Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 60776

160
2366
Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs
Abstract:
Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.
159
39547
Umm Arrazam, Libyan Driling Fluid Resistivity Evaluation
Abstract:
Search and evaluate locale source of raw material which can be used as drilling fluid is one of most important economical target. Hopefully, to use Libyan clay that cost less than importing it from outside. Resistivity measurement and control is of primary concern in connection with electrical logging. The influences of resistivity utilizing Umm Arrazam clay were laboratory investigated at ambient condition (room temperature, atmospheric pressure) to fulfill the aim of the study. Several tests were carried-out on three sets of mud mixture with different densities (8.7, 9.0, and 9.3 ppg) as base mud. The resistivity of mud, mud filtrate, and mud cake were measured using resistivity- meter. Mud water losses were also measured. Several results obtained to describe the relationship between the resistivity ratios of mud filtrate to the mud, and the mud cake to mud. The summary of conclusion is that there are no great differences were obtained during comparison of resistivity and water loss of Umm Arrazam and Wyoming Clay.
158
48205
Prediction of Index-Mechanical Properties of Pyroclastic Rock Utilizing Electrical Resistivity Method
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine index and mechanical properties of pyroclastic rock in a practical way by means of electrical resistivity method. For this purpose, electrical resistivity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, P-wave velocity, density and porosity values of 10 different pyroclastic rocks were measured in the laboratory. A simple regression analysis was made among the index-mechanical properties of the samples compatible with electrical resistivity values. A strong exponentially relation was found between index-mechanical properties and electrical resistivity values. The electrical resistivity method can be used to assess the engineering properties of the rock from which it is difficult to obtain regular shaped samples as a non-destructive method.
157
70171
Multiple Linear Regression for Rapid Estimation of Subsurface Resistivity from Apparent Resistivity Measurements
Abstract:
Multiple linear regression (MLR) models for fast estimation of true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity field measurements are developed and assessed in this study. The parameters investigated were apparent resistivity (ρₐ), horizontal location (X) and depth (Z) of measurement as the independent variables; and true resistivity (ρₜ) as the dependent variable. To achieve linearity in both resistivity variables, datasets were first transformed into logarithmic domain following diagnostic checks of normality of the dependent variable and heteroscedasticity to ensure accurate models. Four MLR models were developed based on hierarchical combination of the independent variables. The generated MLR coefficients were applied to another data set to estimate ρₜ values for validation. Contours of the estimated ρₜ values were plotted and compared to the observed data plots at the colour scale and blanking for visual assessment. The accuracy of the models was assessed using coefficient of determination (R²), standard error (SE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (wMAPE). It is concluded that the MLR models can estimate ρₜ for with high level of accuracy.
156
62800
Determining Water Infiltration Zone Using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Technique
Abstract:
Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces. This paper explains how the water infiltration will be identified using 2-D resistivity imaging. Padang Minden, in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang has been chosen as the survey area during this study. The study area consists of microcline granite with grain size of medium to coarse. 2-D Resistivity Imaging survey is used to detect subsurface layer for many years by making measurements on the ground surface. The result shows that resistivity value of 0.015 Ωm - 10 Ωm represent the salt water intrusion zone while the resistivity value of 11 Ωm - 100 Ωm is suggested as the boundary zone between the salt water intrusion zone and low saturated zone.
155
36526
Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’
Authors:
Abstract:
Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.
154
5725
Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria
Abstract:
The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.
153
45734
Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys
Authors:
Abstract:
Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.
152
74311
Bulk Electrical Resistivity of Geopolymer Mortars: The Effect of Binder Composition and Alkali Concentration
Abstract:
One of the main hurdles for commercial adaptation of geopolymer concrete (GPC) as a low-embodied-carbon alternative for Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the durability aspects and its long-term performance in aggressive/corrosive environments. GPC is comparatively a new engineering material and in the absence of a track record of successful durability performance, proper experimental studies to investigate different durability-related characteristics of GPC seem inevitable. In this context, this paper aims to study the bulk electrical resistivity of geopolymer mortars fabricated of blends of low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). Bulk electrical resistivity is recognized as one of the most important parameters influencing the rate of corrosion of reinforcing bars during the propagation phase of corrosion. To investigate the effect of alkali concentration on the resistivity of the samples, 100x200 mm mortar cylinders were cast at different alkali concentration levels, whereas the modulus ratio (the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O) was fixed for the mixes, and the bulk electrical resistivity was then measured. Also, the effect of the binder composition was assessed with respect to the ratio of FA to GGBS used. Results show a superior performance of samples with higher GGBS content. Lower concentration of the solution has increased the resistivity by reducing the amount of mobile alkali ions in the pore solution. Moreover, GGBS-based samples showed a much sharper increase in the electrical resistivity with decreasing the moisture content.
151
2558
Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils
Abstract:
Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.
150
26692
Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review
Abstract:
High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.
149
112189
Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm
Abstract:
Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.
148
45235
Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy
Abstract:
Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.
147
76268
Geoelectical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria
Abstract:
Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into a fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581 m, 664 m and 830 m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by lowelectrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some regionfresh water is existent at depth greater than 200 m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solid and Conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200 m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunkbeyond 220 m for the possible procurement of portable fresh water.
146
3919
Geoelectrical Investigation Around Bomo Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Abstract:
Electrical resistivity investigation was carried out around Bomo area, Zaria, Kaduna state in order to study the subsurface geologic layer with a view of determining the depth to the bedrock and thickness of the geologic layers. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at fifteen (15) VES stations. ABEM terrameter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analyzed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The VES results revealed heterogeneous nature of the subsurface geological sequence. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of hard pan top soil (clayey and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered or fractured basement and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 40Ωm to 450Ωm with thickness ranging from 1.25 to 7.5 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 50Ωm to 593Ωm and thickness between 1.37 and 20.1 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 218Ωm to 520Ωm and thickness of between 12.9 and 26.3 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1215Ωm to 2150Ωm with infinite depth. However, the depth of the earth’s surface to the bedrock surface varies between 2.63 and 34.99 m. The study further stressed the importance of the findings in civil engineering structures and groundwater prospecting.
145
106721
Landslide Study Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Resistivity Survey at Bkt Kukus, Penang Island, Malaysia
Abstract:
The study area is located at Bukit Kukus, Penang where the construction of twin road project in ongoing. A landslide event has occurred on 19th October 2018, which causes fatal deaths. The purpose of this study is to figure out the causes of failure, the estimated volume of failure, and its balance. The study comprises of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensing and resistivity survey. The resistivity method includes spreading three lines of 200m length resistivity survey with the depth of penetration in the subsurface not exceeding 35m. The result of UAV shows the current view of the site condition. Based on resistivity result, the dominant layer in the study area consists of residual soil/filling material with a thickness of more than 35m. Three selected cross sections from construction drawing are overlain with the current cross sections to understand more on the condition of the subsurface profile. By comparison, there is a difference between past and present topography. The combination of result from the previous data and current condition shows the calculated volume of failure is 85,000 m³, and its balance is 50,000 m³. In conclusion, the failure occurs since the contractor has conducted the construction works without following the construction drawing supplied by the consultant. Besides, the cause of failure is triggered by the geology condition, such as a fault that should be considered prior to the commencement of work.
144
62866
Slope Stability Study at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia by Using 2-D Resistivity Method
Abstract:
Landslides and rock falls are the examples of environmental and engineering problems in Malaysia. There are various methods that can be applied for the environmental and engineering problems but geophysical methods are seldom applied as the main investigation technique. This paper aims to study the slope stability by using 2-D resistivity method at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang. These areas are considered as highly potential for unstable slope in Penang Island based on recent cases of rockfall and landslide reported especially during raining season. At both study areas, resistivity values greater than 5000 ohm-m are detected and considered as the fresh granite. The weathered granite is indicated by resistivity value of 750-1500 ohm-m with depth of < 14 meters at Sungai Batu area while at Jalan Tun Sardon area, the weathered granite with resistivity values of 750-2000 ohm-m is found at depth < 14 meter at distance 0-90 meter but at distance of 95-150 meter, the weathered granite is found at depth < 26 meter. Saturated zone is detected only at Sungai Batu with resistivity value
143
45109
The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity
Abstract:
Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.
142
60810
Hydrogeophysical Investigations of Groundwater Resources and Demarcation of Saltwater-Freshwater Interface in Kilwa Kisiwani Island, Se Tanzania
Abstract:
The main objective of this research was to identify new potential sources of groundwater resources using geophysical methods and also to demarcate the saltwater - freshwater interface. Kilwa Kisiwani Island geologically is covered mostly by Quaternary alluvial sediments, sand, and gravel. The geophysical techniques employed during the research include Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), Earth Resistivity Tomography (ERT), and Transient Electromagnetics (TEM). Two-dimensional interpolated geophysical results show that there exist freshwater lenses formations that are potential aquifers on the Island with resistivity values ranging from 11.68 Ωm to 46.71 Ωm. These freshwater lenses are underlain by formation with brackish water in which the resistivity values are varying between 3.89 Ωm and 1.6 Ωm. Saltwater with resistivity less than 1 Ωm is found at the bottom being overlaid by brackish saturated formation. VES resistivity results show that 89% (16 out of 18) of the VES sites are potential for groundwater resources drilling while TEM results indicate that 75% (12 out of 16) of TEM sites are potential for groundwater borehole drilling. The recommended drilling depths for potential sites in Kilwa Kisiwani Island show that the maximum depth is 25 m and the minimum being 10 m below ground surface. The aquifer structure in Kilwa Kisiwani Island is a shallow, unconfined freshwater lenses floating above the seawater and the maximum thickness of the aquifer is 25 m for few selected VES and TEM sites while the minimum thickness being 10 m.
141
46710
The Use of Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and Ansys Simulation to Predict Concrete Hydration Behavior and Crack Tendency
Abstract:
Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.
