. Furthermore, information will be provided on the modulation of these switching potentials by pull and push factors.
103
50282
Electronic Transparency in Georgia as a Basis for Development of Electronic Governance
Abstract:
Technological changes have an impact not only on economic but also on social elements of society which in turn has created new challenges for states’ political systems and their regimes. As a result of unprecedented growth of information technologies and communications digital democracy and electronic governance have emerged. Nowadays effective state functioning cannot be imagined without electronic governance. In Georgia, special attention is paid to the development of such new systems and establishment of electronic governance. Therefore, in parallel to intensive development of information technologies an important priority for public sector in Georgia is the development of electronic governance. In spite of the fact that today Georgia with its economic indicators satisfies the standards of western informational society, and major part of its gross domestic product comes from the service sector (59.6%), it still remains a backward country on the world map in terms of information technologies and electronic governance. E-transparency in Georgia should be based on such parameters as government accountability when the government provides citizens information about their activities; e-participation which involves government’s consideration of external expert assessments; cooperation between officials and citizens in order to solve national problems. In order to improve electronic systems the government should actively do the following: Fully develop electronic programs concerning HR and exchange of data between public organizations; develop all possible electronic services; improve existing electronic programs; make electronic services available on different mobile platforms (iPhone, Android, etc.).
102
14896
Financial Administration of Urban Local Governance: A Comparative Study of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Bhavnagar Municipal Corporation(BMC)
Abstract:
Financial administration is part of government which deals with collection, preservation and distribution of public funds, with the coordination of public revenue and expenditure, with the management of credit operation on behalf of the state and with the general control of the financial affairs of public households. The researcher has taken the prime body of the local self government viz. Municipal Corporation. However, the number of municipal corporations in India has rapidly increased in recent years. Countries 27% of the total population are living in urban area & in recent it increasing very fast. People are moving very fast from rural area to urban area. Their demand, awareness is increasing day by day. The Municipal Corporations render many services for the development of the urban area. Thus, researcher has taken a step to know the accounting practices of the municipal corporations of Gujarat state (AMC & BMC ). The research will try to show you the status of finance of municipal corporations. Article 243(w) of the constitution of India envisaged that the state government maybe, by law , endow the municipalities with such powers and authorities as may be necessary to enable them to function as institution of self government and such law may contain provision for devolution of powers and responsibilities upon municipalities subjects to such condition as may be specified there in with respect to (i) the peroration of plans for economic development and social justice and (ii) the performance of the function and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the twelfth schedule. The three tier structure of the Indian Government i.e. Union, State & Local Self Government is the scenario of the Indian constitution. Local Self Government performs or renders many services under the direct control of state government. They (local bodies) possess autonomy within its limited sphere, raise revenue through local taxation and spend its income on local services.
101
60803
Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects
Abstract:
Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.
100
97253
Public Service Ethics in Public Administration: An Empirical Investigation
Authors:
Abstract:
The increasing concern of public sector reforms brings new challenges to public service ethics in developing countries not only at central level but also at local level. This paper aims to identify perceptions on public service ethics of public officials and examines more generally the understanding of public servants in Pakistan towards public service ethics in local public organizations. The study uses an independently administered structured questionnaire to collect data to know the extent of the recognition of public service ethics in local organizations. A total of 150 completed questionnaires are analyzed received from public servants working at the local level in Pakistan. The analysis explores how traditional, social patterns and cultural ethics can provide us with a rounded picture of the main antecedents, moderators of public service ethics in Pakistan. Moreover, the findings of this study contribute in association of public service ethics which are crucial in ongoing political and administrative culture of Pakistan, the most crucial core for public organizational ethical climate. This study also has numerous implications for local public administration and it highlights the importance of expanding research agenda on public service ethics in developing settings with challenging institutional contexts with imperfect training and operating environments. This study may well be particularly important for practice of public service ethics in developing countries in public administration. To the best of author&rsquo;s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to provide an initial step in practical implications to emphasize relevant public service ethics in public administration in developing transparent and accountable organization.
99
23257
Indicators to Assess the Quality of Health Services
Abstract:
The article deals with the evaluation of the quality of medical services on the basis of quality indicators. For this purpose allocated initially the features of the medical services market. The Features of the market directly affect on the evaluation process that takes a multi-level and multi-stakeholder nature. Unlike ordinary goods market assessment of medical services does not only market. Such an assessment is complemented by continuous internal and external evaluation, including experts and accrediting bodies. In the article highlighted the composition of indicators for a comprehensive evaluation
98
5973
Investigating the Challenges and Opportunities for M-Government Implementation in Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
Given the lack of research into potential opportunities and challenges which are likely to be associated with the implementation of mobile services in developing countries including Saudi Arabia, the research reported here investigated the challenges and opportunities which are associated with the implementation of mobile government services in Saudi Arabia. By collecting data through surveys from 103 Saudi citizens and 46 employees working at the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Saudi Arabia, this study indicates that the high level of mobile penetration in the country offers an opportunity for Saudi Arabian government to offer mobile government services in the country. The results also suggest that though a large percentage of populations do not have access to mobile technologies, there is still a strong desire among users for the provision of mobile government services. Moreover, the results suggest that effective implementation of mobile government services would help to increase the technological development of Saudi Arabia. However, there are certain challenges which may prevent the effective implementation of such services. First, there does not appear to be a sufficient level of understanding among the Saudi Arabian population about the benefits which are associated with mobile government services. Secondly, the results suggest that the implementation of the services needs to be closely tailored and personalised to the individual needs of target users. Finally, the lack of access to mobile technologies would be a challenge to the successful introduction of these services.
97
46842
Pawn or Potentates: Corporate Governance Structure in Indian Central Public Sector Enterprises
Abstract:
The Department of Public Enterprises had made submissions of Self Evaluation Reports, for the purpose of corporate governance, mandatory for all central government owned enterprises. Despite this, an alarming 40% of the enterprises did not do so. This study examines the impact of external policy tools and internal firm-specific factors on corporate governance of central public sector enterprises (CPSEs). We use a dataset of all manufacturing and non-financial services owned by the central government of India for the year 2010-11. Using probit, ordered logit and Heckman’s sample selection models, the study finds that the probability and quality of corporate governance is positively influenced by the CPSE getting into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the central government of India, and hence, enjoying more autonomy in terms of day to day operations. Besides these, internal factors, including bigger size and lower debt size contribute significantly to better corporate governance.
96
30456
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) Banking
Abstract:
As mobile networks are upgraded with technologies like WAP, GPRS and UMTS to deliver next-generation multimedia services, so are the banks and other financial institutions also getting ready to unleash the financial products on the mobile platform to meet growing demand for mobile based application services. Hence, the onset of Unstructured Supplementary Services (USSD) Banking which would make banking services available at anywhere, anytime through a string of interactive SMS sessions between a mobile device and an application server of a service provider. The aim of this studies was to find out whether the public will accept the sim banking service when it is implemented. Our target group includes: Working class. E. g. Businessmen/women, office workers, fishermen, market women, teachers etc. Nonworking class. E. g. Students (Tertiary, Senior High School), housewives. etc. The survey was in the form of a questionnaire and a verbal interview (video) which was to investigate their idea about the current banking system and the yet to be introduced sim banking concept. Meanwhile, some challenges accompanied the progression of data gathering because some populace showed reluctance in freeing their information. One other suggestion was that government should put measures against foremost challenges obstructing sim banking in Ghana counter to computers hackers. Government and individual have a key role to undertake to give suitable support to facelift the sim banking industry in the country. It was also suggested that Government put strong regulations on the use of sim banking products and services to streamline all the activities and also create awareness of the need for sim banking and emphasize its relevance in the aspect of national GDP.
95
44212
The Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: Totally state-owned public enterprises (type I), partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III), based on the degree of state partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III),based on the degree of reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment (affective commitment and normative commitment) between the three types of public energy enterprises. The lack of a structural type difference holds for only continuance commitment. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and including organizational commitment also.
94
28132
Self in Networks: Public Sphere in the Era of Globalisation
Abstract:
A paradigm shift from capitalism to information technology is discerned in the era globalisation. The idea of public sphere, which was theorized in terms of its decline in the wake of the rise of commercial mass media has now emerged as a transnational or global sphere with the discourse being dominated by the ‘network society’. In other words, the dynamic of globalisation has brought about ‘a spatial turn’ in the social and political sciences which is also manifested in the public sphere, Especially the global public sphere. The paper revisits the Habermasian concept of the public sphere and focuses on the various social networking sites with their plausibility to create a virtual global public sphere. Situating Habermas’s notion of the bourgeois public sphere in the present context of global public sphere, it considers the changing dimensions of the public sphere across time and examines the concept of the ‘public’ with its shifting transformation from the concrete collective to the fluid ‘imagined’ category. The paper addresses the problematic of multimodal self-portraiture in the social networking sites as well as various online diaries/journals with an attempt to explore the nuances of the networked self.
93
73531
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
92
73529
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
91
73530
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
90
72685
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
89
73528
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
88
73536
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
87
73527
Evaluating Service Trustworthiness for Service Selection in Cloud Environment
Abstract:
Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular and more business applications are moving to cloud. In this regard, services that provide similar functional properties are increasing. So, the ability to select a service with the best non-functional properties, corresponding to the user preference, is necessary for the user. This paper presents an Evaluation Framework of Service Trustworthiness (EFST) that evaluates the trustworthiness of equivalent services without need to additional invocations of them. EFST extracts user preference automatically. Then, it assesses trustworthiness of services in two dimensions of qualitative and quantitative metrics based on the experiences of past usage of services. Finally, EFST determines the overall trustworthiness of services using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results of experiments and simulations show that EFST is able to predict the missing values of Quality of Service (QoS) better than other competing approaches. Also, it propels users to select the most appropriate services.
86
59540
The Role of Demographics and Service Quality in the Adoption and Diffusion of E-Government Services: A Study in India
Abstract:
Background and Significance: This study is aimed at analyzing the role of demographic and service quality variables in the adoption and diffusion of e-government services among the users in India. The study proposes to examine the users' perception about e-Government services and investigate the key variables that are most salient to the Indian populace. Description of the Basic Methodologies: The methodology to be adopted in this study is Hierarchical Regression Analysis, which will help in exploring the impact of the demographic variables and the quality dimensions on the willingness to use e-government services in two steps. First, the impact of demographic variables on the willingness to use e-government services is to be examined. In the second step, quality dimensions would be used as inputs to the model for explaining variance in excess of prior contribution by the demographic variables. Present Status: Our study is in the data collection stage in collaboration with a highly reliable, authentic and adequate source of user data. Assuming that the population of the study comprises all the Internet users in India, a massive sample size of more than 10,000 random respondents is being approached. Data is being collected using an online survey questionnaire. A pilot survey has already been carried out to refine the questionnaire with inputs from an expert in management information systems and a small group of users of e-government services in India. The first three questions in the survey pertain to the Internet usage pattern of a respondent and probe whether the person has used e-government services. If the respondent confirms that he/she has used e-government services, then an aggregate of 15 indicators are used to measure the quality dimensions under consideration and the willingness of the respondent to use e-government services, on a five-point Likert scale. If the respondent reports that he/she has not used e-government services, then a few optional questions are asked to understand the reason(s) behind the same. Last four questions in the survey are dedicated to collect data related to the demographic variables. An indication of the Major Findings: Based on the extensive literature review carried out to develop several propositions; a research model is prescribed to start with. A major outcome expected at the completion of the study is the development of a research model that would help to understand the relationship involving the demographic variables and service quality dimensions, and the willingness to adopt e-government services, particularly in an emerging economy like India. Concluding Statement: Governments of emerging economies and other relevant agencies can use the findings from the study in designing, updating, and promoting e-government services to enhance public participation, which in turn, would help to improve efficiency, convenience, engagement, and transparency in implementing these services.
85
31093
The Dynamic of Decentralization of Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia: Local Perspectives
Abstract:
This study is about the implementation of decentralization of education policy in today’s Indonesia’s reform era. The policy has made education as one of the basic public services that must be performed by the local governments. After more than a decade of implementing the policy, what have been achieved? Has the implementation of educational affairs in the region been able to improve the quality of education services in the region? What obstacles or challenges faced by the region in the implementation of the educational affairs? How does region overcome obstacles or challenges? In answering those strategic questions, this study will particularly investigate the implementation of educational affairs in the city and District of Cirebon, the two district level of governments in West Java Province. The two loci of study provide interesting insight, given the range of previous studies did not specifically investigate using a local perspective (city and district level). This study employs a qualitative research method through case studies. Operationally, this study is sustained by several data collection techniques, i.e. interviews, documentary method, and systematic observation. Needless to say, there have been many factors distorting the ideal construction of decentralization of education policy.