140
3160
Factors Affecting Special Core Analysis Resistivity Parameters
Authors:
Abstract:
Laboratory measurements methods were undertaken on core samples selected from three different fields (A, B, and C) from the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the central graben reservoirs in Libya. These measurements were conducted in order to determine the factors which affect resistivity parameters, and to investigate the effect of rock heterogeneity and wettability on these parameters. This included determining the saturation exponent (n) in the laboratory at two stages. The first stage was before wettability measurements were conducted on the samples, and the second stage was after the wettability measurements in order to find any effect on the saturation exponent. Another objective of this work was to quantify experimentally pores and porosity types (macro- and micro-porosity), which have an affect on the electrical properties, by integrating capillary pressure curves with other routine and special core analysis. These experiments were made for the first time to obtain a relation between pore size distribution and saturation exponent n. Changes were observed in the formation resistivity factor and cementation exponent due to ambient conditions and changes of overburden pressure. The cementation exponent also decreased from GHE-5 to GHE-8. Changes were also observed in the saturation exponent (n) and water saturation (Sw) before and after wettability measurement. Samples with an oil-wet tendency have higher irreducible brine saturation and higher Archie saturation exponent values than samples with an uniform water-wet surface. The experimental results indicate that there is a good relation between resistivity and pore type depending on the pore size. When oil begins to penetrate micro-pore systems in measurements of resistivity index versus brine saturation (after wettability measurement), a significant change in slope of the resistivity index relationship occurs.
139
2784
Preparation and Study Corrosion and Electrical Resistivity of Al-Ni-Cr Alloy
Abstract:
Al-Ni-Cr alloy contains different ratios of Ni and Cr was prepared by mixing Al, Ni and Cr at 800oC under an argon atmosphere. The prepared alloys were heated for 1300 hr to 560oC, and then cooled rapidly by water at the ambient temperature. Surface morphology for alloys is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The resultant homogeneous surface is a result of heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed (111), (200), and (220) diffraction lines from cubic Al crystal structure, and suggested that the intensity of peak (111) orientation is predominant. Three binary phases were observed and grown in alloys: Al3Ni (Orthorhombic, a = 6.598Ǻ, b = 7.352 Ǻ, c = 4.802 Ǻ), Cr9Al17 (Rhombohedra, a = 12.910 Ǻ, c = 15.677), and Ni2Cr3 (Tetragonal, a = 8.82 Ǻ, c = 4.58 Ǻ). The average crystallite sizes of the prepared samples were found to be from 3000 to 3094 nm by SEM, which is much smaller than that estimated from XRD data. Corrosion resistance increases with increasing Ni-Cr content in Al alloys. The electrical volume resistivity decreased with increasing Ni-Cr content at low frequency. This behavior can be seen generally at 50Hz, where the electrical volume resistivity reached the value of 3.98×10-8Ω.cm for the ratio Al-1.8 at.%Ni-0.18at.%Cr.
138
49699
Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation
Abstract:
Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.
137
61743
Magnetotelluric Method Approach for the 3-D Inversion of Geothermal System’s Dissemination in Indonesia
Abstract:
Sustainable energy is the main concern in According to solve any problems on energy sectors. One of the sustainable energy that has lack of presentation is Geothermal energy which has developed lately as the new promising sustainable energy. Indonesia as country that has been passed by the ring of fire zone has many geothermal sources. This is the good opportunity to elaborate and learn more about geothermal as sustainable and renewable energy. Geothermal systems have special characteristic whom the zone of sources can be detected by measuring the resistivity of the subsurface. There are many methods to measuring the anomaly of the systems. One of the best method is Magnetotelluric approchment. Magnetotelluric is the passive method which the resistivity is obtained by injecting the eddy current of rocks in the subsurface with the sources. The sources of Magnetotelluric method can be obtained from lightning or solar wind which has the frequencies each below 1 Hz and above 1 Hz.
136
27067
The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells
Abstract:
In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.
135
23496
Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field
Abstract:
The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.
134
15183
The Predicted Values of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) by Using the Measurements of the Soil Resistivity Method (DC)
Abstract:
The CBR test is widely used in the assessment of granular materials in base, subbase and subgrade layers of road and airfield pavements. Despite the success of this method, but it depends on a limited numbers of soil samples. This limitation do not adequately account for the spatial variability of soil properties. Thus, assessment is derived using these cursory soil data are likely to contain errors and thus make interpretation and soil characterization difficult. On the other hand quantitative methods of soil inventory at the field scale involve the design and adoption of sampling regimes and laboratory analysis that are time consuming and costly. In the latter case new technologies are required to efficiently sample and observe the soil in the field. This is particularly the case where soil bearing capacity is prevalent, and detailed quantitative information for determining its cause is required. In this paper, an electrical resistivity method DC is described and its application in Elg'deem Dirt road, located in Gasser Ahmad - Misurata, Libya. Results from the DC instrument were found to be correlated with the CBR values (r2 = 0.89). Finally, it is noticed that, the correlation can be used with experience for determining CBR value using basic soil electrical resistivity measurements and checked by few CBR test representing a similar range of CBR.
133
46600
Directional Solidification of Al–Cu–Mg Eutectic Alloy
Abstract:
Aluminum alloys are produced and used at various areas of industry and especially in the aerospace industry. The advantages of these alloys over traditional iron-based alloys are lightweight, corrosion resistance, and very good thermal and electrical conductivity. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of growth rates on the eutectic spacings (λ), microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity in Al–30wt.%Cu–6wt.%Mg eutectic alloy. Al–Cu–Mg eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at a constant temperature gradient (G=8.55 K/mm) with different growth rates, 9.43 to 173.3 µm/s by using a Bridgman-type furnace. The dependency of microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified the Al-Cu-Mg eutectic alloy were investigated. Eutectic microstructure is consisting of regular Al2CuMg lamellar and Al2Cu rod phases with in the α (Al) solid solution matrix. The lamellar eutectic spacings were measured from transverse sections of the samples. It was found that the value of microstructures decrease with the increase the value the growth rates. The microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the alloy also were measured from sample and relationships between them were experimentally analyzed by using regression analysis. According to present results, values tensile strength and electrical resistivity increase with increasing growth rates.
132
31443
Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Geophysical Techniques
Abstract:
Ibeno, Nigeria hosts the operational base of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the current highest oil and condensate producer in Nigeria. Besides MPNU, other oil companies operate onshore, on the continental shelf and deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean in Ibeno, Nigeria. This study was designed to delineate oil polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity (ER) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Results obtained revealed that there have been hydrocarbon contaminations of this environment by past crude oil spills as observed from high resistivity values and GPR profiles which clearly show the distribution, thickness and lateral extent of hydrocarbon contamination as represented on the radargram reflector tones. Contaminations were of varying degrees, ranging from slight to high, indicating levels of substantial attenuation of crude oil contamination over time. Moreover, the display of relatively lower resistivities of locations outside the impacted areas compared to resistivity values within the impacted areas and the 3-D Cartesian images of oil contaminant plume depicted by red, light brown and magenta for high, low and very low oil impacted areas, respectively confirmed significant recent pollution of the study area with crude oil.
131
27065
Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy
Abstract:
In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate (V) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The microstructures (flake spacings, λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity and thermal properties enthalpy of fusion and specific heat and melting temperature) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and flake spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity for cast samples with the temperature in the range of 300-1200 K were also measured by using a standard dc four-point probe technique. The enthalpy of fusion and specific heat for the same alloy was also determined by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.
130
70821
Integration of Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Using Combine Inversion for Ancient River Findings at Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Malaysia
Abstract:
Resistivity and seismic refraction profiling have become a common method in pre-investigations for visualizing subsurface structure. The integration of the methods could reduce an interpretation ambiguity. Both methods have their individual software packages for data inversion, but potential to combine certain geophysical methods are restricted; however, the research algorithms that have this functionality was existed and are evaluated personally. The interpretation of subsurface were improve by combining inversion data from both methods by influence each other models using closure coupling; thus, by implementing both methods to support each other which could improve the subsurface interpretation. These methods were applied on a field dataset from a pre-investigation for archeology in finding the ancient river. There were no major changes in the inverted model by combining data inversion for this archetype which probably due to complex geology. The combine data analysis provides an additional technique for interpretation such as an alluvium, which can have strong influence on the ancient river findings.
129
61785
Integrated Geophysical Approach for Subsurface Delineation in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract:
The application of geophysical methods to study the subsurface profile for site investigation is becoming popular globally. These methods are non-destructive and provide the image of subsurface at shallow depths. Seismic refraction method is one of the most common and efficient method being used for civil engineering site investigations particularly for knowing the seismic velocity of the subsurface layers. Resistivity imaging technique is a geo-electrical method used to image the subsurface, water bearing zone, bedrock and layer thickness. Integrated approach combining seismic refraction and 2-D resistivity imaging will provide a better and reliable picture of the subsurface. These are economical and less time-consuming field survey which provide high resolution image of the subsurface. Geophysical surveys carried out in this study include seismic refraction and 2D resistivity imaging method for delineation of sub-surface strata in different parts of Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The aim of this survey was to map the shallow subsurface in terms of geological and geophysical properties mainly P-wave velocity, resistivity, layer thickness, and lithology of the area. Both sides of the river, Alaknanda which flows through the centre of the city, have been covered by taking two profiles on each side using both methods. Seismic and electrical surveys were carried out at the same locations to complement the results of each other. The seismic refraction survey was carried out using ABEM TeraLoc 24 channel Seismograph and 2D resistivity imaging was performed using ABEM Terrameter LS equipment. The results show three distinct layers on both sides of the river up to the depth of 20 m. The subsurface is divided into three distinct layers namely, alluvium extending up to, 3 m depth, conglomerate zone lying between the depth of 3 m to 15 m, and compacted pebbles and cobbles beyond 15 m. P-wave velocity in top layer is found in the range of 400 – 600 m/s, in second layer it varies from 700 – 1100 m/s and in the third layer it is 1500 – 3300 m/s. The resistivity results also show similar pattern and were in good agreement with seismic refraction results. The results obtained in this study were validated with an available exposed river scar at one site. The study established the efficacy of geophysical methods for subsurface investigations.
128
68065
Corrosion Behaviour of Hypereutectic Al-Si Automotive Alloy in Different pH Environment
Abstract:
Corrosion behaviour of hypereutectic Al-19Si automotive alloy in different pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 environments was carried out using conventional gravimetric measurements and was complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. Gravimetric analysis confirmed that the highest corrosion rate is shown at pH 13 followed by pH 1. Minimum corrosion occurs in the pH range of 3.0 to 11 due to establishment of passive layer on the surface. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to the presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution which dissolves the surface oxide film at a steady rate. At pH 1, it can be attributed that the presence of aggressive chloride ions serves to pick up the damage of the passive films at localized regions. With varying exposure periods by both, the environment complies with the normal corrosion rate profile that is an initial steep rise followed by a nearly constant value of corrosion rate. Resistivity increases in case of pH 1 solution for the higher pit formation and decreases at pH 13 due to formation of thin film. The SEM image of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly shows pores on the surface and in pH 13 solution, and the corrosion layer seems more compact and homogenous and not porous.
127
26274
Influence of the Molar Concentration and Substrate Temperature on Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Chemically Sprayed
Abstract:
The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates, is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for ten days before the deposition. The results show that as the molar concentration increases, a decrease in the electrical resistivity values is obtained, reaching the minimum in films deposited from a 0.4 M solution at 500°C. A further increase in the molar concentration leads to a very slight increase in the resistivity. On the other hand, as the substrate temperature is increased, the resistivity decreases and a tendency towards to minimum value is evidenced; taking the molar concentration as parameter, minimum values are reached at 500°C. The attain of ZnO:F thin films, with a resistivity as low as 7.8×10-3 Ώcm (sheet resistance of 130 Ώ/☐ and film thickness of 600 nm) measured in as-deposited films is reported here for the first time. The concurrent effect of the high molar concentration of the starting solution, the substrate temperature values used, and the ageing of the starting solution, which might cause polymerization of the zinc ions with the fluorine species, enhance the electrical properties. The structure of the films is polycrystalline, with a (002) preferential growth. Molar concentration rules the surface morphology as at low concentration an hexagonal and porous structure is developed changing to a uniform compact and small grain size surface in the films deposited with the high molar concentrations.
126
1593
Investigation of Internal Gettering at Low Temperatures of Metallic Elements in HEM Wafers mc-Si for Photovoltaic Solar Cells
Abstract:
The main aim of this study is to investigate the low temperature internal gettering of manganese and chromium transition metals content in p-type multicrystalline silicon grown by Heat Exchanger Method (HEM). The minority carrier lifetime variation, the transition metal elements behavior, the sheet resistivity and the interstitial oxygen concentration after different temperatures annealing under N2 ambient were investigated using quasi-steady state photoconductance technique (QSSPC), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), four-probe measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), respectively. The obtained results indicate in the temperature range of 300°C to 700°C that the effective lifetime increases and reaches its maximum values of 28 μs at 500 °C and decreasing to 6 μs at 700 °C. This amelioration is due probably to metallic impurities internal gettering in the extended defects and in the oxygen precipitates as observed on SIMS profiles and the FTIR spectra. From 300 °C to 500 °C the sheet resistivity values rest unchanged at 30 Ohm/sq and rises significantly to reach 45 Ohm/sq for T> 500 °C.
125
61529
Investigation on Hydration Mechanism of Eco-Friendly Concrete
Abstract:
The hydration process of a green concrete with differences on fly ash and the poly-lactic acid ratio was investigated using electrical resistivity measurement. The results show that the hydration process of proposed concrete was significantly different with concrete containing petroleum aggregate. Moreover, a microstructure analysis corresponding to each hydration stage is conducted with scanning microscope for ploy-lactic acid and expanded polystyrene concrete. In addition, specific equations using the variables of this study were developed to understand and predict the relationship between setting time and resistivity development of proposed concrete containing eco-friendly aggregate.
124
115309
Delineation of Fracture Zones for Investigation of Groundwater Potentials Using Vertical Electrical Sounding in a Sedimentary Complex Terrain
Abstract:
Vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was used to investigate the groundwater potential at the southern part of Gulumbe district, Kebbi State, north-western part of Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer’s parameters (resistivity and thickness) and uses the same to characterize the groundwater potential of the study area. The Schlumberger configuration was used for data acquisition. A total number of thirty-three (33) sounding points (VES) were surveyed over six profiles. The software IPI2WIN was used to obtain n-layered geo-electric sections. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation revealed that three subsurface layers could be delineated, which comprise of top soil, sand, sandstone, coarse sand, limestone, and gravelly sand. The results of the resistivity sounding were correlated with the lithological logs of nearby boreholes that expose cross-section geologic units around the study area. We found out that the area is dominated by three subsurface layers. The coarse sand layers constituted the aquifer zones in the majority of sounding stations. Thus, this present study concluded that the depth of any borehole in the study area should be located between the depth of 18.5 to 39 m. The study further classified the VES points penetrated based on their conductivity content as highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitably, and poor zones for groundwater exploration. Hence, from this research, we recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones across VES 2, 11, 13, 16, 20, 21, 27, and 33, respectively.
123
68611
Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging Technique to Study Climate Induced Landslide and Slope Stability through the Analysis of Factor of Safety: A Case Study in Ooty Area, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract:
Landslide is one of the major natural disasters in South Asian countries. Applying 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging estimation of geometry, thickness, and depth of failure zone of the landslide can be made. Landslide is a pertinent problem in Nilgris plateau next to Himalaya. Nilgris range consists of hard Archean metamorphic rocks. Intense weathering prevailed during the Pre-Cambrian time had deformed the rocks up to 45m depth. The landslides are dominant in the southern and eastern part of plateau of is comparatively smaller than the northern drainage basins, as it has low density of drainage; coarse texture permitted the more of infiltration of rainwater, whereas in the northern part of the plateau entombed with high density of drainage pattern and fine texture with less infiltration than run off, and low to the susceptible to landslide. To get comprehensive information about the landslide zone 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic imaging study with CRM 500 Resistivity meter are used in Coonoor– Mettupalyam sector of Nilgiris plateau. To calculate Factor of Safety the infinite slope model of Brunsden and Prior is used. Factor of Safety can be expressed (FS) as the ratio of resisting forces to disturbing forces. If FS < 1 disturbing forces are larger than resisting forces and failure may occur. The geotechnical parameters of soil samples are calculated on the basis upon the apparent resistivity values for litho units of measured from 2D ERT image of the landslide zone. Relationship between friction angles for various soil properties is established by simple regression analysis from apparent resistivity data. Increase of water content in slide zone reduces the effectiveness of the shearing resistance and increase the sliding movement. Time-lapse resistivity changes to slope failure is determined through geophysical Factor of Safety which depends on resistivity and site topography. This ERT technique infers soil property at variable depths in wider areas. This approach to retrieve the soil property and overcomes the limit of the point of information provided by rain gauges and porous probes. Monitoring of slope stability without altering soil structure through the ERT technique is non-invasive with low cost. In landslide prone area an automated Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging system should be installed permanently with electrode networks to monitor the hydraulic precursors to monitor landslide movement.
122
77330
Deep Groundwater Potential and Chemical Analysis Based on Well Logging Analysis at Kapuk-Cengkareng, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract:
Jakarta Capital Special Region is the province that densely populated with rapidly growing infrastructure but less attention for the environmental condition. This makes some social problem happened like lack of clean water supply. Shallow groundwater and river water condition that has contaminated make the layer of deep water carrier (aquifer) should be done. This research aims to provide the people insight about deep groundwater potential and to determine the depth, location, and quality where the aquifer can be found in Jakarta’s area, particularly Kapuk-Cengkareng’s people. This research was conducted by geophysical method namely Well Logging Analysis. Well Logging is the geophysical method to know the subsurface lithology with the physical characteristic. The observation in this research area was conducted with several well devices that is Spontaneous Potential Log (SP Log), Resistivity Log, and Gamma Ray Log (GR Log). The first devices well is SP log which is work by comprising the electrical potential difference between the electrodes on the surface with the electrodes that is contained in the borehole and rock formations. The second is Resistivity Log, used to determine both the hydrocarbon and water zone based on their porosity and permeability properties. The last is GR Log, work by identifying radioactivity levels of rocks which is containing elements of thorium, uranium, or potassium. The observation result is curve-shaped which describes the type of lithological coating in subsurface. The result from the research can be interpreted that there are four of the deep groundwater layer zone with different quality. The good groundwater layer can be found in layers with good porosity and permeability. By analyzing the curves, it can be known that most of the layers which were found in this wellbore are clay stone with low resistivity and high gamma radiation. The resistivity value of the clay stone layers is about 2-4 ohm-meter with 65-80 Cps gamma radiation. There are several layers with high resistivity value and low gamma radiation (sand stone) that can be potential for being an aquifer. This is reinforced by the sand layer with a right-leaning SP log curve proving that this layer is permeable. These layers have 4-9 ohm-meter resistivity value with 40-65 Cps gamma radiation. These are mostly found as fresh water aquifer.
121
55897
Integrated Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigation of a Proposed Construction Site at Mowe, Southwestern Nigeria
Abstract:
The subsurface of a proposed site for building development in Mowe, Nigeria, using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) supplemented with Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) was investigated with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the strata for foundation materials. Four SPT and CPT were implemented using 10 tonnes hammer. HEP utilizing Wenner array were performed with inter-electrode spacing of 10 – 60 m along four traverses coincident with each of the SPT and CPT. The HEP data were processed using DIPRO software and textural filtering of the resulting resistivity sections was implemented to enable delineation of hidden layers. Sandy lateritic clay, silty lateritic clay, clay, clayey sand and sand horizons were delineated. The SPT “N” value defined very soft to soft sandy lateritic (
120
44966
Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis
Abstract:
Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (
119
78919
Transient Electrical Resistivity and Elastic Wave Velocity of Sand-Cement-Inorganic Binder Mixture
Abstract:
The cement milk grout has been used for ground improvement. Due to the environmental issues related to cement, the reduction of cement usage is requesting. In this study, inorganic binder is introduced to reduce the use of cement contents for ground improvement. To evaluate transient electrical and mechanical properties of sand-cement-inorganic binder mixture, two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Free Free Resonant Column (FFRC) tests were adopted in addition to unconfined compressive strength test. Electrical resistivity, longitudinal wave velocity and damping ratio of sand-cement admixture samples improved with addition of inorganic binders were measured. Experimental tests were performed considering four different mixing ratios and three different cement contents depending on the curing time. Results show that mixing ratio and curing time have considerable effects on electrical and mechanical properties of mixture. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) decreases as the cement content decreases. However, sufficient grout strength can be obtained with increase of content of inorganic binder. From the results, it is found that the inorganic binder can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of mixture and reduce the cement content. It is expected that data and trends proposed in this study can be used as reference in predicting grouting quality in the field.