84
36756
The Importance of Cultural Adaptation of B2C E-Services Design in Germany
Abstract:
This research will give the introductory ideas for cultural adaption of B2C E-Service design in Germany. By the intense competition of E-Service development, many companies have realized the importance of understanding the emotional and cultural characteristics of their customers. Ignoring customers’ needs and requirements throughout the E-Service design can lead to faults, mistakes, and gaps. The term of E-Service usability now is changed not only to develop high quality E-Services, but also to be extended to include customer satisfaction and provide for them to feel local.
83
78922
Evaluating the Evolution of Public Art across the World and Exploring Its Growth in Urban India
Abstract:
Public Art is a tool with the power to enrich and enlighten any place; it has been accepted and welcomed effortlessly by many cultures around the World. In this paper, we discuss the implications Public Art has had on the society and how it has evolved over the years, and how in India, art in this aspect is still overlooked and treated as an accessory. Urban aesthetics are still substantially limited to the installation of deities, political figures, and so on. The paper also discusses various possibilities and opportunities on how Public Art can boost a society; it also suggests a framework that can be incorporated in the legal system of the country to make it a part of the city development process.
82
77241
Outputs from the Implementation of 'PHILOS' Programme: Emergency Health Response to Refugee Crisis, Greece, 2017
Abstract:
‘PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis’ is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP). The programme is funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. With the EU Member States accepting, the last period, accelerating migration flows, Greece inevitably occupies a prominent position in the migratory map due to this geographical location. The main objectives of the programme are a) reinforcement of the capacity of the public health system and enhancement of the epidemiological surveillance in order to cover refugees/migrant population, b) provision of on-site primary health care and psychological support services, and c) strengthening of national health care system task-force. The basic methods for achieving the aforementioned goals are: a) implementation of syndromic surveillance system at camps and enhancement of public health response with the use of mobile medical units (Sub-action A), b) enhancement of health care services inside the camps via increasing human resources and implementing standard operating procedures (Sub-action B), and c) reinforcement of the national health care system (primary healthcare units, hospitals, and emergency care spots) of affected regions with personnel (Sub-action C). As a result, 58 health professionals were recruited under sub-action 2 and 10 mobile unit teams (one or two at each health region) were formed. The main actions taken so far by the mobile units are the evaluation, of syndromic surveillance, of living conditions at camps and medical services. Also, vaccination coverage of children population was assessed, and more than 600 catch-up vaccinations were performed by the end of June 2017. Mobile units supported transportation of refugees/migrants from camps to medical services reducing the load of the National Center for Emergency Care (more than 350 transportations performed). The total number of health professionals (MD, nurses, etc.) placed at camps was 104. Common practices were implemented in the recording and collection of psychological and medical history forms at the camps. Protocols regarding maternity care, gender based violence and handling of violent incidents were produced and distributed at personnel working at camps. Finally, 290 health care professionals were placed at primary healthcare units, public hospitals and the National Center for Emergency Care at affected regions. The program has, also, supported training activities inside the camps and resulted to better coordination of offered services on site.
81
76499
Significance of Occupational Safety for Healthcare Professionals
Abstract:
The privatization of public services has intensified and extended the delivery of healthcare services at hospitals, which leads to an increase in health and safety risks for healthcare professionals. More efficient and effective delivery of healthcare services can be realized through the provision of occupational safety of healthcare professionals. However, healthcare professionals are exposed to more dangers, accidents, and diseases because of such reasons as present working conditions, hospital infections, lack of ergonomic design, medication, wastes, excessive work load, negligent attitudes of workers, violence, psychological risks, etc. Unsafe working conditions cause fear, injury and wearing impacts in healthcare professionals in many countries. Thus, it is emphasized that the protection of the health of healthcare professionals is important to have educated, healthy workers and adequate workforce. Occupational health and safety measures applied in health facilities are aimed at protecting workers and providing the safety of services and facilities. All activities to be undertaken at hospitals with regard to occupational safety in accordance with these goals will help to reduce costs and provide continuous services. At the same time, a safe working environment will increase worker satisfaction and motivation, sense of institutional belonging and indirectly patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, the control and correction of occupational safety activities are also as important as the implementation. Occupational health and safety practices in the facilities will also lead to positive developments for national economy and society. This study emphasizes that approaching occupational safety practices for healthcare professionals in a sensitive manner is important for enabling healthcare professionals to do more productive works in terms of physical, social and psychological aspects, maintaining the continuity of healthcare services and social and economic contributions.
80
79112
Increased Availability and Accessibility of Family Planning Services: An Approach Leading to Improved Contraceptive Uptake and Reproductive Behavior of Women Living in Pakistan
Abstract:
Background: Access, better counseling and quality in the provision of family planning services remain big challenges. Sukh Initiative (a project of three different foundations) is a multi-pronged approach, working in one million underserved population residing peri urban slums in Karachi and providing door to door services by lady health workers (LHWs) and community health workers (CHWs) linked with quality family planning and reproductive (FP/RH) services both at public and private health care facilities. Objective: To assess the improvement in family planning and reproductive health behavior among MWRAs by improving access in peri-urban-underserved population of Karachi. Methodology: Using cross sectional study design 3866 married women with reproductive age (MWRAs) were interviewed in peri urban region of Karachi during November 2016 to January 2017. All face to face structured interviews were conducted with women aged 15-49 currently living with their husbands. Based on the project intervention question on reproductive health were developed and questions on contraceptive use were adopted from PDHS- Pakistan 2013. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed on SPSS version 22. Results: 65% of population sample are literate, 51% women were in young age group- 15–29. On the poverty index, 6% of the population sample living at national poverty line 1.25$ and 52% at 2.50$. During the project years 79% women opted for facility based delivery; private facilities are the priority choice. 61.7% women initiated the contraceptive use in last two years (after the project).Use of family planning was increased irrespective of education level and poverty index- about 55.5% women with no formal education are using any form of contraception and trend of current modern contraceptives across poverty scores strata equally distributed amongst all groups. Age specific modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR)(between 25-34) was found to be 43.8%. About 23% of this contraceptive ascertained from door to door services- short acting, (pills and condoms) are common, 29.5% from public facilities and 47.6% are from public facilities in which long acting and permanent method most received methods. Conclusion: Strategy of expanding access and choice in the form of providing family planning information and supplies at door step and availability of quality family planning services in the peripheries of underserved may improve the behavior of women regarding FP/RH.
79
23723
HD-WSComp: Hypergraph Decomposition for Web Services Composition Based on QoS
Abstract:
The increasing number of Web service (WS)providers throughout the globe, have produced numerous Web services providing the same or similar functionality. Therefore, there is a need of tools developing the best answer of queries by selecting and composing services with total transparency. This paper reviews various QoS based Web service selection mechanisms and architectures which facilitate qualitatively optimal selection, in other fact Web service composition is required when a request cannot be fulfilled by a single web service. In such cases, it is preferable to integrate existing web services to satisfy user’s request. We introduce an automatic Web service composition method based on hypergraph decomposition using hypertree decomposition method. The problem of selection and the composition of the web services is transformed into a resolution in a hypertree by exploring the relations of dependency between web services to get composite web service via employing an execution order of WS satisfying global request.
78
12047
Framework for Government ICT Projects
Authors:
Abstract:
In its efforts to utilize the information and communication technology to enhance the quality of public service delivery, national and local governments around the world are competing to introduce more ICT applications as tools to automate processes related to law enforcement or policy execution, increase citizen orientation, trust, and satisfaction, and create one-stop-shops for public services. In its implementation, e-Government ICTs need to maintain transparency, participation, and collaboration. Due to this diverse of mixed goals and requirements, e-Government systems need to be designed based on special design considerations in order to eliminate the risks of failure to compliance to government regulations, citizen dissatisfaction, or market repulsion. In this article we suggest a framework with guidelines for designing government information systems that takes into consideration the special requirements of the public sector. Then we introduce two case studies and show how applying those guidelines would result in a more solid system design.
77
112154
Perception of Public Transport Quality of Service among Regular Private Vehicle Users in Five European Cities
Abstract:
Urban traffic levels can be reduced by drawing travelers away from private vehicles over to using public transport. This modal change can be achieved by either introducing restrictions on private vehicles or by introducing measures which increase people’s satisfaction with public transport. For public transport users, quality of service affects customer satisfaction, which, in turn, influences the behavioral intentions towards the service. This paper intends to identify the main attributes which influence the perception private vehicle users have about the public transport services provided in five European cities: Berlin, Lisbon, London, Madrid and Rome. Ordinal logit models have been applied to an online panel survey with a sample size of 2,500 regular private vehicle users (approximately 500 inhabitants per city). To achieve a comprehensive analysis and to deal with heterogeneity in perceptions, 15 models have been developed for the entire sample and 14 user segments. The results show differences between the cities and among the segments. Madrid was taken as reference city and results indicate that the inhabitants are satisfied with public transport in Madrid and that the most important public transport service attributes for private vehicle users are frequency, speed and intermodality. Frequency is an important attribute for all the segments, while speed and intermodality are important for most of the segments. An analysis by segments has identified attributes which, although not important in most cases, are relevant for specific segments. This study also points out important differences between the five cities. Findings from this study can be used to develop policies and recommendations for persuading.
76
10069
The Sustainability of Public Debt in Taiwan
Abstract:
This study examines whether the Taiwan’s public debt is sustainable utilizing an unrestricted two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with an autoregressive unit root. The empirical results show that Taiwan’s public debt appears as a nonlinear series and is stationary in regime 1 but not in regime 2. This result implies that while Taiwan’s public debt was mostly sustainable over the 1996 to 2013 period examined in the study, it may no longer be sustainable in the most recent two years as the public debt ratio has increased cumulatively to 3.618%.
75
85402
A Proposed Plan for the Viral Marketing of Sporting Products and Services to Social Media Users in the Arab World
Abstract:
Viral marketing has resulted in a lot of excitement recently as a novel technology in the field of marketing. The need of porting institutions to attract new customers for sporting products and services has increased, especially as many international and Arab clubs rely on them for most of their funding. These organizations, especially clubs, have outlets for selling their products and services; therefore, they are in need for new approaches that are related to modern communication and innovative distribution methods that can depend on the present audience in conveying e-ads to other users in light of the increase in social media users in the Arab world. This study aims at developing a marketing plan for sporting products and services through viral marketing of social media users. The researcher used the descriptive method. The sample consisted of 1991 social media users in 13 Arab countries. The questionnaire consisted of five themes and 42 items. Allan Dib 'one-page marketing plan' was used to develop the sporting products and services marketing plan. The study found that participants reported watching e-ads of sporting products and services that appeared during browsing social media pages; Facebook was the most used means for receiving ads about sporting products and services; sharing the product’s ad depends on the availability of incentives; purchasing sporting products and services takes place after a recommendation by a relative or a friend; and their evaluation of sporting products and services depends on the experiences of other people. The study recommends that the proposed plan should be used in marketing sporting products and services.
74
48204
Public Procurement and Innovation: A Municipal Approach
Abstract:
Innovation procurement is designed to steer the development of solutions towards concrete public sector needs as a driver for innovation from the demand side (in public services as well as in market opportunities for companies), is horizontally emerging as a new policy instrument. In 2014 the new EU public procurement directives 2014/24/EC and 2014/25/EC reinforced the support for Public Procurement for Innovation, dedicating funding instruments that can be used across all areas supported by Horizon 2020, and targeting potential buyers of innovative solutions: groups of public procurers with similar needs. Under this programme, new policy adapters and networks emerge, aiming to embed innovation criteria into new procurement processes. As these initiatives are in process, research related to is scarce. We argue that Innovation Public Procurement can arise as an innovative policy instrument to public procurement in different policy domains, in spite of existing institutional and cultural barriers (legal guarantee versus innovation). The presentation combines insights from public procurement to supply management chain management in a sustainability and innovation policy arena, as a means of providing understanding of: (1) the circumstances that emerge; (2) the relationship between public and private actors; and (3) the emerging capacities in the definition of the agenda. The policy adopters are the contracting authorities that mainly are at municipal level where they interact with the supply management chain, interconnecting sustainability and climate measures with other policy priorities such as innovation and urban planning; and through the Competitive Dialogue procedure. We found that geography and territory affect both the level of municipal budget (due to municipal income per capita) and its institutional competencies (due to demographic reasons). In spite of the relevance of institutional determinants for public procurement, other factors play an important role such as human factors as well as both public policy and private intervention. The experience is a ‘city project’ (Bilbao) in the field of brownfield decontamination. Brownfield sites typically refer to abandoned or underused industrial and commercial properties—such as old process plants, mining sites, and landfills—that are available but contain low levels of environmental contaminants that may complicate reuse or redevelopment of the land. This article concludes that Innovation Public Procurement in sustainability and climate issues should be further developed both as a policy instrument and as a policy research line that could enable further relevant changes in public procurement as well as in climate innovation.
73
43990
The Antecedents That Effect on Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: totally state-owned public enterprises, partially transformed public enterprises and totally transformed public enterprises, based on the degree of state ownership and the level of management control that exist in the public reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment between the three types of public energy enterprises. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and organizational commitment. Whereas change-related behaviors show a direct negative influence on organizational commitment, both HRM practices and work-related values indicate direct positive influences on them also.
72
84771
Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing
Abstract:
In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.
71
31170
An Efficient Traceability Mechanism in the Audited Cloud Data Storage
Abstract:
By cloud storage services, the data can be stored in the cloud, and can be shared across multiple users. Due to the unexpected hardware/software failures and human errors, which make the data stored in the cloud be lost or corrupted easily it affected the integrity of data in cloud. Some mechanisms have been designed to allow both data owners and public verifiers to efficiently audit cloud data integrity without retrieving the entire data from the cloud server. But public auditing on the integrity of shared data with the existing mechanisms will unavoidably reveal confidential information such as identity of the person, to public verifiers. Here a privacy-preserving mechanism is proposed to support public auditing on shared data stored in the cloud. It uses group signatures to compute verification metadata needed to audit the correctness of shared data. The identity of the signer on each block in shared data is kept confidential from public verifiers, who are easily verifying shared data integrity without retrieving the entire file. But on demand, the signer of the each block is reveal to the owner alone. Group private key is generated once by the owner in the static group, where as in the dynamic group, the group private key is change when the users revoke from the group. When the users leave from the group the already signed blocks are resigned by cloud service provider instead of owner is efficiently handled by efficient proxy re-signature scheme.
70
80504
Sukh Initiative: A Family Planning Reproductive Health Project for Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract:
Background: Sukh Initiative is a multi-donor funded, family planning and reproductive health project, primed by Aman Healthcare Services; implemented through a consortium of local and international organizations, in a selected one million underserved peri-urban population of Karachi, Sindh; which aims at increasing modern contraceptive prevalence rate by 15 percentage point. Objective: To empower women to access contraception by increasing knowledge, improving quality of services and expanding the basket of choices; contributing to the goals of FP2020. Methods: A five years project has a multi-pronged approach with door to door services by LHWs and CHWs in an LHWs covered population and provision of quality FP/RH services both at public and private health care facilities. The project engages youth (12-16 years) both with community and at secondary schools to mentor them for responsible adulthood with life skilled base initiative. A 24/7 availability of youth and FP helpline service provides counselling, referrals in addition with a follow-up mechanism. Results: 131,810 MWRAs were reached by 191 community health workers through 29,693 of community support group meetings and 166,775 house hold visits. These MWRAs were counselled on FP related myths and misconception and referred to 216 providers trained for quality family planning services and maintaining average 64% quality scores in 43 public health and 35 private facilities in the project area. Of those referred 26% MWRAs opted modern contraception with 17.56% in LARCs and 41% PPFP as compared to baseline. Aman TeleHealth is linked with 24/7 counselling, referrals and post services follow-ups to clients, showing 14% proportion of FP call volume. Sukh has a unique role in engaging all partners on youth SRHR issues through family life education sessions, 30 higher sec. schools in Sukh area have been provided LSBE to 16,000 students (aged 15-17), and in community approximately 10, 496 girls and boys have received SRHR information. Conclusion: Through individual counselling, access to quality family planning services and involvement of stakeholders, Suk created an enabling environment to rapid increase in family planning in the project intervention area.
69
20623
Towards Natively Context-Aware Web Services
Abstract:
With the ubiquitous computing&rsquo;s emergence and the evolution of enterprises&rsquo; needs, one of the main challenges is to build context-aware applications based on Web services. These applications have become particularly relevant in the pervasive computing domain. In this paper, we introduce our approach that optimizes the use of Web services with context notions when dealing with contextual environments. We focus particularly on making Web services autonomous and natively context-aware. We implement and evaluate the proposed approach with a pedagogical example of a context-aware Web service treating temperature values.&nbsp;
68
66676
Going Horizontal: Confronting the Challenges When Transitioning to Cloud
Abstract:
As one of the largest cancer treatment centers in the United States, we continuously confront the challenge of how to leverage the best possible technological solutions, in order to provide the highest quality of service to our customers – the doctors, nurses and patients at Moffitt who are fighting every day for the prevention and cure of cancer. This paper reports on the transition from a vertical to a horizontal IT infrastructure. We discuss how the new frameworks and methods such as public, private and hybrid cloud, brokering cloud services are replacing the traditional vertical paradigm for computing. We also report on the impact of containers, micro services, and the shift to continuous integration/continuous delivery. These impacts and changes in delivery methodology for computing are driving how we accomplish our strategic IT goals across the enterprise.
67
46437
Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles
Abstract:
This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.
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39950
Public Relations for the Faculty of Management Science in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Authors:
Abstract:
The objectives of this research were to investigate the knowledge and understanding of public relations principles for public relations officials of the office of the faculty of management science in Ratjabhat Suan Sunandha University and to determine the approach of public relations for the Office of Faculty of Management Science.&nbsp; The questionnaire was utilized as a tool to collect data. Statistics utilized included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis. The results of the research showed that the public relations officials misunderstood on public relations principles. The lack of the perception in media of the target groups both in-house and outside caused the misunderstanding on the roles, mission, and responsibilities. It would be beneficial to public relations division and other divisions of the office of the faculty of management science to be trained and obtained more knowledge and skills on the public relations to support the public relations work for the organization.
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8330
Employment Discrimination on Civil Servant Recruitment
Authors:
Abstract:
Employment right is linked to the people’s livelihood in our society. As a most important and representative part in the labor market, the employment of public servants is always taking much attention. But the discrimination in the employment of public servants has always existed and, to become a controversy in our society. The paper try to discuss this problem from four parts as follows: First, the employment of public servants has a representative status in our labor market. The second part is about the discrimination in the employment of public servants. The third part is about the right of equality and its significance. The last part is to analysis the legal predicament about discrimination in the employment of public servants in China.
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59890
Valuing Cultural Ecosystem Services of Natural Treatment Systems Using Crowdsourced Data
Abstract:
Natural treatment systems such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds are increasingly used to treat water and wastewater from a variety of sources, including stormwater and polluted surface water. The provision of ancillary benefits in the form of cultural ecosystem services makes these systems unique among water and wastewater treatment technologies and greatly contributes to determine their potential role in promoting sustainable water management practices. A quantitative analysis of these benefits, however, has been lacking in the literature. Here, a critical assessment of the recreational and educational benefits in natural treatment systems is provided, which combines observed public use from a survey of managers and operators with estimated public use as obtained using geotagged photos from social media as a proxy for visitation rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to characterize the spatial boundaries of 273 natural treatment systems worldwide. Such boundaries are used as input for the Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of two popular photo-sharing websites (Flickr and Panoramio) in order to derive the number of photo-user-days, i.e., the number of yearly visits by individual photo users in each site. The adequateness and predictive power of four univariate calibration models using the crowdsourced data as a proxy for visitation are evaluated. A high correlation is found between photo-user-days and observed annual visitors (Pearson's r = 0.811; p-value < 0.001; N = 62). Standardized Major Axis (SMA) regression is found to outperform Ordinary Least Squares regression and count data models in terms of predictive power insofar as standard verification statistics – such as the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), the mean absolute error of prediction (MAEP), the reduction of error (RE), and the coefficient of efficiency (CE) – are concerned. The SMA regression model is used to estimate the intensity of public use in all 273 natural treatment systems. System type, influent water quality, and area are found to statistically affect public use, consistently with a priori expectations. Publicly available information regarding the home location of the sampled visitors is derived from their social media profiles and used to infer the distance they are willing to travel to visit the natural treatment systems in the database. Such information is analyzed using the travel cost method to derive monetary estimates of the recreational benefits of the investigated natural treatment systems. Overall, the findings confirm the opportunities arising from an integrated design and management of natural treatment systems, which combines the objectives of water quality enhancement and provision of cultural ecosystem services through public use in a multi-functional approach and compatibly with the need to protect public health.
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52360
Factor Analysis Based on Semantic Differential of the Public Perception of Public Art: A Case Study of the Malaysia National Monument
Abstract:
This study attempts to address factors that contribute to outline public art factors assessment, memorial monument specifically. Memorial monuments hold significant and rich message whether the intention of the art is to mark and commemorate important event or to inform younger generation about the past. Public monument should relate to the public and raise awareness about the significant issue. Therefore, by investigating the impact of the existing public memorial art will hopefully shed some lights to the upcoming public art projects’ stakeholders to ensure the lucid memorial message is delivered to the public directly. Public is the main actor as public is the fundamental purpose that the art was created. Perception is framed as one of the reliable evaluation tools to assess the public art impact factors. The Malaysia National Monument was selected to be the case study for the investigation. The public’s perceptions were gathered using a questionnaire that involved (n-115) participants to attain keywords, and next Semantical Differential Methodology (SDM) was adopted to evaluate the perceptions about the memorial monument. These perceptions were then measured with Reliability Factor and then were factorised using Factor Analysis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method to acquire concise factors for the monument assessment. The result revealed that there are four factors that influence public’s perception on the monument which are aesthetic, audience, topology, and public reception. The study concludes by proposing the factors for public memorial art assessment for the next future public memorial projects especially in Malaysia.
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88872
Application of Social Media for Promoting Library and Information Services: A Case Study of Library Science Professionals of India
Authors:
Abstract:
Social media is playing an important role for dissemination of information in society. In 21st century most people have a smart phone and used different social media tools like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, Skype etc. in day to day life. It is rapidly growing web-based tool for everyone to share thoughts, ideas and knowledge globally using internet. The study highlights the current use of social media tools for promoting library and information services of Library and Information Professionals of India, which are working in Library. The study was conducted during November, 2017. A structured questionnaire was prepared using google docs and shared using different mailing list, sent to individual email IDs and sharing with other social media tools. Only 90 responses received from the different states of India and analyzed via MS-Excel. The data receive from 17 states and 3 union territories of India; however most of the respondents has come from the states Odisha 23, Himachal Pradesh 14 and Assam 10. The results revealed that out 90 respondents 37 Female and 53 male categories and also majority of respondents 71 have come from academic library followed by special library 15, Public library 3 and corporate library 1 respondent. The study indicates that, out of 90 respondent’s majority of 53 of respondents said that their Library have a social media account while 39 of respondents have not their Library social media account. The study also inform that Facebook, YouTube, Google+, LinkedIn, Twitter and Instagram are using by the LIS professional of India and Facebook 86 was popular social media tool among the other social media tools. Furthermore, respondent reported that they are using social media tools for sharing photos of events and programs of library 72, followed by tips for using different services 64, posting of new arrivals 56, tutorials of database 35 and send brief updates to patrons 32, announcement of library holidays 22. It was also reported by respondents that they are sharing information about scholarships training programs and marketing of library events etc. The study furthermore identify that lack of time is the major problem while using social media with 53 of respondents followed by low speed of internet 35, too many social media tools to learn 17 and some 3 respondents reported that there is no problem while using social media tools. The results also revealed that, majority of the respondents reported that they are using social media tools in daily basis 71 followed by weekly basis 16. It was followed by monthly 1 respondent and other 2 of the respondents. In summary, this study is expected to be useful in further promoting the social media for dissemination of library and information services to the general public.
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26891
Assessing the Usability and Accessibility of Turkey E-Government Websites
Abstract:
E-Government services offer citizens an easy way to accomplish their work anytime and anywhere. Ensuring the accessibility and usability of such services is crucial to citizens to allow smooth online transaction. In this paper, an empirical study to investigate the accessibility and usability of a representative sample of Turkish e-government services presented. The study evaluated sixty one Turkish government websites according to four perspectives.The accessibility will be based on the compliance to WCAG 2.0 recommendations, and the usability will be based on a heuristics-based content, HTML and CSS validity and current use of HTML 5 and ARIA. The evaluation results show that the examined e-Government services have one or more accessibility issues. On the other hand, in terms of usability, most services were usable and well designed, thus little work is recommended to make them more user-friendly and attractive to citizen.
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87623
Health Services for Women Refugees: A Quantitative Exploratory Study in Ottawa, Canada
Authors:
Abstract:
Women refugees expectedly are physical, socially and mentally vulnerable due to their past traumatic experiences and their novel circumstances in their receiving countries. They may have a wide range of general, mental, and reproductive health problems, but reportedly avoid visiting health care facilities owing to complex elements. Women refugees are usually unfamiliar with their new country health system and unable to navigate it efficiently. They have limited English language skills, which makes it even harder to access culturally insensitive health services. This study examines barriers to health care for refugee women in Ottawa and offers suggestions to address these challenges. Drawing from culturally congruent health care models in Canada, the United Kingdom, and some parts of the United States, this study highlights the importance of cultivating compassion in the provision of health care for women refugees as a way of addressing some of the disparities in health care in Canada. To address the study purpose, a survey questionnaire was designed and pretested questionnaire and was administrated using SurveyMonkey, a paid source survey application, over a period of two weeks. Snowballing sampling procedures were used to recruit the participants. Data was measured using frequencies, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. The test of significance is set at p < .05. The study asked how refugees perceive their experience in accessing and navigating public health services in Ottawa; what challenges refugees face with healthcare in Canada, and, if gender is related to refugees’ perceptions of the health care system they are forced to use? Results show refugees perceived their experience accessing the healthcare services in Canada to be a positive experience and the health providers to be culturally sensitive and allowing enough time listening to their complaints. The language stood tall in their barriers accessing the services due to low English proficiency and the need for interpretation services to encourage them attending the services.