118
38023
The Sensitivity of Electrical Geophysical Methods for Mapping Salt Stores within the Soil Profile
Abstract:
Soil salinization is one of the most hazardous phenomenons accelerating the land degradation processes. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. High levels of soil salinity negatively affect crop growth and productivity leading land degradation ultimately. Thus, it is important to monitor and map soil salinity at an early stage to enact effective soil reclamation program that helps lessen or prevent future increase in soil salinity. Geophysical method has outperformed the traditional method for assessing soil salinity offering more informative and professional rapid assessment techniques for monitoring and mapping soil salinity. Soil sampling, EM38 and 2D conductivity imaging have been evaluated for their ability to delineate and map the level of salinity variations at Second Ponds Creek. The three methods have shown that the subsoil in the study area is saline. Salt variations were successfully observed under either method. However, EM38 reading and 2D inversion data show a clear spatial structure comparing to EC1:5 of soil samples in spite of that all soil samples, EM38 and 2D imaging were collected from the same location. Because EM38 readings and 2D imaging data are a weighted average of electrical soil conductance, it is more representative of soil properties than the soil samples method. The mapping of subsurface soil at the study area has been successful and the resistivity imaging has proven to be an advantage. The soil salinity analysis (EC1:5) correspond well to the true resistivity bringing together a good result of soil salinity. Soil salinity clearly indicated by previous investigation EM38 have been confirmed by the interpretation of the true resistivity at study area.
117
58535
Chromite Exploration Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Ingessana Hill, Blue Nile State, Sudan
Abstract:
The Ingessana hills in the southern Blue Nile of Sudan are part of the southern sector of the NE-SW trending ophiolithic belt of the Arab-Nubian Shield with mid-neoproterozoic age. The rocks are mainly serpentinized and in parts highly silicified dunites especially towards the contact with the intruding Bau granite. A promising chromite mineralization zones in the area tend to be generally associated with NE-SW trending shear-zones. A detailed geophysical survey employing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at 34 lines were carried out over a zone of a known chromite mineralization to test feasibility of detecting and delineating the ore (if exist) and accordingly facilitate the positioning of exploratory drill holes. ERT sections were inverted with smooth constraints inversion code where the contacts between the granite and the ultramafics are showing up clearly. The continuity of mineralization along the contact is not well confirmed. However, the low-resistivity anomalies are probably recognized as potential chromite mineralization zones. These anomalies represent prime targets for further exploration by drilling, trenching or shallow pits. If the results of the drilling or excavations are positive, small open pit exploitations may produce important tonnages of chromite.
116
79051
A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing
Abstract:
A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.
115
29825
Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers
Abstract:
In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.
114
83953
A Fast Multi-Scale Finite Element Method for Geophysical Resistivity Measurements
Abstract:
Logging-While Drilling (LWD) is a technique to record down-hole logging measurements while drilling the well. Nowadays, LWD devices (e.g., nuclear, sonic, resistivity) are mostly used commercially for geo-steering applications. Modern borehole resistivity tools are able to measure all components of the magnetic field by incorporating tilted coils. The depth of investigation of LWD tools is limited compared to the thickness of the geological layers. Thus, it is a common practice to approximate the Earth’s subsurface with a sequence of 1D models. For a 1D model, we can reduce the dimensionality of the problem using a Hankel transform. We can solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) either (a) analytically, which results in a so-called semi-analytic method after performing a numerical inverse Hankel transform, or (b) numerically. Semi-analytic methods are used by the industry due to their high performance. However, they have major limitations, namely: -The analytical solution of the aforementioned system of ODEs exists only for piecewise constant resistivity distributions. For arbitrary resistivity distributions, the solution of the system of ODEs is unknown by today’s knowledge. -In geo-steering, we need to solve inverse problems with respect to the inversion variables (e.g., the constant resistivity value of each layer and bed boundary positions) using a gradient-based inversion method. Thus, we need to compute the corresponding derivatives. However, the analytical derivatives of cross-bedded formation and the analytical derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions have not been published to the best of our knowledge. The main contribution of this work is to overcome the aforementioned limitations of semi-analytic methods by solving each 1D model (associated with each Hankel mode) using an efficient multi-scale finite element method. The main idea is to divide our computations into two parts: (a) offline computations, which are independent of the tool positions and we precompute only once and use them for all logging positions, and (b) online computations, which depend upon the logging position. With the above method, (a) we can consider arbitrary resistivity distributions along the 1D model, and (b) we can easily and rapidly compute the derivatives with respect to any inversion variable at a negligible additional cost by using an adjoint state formulation. Although the proposed method is slower than semi-analytic methods, its computational efficiency is still high. In the presentation, we shall derive the mathematical variational formulation, describe the proposed multi-scale finite element method, and verify the accuracy and efficiency of our method by performing a wide range of numerical experiments and comparing the numerical solutions to semi-analytic ones when the latest are available.
113
49172
Effect of Surface-Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Particles on Their Electrical Conductivity
Abstract:
The present work reports an effect of surface- modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with chemicals on their electronic conductivity properties. Examined chemicals were polyvinyl alcohol (nonionic polymer), poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (cationic polymer), poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (anionic polymer), (2-aminopropyl) trimethoxy silane (APMS) (silane coupling agent with amino group), and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane (MPS) (silane coupling agent with thiol group). For all the examined chemicals, volume resistivities of surface-modified ITO particles did not increase much when they were aged in air at 80 oC, compared to a volume resistivity of un-surface-modified ITO particles. Increases in volume resistivities of ITO particles surface-modified with the silane coupling agents were smaller than those with the polymers, since hydrolysis of the silane coupling agents and condensation of generated silanol and OH groups on ITO particles took place to provide efficient immobilization of them on particles. The APMS gave an increase in volume resistivity smaller than the MPS, since a larger solubility in water of APMS providing a larger amount of APMS immobilized on particles.
112
10459
Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique
Abstract:
This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.
111
49773
Effects of Duct Geometry, Thickness and Types of Liners on Transmission Loss for Absorptive Silencers
Abstract:
Sound attenuation in absorptive silencers has been analyzed in this paper. The structure of such devices is as follows. When the rigid duct of an expansion chamber has been lined by a packed absorptive material under a perforated membrane, incident sound waves will be dissipated by the absorptive liners. This kind of silencer, usually are applicable for medium to high frequency ranges. Several conditions for different absorptive materials, variety in their thicknesses, and different shapes of the expansion chambers have been studied in this paper. Also, graphs of sound attenuation have been compared between empty expansion chamber and duct of silencer with applying liner. Plane waves have been assumed in inlet and outlet regions of the silencer. Presented results that have been achieved by applying finite element method (FEM), have shown the dependence of the sound attenuation spectrum to flow resistivity and the thicknesses of the absorptive materials, and geometries of the cross section (configuration of the silencer). As flow resistivity and thickness of absorptive materials increase, sound attenuation improves. In this paper, diagrams of the transmission loss (TL) for absorptive silencers in five different cross sections (rectangle, circle, ellipse, square, and rounded rectangle as the main geometry) have been presented. Also, TL graphs for silencers using different absorptive material (glass wool, wood fiber, and kind of spongy materials) as liner with three different thicknesses of 5 mm, 15 mm, and 30 mm for glass wool liner have been exhibited. At first, the effect of substances of the absorptive materials with the specific flow resistivity and densities on the TL spectrum, then the effect of the thicknesses of the glass wool, and at last the efficacy of the shape of the cross section of the silencer have been investigated.
110
83952
An Adjoint-Based Method to Compute Derivatives with Respect to Bed Boundary Positions in Resistivity Measurements
Abstract:
Resistivity measurements are used to characterize the Earth’s subsurface. They are categorized into two different groups: (a) those acquired on the Earth’s surface, for instance, controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and Magnetotellurics (MT), and (b) those recorded with borehole logging instruments such as Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) devices. LWD instruments are mostly used for geo-steering purposes, i.e., to adjust dip and azimuthal angles of a well trajectory to drill along a particular geological target. Modern LWD tools measure all nine components of the magnetic field corresponding to three orthogonal transmitter and receiver orientations. In order to map the Earth’s subsurface and perform geo-steering, we invert measurements using a gradient-based method that utilizes the derivatives of the recorded measurements with respect to the inversion variables. For resistivity measurements, these inversion variables are usually the constant resistivity value of each layer and the bed boundary positions. It is well-known how to compute derivatives with respect to the constant resistivity value of each layer using semi-analytic or numerical methods. However, similar formulas for computing the derivatives with respect to bed boundary positions are unavailable. The main contribution of this work is to provide an adjoint-based formulation for computing derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions. The key idea to obtain the aforementioned adjoint state formulations for the derivatives is to separate the tangential and normal components of the field and treat them differently. This formulation allows us to compute the derivatives faster and more accurately than with traditional finite differences approximations. In the presentation, we shall first derive a formula for computing the derivatives with respect to the bed boundary positions for the potential equation. Then, we shall extend our formulation to 3D Maxwell’s equations. Finally, by considering a 1D domain and reducing the dimensionality of the problem, which is a common practice in the inversion of resistivity measurements, we shall derive a formulation to compute the derivatives of the measurements with respect to the bed boundary positions using a 1.5D variational formulation. Then, we shall illustrate the accuracy and convergence properties of our formulations by comparing numerical results with the analytical derivatives for the potential equation. For the 1.5D Maxwell’s system, we shall compare our numerical results based on the proposed adjoint-based formulation vs those obtained with a traditional finite difference approach. Numerical results shall show that our proposed adjoint-based technique produces enhanced accuracy solutions while its cost is negligible, as opposed to the finite difference approach that requires the solution of one additional problem per derivative.
109
106568
Application of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Tunnel Seismic Prediction 303 Methods for Detection Fracture Zones Ahead of Tunnel: A Case Study
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate about the geological properties ahead of a tunnel face with using Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT and Tunnel Seismic Prediction TSP303 methods. In deep tunnels with hydro-geological conditions, it is important to study the geological structures of the region before excavating tunnels. Otherwise, it would lead to unexpected accidents that impose serious damage to the project. For constructing Nosoud tunnel in west of Iran, the ERT and TSP303 methods are employed to predict the geological conditions dynamically during the excavation. In this paper, based on the engineering background of Nosoud tunnel, the important results of applying these methods are discussed. This work demonstrates seismic method and electrical tomography as two geophysical techniques that are able to detect a tunnel. The results of these two methods were being in agreement with each other but the results of TSP303 are more accurate and quality. In this case, the TSP 303 method was a useful tool for predicting unstable geological structures ahead of the tunnel face during excavation. Thus, using another geophysical method together with TSP303 could be helpful as a decision support in excavating, especially in complicated geological conditions.