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94161
Post-Experts in Polish Mainstream Media: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Selected Information Programs
Authors:
Abstract:
Experts have always played a special role in society. Drawing on their opinions was and most certainly is one of the most important strategies that direct people when they make decisions; something often used with the aim of exerting influence and ensuring social conformism. Many factors decide on who becomes an expert. The most important of these have hitherto been: the possession of extensive knowledge, charisma, authority as well as experience. Increasingly, however, these factors are insufficient and may even be deemed unnecessary. This state of affairs has been brought about (among other things) by the development of the media and the media’s influence on our lives. The inspiration to write the present article has its grounding in the book by Tom Nichols The Death of Expertise. The Campaign Against Established Knowledge and Why it Matters, in which the author claims that in our present-day open society experts and their expertise count for increasingly less for everyone who has unlimited access to the Internet and education. This has, in turn, resulted in the creation of so-called ‘collective wisdom,’ which is placed higher than any of the specialist knowledge proclaimed by experts. However, this is an incomplete picture, because admittedly, access to knowledge is nowadays unlimited, but on the other hand, the ubiquitous risk causes that the expert is someone who allows them to minimize it. Therefore, a modern society so readily refers to their opinion; from the smallest matters, eg home appliance, to important political issues. Hence, many information services include numerous experts (scientists, journalists, specialists, celebrities), whose task is to explain to the viewers in a simple way the presented reality. However, more and more often their role is also to give credence to what they explain. Hence the questions arise: who are the experts, what is their typology and what roles they play in Polish information services? To answer them, quantitative and qualitative research was used, such as analysis of lists of 100 most influential experts, analysis of expert profiles and their statements in three differentiated information services (TVN - commercial, TVP1 - public, TV Trwam - non-commercial/religious). They will be the basis for answering the above-mentioned questions and, above all, determining their role in information services in Poland.
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55245
Analysis of Developments in the Understanding of In-Service Training in Turkish Public Administration: Personnel Management to Human Resource Management
Abstract:
In line with the new public management approach to provide effective and efficient services necessary to achieve the social goals of public institutions, employees must have the knowledge and skills required by the age. In conjunction with the transition from personnel management to human resources management, it is seen that there is a change in the understanding of in-service training, the understanding of &quot;required in-service training&quot; has switched to the understanding of &quot;continuous in-service training&quot;. However, in terms of in-service training in Turkey, it seems to be trouble at the point of adopting to change. The main purpose of this study is to primarily create a conceptual framework of in-service training and subsequently determine, analyze and discuss the developments and problems faced by in-service training in Turkey in the transition from personnel management to human resources management. In accordance with this purpose, the necessary data of this study were collected using qualitative approaches. Observation and document analysis was used and content analysis was performed on the data gathered in the study. The results of this study, according to data such as the number of institutions requesting in-service training, allocated budget of in-service training, the number of people participating in such training, transition of personnel management to human resources management should not lead to a paradigm shift in Turkey&rsquo;s understanding of in-service training, although this is compulsory for public institutions in accordance with the law in Turkey. In-service training in Turkish public administration is still not implemented effectively and is seen as a social activity for employees and a formality for institutions.
57
62455
Graph Planning Based Composition for Adaptable Semantic Web Services
Abstract:
This paper proposes a graph planning technique for semantic adaptable Web Services composition. First, we use an ontology based context model for extending Web Services descriptions with information about the most suitable context for its use. Then, we transform the composition problem into a semantic context aware graph planning problem to build the optimal service composition based on user's context. The construction of the planning graph is based on semantic context aware Web Service discovery that allows for each step to add most suitable Web Services in terms of semantic compatibility between the services parameters and their context similarity with the user's context. In the backward search step, semantic and contextual similarity scores are used to find best composed Web Services list. Finally, in the ranking step, a score is calculated for each best solution and a set of ranked solutions is returned to the user.
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91043
The Impacts of Land Use Change and Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services
Authors:
Abstract:
Urban areas contain abundant potential biochemical storages and renewable and non-renewable flows. Urban natural environments for breeding natural assets and urban economic development for maintaining urban functions can be analyzed form the concept of ecological economic system. Land use change and ecosystem services change are resulting from the interactions between human activities and environments factually. Land use change due to human activities is the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. However, it lacks discussion on the interactions among urban land use change, ecosystem services change, and extreme precipitation events. Energy synthesis can use the same measure standard unit, solar energy, for different energy resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) and analyze contributions of various natural environmental resources on human economic systems. Therefore, this research adopts the concept of ecological, economic systems and energy synthesis for analyzing dynamic spatial impacts of land use change on ecosystem services, using the Taipei area as a case study. The analysis results show that changes in land use in the Taipei area, especially the conversion of natural lands and agricultural lands to urban lands, affect the ecosystem services negatively. These negative effects become more significant during the extreme precipitation events.
55
39992
Service Quality and Consumer Behavior on Metered Taxi Services
Abstract:
The purposes of this research are to make comparisons in respect of the behaviors on the use of the services of metered taxi classified by the demographic factor and to study the influence of the recognition on service quality having the effect on usage behaviors of metered taxi services of consumers in Bangkok Metropolitan Areas. The samples used in this research are 400 metered taxi service users in Bangkok Metropolitan Areas and use a questionnaire as the tool for collecting the data. Analysis statistics is mean and multiple regression analysis. Results of the research revealed that the consumers recognize the overall quality of services in each aspect include tangible aspects of the service, responses to customers, assurance on the confidence, understanding and knowing of customers which is rated at the moderate level except the aspect of the assurance on the confidence and trustworthiness which are rated at a high level. For the result of a hypothetical test, it is found that the quality in providing the services on the aspect of the assurance given to the customers has the effect on the usage behaviors of metered taxi services and the aspect of the frequency on the use of the services per month which in this connection. Such variable can forecast at one point nine percent (1.9%). In addition, quality in providing the services and the aspect of the responses to customers have the effect on the behaviors on the use of metered taxi services on the aspect of the expenses on the use of services per month which in this connection, such variable can forecast at two point one percent (2.1%).
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34160
Carbon Pool Assessment in Two Community Forest in Nepal
Abstract:
Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national, or even global importance. In Nepal more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services don’t have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people and service provider; community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest. In the study in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final out comes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.
53
42481
Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai
Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.
52
47488
Determine the Optimal Path of Content Adaptation Services with Max Heap Tree
Abstract:
Recent development in computing and communicative technologies leads to much easier mobile accessibility to the information. Users can access to the information in different places using various deceives in which the care variety of abilities. Meanwhile, the format and details of electronic documents are changing each day. In these cases, a mismatch is created between content and client’s abilities. Recently the service-oriented content adaption has been developed which the adapting tasks are dedicated to some extended services. In this method, the main problem is to choose the best appropriate service among accessible and distributed services. In this paper, a method for determining the optimal path to the best services, based on the quality control parameters and user preferences, is proposed using max heap tree. The efficiency of this method in contrast to the other previous methods of the content adaptation is related to the determining the optimal path of the best services which are measured. The results show the advantages and progresses of this method in compare of the others.
51
78545
Patients’ Trust in Health Care Systems
Abstract:
Background: Individuals who utilise health services maintain relationships with health professionals, insurers and institutions. The nature of these relationships requires service receivers to have trust in the service providers because maintaining health services without reciprocal trust is very difficult. Therefore, individual evaluations of trust within the scope of health services have become increasingly important. Objective: To investigate patients’ trust in the health-care system and their relevant socio-demographical characteristics. Methods: This research was conducted using a descriptive design which included 493 literate patients aged 18-65 years who were hospitalised for a minimum of two days at public university and training&research hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Patients’ trust in health-care professionals, insurers, and institutions were investigated. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale between September 2015 and April 2016. Results: The participants’ mean age was 47.7±13.1; 70% had a moderate income and 69% had a prior hospitalisation and 63.5% of the patients were satisfied with the health-care services. The mean Multidimensional Trust in Health-Care Systems Scale score for the sample was 61.5±8.3; the provider subscale had a mean of 38.1±5, the insurers subscale had a mean of 12.9±3.7, and institutions subscale had a mean of 10.6±1.9. Conclusion: Patients’ level of trust in the health-care system was above average and the trust level of the patients with higher educational and socio-economic levels was lower compared to the other patients. Health-care professionals should raise awareness about the significance of trust in the health-care system.
50
18123
Sustainable Community Participation in Australia
Abstract:
In this presentation, we will focus on the methods of Remote Services Futures (RSF), an evidence-based method of community participation that was developed in Scotland. Using oral health as the focus, we will discuss the ways that RSF can be used to achieve sustainable engagement with stakeholders from various parts of the community. We will describe our findings of using RSF methods to engage with rural communities, including the steps involved and what happened when we asked people about the oral health services that they thought were needed in their community. We found that most community members started by thinking that a public dental clinic was required in every community, which is not a sustainable health service delivery option. Through a series of facilitated workshops, communities were able to discuss and prioritise their needs and develop a costed plan for their community which will ensure sustainable service delivery into the future. Our study highlights the complexities of decision making in rural communities. It is important to ensure that when communities participate in health care planning that the outcomes are practical, feasible and sustainable.
49
21020
Diversifying Income Streams in Portuguese Higher Education – a Multiple Case Study
Abstract:
For several reasons and in different countries worldwide, there is an increasing difficulty of the States to finance higher education. However, most societies consider education as a public good, so it should be a State obligation to provide this service to citizens. In Portugal, over the last decades, state has diminished its contribution to public higher education and the public higher education institutions started to look for alternative incoming sources, namely charging student’s taxes and fees, provision of services to companies, production of applied research, search for sponsors, configuring new forms of fundraising. This financial policy can raise some concerns to the scientific and pedagogical autonomy of these institutions as well as concerns in access and equity in higher education. For these reasons and in the scope of a PhD research in the area of Economy of Education, a survey is taking place in all public higher education institutions in the Great Lisbon area that intends to analyze and discuss the policy measures in each institution in the search for external financing. The research aims to understand what these measures are and what implications they might have in the institution’s autonomy as well as in higher education access by students from less favored backgrounds. The research uses a qualitative approach, namely through semi-structured interviews to presidents, directors and rectors of each institution, totalizing 50 interviews. In this paper are discussed some of the results from the interviews made so far that present the subjects opinion about higher education finance, the right to education, the search for fundraising and the possible consequences to the institution’s autonomy as well as some literature on the state of the art.
48
20957
Does Citizens’ Involvement Always Improve Outcomes: Procedures, Incentives and Comparative Advantages of Public and Private Law Enforcement
Abstract:
Comparative social efficiency of private and public enforcement of law is debated. This question is not of academic interest only, it is also important for the development of the legal system and regulations. Generally, involvement of ‘common citizens’ in public law enforcement is considered to be beneficial, while involvement of interest groups representatives is not. Institutional economics as well as law and economics consider the difference between public and private enforcement to be rather mechanical. Actions of bureaucrats in government agencies are assumed to be driven by the incentives linked to social welfare (or other indicator of public interest) and their own benefits. In contrast, actions of participants in private enforcement are driven by their private benefits. However administrative law enforcement may be designed in such a way that it would become driven mainly by individual incentives of alleged victims. We refer to this system as reactive public enforcement. Citizens may prefer using reactive public enforcement even if private enforcement is available. However replacement of public enforcement by reactive version of public enforcement negatively affects deterrence and reduces social welfare. We illustrate the problem of private vs pure public and private vs reactive public enforcement models with the examples of three legislation subsystems in Russia – labor law, consumer protection law and competition law. While development of private enforcement instead of public (especially in reactive public model) is desirable, replacement of both public and private enforcement by reactive model is definitely not.
47
89417
Services Sector: A Growth Catalyst for Indian Economy since Economic Reform
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the services sector in economic development of Indian economy, especially in the post reform period. Due to adoption of liberalization policy in developing economy like India, international transaction in services has been increased at a rapid pace which compensated to the current account of Balance of Payment which was in a pitiable condition. But this increased share of services in GDP is not commensurate with share in employment, which is a matter of great concern for Indian economy. Although the increased share of service in GDP indicates the advanced stage of growth of the economy, but this theory is not applicable in context of Indian economy completely. In the preliminary stage, this study finds a positive correlation between growth of services and export earnings and gross domestic product and this growth of services is not equal in terms of all aspects on Indian economy, and also all components of services has not been increased at an equal rate. This paper seeks to examine the impact of liberalization in post reform era on the growth of services in India. The analysis is done for the period of 1991 to 2013. Data has been collected from the secondary sources, especially from the website of Reserve Bank of India, World Trade Organization, and United Nation Conference on Trade and Development. The data has been analyzed with the help of appropriate statistical tools (Causality Relation and Group t-test).
46
29023
The Quality of Public Space in Mexico City: Current State and Trends
Abstract:
Public space is essential to strengthen the social and urban fabric and the social cohesion; there lies the importance of its study. Hence, the aim of this paper is to analyze the quality of public space in the XXI century in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In this article, the concept of public space includes open spaces such as parks, public squares and walking areas. To make this analysis we take Mexico City as the case study. It has a population of nearly 9 million inhabitants and it is composed of sixteen boroughs. For this analysis, we consider both, existing public spaces and the government intervention for building and improvement of new and existent public spaces. Results show that on the one hand, quantitatively there is not an equitable distribution of public spaces because of both, the growth of the city itself, as well as for the absence of political will to create public spaces. Another factor is the evolution of this city, which has been growing merely in a 'patched pattern', where public space has played no role at all with a total absence of urban design. On the other hand, qualitatively, even the boroughs with the most public spaces have not shown interest in making these spaces qualitatively inclusive and open to the general population aiming for integration. Therefore, urban projects that privatize public space seem to be the rule, rather than a rehabilitation effort of the existent public spaces. Hence, state intervention should reinforce its role as an agent of social change acting in the benefit of the majority of the inhabitants with the promotion of more inclusive public spaces.
45
57664
Functionality Based Composition of Web Services to Attain Maximum Quality of Service
Abstract:
Web service composition is an effective approach to complete the web based tasks with desired quality. A single web service with limited functionality is inadequate to execute a specific task with series of action. So, it is very much required to combine multiple web services with different functionalities to reach the target. Also, it will become more and more challenging, when these services are from different providers with identical functionalities and varying QoS, so while composing the web services, the overall QoS is considered to be the major factor. Also, it is not true that the expected QoS is always attained when the task is completed. A single web service in the composed chain may affect the overall performance of the task. So care should be taken in different aspects such as functionality of the service, while composition. Dynamic and automatic service composition is one of the main option available. But to achieve the actual functionality of the task, quality of the individual web services are also important. Normally the QoS of the individual service can be evaluated by using the non-functional parameters such as response time, throughput, reliability, availability, etc. At the same time, the QoS is not needed to be at the same level for all the composed services. So this paper proposes a framework that allows composing the services in terms of QoS by setting the appropriate weight to the non-functional parameters of each individual web service involved in the task. Experimental results show that the importance given to the non-functional parameter while composition will definitely improve the performance of the web services.
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49597
Health Expenditure and its Place in Economy: The Case of Turkey
Abstract:
While health is a source of prosperity for individuals, it is also one of the most important determinants of economic growth for a country. Health, by increasing the productivity of labor, contributes to economic growth. Therefore, countries should give the necessary emphasis to health services. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the changes occurring in health services in Turkey by examining the developments in the sector. In this scope, the second aim of the study is to reveal the place of health expenditures in the Turkish economy. As a result of the analysis in the dataset, in which the 1999-2013 periods is considered, it was determined that some increase in health expenditures took place and that the increase in the share of health expenditures in GDP was too small. Furthermore, analysis of the results points out that in financing health expenditures, the public sector is prominent compared to the private sector.
43
15009
New Public Management: Step towards Democratization
Abstract:
Administration is largely based on two sciences: ‘management science’ and ‘political science’. The approach of new public management is more inclined towards the management science. Era of ‘New Public Management’ has affected the developing countries very immensely. Public management reforms are needed to enhance the development of the countries. This reform mainly includes capacity building, control of corruption, political decentralization, debureaucratization and public empowerment. This gives the opportunity to create self-sustaining change in the governance. This paper includes the link of approach of new public management and their effect on building effective democratization in the country. This approach mainly focuses on rationality and effectiveness of governance system. These need to have deep efforts on technological, organizational, social and cultural fields. Bringing citizen participation in governance is main objective of NPM. The shift from traditional public management to new public management have low success rate of reforms. This research includes case study of RTI which is a big step of government towards citizen centric approach of governance. The aspect of ‘publicness’ in the democratic policy implementation is important for good governance in India.
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58507
Innovation Outcomes and Competing Agendas in Higher Education: Experimenting with Audio-Video Feedback
Abstract:
This paper links distinct bodies of literature around innovation and public services by examining a case of perceived innovation failure. Through a mixed methodology investigating student attitudes to, and behaviour around, technological innovation in higher education, the paper makes a contribution to the public service innovation literature by focusing on the duality of innovation outcomes, suggestive of an innovation typology in public services. The study was conducted in a UK Russell Group university and it focused on a technological process innovation. The innovation consisted of the provision of feedback to students in the form of a digital video (mp4), tailored to each individual submission, with extended voice-over commentary from the course coordinator and visual cues intended to help students see the relevance of comments to their submissions. The sample of the study consisted of a class of 79 undergraduate students. To investigate student attainment, we designed a field (also known as quasi or natural) experiment, essentially a manipulation of a social setting (in this case, the form of feedback given to students), but as part of a naturally occurring social arrangement (a real course which students attend and in which they are assessed). A two group control group design (see figure 3) was utilised to examine the effectiveness of the feedback innovation (video feedback). Two outcome variables of the service innovation were measured: student satisfaction and student attainment. In other words, the study examined not only students’ perceptions of whether VF was deemed to be beneficial towards their subsequent assignments; but also evidence of actual incremental benefits in students’ performance from one assignment to the next after VF was provided. The results were baffling and indicating competing agendas in higher education.
41
7839
Brazilian Environmental Public Policies Analysis
Abstract:
This paper is an overview on public policy analysis focused on the study of Brazilian public policy making process. The methodology is based on the review of some theories on the subject, linking them to Brazilian reality. The study presents basic policy analysis concepts, such as policy, polity and politics. It is emphasized John Kingdon's Multiple Stream Model, because of its clarifying aspects concerning public policies formulation process in democratic countries. In this path it was possible to establish interpretations on environmental public policies in Brazil and understand its methods, instead of presenting only a case study. At the end, it is possible to connect theory with Brazilian reality, identifying negative and positive points of its political processes and structure.
40
86536
The Impact of Corruption on Exports and Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Case of Tunisia
Abstract:
Corruption is a phenomenon that increases uncertainty and risk of SMEs as it undermines the quality of the business environment and the easy access to public services. Our research builds on existing research on corruption's effects on economic growth at the firm level. Several papers have analyzed the effect of firms’ payments of bribes on their performance; however, only limited research has investigated the link between corruption, innovation, and exports. Drawing on principal-agent theory, we explore how corruption weakens the institutional context and makes the business environment unsound and not conducive to innovation and exports. This study employs data from The Enterprise Surveys conducted in Tunisia between March 2013 and July 2014 by the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The main objective of this survey was to gain a better understanding of Tunisian firms’ perception of the environment in which they operate. Since 2011, the country's political situation has become fragile and unstable, and public services are perceived as inefficient and corrupt. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 537 Tunisian manufacturing SMEs using structural equation modeling and path analysis. We find that political instability leads to higher level of corruption, and that excessive business licensing regulations create a fertile ground for bribery. Our findings do not support the greasing hypothesis suggesting that corruption can reduce the negative effect of bureaucratic delays and the hard access of companies to public services related to innovation and exports. Instead, our results support the sanding hypothesis according to which corruption hinders innovation activities and exports. Furthermore, corruption is found to, negatively and significantly, impact firms’ ownership of quality certificates. Our results suggest that, in an environment with a high level of corruption, governments and policymakers interested in assisting SMEs with their innovation and export activities should have a better control on corruption to allow them developing those activities without being forced to bribe government officers.
39
86039
The Impact of Corruption on Exports and Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Case of Tunisia
Abstract:
Corruption is a phenomenon that increases uncertainty and risk of SMEs as it undermines the quality of the business environment and the easy access to public services. Our research builds on existing research on corruption's effects on economic growth at the firm level. Several papers have analyzed the effect of firms’ payments of bribes on their performance; however, only limited research has investigated the link between corruption, innovation, and exports. Drawing on principal-agent theory, we explore how corruption weakens the institutional context and makes the business environment unsound and not conducive to innovation and exports. This study employs data from The Enterprise Surveys conducted in Tunisia between March 2013 and July 2014 by the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The main objective of this survey was to gain a better understanding of Tunisian firms’ perception of the environment in which they operate. Since 2011, the country's political situation has become fragile and unstable, and public services are perceived as inefficient and corrupt. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 537 Tunisian manufacturing SMEs using structural equation modeling and path analysis. We find that political instability leads to higher level of corruption, and that excessive business licensing regulations create a fertile ground for bribery. Our findings do not support the greasing hypothesis suggesting that corruption can reduce the negative effect of bureaucratic delays and the hard access of companies to public services related to innovation and exports. Instead, our results support the sanding hypothesis according to which corruption hinders innovation activities and exports. Furthermore, corruption is found to, negatively and significantly, impact firms’ ownership of quality certificates. Our results suggest that, in an environment with a high level of corruption, governments and policymakers interested in assisting SMEs with their innovation and export activities should have a better control on corruption to allow them developing those activities without being forced to bribe government officers.
38
17490
Analysis of Methodological Issues in the Study of Digital Library Services: A Case Study of Nigeria University Systems
Abstract:
Over the years, researchers have employed different approaches in the study of usage of library services in the traditional library system, such approaches have provided explanations on the users’ perception, attitude, and usage of library services. Findings of such studies which often employed survey research approach have guided librarians and library stakeholders in their drive to improve library services to patrons. However, with the advent of digital library services, librarians and information science researchers have been experiencing methodological issues in the study of digital library services. While some quantitative approaches have been employed to understand adoption and usage of digital library services, conflicting results from such studies have increased the need to employ qualitative approaches. The appropriateness of the qualitative approaches has also been questioned. This study intends to review methodological approaches in the studies of digital libraries and provides a framework for the selection of appropriate research approach for the study of digital libraries using Nigerian university systems as case study.
37
11626
The Role of Gender in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety
Abstract:
This study investigates the role of gender in influencing public speaking anxiety. Questionnaire survey was administered to the samples of the study. Technique of correlation and descriptive analysis will be further applied to the data collected to determine the relationship between gender and public speaking anxiety. This study could serve as a guide to identify the effects of gender differences on public speaking anxiety and provide necessary advice on how to design a way of coping with or overcoming public speaking anxiety.
36
26555
Challenges to Effective Public Sector Management in Developing Countries: The Networking and Communication Functions of Public Sector Managers in Nigeria and Ghana
Abstract:
This empirical study analyzes the impact of communication and networking functions of Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector managers’ on public sector effectiveness. The focus is on which of these management functions public sector managers’ in these countries perform most, why, how and how does it affect effectiveness of public sector organizations in the two countries. This qualitative analysis was done by interviewing middle and top level managers in some selected public sector organizations in the two countries on their practical experiences. Findings reveal that ineffectiveness of public sector organizations in Ghana persists because public sector managers perform more of networking functions to promote their individual carrier success and progression in their various organizations, rather than achieving the organizations goals and objectives. In Nigeria, though majority of the interviewed public sector managers perform more communication functions than networking, they do this mostly by treating files and correspondences, instead of face-to-face communication and interaction with employees’. Hence, they hardly relate directly with their employees’ to find out how they are performing their jobs, their challenges, where they are having problems and why. The findings and recommendations of this study will help in improving effectiveness, quality and service delivery in Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector organizations and beyond.
35
63816
Computer Anxiety and the Use of Computerized System by University Librarians in Delta State University Library, Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
The paper investigates computer anxiety and the use of computerized library system by university librarians in Delta State University library, Abraka, Nigeria. Some of the root causes of computer anxiety among university librarians such as lack of exposure to computers at early age, inadequate computer skills, inadequate computer training, fear at the sight of a computer, lack of understanding of how computers work, etc. were pin-pointed in the study. Also, the different services rendered in the university libraries with the aid of computers such as reference services, circulation services, acquisition services, cataloguing and classification services, etc. were identified. The study employed the descriptive survey research design through the expo-facto method, with a population of 56 librarians, while the simple percentage and frequency counts were used to analyze the data generated from the administered copies of the questionnaire. Based on the aforementioned root causes of computer anxiety and the resultant effect on computerized library system, recommendations were proffered in the study.