108
116842
Groundwater Investigation Using Resistivity Method and Drilling for Irrigation during the Dry Season in Lwantonde District, Uganda
Abstract:
Groundwater investigation is the investigation of underground formations to understand the hydrologic cycle, known groundwater occurrences, and identify the nature and types of aquifers. There are different groundwater investigation methods and surface geophysical method is one of the groundwater investigation more especially the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method which provides valuable information regarding the lateral and vertical successions of subsurface geomaterials in terms of their individual thickness and corresponding resistivity values besides using surface geophysical method, hydrogeological and geological investigation methods are also incorporated to aid in preliminary groundwater investigation. Investigation for groundwater in lwantonde district has been implemented. The area project is located cattle corridor and the dry seasonal troubles the communities in lwantonde district of which 99% of people living there are farmers, thus making agriculture difficult and local government to provide social services to its people. The investigation was done using the Geoelectrical resistivity Schlumberger configuration method. The measurement point is located in the three sub-counties, with a total of 17 measurement points. The study location is at 0025S, 3110E, and covers an area of 160 square kilometers. Based on the results of the Geoelectrical information data, it was found two types of aquifers, which are open aquifers in depth ranging from six meters to twenty-two meters and a confined aquifer in depth ranging from forty-five meters to eighty meters. In addition to the Geoelectrical information data, drilling was done at an accessible point by heavy equipment in the Lwakagura village, Kabura sub-county. At the drilling point, artesian wells were obtained at a depth of eighty meters and can rise to two meters above the soil surface. The discovery of artesian well is then used by residents to meet the needs of clean water and for irrigation considering that in this area most wells contain iron content.
107
6484
Design of a Virtual Instrument (VI) System for Earth Resistivity Survey
Abstract:
One of the challenges of developing nations is the dearth of measurement devices. Aside the shortage, when available, they are either old or obsolete and also very expensive. When this is the situation, researchers must design alternative systems to help meet the desired needs of academia. This paper presents a design of cost-effective multi-disciplinary virtual instrument system for scientific research. This design was based on NI USB-6255 multifunctional DAQ which was used for earth resistivity measurement in Schlumberger array and the result obtained compared closely with that of a conventional ABEM Terrameter. This instrument design provided a hands-on experience as related to full-waveform signal acquisition in the field.
106
112740
Surface Deformation Studies in South of Johor Using the Integration of InSAR and Resistivity Methods
Abstract:
Over the years, land subsidence has been a serious threat mostly to urban areas. Land subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the ground’s surface with little or no horizontal motion. In most areas, land subsidence is a slow process that covers a large area; therefore, it is sometimes left unnoticed. South of Johor is the area of interest for this project because it is going through rapid urbanization. The objective of this research is to evaluate and identify potential deformations in the south of Johor using integrated remote sensing and 2D resistivity methods. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) which is a remote sensing technique has the potential to map coherent displacements at centimeter to millimeter resolutions. Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) stacking technique was applied to Sentinel-1 data to detect the earth deformation in the study area. A dipole-dipole configuration resistivity profiling was conducted in three areas to determine the subsurface features in that area. This subsurface features interpreted were then correlated with the remote sensing technique to predict the possible causes of subsidence and uplifts in the south of Johor. Based on the results obtained, West Johor Bahru (0.63mm/year) and Ulu Tiram (1.61mm/year) are going through uplift due to possible geological uplift. On the other end, East Johor Bahru (-0.26mm/year) and Senai (-1.16mm/year) undergo subsidence due to possible fracture and granitic boulders loading. Land subsidence must be taken seriously as it can cause serious damages to infrastructures and human life. Monitoring land subsidence and taking preventive actions must be done to prevent any disasters.
105
18453
Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan
Abstract:
The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.
104
17368
Microstructural and Transport Properties of La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 Thin Films Obtained by Metal-Organic Deposition
Abstract:
La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 thin films have been epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (001) single-crystal substrates by metal organic deposition process. The structural and micro structural properties of the obtained films have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission microscopy observations on cross-sections techniques. We noted a close dependence of the crystallinity on the used substrate and the film thickness. By increasing the annealing temperature to 1000ºC and the film thickness to 100 nm, the electrical resistivity was decreased by several orders of magnitude. The film resistivity reaches approximately 3~4 x10-4 Ω.cm in a wide interval of temperature 77-320 K, making this material a promising candidate for a variety of applications.
103
38051
Assessment the Infiltration of the Wastewater Ponds and Its Impact on the Water Quality of Pleistocene Aquifer at El Sadat City Using 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Water Chemistry
Abstract:
2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and hydrochemical study have been conducted at El Sadat industrial city. The study aims to investigate the area around the wastewater ponds to determine the possibility of water percolation from the wastewater ponds to the Pleistocene aquifer and to inspect the effect of this seepage on the groundwater chemistry. Pleistocene aquifer is the main groundwater reservoir in this area, where El Sadat city and its vicinities depend totally on this aquifer for water supplies needed for drinking, agricultural, and industrial activities. In this concern, seven ERT profiles were measured around the wastewater ponds. Besides, 10 water samples were collected from the ponds and the nearby groundwater wells. The water samples have been chemically analyzed for major cations, anions, nutrients, and heavy elements. Also, the physical parameters (pH, Alkalinity, EC, TDS) of the water samples were measured. Inspection of the ERT sections shows that they exhibit lower resistivity values towards the water ponds and higher values in opposite sides. In addition, the water table was detected at shallower depths at the same sides of lower resistivity. This could indicate a wastewater infiltration to the groundwater aquifer near the oxidation ponds. Correlation of the physical parameters and ionic concentrations of the wastewater samples with those of the groundwater samples indicates that; the ionic levels are randomly varying and no specific trend could be obtained. In addition, the wastewater samples shows some ionic levels lower than those detected in other groundwater samples. Besides, the nitrate level is higher in samples taken from the cultivated land than the wastewater samples due to the over using of nitrogen fertilizers. Then, we can say that the infiltrated water from wastewater ponds are not the main controller of the groundwater chemistry in this area, but rather the variable ionic concentrations could be attributed to local, natural, and anthropogenic processes.
102
18041
The Effect of SIO2 Addition on the Formation and Superconducting Properties of BI2SR2CACU2O8+D System
Abstract:
SiO2 particles were inserted (added) into Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d precursor powders in various weight fractions. The influence of Si addition to the Bi2212 system on its phase formation, microstructure and transport properties is investigated. Samples are characterized by means of X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), magnetic AC susceptibility and resistivity measurements. For 1% of added Si, the results showed an increase of the apparent superconducting volume fraction. All the samples doped with Si contained a majority fraction of the high TC superconducting Bi2212 phase. SEM observation showed that the average grain size of the Si added samples increased more than that of the sample without Si. From resistivity measurement the Tconset was found to be increased by 7 K for 1% and 5% of added Si compared to the pure sample.
101
65431
Benefits of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) Method for Preparation of Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) Thin Films
Abstract:
Transparent semiconducting amorphous IGZO films have attracted great attention due to their excellent electrical properties and possible utilization in thin film transistors or in photovoltaic applications as they show 20-50 times higher mobility than that of amorphous silicon. It is also known that the properties of IGZO films are highly sensitive to process parameters, especially to oxygen partial pressure. In this study we have focused on the comparison of properties of transparent semiconducting amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films prepared by conventional sputtering methods and those prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) method. Furthermore we tried to optimize electrical and optical properties of the IGZO thin films and to investigate possibility to apply these coatings on thermally sensitive flexible substrates. We employed dc, pulsed dc, mid frequency sine wave and HiPIMS power supplies for magnetron deposition. Magnetrons were equipped with sintered ceramic InGaZnO targets. As oxygen vacancies are considered to be the main source of the carriers in IGZO films, it is expected that with the increase of oxygen partial pressure number of oxygen vacancies decreases which results in the increase of film resistivity. Therefore in all experiments we focused on the effect of oxygen partial pressure, discharge power and pulsed power mode on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of IGZO thin films and also on the thermal load deposited to the substrate. As expected, we have observed a very fast transition between low- and high-resistivity films depending on oxygen partial pressure when deposition using conventional sputtering methods/power supplies have been utilized. Therefore we established and utilized HiPIMS sputtering system for enlargement of operation window for better control of IGZO thin film properties. It is shown that with this system we are able to effectively eliminate steep transition between low and high resistivity films exhibited by DC mode of sputtering and the electrical resistivity can be effectively controlled in the wide resistivity range of 10-² to 10⁵ Ω.cm. The highest mobility of charge carriers (up to 50 cm2/V.s) was obtained at very low oxygen partial pressures. Utilization of HiPIMS also led to significant decrease in thermal load deposited to the substrate which is beneficial for deposition on the thermally sensitive and flexible polymer substrates. Deposition rate as a function of discharge power and oxygen partial pressure was also systematically investigated and the results from optical, electrical and structure analysis will be discussed in detail. Most important result which we have obtained demonstrates almost linear control of IGZO thin films resistivity with increasing of oxygen partial pressure utilizing HiPIMS mode of sputtering and highly transparent films with low resistivity were prepared already at low pO2. It was also found that utilization of HiPIMS technique resulted in significant improvement of surface smoothness in reactive mode of sputtering (with increasing of oxygen partial pressure).
100
9708
Influence of the Growth Rate on Eutectic Microstructures and Physical Properties of Aluminum–Silicon-Cobalt Alloy
Abstract:
Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Co alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate at constant temperature gradient using by Bridgman–type growth apparatus. The values of microstructures (λ) was measured from transverse sections of the samples. The microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) of the directional solidification samples were also measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.
99
31251
Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres
Abstract:
Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.
98
50796
Manufacturing of Nano Zeolite by Planetary Ball Mill and Investigation of the Effects on Concrete
Abstract:
This study is engineering the properties of concrete containing natural nano zeolite as supplementary cementitious material in the blended Portland-cement based binder in amounts of 5,7 and 10% by mass. Crashing of clinoptilolite zeolite is performed by means of planetary ball mill. Two types of concrete along with water to cementitious material ratio (W/(C + P)) in 0.45 and 0.4 at the ages of 7, 28 and 90 days and were compared with each other. The effect of these additives on mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength) and durability has been investigated by Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Rapid Chloride Penetration Test (RCPT) at the ages 28 and 90 days. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that nanoparticles of natural clinoptilolite could improve quality of concrete. As a result of the tests, decrease in penetration of chloride ion and increase electrical resistivity significantly that are appropriate option for controlling of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures but increase of mechanical characteristics is not considerable.