34
113740
Diversity Strands in Library and Information Science Graduate Curricula
Abstract:
This study investigates diversity strands covered in courses offered by library and information sciences (LIS) graduate programs. It aims to identify the extent to which these programs prepare students to work in diverse communities. Information was collected from 17 ALA-accredited MLIS programs. Diversity-related topics were identified and categorized. The methodology consisted of content analysis of course syllabi. The findings show that coverage of diversity-related content in LIS graduate curricula is increasing at a slow but significant rate, and is often a low priority. Apart from LIS graduate courses for future librarians and information professionals in public libraries, school libraries, and museums providing services to young adults and children, there is not enough interest in the provision of services to diverse communities.
33
34898
Formal Specification of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Services of Library Information System
Abstract:
This paper discusses the formal specification of web services applications for digital reference services (WSDRS). Digital reference service involves a user requesting for help from a reference librarian and a reference librarian responding to the request of a user all by electronic means. In most cases users do not get satisfied while using digital reference service due to delay of response of the librarians. Another may be due to no response or due to librarian giving an irrelevant solution to the problem submitted by the user. WDSRS is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ need in the reference section of libraries. But informal model is in natural language which is inconsistent and ambiguous that may cause difficulties to the developers of the system. In order to solve this problem we decided to convert the informal specifications into formal specifications. This is supposed to reduce the overall development time and cost. Formal specification can be used to provide an unambiguous and precise supplement to natural language descriptions. It can be rigorously validated and verified leading to the early detection of specification errors. We use Z language to develop the formal model and verify it with Z/EVES theorem prover tool.
32
88701
Nurses' View on Costing Nursing Care: A Case Study of Two Selected Public Hospitals in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Nursing services costing has been a major interest to nurses for a long period of time. Determination of nursing costing is germane in order to show the effectiveness of nursing practice in an improved and affordable health care delivery system. This has been a major concern of managers that have the mind of quality and affordable health services. The treatment or intervention should be considered as ‘product’ of nursing care and should provide an explainable term for billing. The study was non-experimental, descriptive and went about eliciting the views of nurses on costing nursing care at two public hospitals namely: University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital. The questionnaire was the instrument used in eliciting nurse’s response. It was administered randomly on 300 selected respondents across various wards within the hospitals. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS20.0 to generate frequency, and cross-tabulations to explore the statistical relationship between variables. The result shows that 89.2% of the respondents viewed costing of nursing care as an important issued to be looked into. The study concluded that nursing care costing is germane to enhancing the status and imagery of the nurses, it is essential because it would enhance the performance of nurses in discharging their duties. There is need to have a procedural manual agreed on by nursing practitioner on costing of each care given.
31
40452
Health Expenditure and Household Age Composition in India: Consequences for Health System Development
Abstract:
India is a vast country with its 1.21 billion population at the dawn of new decade, which accounts for one sixth of the global human capital in the world today. It is well known that health expenditure in India is dominated by private spending. This is an unfortunate consequence of India’s development because of large positive externality associated with health spending, which make health a merit good. This paper has used data from NSSO and Indian Government’s spending on health as reported by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Understanding of the dynamism of age-structure of the population would greatly optimize the expenditure on health care services. A country with good public health indicators is bound to possess good human capital which is an asset to the economic growth and indicator of development status of country. The paper tries to present the linkages between the health expenditure incurred by different states at various levels of demographic transition levels and the efficiency in utilization of health expenditure. It also looks into the way in which allocative efficiency health services can be improved. Paper tries to explore the per capita spending on health and how the demographic transition taking place in different states of India affect the required quantity and quality of health services.
30
26637
Carbon Pool Assessment in Community Forests, Nepal
Abstract:
Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national or even global importance. In Nepal, more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services do not have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers, therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest, the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people, service provider and community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest and valuated carbon service from community forest through willingness to pay in Dharan municipality situated in eastern. In the study, in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final outcomes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.
29
10397
Social Accountability: Persuasion and Debate to Contain Corruption
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the properties of simple rules for reappointment aimed at holding a public official accountable and monitor his activity. The public official allocates budget resources to various activities which results in the delivery of public services to citizens. He has discretion over the use of resource so he can divert some of them for private ends. Because of a liability constraint, zero diversion can never be secured in all states. The optimal reappointment mechanism under complete information is shown to exhibit some leniency thus departing from the zero tolerance principle. Under asymmetric information (about the state), a rule with random verification in a pre-announced subset is shown to be optimal in a class of common rules. Surprisingly, those common rules make little use of hard information about service delivery when available. Similarly, PO's claim about his record is of no value to improve the performance of the examined rules. In contrast requesting that the PO defends his records publicly can be very useful if the service users are given the chance to refute false claims with cheap talk complaints: the first best complete information outcome can be approached in the absence of any observation by the manager of the accountability mechanism.
28
20880
Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure: A Large-Scale Research Infrastructure for Microbiological Services
Abstract:
Microbiological resources and their derivatives are the essential raw material for the advancement of human health, agro-food, food security, biotechnology, research and development in all life sciences. Microbial resources, and their genetic and metabolic products, are utilised in many areas such as production of healthy and functional food, identification of new antimicrobials against emerging and resistant pathogens, fighting agricultural disease, identifying novel energy sources on the basis of microbial biomass and screening for new active molecules for the bio-industries. The complexity of public collections, distribution and use of living biological material (not only living but also DNA, services, training, consultation, etc.) and service offer, demands the coordination and sharing of policies, processes and procedures. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure (MIRRI) is an initiative within the European Strategy Forum Infrastructures (ESFRI), bring together 16 partners including 13 European public microbial culture collections and biological resource centres (BRCs), supported by several European and non-European associated partners. The objective of MIRRI is to support innovation in microbiology by provision of a one-stop shop for well-characterized microbial resources and high quality services on a not-for-profit basis for biotechnology in support of microbiological research. In addition, MIRRI contributes to the structuring of microbial resources capacity both at the national and European levels. This will facilitate access to microorganisms for biotechnology for the enhancement of the bio-economy in Europe. MIRRI will overcome the fragmentation of access to current resources and services, develop harmonised strategies for delivery of associated information, ensure bio-security and other regulatory conditions to bring access and promote the uptake of these resources into European research. Data mining of the landscape of current information is needed to discover potential and drive innovation, to ensure the uptake of high quality microbial resources into research. MIRRI is in its Preparatory Phase focusing on governance and structure including technical, legal governance and financial issues. MIRRI will help the Biological Resources Centres to work more closely with policy makers, stakeholders, funders and researchers, to deliver resources and services needed for innovation.
27
16443
The Major Challenge of the Health System Health Management Services in Kosovo and Impact on Satisfaction
Abstract:
In the framework of transformational economic development social pluralism and the free, market health systems operating in the countries of our region are naturally involved in a process of profound change and reform. Health systems actually represent complex ensembles centers and public and private institutions (domestic and foreign), who administer substantial amounts of human, technological, material, financial, information and scientific facts • The goal of health systems is much more than medical care. It includes the promotion, protection, treatment and rehabilitation of health of the population. • Meeting the needs of increasingly diverse broader health services efficient, secure the quality and affordability of their increasing cost of unstoppable, requires the necessary reform of health systems and implementing policies and new management methods, to ensure effectiveness and health benefits as higher population.
26
60215
An Analysis of Public Environmental Investment on the Sustainable Development in China
Abstract:
As the largest developing country in the world, China is now facing the problem arising from the environment. Thus, China government increases the environmental investment yearly. In this study, we will analyse the effect of the public environmental investment on the sustainable development in China. Firstly, we will review the current situation of China's environmental issue. Secondly, we will collect the yearly environmental data as well as the information of public environmental investment. Finally, we will use the collected data to analyse and project the SWOT of public environmental investment in China. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the relationship between public environmental investment and sustainable development in China. Based on the data collected, it was revealed that the public environmental investment had a positive impact on the sustainable development in China as well as the GDP growth. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.
25
39931
The Operation Strategy and Public Relations Trend for Public Relations Strategies Development in Thailand
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the operation strategy strategies and public relations trend for public relations strategies development in public television station in Thailand. This study is a qualitative approach by indent interview from the 6 key informants that are managers of Voice TV and Thairath TV Channel. The results showed that both TV stations have to do research before making a release on the operation strategy policy such as a slogan, segmentation, integrated marketing communication and PR activity and also in term of Public Relations trend are including online media, online content and online training before opening the station and start promoting. By the way, we found the PR strategy for both TV station should be including application on mobile, online content, CRM activity, online banner, special event, and brand ambassador in order to bring a very reliable way.
24
23277
The Legal Procedure of Attestation of Public Servants
Abstract:
The main purpose of this research is to comprehensively explore and identify the problems of attestation of the public servants and to propose solutions for these issues through deeply analyzing laws and the legal theoretical literature. For the detailed analysis of the above-mentioned problems we will use some research methods, the implementation of which has a goal to ensure the objectivity and clarity of scientific research and its results.
23
27176
Brazilian Constitution and the Fundamental Right to Sanitation
Abstract:
The right to basic sanitation, was elevated to the category of fundamental right by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 to protect the ecologically balanced environment, ensuring social rights to health and adequate housing warranting dignity of the human person as a principle of the Brazilian Democratic State. Because of their essentiality to the Brazilian population, this article seeks to understand why universal access to basic sanitation is a goal so difficult to achieve in Brazil. Therefore, this research uses the deductive and analytical method. Given the nature of the research literature, research techniques were centered in specialized books on the subject, journals, theses and dissertations, laws, relevant law case and raising social indicators relating to the theme. The relevance of the topic stems, among other things, the fact that sanitation services are essential for a dignified life, i.e. everyone is entitled to the maintenance of the necessary existence conditions are satisfied. However, the effectiveness of this right is undermined in society, since Brazil has huge deficit in sanitation services, denying thus a worthy life to most of the population. Thus, it can be seen that the provision of water and sewage services in Brazil is still characterized by a large imbalance, since the municipalities with lower population index have greater disability in the sanitation service. The truth is that the precariousness of water and sewage services in Brazil is still very concentrated in the North and Northeast regions, limiting the effective implementation of the Law 11.445/2007 in the country. Therefore, there is urgent need for a positive service by the State in the provision of sanitation services in order to prevent and control disease, improve quality of life and productivity of individuals, besides preventing contamination of water resources. More than just social and economic necessity, there is even a an obligation of the government to implement such services. In this sense, given the current scenario, to achieve universal access to basic sanitation imposes many hurdles. These are mainly in the field of properly formulated and implemented public policies, i.e. it requires an excellent institutional organization, management services, strategic planning, social control, in order to provide answers to complex challenges.
22
55404
Impact of Marketing towards Behavior Intention
Abstract:
Due to the increasing homogeneity in product offerings, the attendant services provided are emerging as a key differentiator in the mind of the consumers. Services marketing are a sub field of marketing which covers the marketing of both goods and services. Service marketing differs from product marketing due to the face that services are intangible and typically require personal interaction with the customer. Relationships are a key factor when it comes to the marketing of services. The role of interpersonal relationships distinguishes service and product marketing in strategic vision and organizational considerations. This paper explores some of the trends in service marketing as they relate to strategic vision, operational and organizational changes, and marketing tactics. The presence of the customer in the service facility means that capacity management becomes an important driver of the firm’s profitability service marketing is a process from the organization’s point of view, but an experience from the customer’s perspective. The quality of the experience is a function of the careful design of customer service processes, adoption of standardized procedures, rigorous management of service quality, high standards of training and automation. Services marketing helps to ensure that these processes are designed from the customer’s perspective. Services marketing includes customer loyalty, managing relationships, complaint handling, improving service quality and productivity of service operations, and how to become a service leader in your industry.
21
64221
Analysis of Spatial Disparities of Population for Delicate Configuration of Public Service Facilities:Case of Gongshu District, Hangzhou, China
Abstract:
With the rapid growth of urbanization in China in recent years, public services are in short supply because of expanding population and limitation of financial support, which makes delicate configuration of public service facilities to become a trend in urban planning. Besides, the facility configuration standard implemented in China is equal to the whole the urban area without considering internal differences in it. Therefore, this article focuses on population Spatial disparities analysis in order to optimize facility configuration in communities of main city district. The used data, including population of 93 communities during 2010 to 2015, comes from GongShu district, Hangzhou city, PRC. Through the analysis of population data, especially the age structure of those communities, the communities finally divided into 3 types. Obviously, urban public service facilities allocation situation directly affect the quality of residents common lives, which turns out that deferent kinds of communities with deferent groups of citizens will have divergences in facility demanding. So in the end of the article, strategies of facility configuration will be proposed based on the population analysis in order to optimize the quantity and location of facilities with delicacy.
20
54219
The Magnitude Scale Evaluation of Cross-Platform Internet Public Opinion
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper introduces a model of internet public opinion waves, which describes the message propagation and measures the influence of a detected event. We collect data on public opinion propagation from different platforms on the internet, including micro-blogs and news. Then, we compare the spread of public opinion to the seismic waves and correspondently define the P-wave and S-wave and other essential attributes and characteristics in the process. Further, a model is established to evaluate the magnitude scale of the events. In the end, a practical example is used to analyze the influence of network public opinion and test the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed model.
19
9908
The Impact of Rapid Urbanisation on Public Transport Systems in the Gauteng Region of South Africa
Abstract:
This paper seeks to illustrate the impact of rapid urbanization (in terms of both increase in people and vehicles) in the Gauteng region (which includes Johannesburg, Pretoria and Ekurhuleni). The impact that existing transport systems and options place on the capacity of residents from low income areas to travel and conduct various socio-economic activities is discussed. The findings are drawn from a 2013 analysis of a random transport household survey of 1550 households carried out in Gauteng province. 91.4% of the study respondents had access to public transport, while 8.6% had no access to public transport. Of the 91.4% who used public transport, the main reason used to explain this state of affairs was that it was affordable (54.3%), convenient (15.9%), Accessible (11.9%), lack of alternatives (6.4%) and reliable at 4.1%. Recommendations advanced revolve around the need to reverse land use and transportation effects of apartheid planning, growing and developing a sustainable critical mass of public transport interventions supported by appropriate transport systems that are environmentally sustainable through proper governance. 38.5% of the respondents indicated that developing compact, smart and integrated urban land spaces was key to reducing travel challenges in the study area. 23.4% indicated that the introduction and upgrading of BRT buses to cover all areas in the study area was a step in the right direction because it has great potential in shifting travel patterns to favor public modes of transport. 15.1% indicated that all open spaces should be developed so that fragmentation of land uses can be addressed. This would help to fight disconnected and fragmented space and trip making challenges in Gauteng. 13.4% indicated that improving the metro rail services was critical since this is a mass mover of commuters. 9.6% of the respondents highlighted that the bus subsidy policy has to be retained in the short to medium term since the spatial mismatches and challenges created by apartheid are yet to be fully reversed.
18
8708
Online Social Network Vital to Hospitality and Tourism Marketing and Management
Abstract:
This study is focused on the strengths and challenges associated with using the online social network as a rapidly evolving medium in marketing tourism services and businesses among the youths in Nigeria. The paper examines the Nigerian tourists’ attitude, mainly towards three aspects: application of Internet for travel and tourism; usage of online social networks in sharing travel and tourism experiences; and trust in electronic-media for marketing tourism businesses and services. The aim of this research is to determine the level of application of internet tools in marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria. This study reports an empirical analysis based on data obtained from a survey among 1004 Nigerian tourists. The outcome confirms the research hypothesis and points to crucial importance of introducing online social network site for marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria, and increasing the awareness for Nigeria as a tourist destination. Moreover, the paper strongly recommends the use of online social network as a tool for marketing tourism businesses and services, and the need for identifying effective framework for application of ICT tools in marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria at large.
17
19500
(Mis) Communication across the Borders: Politics, Media, and Public Opinion in Turkey
Abstract:
To date, academic attention in social sciences remains inadequate with regard to research and analysis of public opinion in Turkey. Most of the existing research has assessed the public opinion during political election periods. Therefore, it is of great interest to find out what the public thinks about current issues in Turkey, and how to interpret the results to be able to reveal whether they may have any reflections on social, political, and cultural structure of the country. Accordingly, the current study seeks to fill the gap in the social sciences literature in English regarding Turkey’s social and political stand which may be perceived to be very different by other nations. Without timely feedback from public surveys, various programs for improving different services and institutions functioning in the country might not achieve their expected goal, nor can decisions about which programs to implement be made rationally. Additionally, the information gathered may not only yield important insights into public’s opinion regarding current agenda in Turkey, but also into the correlates shaping public policies. Agenda-setting studies including agenda-building, agenda melding, reversed agenda-setting and information diffusion studies will be used to explain the roles of factors and actors in the formation of public opinion in Turkey. Knowing the importance of public agenda in the agenda setting and building process, this paper aims to reveal the social and political tendencies of the Turkish public. For that purpose, a survey will be carried out in December of 2014 to determine the social and political trends in Turkey for that same year. The subjects for the study, which utilize a questionairre in one-on-one interviews, will include 1,000 individuals aged 18 years and older from 26 cities representing general population. A stratified random sampling frame will be used. The topics covered by the survey include: The most important current problem in Turkey; the Economy; Terror; Approaches to the Kurdish Issue; Evaluations of the Government and Opposition Parties; Evaluations of Institutional Efficiency; Foreign Policy; the Judicial System/Constitution; Democracy and the Media; and, Social Relations/Life in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Turkey has been undergoing a rapid transformation. The reflections of the changes can be seen in all areas from economics to politics. It is my hope that findings of this study may shed light on the important aspects of institutions, variables setting the agenda, and formation process of public opinion in Turkey.
16
99640
The Effects of Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services
Abstract:
Urban ecosystems are complex coupled human-environment systems. They contain abundant natural resources for producing natural assets and attract urban assets to consume natural resources for urban development. Urban ecosystems provide several ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and supporting services. Rapid global climate change makes urban ecosystems and their ecosystem services encountering various natural disasters. Lots of natural disasters have occurred around the world under the constant changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in the past two decades. In Taiwan, hydrological disasters have been paid more attention due to the potential high sensitivity of Taiwan’s cities to climate change, and it impacts. However, climate change not only causes extreme weather events directly but also affects the interactions among human, ecosystem services and their dynamic feedback processes indirectly. Therefore, this study adopts a systematic method, solar energy synthesis, based on the concept of the eco-energy analysis. The Taipei area, the most densely populated area in Taiwan, is selected as the study area. The changes of ecosystem services between 2015 and Typhoon Soudelor have been compared in order to investigate the impacts of extreme precipitation events on ecosystem services. The results show that the forest areas are the largest contributions of energy to ecosystem services in the Taipei area generally. Different soil textures of different subsystem have various upper limits of water contents or substances. The major contribution of ecosystem services of the study area is natural hazard regulation provided by the surface water resources areas. During the period of Typhoon Soudelor, the freshwater supply in the forest areas had become the main contribution. Erosion control services were the main ecosystem service affected by Typhoon Soudelor. The second and third main ecosystem services were hydrologic regulation and food supply. Due to the interactions among ecosystem services, fresh water supply, water purification, and waste treatment had been affected severely.
15
78113
Design and Implementation a Virtualization Platform for Providing Smart Tourism Services
Abstract:
This paper proposes an Internet of Things (IoT) based virtualization platform for providing smart tourism services. The virtualization platform provides a consistent access interface to various types of data by naming IoT devices and legacy information systems as pathnames in a virtual file system. In the other words, the IoT virtualization platform functions as a middleware which uses the metadata for underlying collected data. The proposed platform makes it easy to provide customized tourism information by using tourist locations collected by IoT devices and additionally enables to create new interactive smart tourism services focused on the tourist locations. The proposed platform is very efficient so that the provided tourism services are isolated from changes in raw data and the services can be modified or expanded without changing the underlying data structure.
14
21889
Public Art and Public Space in an Emerging Knowledge Economy: The Case of Doha
Abstract:
The Qatar Museums Authority recently announced a series of public art initiatives in Doha with the purpose of 'bringing art out of the walls of the museum' to make it accessible to the public on a daily basis and to encourage discussion and debate. While the installation of sculptures in public spaces is not new in Doha, the practice of integrating art in public spaces and architectural projects is reaching a new dimension as internationally renowned artists – such as Damien Hirst and Richard Serra - are being commissioned to install their works in the public spaces and buildings of the city of Doha as well as in more remote desert locations. This research discusses the changing presence, role and context of public art in Doha, both from a historical and cultural overview, and the different forms and media as well as the typologies of urban and public spaces in which the art is installed. It examines the process of implementing site-specific artworks, looking at questions of scale, history, social meaning and formal aesthetics. The methodologies combine theoretical research on the understanding of public art and its role and placement in public space, as well as empirical research on contemporary public art projects in Doha, based on documentation and interviews and as well as site and context analysis of the urban or architectural spaces within which the art is situated. Surveys and interviews – using social media - in different segments of the contemporary Qatari society, including all nationalities and social groups, are used to measure and qualify the impacts and effects on the population.
13
18006
Parent’s Evaluation of the Services Offered to Their Children with Autism in UAE Centres
Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the assessment of parents of children with Autism for services provided by the Center for special care in the United Arab Emirates, in terms of quality, comprehensive and the impact of some factors related to the diagnosis and place of service provision and efficient working procedures of service and the child age. In order to achieve the objective of the study, researchers used Parent’s Satisfaction Scale, and Parents Evaluation of Services Effectiveness, both the scale and the parents reports provided with accepted level of validity and reliability. Sample includes 300 families of children with Autism receiving educational and rehabilitation services, treatment and support services in both governmental and private centers in United Arab Emirates. ANOVA test was used through SPSS program to analyze the collected data. The results of the study have indicated that there are significant differences in the assessment of services provided by centers due to a place of service, the nature of the diagnosis, child's age at the time of the study, as well as statistically significance differences due to age when first diagnosed. The results also showed positive evaluation for the good level of services as international standard, and the quality of these services provided by autism centers in the United Arab Emirates, especially in governmental centers. At the same time, the results showed the presence of many needs problems faced by the parents do not have appropriate solutions. Based on the results the recommendations were stated.
12
105821
An Assessment on Awareness of Public Transport Policies for Persons with Disabilities in Three South-West Nigerian States
Abstract:
Extreme public transport difficulty for persons with disabilities (PWDs) has always been one of the challenges which these individuals experience on a daily basis in Nigeria. Private and public transport vehicles are not disability- friendly. Operators of public transport are often very intolerant of PWDs' conditions. Indeed, many Nigerians believe it is luxury for PWDs to engage in public transport. They are rarely expected to be seen in public much less going to places via public transport means. Initiatives by a few Nigerian states to develop and implement public transport policies for PWDs, therefore, were a huge relief for them and some concerned Nigerians. A few years ago, three southwest Nigerian states (Lagos, Ondo, and Ekiti) came up with some legislative welfare provisions (including transport programmes) for PWDs. This study, therefore, sought to ascertain levels of awareness and implementation of public policies among the PWDs and those expected to implement the policies. The study adopted a mixed method research. Findings across the three states showed that: (1) awareness of public policies among PWDs is low and (2) a considerable scope of the policies is not yet implemented. Recommendations are, therefore, made on how to improve on awareness and implementation of transport policies for PWDs in three south-west Nigerian states.
11
71155
Non-Governmental Organisations and Human Development in Bauchi State, Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
NGOs, the world over, have been recognized as part of the institutions that complement government activities in providing services to the people, particularly in respect of human development. This study examined the role played by the NGOs in human development in Bauchi State, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2013. The emphasis was on reproductive health and access to education role of the selected NGOs. All the research questions, objectives and hypotheses were stated in line with these variables. The theoretical framework that guided the study was the participatory development approach. Being a survey research, data were generated from both primary and secondary sources with questionnaires and interviews as the instruments for generating the primary data. The population of the study was made up of the staff of the selected NGOs, beneficiaries, health staff and school teachers in Bauchi State. The sample drawn from these categories were 90, 107 and 148 units respectively. Stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were adopted for NGOs staff, and Health staff and school teachers data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and hypotheses were tested using Pearson Chi-square test through SPSS computer statistical package. The study revealed that despite the challenges facing NGOs operations in the study area, NGOs rendered services in the areas of health and education This research recommends among others that, both government and people should be more cooperative to NGOs to enable them provide more efficient and effective services. Governments at all levels should be more dedicated to increasing accessibility and affordability of basic education and reproductive health care facilities and services in Bauchi state through committing more resources to the Health and Education sectors, this would support and facilitate the complementary role of NGOs in providing teaching facilities, drugs, and other reproductive health services in the States. More enlightenment campaigns should be carried out by governments to sensitize the public, particularly women on the need to embrace immunization programmes for their children and antenatal care services being provided by both the government and NGOs.
10
99707
Availability Strategy of Medical Information for Telemedicine Services
Abstract:
The telemedicine services require correct computing resource management to guarantee productivity and efficiency for medical and non-medical staff. The aim of this study was to examine web management strategies to ensure the availability of resources and services in telemedicine so as to provide medical information management with an accessible strategy. In addition, to evaluate the quality-of-service parameters, the followings were measured: delays, throughput, jitter, latency, available bandwidth, percent of access and denial of services based of web management performance map with profiles permissions and database management. Through 24 different test scenarios, the results show 100% in availability of medical information, in relation to access of medical staff to web services, and quality of service (QoS) of 99% because of network delay and performance of computer network. The findings of this study suggest that the proposed strategy of web management is an ideal solution to guarantee the availability, reliability, and accessibility of medical information. Finally, this strategy offers seven user profile used at telemedicine center of Bogota-Colombia keeping QoS parameters suitable to telemedicine services.