97
51049
Metal-Semiconductor Transition in Ultra-Thin Titanium Oxynitride Films Deposited by ALD
Abstract:
Titanium nitride (TiN) films have been widely used in variety of fields, due to its unique electrical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties, including low electrical resistivity, chemical stability, and high thermal conductivity. In microelectronic devices, thin continuous TiN films are commonly used as diffusion barrier and metal gate material. However, as the film thickness decreases below a few nanometers, electrical properties of the film alter considerably. In this study, the physical and electrical characteristics of 1.5nm to 22nm thin films deposited by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition (PE-ALD) using Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV), (TDMAT) chemistry and Ar/N2 plasma on 80nm SiO2 capped in-situ by 2nm Al2O3 are investigated. ALD technique allows uniformly-thick films at monolayer level in a highly controlled manner. The chemistry incorporates low level of oxygen into the TiN films forming titanium oxynitride (TiON). Thickness of the films is characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which confirms the uniformity of the films. Surface morphology of the films is investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) indicating sub-nanometer surface roughness. Hall measurements are performed to determine the parameters such as carrier mobility, type and concentration, as well as resistivity. The >5nm-thick films exhibit metallic behavior; however, we have observed that thin film resistivity is modulated significantly by film thickness such that there are more than 5 orders of magnitude increment in the sheet resistance at room temperature when comparing 5nm and 1.5nm films. Scattering effects at interfaces and grain boundaries could play a role in thickness-dependent resistivity in addition to quantum confinement effect that could occur at ultra-thin films: based on our measurements the carrier concentration is decreased from 1.5E22 1/cm3 to 5.5E17 1/cm3, while the mobility is increased from < 0.1 cm2/V.s to ~4 cm2/V.s for the 5nm and 1.5nm films, respectively. Also, measurements at different temperatures indicate that the resistivity is relatively constant for the 5nm film, while for the 1.5nm film more than 2 orders of magnitude reduction has been observed over the range of 220K to 400K. The activation energy of the 2.5nm and 1.5nm films is 30meV and 125meV, respectively, indicating that the TiON ultra-thin films are exhibiting semiconducting behaviour attributing this effect to a metal-semiconductor transition. By the same token, the contact is no longer Ohmic for the thinnest film (i.e., 1.5nm-thick film); hence, a modified lift-off process was developed to selectively deposit thicker films allowing us to perform electrical measurements with low contact resistance on the raised contact regions. Our atomic scale simulations based on molecular dynamic-generated amorphous TiON structures with low oxygen content confirm our experimental observations indicating highly n-type thin films.
96
16716
Statistical Description of Counterpoise Effective Length Based on Regressive Formulas
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel statistical description of the counterpoise effective length due to lightning surges, where the (impulse) effective length had been obtained by means of regressive formulas applied to the transient simulation results. The effective length is described in terms of a statistical distribution function, from which median, mean, variance, and other parameters of interest could be readily obtained. The influence of lightning current amplitude, lightning front duration, and soil resistivity on the effective length has been accounted for, assuming statistical nature of these parameters. A method for determining the optimal counterpoise length, in terms of the statistical impulse effective length, is also presented. It is based on estimating the number of dangerous events associated with lightning strikes. Proposed statistical description and the associated method provide valuable information which could aid the design engineer in optimising physical lengths of counterpoises in different grounding arrangements and soil resistivity situations.
95
74890
Effect of Al Contents on Magnetic Domains of {100} Grains in Electrical Steels
Abstract:
Non-oriented (NO) electrical steel is one of the most important soft magnetic materials for rotating machines. Si has usually been added to electrical steels to reduce eddy current loss by increasing the electrical resistivity. Si content more than 3.5 wt% causes cracks during cold rolling due to increase of brittleness. Al also increases the electrical resistivity of the materials as much as Si. In addition, cold workability of Fe-Al is better than Fe-Si, so that Al can be added up to 6.0 wt%. However, the effect of Al contents on magnetic properties of electrical steels has not been studied in detail. Magnetic domains of {100} grains in electrical steels, ranging from 1.85 to 6.54 wt% Al, were observed by magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. Furthermore, the correlation of magnetic domains with magnetic properties was investigated. As Al contents increased, the magnetic domain size of {100} grains decreased due to lowered domain wall energy. Reorganization of magnetic domain structure became more complex as domain size decreased. Therefore, the addition of Al to electrical steel caused hysteresis loss to increase. Anomalous loss decreased and saturated after 4.68% Al.
94
94110
Passive Seismic in Hydrogeological Prospecting: The Case Study from Hard Rock and Alluvium Plain
Abstract:
Passive seismic, a wavefield interferometric imaging, low cost and rapid tool for subsurface investigation is used for various geotechnical purposes such as hydrocarbon exploration, seismic microzonation, etc. With the recent advancement, its application has also been extended to groundwater exploration by means of finding the bedrock depth. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has experimented passive seismic studies along with electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater in hard rock (Choutuppal, Hyderabad). Passive Seismic with Electrical Resistivity (ERT) can give more clear 2-D subsurface image for Groundwater Exploration in Hard Rock area. Passive seismic data were collected using a Tromino, a three-component broadband seismometer, to measure background ambient noise and processed using GRILLA software. The passive seismic results are found corroborating with ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) results. For data acquisition purpose, Tromino was kept over 30 locations consist recording of 20 minutes at each station. These location shows strong resonance frequency peak, suggesting good impedance contrast between different subsurface layers (ex. Mica rich Laminated layer, Weathered layer, granite, etc.) This paper presents signature of passive seismic for hard rock terrain. It has been found that passive seismic has potential application for formation characterization and can be used as an alternative tool for delineating litho-stratification in an urban condition where electrical and electromagnetic tools cannot be applied due to high cultural noise. In addition to its general application in combination with electrical and electromagnetic methods can improve the interpreted subsurface model.
93
55922
Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography to Image the Subsurface Structure of a Sinkhole, a Case Study in Southwestern Missouri
Abstract:
The study area is located in Southwestern Missouri and is mainly underlain by Mississippian Age limestone which is highly susceptible to karst processes. The area is known for the presence of various karst features like caves, springs and more importantly Sinkholes. Sinkholes are one of the most common karst features and the primary hazard in karst areas. Investigating the subsurface structure and development mechanism of existing sinkholes enables to understand their long-term impact and chance of reactivation and also helps to provide effective mitigation measures. In this study ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) and borehole control data have been used to image the subsurface structure and investigate the development mechanism of a sinkhole in Southwestern Missouri. The study shows that the main process responsible for the development of the sinkhole is the downward piping of fine grained soils. Furthermore, the study reveals that the sinkhole developed along a north-south oriented vertical joint set characterized by a vertical zone of water seepage and associated fine grained soil piping into preexisting fractures.
92
6146
Effect of Yttrium Doping on Properties of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ (Bi-2202) Cuprate Ceramics
Abstract:
In this work, we report the effect of Y3+ doping on structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Bi-2202 phase. Samples of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 are elaborated in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDS spectroscopy, density, Vickers micro-hardness and resistivity measurements. A good correlation between the variations of the bulk density and the Vickers micro-hardness with doping is obtained. The SEM photograph shows that the samples are composed of grains with a flat shape that characterizes the Bi-based cuprates. Quantitative EDS analysis confirms the reduction of Ca content and the increase of Y content when x is increased. The variation of resistivity with temperature shows that only samples with x = 0, 0.025 and 0.05 present an onset transition to the superconducting state. The higher onset transition temperature is obtained for x = 0.025 and is about 93.62 K. The transition is wide and is realized in two steps confirming then the presence of the low Tc Bi-2201 phase in the samples. For x = 0.075 and 0.1, a transition to a semiconducting state is seen at low temperatures. Some physical parameters are extracted from these curves and discussed.
91
108250
Reliability of Swine Estrous Detector Probe in Dairy Cattle Breeding
Abstract:
Accuracy of insemination timing is a key determinant of high pregnancy rates in livestock breeding stations. The estrous detector probes are a recent introduction into the Nigerian livestock farming sector. Many of these probes are species-labeled and they measure changes in the vaginal mucus resistivity (VMR) during the stages of the estrous cycle. With respect to size and shaft conformation, the Draminski® swine estrous detector probe (sEDP) is quite similar to the bovine estrous detector probe. We investigated the reliability of the sEDP at insemination time on two farms designated as FM A and FM B. Cows (Bunaji, n=20 per farm) were evaluated for VMR at 16th h post standard OvSynch protocol, with concurrent insemination on FM B only. The difference in the mean VMR between FM A (221 ± 24.36) Ohms and FM B (254 ± 35.59) Ohms was not significant (p > 0.05). Sixteen cows (80%) at FM B were later (day 70) confirmed pregnant via rectal palpation and calved at term. These findings suggest consistency in VMR evaluated with sEDP at insemination as well as a high predictability for VMR associated with good pregnancy rates in dairy cattle. We conclude that Draminski® swine estrous detector probe is reliable in determining time of insemination in cattle breeding stations.
90
22458
Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan
Abstract:
The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.