9
100402
The Role of Group Size, Public Employees’ Wages and Control Corruption Institutions in a Game-Theoretical Model of Public Corruption
Abstract:
This paper shows under which conditions public corruption can emerge. The theoretical model includes variables such as the public employee wage (w), a control corruption parameter (c), and the group size of interactions (GS) between clusters of public officers and contractors. The system behavior is analyzed using phase diagrams based on combinations of such parameters (c, w, GS). Numerical simulations are implemented in order to contrast analytic results based on Nash equilibria of the theoretical model. Major findings include the functional relationship between wages and network topology, which attempts to reduce the emergence of corrupt behavior.
8
114746
New Public Management: An Enduring Scientific Method of Managing the Efficiency of the Public Sector
Abstract:
This paper considers how New Public Management (NPM) as a form of scientific management has continued within public administration through iterative forms of implementation. Often hidden and discrete, NPM has been incorporated from private to public sector and extended beyond into the third sector. The third sector includes non-profit organisations that deliver social services to citizens through public sector funding. This funding, however, places the public sector as a major stakeholder within these third sector organisations. Some of these third sector organisations have been referred to as public sector non-profits. Though not directly managed by the public sector, non-profits have charitable status and are often referred to as part of the third sector because they are uniquely positioned between private and public sector organisations. This paper proposes that for the public sector to indirectly manage the affairs of these quasi-public sector organizations, it must deploy forms of business management strategies that may be opaque, but activated through conservative funding models and restrictive budgets. NPM entails business and market/for-profit principles being applied to public sector operations. NPM has elements of competition, fiscal discipline, and austerity governance, as well as forms of performance standards monitoring and measurements. Some may argue that NPM and scientific management are relics of a bygone era; the paper, however, argues that these principles have endured and that NPM and traditional scientific management are indeed compatible. With the inception of NPM in the 1990s, during the full thrust toward the neoliberal political spectrum, NPM was observed as a form of business managerialism influenced by the development of scientific management. Given that the public sector is a steward of public funds received primarily through tax reform, governments must balance its social contract of supporting the stimulation of welfare, security, and prosperity for citizens with effective fiscal constraint and discipline. To maintain this complex balancing act, democratic governments within a capitalist economy are forced to revolutionise the way it appropriates and dispenses its finances. In so doing, government employs the logic of the market and industry-standard business principles to measure and achieve social outcomes, at times at the expense of short-changing full attention to fulfilling its social contract. Set against the backdrop of Canadian quasi-public sector non-profit organisations, the paper explores how scientific management encapsulated within NPM is used to measure/monitor public sector efficiency, primarily in three ways: one, appropriating the right workers for the right jobs; two, managing worker output and wages; and three, managing expenditure in an effort to gain value for money. Within a value-based system such as advanced capitalism, the goal of efficiency also becomes a proxy for productivity, and at the heart of productivity is the appropriation and control of a worker’s output. Governments, through NPM, are able to extract surplus values from labour productivity. The principal argument rests within the premise that to achieve public sector efficiency, governments seek to wrest control of labour productivity through standardised forms of managing worker performance and social program expenditure.
7
38238
Monitoring and Evaluation of Web-Services Quality and Medium-Term Impact on E-Government Agencies' Efficiency
Abstract:
This practical research is aimed to improve the management quality and efficiency of public administration agencies providing e-services. The monitoring system developed will provide continuous review of the websites compliance with the selected indicators, their evaluation based on the selected indicators and ranking of services according to the quality criteria. The responsible departments in the government agencies were surveyed; the questionnaire includes issues of management and feedback, e-services provided, and the application of information systems. By analyzing the main affecting factors and barriers, the recommendations will be given that lead to the relevant decisions to strengthen the state agencies competencies for the management and the provision of their services. Component 1. E-services monitoring system. Three separate monitoring activities are proposed to be executed in parallel: Continuous tracing of e-government sites using built-in web-monitoring program; this program generates several quantitative values which are basically related to the technical characteristics and the performance of websites. The expert assessment of e-government sites in accordance with the two general criteria. Criterion 1. Technical quality of the site. Criterion 2. Usability/accessibility (load, see, use). Each high-level criterion is in turn subdivided into several sub-criteria, such as: the fonts and the color of the background (Is it readable?), W3C coding standards, availability of the Robots.txt and the site map, the search engine, the feedback/contact and the security mechanisms. The on-line survey of the users/citizens – a small group of questions embedded in the e-service websites. The questionnaires comprise of the information concerning navigation, users’ experience with the website (whether it was positive or negative), etc. Automated monitoring of web-sites by its own could not capture the whole evaluation process, and should therefore be seen as a complement to expert’s manual web evaluations. All of the separate results were integrated to provide the complete evaluation picture. Component 2. Assessment of the agencies/departments efficiency in providing e-government services. - the relevant indicators to evaluate the efficiency and the effectiveness of e-services were identified; - the survey was conducted in all the governmental organizations (ministries, committees and agencies) that provide electronic services for the citizens or the businesses; - the quantitative and qualitative measures are covering the following sections of activities: e-governance, e-services, the feedback from the users, the information systems at the agencies’ disposal. Main results: 1. The software program and the set of indicators for internet sites evaluation has been developed and the results of pilot monitoring have been presented. 2. The evaluation of the (internal) efficiency of the e-government agencies based on the survey results with the practical recommendations related to the human potential, the information systems used and e-services provided.
6
89081
The Urgenda and Juliana Cases: Redefining the Notion of Environmental Democracy
Abstract:
Climate change cases used to take the form of statutory disputes rather than constitutional or common law disputes. This changed in 2015, with the Urgenda Climate case in the Netherlands (Urgenda Foundation v. The State of the Netherlands, C/09/456689/HAZA 13-1396) and, the Juliana case in the U.S. (United States v. U.S. District Court for District of Oregon, 17-71692, 9th Cir.). The two cases represent a new type of climate litigation, the claims brought against the federal government were in fact grounded in constitutional rights. The complaints used the Doctrine of Public Trust as a cornerstone for the lawsuits asserting that government's actions against climate change failed to protect essential public trust resources; thus, violating a generation's constitutional rights to life, liberty, and property. The Public Trust Doctrine –a quintessentially American legal concept-, reserved to the States by virtue of the 9th and 10th amendment of the federal Constitution, gives them considerable jurisdiction over natural resources and has been refined by a number of Supreme Court rulings. The Juliana case exemplifies the Doctrine’s evolutionary nature because it attempts to apply it to the federal government, and establish a right to a climate system capable of sustaining human life as a fundamental right protected by a substantive due process. Furthermore, the flexibility of the Doctrine makes it permissible to be applied to a variety of different legal systems as in the Urgenda case. At the very heart of the lawsuits stands the question of who owns the Earth resources and, to what extent the general public can claim the services that the Earth provides as common property. By employing the widest possible definition of the Doctrine of Public Trust these lawsuits tried to redefine environmental resources as a collective right of all people. By doing case analysis, the paper explores how these cases can contribute to widening the public access to information and broadening the public voice in decision making as well as providing a precedent to equal access in seeking justice and redress from environmental failures.
5
35628
Modelling Insider Attacks in Public Cloud
Abstract:
Last decade Cloud Computing technologies have been rapidly becoming ubiquitous. Each year more and more organizations, corporations, internet services and social networks trust their business sensitive information to Public Cloud. The data storage in Public Cloud is protected by security mechanisms such as firewalls, cryptography algorithms, backups, etc.. In this way, however, only outsider attacks can be prevented, whereas virtualization tools can be easily compromised by insider. The protection of Public Cloud’s critical elements from internal intruder remains extremely challenging. A hypervisor, also called a virtual machine manager, is a program that allows multiple operating systems (OS) to share a single hardware processor in Cloud Computing. One of the hypervisor's functions is to enforce access control policies. Furthermore, it prevents guest OS from disrupting each other and from accessing each other's memory or disk space. Hypervisor is the one of the most critical and vulnerable elements in Cloud Computing infrastructure. Nevertheless, it has been poorly protected from being compromised by insider. By exploiting certain vulnerabilities, privilege escalation can be easily achieved in insider attacks on hypervisor. In this way, an internal intruder, who has compromised one process, is able to gain control of the entire virtual machine. Thereafter, the consequences of insider attacks in Public Cloud might be more catastrophic and significant to virtual tools and sensitive data than of outsider attacks. So far, almost no preventive security countermeasures have been developed. There has been little attention paid for developing models to assist risks mitigation strategies. In this paper formal model of insider attacks on hypervisor is designed. Our analysis identifies critical hypervisor`s vulnerabilities that can be easily compromised by internal intruder. Consequently, possible conditions for successful attacks implementation are uncovered. Hence, development of preventive security countermeasures can be improved on the basis of the proposed model.
4
89939
MGAUM—Towards a Mobile Government Adoption and Utilization Model: The Case of Saudi Arabia
Abstract:
This paper presents a proposal for a mobile government adoption and utilization model (MGAUM), which is a framework designed to increase the adoption rate of m-government services in Saudi Arabia. Recent advances in mobile technologies such are Mobile compatibilities, The development of wireless communication, mobile applications and devices are enabling governments to deliver services in new ways to citizens more efficiently and economically. In the last decade, many governments around the globe are utilizing these advances effectively to develop their next generation of e-government services. However, a low adoption rate of m-government services by citizens is a common problem in Arabian countries, including Saudi Arabia. Yet, to our knowledge, very little research has been conducted focused on understanding the factors that influence citizen adoption of these m-government services in this part of the world. A set of social, cultural and technological factors have been identified in the literature, which has led to the formulation of associated research questions and hypotheses. These hypotheses will be tested on Saudi citizens using questionnaires and interview methods based around the technology acceptance model. A key objective of the MGAUM framework is to investigate and understand Saudi citizens perception towards adoption and utilization of m-government services.
3
34902
Validation of the Formal Model of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Service of Library Information System
Abstract:
The web services applications for digital reference service (WSDRS) of LIS model is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ needs in the reference section of libraries. The formal WSDRS model consists of the Z specifications of all the informal specifications of the model. This paper discusses the formal validation of the Z specifications of WSDRS model. The authors formally verify and thus validate the properties of the model using Z/EVES theorem prover.
2
109006
Contemporary Challenges in Public Relations in the Context of Globalization
Abstract:
The paper analyzes the contemporary problems of public relations in Georgia. The approaches to public attitudes towards the relationship with the population of the country are studied on a global scale, the importance of forming the concept of public relations in Georgia in terms of globalization is justified. The basic components of public relations are characterized by the RACE system, namely analyzing research, action, communication, evaluation. The main challenges of public relations are identified in the research process; taking into consideration the scope of globalization, the influence of social, economic, and political changes in Georgia on PR development are identified. The article discusses the public relations as the strategic management function that facilitates communication with the society, recognition of public interests, and their prediction. In addition, the feminization of the sector is considered to be the most important achievement of public relations in the modern world. The conclusion is that the feminization indicator of the field is an unconditional increase in the employment rates of women. In the paper, the problems of globalization and public relations in the industrial countries are studied, the directions of improvement of public relations with the background of peculiarities of different countries and globalization process are proposed. Public relations under globalization are assessed in accordance with the theory of benefits and requirements, and the requirements are classified according to informational, self-identification, integration, social interaction, and other types of signs. In the article, conclusions on the current challenges of public relations in Georgia are made, and the recommendations for their solution, taking into consideration globalization processes in the world, are proposed.
1
40214
A Short Study on the Effects of Public Service Advertisement on Gender Bias in Accessible and Non-Accessible Format
Abstract:
Advertisements play a vital role in dissemination of information regarding products and services. Advertisements as Mass Media tool is not only a source of entertainment, but also a source of information, education and entertainment. It provides information about the outside world and exposes us to other ways of life and culture. Public service advertisements (PSA) are generally aimed at public well-being. Aim of PSA is not to make profit, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness in the Society about a social issue.’ Start with the boys’ is one such PSA aims to create awareness about issue of ‘gender bias’ that is taught prevalent in the society. Persons with disabilities (PWDs) are also consumers of PSA in the society. The population of persons with disability in the society also faces gender bias and discrimination. It is a double discrimination. The advertisement selected for the study gives out a strong message on gender bias and therefore must be accessible to everyone including PWDs in the society. Accessibility of PSA in the digital format can be done with the help of Universal Design (UD) in digital media application. Features of UD inclusive in nature, and it focus on eliminating established barriers through initial designs. It considers the needs of diverse people, whether they are persons with or without disability. In this research two aspects of UD in digital media: captioning and Indian sign language (ISL) is used. Hence a short survey study was under taken to know the effects of a multimedia on gender bias, in accessible format on persons with and without disability. The result demonstrated a significant difference in the opinion, on the usage accessible and non-accessible format for persons with and without disability and their understanding of message in the PSA selected for the study.