89
19701
Monitoring Soil Moisture Dynamic in Root Zone System of Argania spinosa Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging
Abstract:
Argania spinosa is an endemic tree of the southwest of Morocco, occupying 828,000 Ha, distributed mainly between Mediterranean vegetation and the desert. This tree can grow in extremely arid regions in Morocco, where annual rainfall ranges between 100-300 mm where no other tree species can live. It has been designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve since 1998. Argania tree is of great importance in human and animal feeding of rural population as well as for oil production, it is considered as a multi-usage tree. Admine forest located in the suburbs of Agadir city, 5 km inland, was selected to conduct this work. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal variation in root-zone moisture dynamic in response to variation in climatic conditions and vegetation water uptake, using a geophysical technique called Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This technique discriminates resistive woody roots, dry and moisture soil. Time-dependent measurements (from April till July) of resistivity sections were performed along the surface transect (94 m Length) at 2 m fixed electrode spacing. Transect included eight Argan trees. The interactions between the tree and soil moisture were estimated by following the tree water status variations accompanying the soil moisture deficit. For that purpose we measured midday leaf water potential and relative water content during each sampling day, and for the eight trees. The first results showed that ERI can be used to accurately quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of root-zone moisture content and woody root. The section obtained shows three different layers: middle conductive one (moistured); a moderately resistive layer corresponding to relatively dry soil (calcareous formation with intercalation of marly strata) on top, this layer is interspersed by very resistant layer corresponding to woody roots. Below the conductive layer, we find the moderately resistive layer. We note that throughout the experiment, there was a continuous decrease in soil moisture at the different layers. With the ERI, we can clearly estimate the depth of the woody roots, which does not exceed 4 meters. In previous work on the same species, analyzing the δ18O in water of xylem and in the range of possible water sources, we argued that rain is the main water source in winter and spring, but not in summer, trees are not exploiting deep water from the aquifer as the popular assessment, instead of this they are using soil water at few meter depth. The results of the present work confirm the idea that the roots of Argania spinosa are not growing very deep.
88
26478
Delineation of Oil– Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria
Abstract:
Ibeno, Nigeria hosts the operational base of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the current highest oil and condensate producer in Nigeria. Besides MPNU, other multinational oil companies like Shell Petroleum Development Company Ltd, Elf Petroleum Nigeria Ltd and Nigerian Agip Energy, a subsidiary of ENI E&P operate onshore, on the continental shelf and deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean in Ibeno, Nigeria, respectively. This study was designed to carry out the survey of the oil impacted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria. A combinations of electrical resistivity (ER), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and physico-chemical as well as microbiological characterization of soils and water samples from the area were carried out. Results obtained revealed that there have been hydrocarbon contaminations of this environment by past crude oil spills as observed from significant concentrations of THC, BTEX and heavy metal contents in the environment. Also, high resistivity values and GPR profiles clearly showing the distribution, thickness and lateral extent of hydrocarbon contamination as represented on the radargram reflector tones corroborates previous significant oil input. Contaminations were of varying degrees, ranging from slight to high, indicating levels of substantial attenuation of crude oil contamination over time. Hydrocarbon pollution of the study area was confirmed by the results of soil and water physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The levels of THC contamination observed in this study are indicative of high levels of crude oil contamination. Moreover, the display of relatively lower resistivities of locations outside the impacted areas compared to resistivity values within the impacted areas, the 3-D Cartesian images of oil contaminant plume depicted by red, light brown and magenta for high, low and very low oil impacted areas, respectively as well as the high counts of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms in excess of 1% confirmed significant recent pollution of the study area.
87
92740
Neuron Efficiency in Fluid Dynamics and Prediction of Groundwater Reservoirs'' Properties Using Pattern Recognition
Abstract:
The application of neural network using pattern recognition to study the fluid dynamics and predict the groundwater reservoirs properties has been used in this research. The essential of geophysical survey using the manual methods has failed in basement environment, hence the need for an intelligent computing such as predicted from neural network is inevitable. A non-linear neural network with an XOR (exclusive OR) output of 8-bits configuration has been used in this research to predict the nature of groundwater reservoirs and fluid dynamics of a typical basement crystalline rock. The control variables are the apparent resistivity of weathered layer (p1), fractured layer (p2), and the depth (h), while the dependent variable is the flow parameter (F=&lambda;). The algorithm that was used in training the neural network is the back-propagation coded in C++ language with 300 epoch runs. The neural network was very intelligent to map out the flow channels and detect how they behave to form viable storage within the strata. The neural network model showed that an important variable gr (gravitational resistance) can be deduced from the elevation and apparent resistivity pa. The model results from SPSS showed that the coefficients, a, b and c are statistically significant with reduced standard error at 5%.
86
50360
Approximation of PE-MOCVD to ALD for TiN Concerning Resistivity and Chemical Composition
Abstract:
The miniaturization of circuits is advancing. During chip manufacturing, structures are filled for example by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since this process reaches its limits in case of very high aspect ratios, the use of alternatives such as the atomic layer deposition (ALD) is possible, requiring the extension of existing coating systems. However, it is an unsolved question to what extent MOCVD can achieve results similar as an ALD process. In this context, this work addresses the characterization of a metal organic vapor deposition of titanium nitride. Based on the current state of the art, the film properties coating thickness, sheet resistance, resistivity, stress and chemical composition are considered. The used setting parameters are temperature, plasma gas ratio, plasma power, plasma treatment time, deposition time, deposition pressure, number of cycles and TDMAT flow. The derived process instructions for unstructured wafers and inside a structure with high aspect ratio include lowering the process temperature and increasing the number of cycles, the deposition and the plasma treatment time as well as the plasma gas ratio of hydrogen to nitrogen (H2:N2). In contrast to the current process configuration, the deposited titanium nitride (TiN) layer is more uniform inside the entire test structure. Consequently, this paper provides approaches to employ the MOCVD for structures with increasing aspect ratios.
85
16061
Study the Effects of Increasing Unsaturation in Palm Oil and Incorporation of Carbon Nanotubes on Resinous Properties
Abstract:
Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties 0.5 wt% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, etc. Structural elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the cured films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability and hardness of the films as well.
84
6213
Effects of Surface Insulation of Silicone Rubber Composites in HVDC
Abstract:
Polymeric insulators are high hardness, corrosion resistant, lightweight and also good dielectric strength in electric equipment. For such reasons, the amount of polymeric insulators is increased consistently abroad. The current outdoor insulators are replaced by polymeric insulators. Silicone rubber of polymeric insulators is widely used in insulation materials for outdoor application since it has excellent electrical characteristics and high surface hydrophobic. However, it can be evade exposure to pollutant on surface using at outdoor. It also improve the pollution for dust and smoke due to the large are increasing, because most of the industrial area in which the electric power loads are concentrated are located at the coastal area with salt attack. Thus it is important to detect the main cause of the deterioration for outdoor insulation materials. But there has no standards for valuation to apply reliably and determine accurately deterioration under DC, still lacks DC characteristic researches in proportion to AC. In addition, a lot of ATH was added to improve tracking resistivity of silicone rubber, although the problem has been brought up about falling sharply mechanical properties. Therefore, we might compare surface resistivities of silicone rubber compounding of three kinds of filler. In this paper, specimens of silicone rubber composite usable as outdoor insulators were prepared. Micro-silica (SiO2), nano- alumina (Al2O3) and nano-ATH (Al(OH)3) were used in additives. The study aims to investigate properties of DC surface insulation on silicone rubber composite which were filled with various fillers from surface resistivity measurement and salt-fog test.
83
25707
Preparation of Fe3Si/Ferrite Micro-and Nano-Powder Composite
Abstract:
Composite material based on Fe3Si micro-particles and Mn-Zn nano-ferrite was prepared using powder metallurgy technology. The sol-gel followed by autocombustion process was used for synthesis of Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 ferrite. 3 wt.% of mechanically milled ferrite was mixed with Fe3Si powder alloy. Mixed micro-nano powder system was homogenized by the Resonant Acoustic Mixing using ResodynLabRAM Mixer. This non-invasive homogenization technique was used to preserve spherical morphology of Fe3Si powder particles. Uniaxial cold pressing in the closed die at pressure 600 MPa was applied to obtain a compact sample. Microwave sintering of green compact was realized at 800°C, 20 minutes, in air. Density of the powders and composite was measured by Hepycnometry. Impulse excitation method was used to measure elastic properties of sintered composite. Mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Vickers hardness (HV). Resistivity was measured by 4 point probe method. Ferrite phase distribution in volume of the composite was documented by metallographic analysis. It has been found that nano-ferrite particle distributed among micro- particles of Fe3Si powder alloy led to high relative density (~93%) and suitable mechanical properties (TRS >100 MPa, HV ~1GPa, E-modulus ~140 GPa) of the composite. High electric resistivity (R~6.7 ohm.cm) of prepared composite indicate their potential application as soft magnetic material at medium and high frequencies.
82
80267
Seismic Interpretation and Petrophysical Evaluation of SM Field, Libya
Abstract:
The G Formation is a major gas producing reservoir in the SM Field, eastern, Libya. It is called G limestone because it consists of shallow marine limestone. Well data and 3D-Seismic in conjunction with the results of a previous study were used to delineate the hydrocarbon reservoir of Middle Eocene G-Formation of SM Field area. The data include three-dimensional seismic data acquired in 2009. It covers approximately an area of 75 mi² and with more than 9 wells penetrating the reservoir. Seismic data are used to identify any stratigraphic and structural and features such as channels and faults and which may play a significant role in hydrocarbon traps. The well data are used to calculation petrophysical analysis of S field. The average porosity of the Middle Eocene G Formation is very good with porosity reaching 24% especially around well W 6. Average water saturation was calculated for each well from porosity and resistivity logs using Archie’s formula. The average water saturation for the whole well is 25%. Structural mapping of top and bottom of Middle Eocene G formation revealed the highest area in the SM field is at 4800 ft subsea around wells W4, W5, W6, and W7 and the deepest point is at 4950 ft subsea. Correlation between wells using well data and structural maps created from seismic data revealed that net thickness of G Formation range from 0 ft in the north part of the field to 235 ft in southwest and south part of the field. The gas water contact is found at 4860 ft using the resistivity log. The net isopach map using both the trapezoidal and pyramid rules are used to calculate the total bulk volume. The original gas in place and the recoverable gas were calculated volumetrically to be 890 Billion Standard Cubic Feet (BSCF) and 630 (BSCF) respectively.
81
87640
Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan
Abstract:
Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).
80
94303
Bulk Transport in Strongly Correlated Topological Insulator Samarium Hexaboride Using Hall Effect and Inverted Resistance Methods
Abstract:
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a strongly correlated mixed valence material and Kondo insulator. In the resistance-temperature curve, SmB6 exhibits activated behavior from 4-40 K after the Kondo gap forms. However, below 4 K, the resistivity is temperature independent or weakly temperature dependent due to the appearance of a topologically protected surface state. Current research suggests that the surface of SmB6 is conductive while the bulk is truly insulating, different from conventional 3D TIs (Topological Insulators) like Bi₂Se₃ which are plagued by bulk conduction due to impurities. To better understand why the bulk of SmB6 is so different from conventional TIs, this study employed a new method, called inverted resistance, to explore the lowest temperatures, as well as standard Hall measurements for the rest of the temperature range. In the inverted resistance method, current flows from an inner contact to an outer ring, and voltage is measured outside of this outer ring. This geometry confines the surface current and allows for measurement of the bulk resistivity even when the conductive surface dominates transport (below 4 K). The results confirm that the bulk of SmB6 is truly insulating down to 2 K. Hall measurements on a number of samples show consistent bulk behavior from 4-40 K, but widely varying behavior among samples above 40 K. This is attributed to a combination of the growth process and purity of the starting material, and the relationship between the high and low temperature behaviors is still being explored.
79
98940
Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline
Abstract:
Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.
78
51757
Reservoir Characterization using Comparative Petrophysical Testing Approach Acquired with Facies Architecture Properties Analysis
Abstract:
Studies conducted to map the reservoir properties based on facies architecture in which to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties and calculate hydrocarbon reserves in study interval. Facies Architecture analysis begins with stratigraphic correlation that indicates the area is divided into different system tracts. The analysis of distribution patterns and compiling core analysis with facies architecture model show that there are three estuarine facies appear. Formation evaluation begins with shale volume calculation using Asquith-Krygowski and Volan Triangle Method. Proceed to the calculation of the total and effective porosity using the Bateman-Konen and Volan Triangle Method. After getting the value of the porosity calculation was continued to determine the effective water saturation and non-effective by including parameters of water resistivity and resistivity clay. The results of the research show that the Facies Architecture on the field in divided into three main facies which are Estuarine Channel, Estuarine Sand Bar, and Tidal Flat. The petrophysics analysis are done by comparing different methods also shows that the Volan Triangle Method does not give a better result of the Volume Shale than the Gamma Ray Method, but on the other hand, the Volan Triangle Methode is better on calculating porosity compared to the Bateman-Konen Method. The effective porosity distributions are affected by the distribution of the facies. Estuarine Sand Bar has a low porosity number and Estuarine Channel has a higher number of the porosity. The effective water saturation is controlled by structure where on the closure zone the water saturation is lower than the area beneath it. It caused by the hydrocarbon accumulation on the closure zone.
77
28569
Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films
Abstract:
Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.
76
23459
The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property
Abstract:
RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.
75
67328
The Effect of the Precursor Powder Size on the Electrical and Sensor Characteristics of Fully Stabilized Zirconia-Based Solid Electrolytes
Abstract:
Nowadays, due to their exceptional anion conductivity at high temperatures cubic zirconia solid solutions, stabilized by rare-earth and alkaline-earth metal oxides, are widely used as a solid electrolyte (SE) materials in different electrochemical devices such as gas sensors, oxygen pumps, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), etc. Nowadays the intensive studies are carried out in a field of novel fully stabilized zirconia based SE development. The use of precursor powders for SE manufacturing allows predetermining the microstructure, electrical and sensor characteristics of zirconia based ceramics used as SE. Thus the goal of the present work was the investigation of the effect of precursor powder size on the electrical and sensor characteristics of fully stabilized zirconia-based solid electrolytes with compositions of 0,08Y2O3∙0,92ZrO2 (YSZ), 0,06Ce2O3∙ 0,06Y2O3∙0,88ZrO2 and 0,09Ce2O3∙0,06Y2O3-0,85ZrO2. The synthesis of precursors powders with different mean particle size was performed by sol-gel synthesis in the form of reversed co-precipitation from aqueous solutions. The cakes were washed until the neutral pH and pan-dried at 110 °С. Also, YSZ ceramics was obtained by conventional solid state synthesis including milling into a planetary mill. Then the powder was cold pressed into the pellets with a diameter of 7.2 and ~4 mm thickness at P ~16 kg/cm2 and then hydrostatically pressed. The pellets were annealed at 1600 °С for 2 hours. The phase composition of as-synthesized SE was investigated by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy ESCA (spectrometer ESCA-5400, PHI) X-ray diffraction analysis - XRD (Shimadzu XRD-6000). Following galvanic cell О2 (РО2(1)), Pt | SE | Pt, (РО2(2) = 0.21 atm) was used for SE sensor properties investigation. The value of РО2(1) was set by mixing of O2 and N2 in the defined proportions with the accuracy of  5%. The temperature was measured by Pt/Pt-10% Rh thermocouple, The cell electromotive force (EMF) measurement was carried out with ± 0.1 mV accuracy. During the operation at the constant temperature, reproducibility was better than 5 mV. Asymmetric potential measured for all SE appeared to be negligible. It was shown that the resistivity of YSZ ceramics decreases in about two times upon the mean agglomerates decrease from 200-250 to 40 nm. It is likely due to the both surface and bulk resistivity decrease in grains. So the overall decrease of grain size in ceramic SE results in the significant decrease of the total ceramics resistivity allowing sensor operation at lower temperatures. For the SE manufactured the estimation of oxygen ion transfer number tion was carried out in the range 600-800 °С. YSZ ceramics manufactured from powders with the mean particle size 40-140 nm, shows the highest values i.e. 0.97-0.98. SE manufactured from precursors with the mean particle size 40-140 nm shows higher sensor characteristic i.e. temperature and oxygen concentration EMF dependencies, EMF (ENernst - Ereal), tion, response time, then ceramics, manufactured by conventional solid state synthesis.
74
24098
Geostatistical Models to Correct Salinity of Soils from Landsat Satellite Sensor: Application to the Oran Region, Algeria
Abstract:
The new approach of applied spatial geostatistics in materials sciences, agriculture accuracy, agricultural statistics, permitted an apprehension of managing and monitoring the water and groundwater qualities in a relationship with salt-affected soil. The anterior experiences concerning data acquisition, spatial-preparation studies on optical and multispectral data has facilitated the integration of correction models of electrical conductivity related with soils temperature (horizons of soils). For tomography apprehension, this physical parameter has been extracted from calibration of the thermal band (LANDSAT ETM+6) with a radiometric correction. Our study area is Oran region (Northern West of Algeria). Different spectral indices are determined such as salinity and sodicity index, the Combined Spectral Reflectance Index (CSRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), emissivity, Albedo, and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The approach of geostatistical modeling of electrical conductivity (salinity), appears to be a useful decision support system for estimating corrected electrical resistivity related to the temperature of surface soils, according to the conversion models by substitution, the reference temperature at 25°C (where hydrochemical data are collected with this constraint). The Brightness temperatures extracted from satellite reflectance (LANDSAT ETM+) are used in consistency models to estimate electrical resistivity. The confusions that arise from the effects of salt stress and water stress removed followed by seasonal application of the geostatistical analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques investigation and monitoring the variation of the electrical conductivity in the alluvial aquifer of Es-Sénia for the salt-affected soil.
73
33180
The Development of Solar Cells to Maximize the Utilization of Solar Energy in Al-Baha Area
Abstract:
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) possess low resistivity, exhibit good adherence to many substrates, and have good transmission characteristics from the visible to near-infrared wavelengths, which make it useful for various applications. Thin films of transparent conducting oxide (TCO’s) have received much attention because of their wide applications in the field of optoelectronic devices. Advancement of transparent conducting oxides TCO’s may not only lie within the improvement of existing materials in use, but also the development of novel materials. Solar cells are devices, which convert solar energy into electricity, either directly via the photovoltaic effect, or indirectly by first converting the solar energy to heat or chemical energy. Solar power has attracted attention of late as the most advanced of the alternative energy resources. The project aims to access the solar energy in Al-Baha region by search for materials (transparent-conductive oxides (TCO's)) to use in solar cells with highly transparent to the solar spectrum, have low electrical resistivity, be stable under H-plasma, and have a suitable structure in particular for a-Si solar cells. As the PV surface is exposed to the sunlight, the module temperature increases. High ambient temperatures along with long sunlight exposure time increases the temperature impact on PV cells efficiency. Since Al-Baha area is characterized by an atmosphere and pressure different from their counterparts in Saudi Arabia due to the height above sea level, hence it is appropriate to do studies to improve the efficiency of solar cells under these conditions. In this work, some ion change materials will be deposited using either sputtering/ or electron beam evaporation techniques. The optical properties of the synthesized materials will be studied in details for solar cell application. As we will study the effect of some dyes on the optical properties of the prepared films. The efficiency and other parameters of solar cell will be determined.
72
29964
The Study of Magnetic and Transport Properties in Normal State Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ
Abstract:
Superconductor is a promising material for future applications especially for energy saving because of their advantages properties such as zero electrical resistivity when they are cooled down to sufficiently low temperatures. However, the mechanism describing the role of physical properties in superconductor is far from being understood clearly, so that the application of this material for wider benefit in various industries is very limited. Most of superconductors are cuprate compounds, which has CuO2 as a conducting plane in their crystal structures. The study of physical properties through the partially substitution of impurity for Cu in superconducting cuprates has been one of great interests in relation to the mechanism of superconductivity. Different behaviors between the substitution of nonmagnetic impurity and magnetic impurity for Cu are observed. For examples, the superconductivity and Cu-spin fluctuations in the electron-doped system are suppressed through the substitution of magnetic Ni for Cu more markedly than through the substitution of nonmagnetic Zn for Cu, which is contrary to the result in the hole-doped system. Here, we reported the effect of partially substitution of magnetic impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in electron-doped superconducting cuprates of Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05, in order to investigate the mechanism of magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state. Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility indicated the change of magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K. Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y. Electron mobility decreased with increasing y. Some reasons for these results will be discussed.
71
88259
E4D-MP: Time-Lapse Multiphysics Simulation and Joint Inversion Toolset for Large-Scale Subsurface Imaging
Abstract:
A variety of geophysical techniques are available to image the opaque subsurface with little or no contact with the soil. It is common to conduct time-lapse surveys of different types for a given site for improved results of subsurface imaging. Regardless of the chosen survey methods, it is often a challenge to process the massive amount of survey data. The currently available software applications are generally based on the one-dimensional assumption for a desktop personal computer. Hence, they are usually incapable of imaging the three-dimensional (3D) processes/variables in the subsurface of reasonable spatial scales; the maximum amount of data that can be inverted simultaneously is often very small due to the capability limitation of personal computers. Presently, high-performance or integrating software that enables real-time integration of multi-process geophysical methods is needed. E4D-MP enables the integration and inversion of time-lapsed large-scale data surveys from geophysical methods. Using the supercomputing capability and parallel computation algorithm, E4D-MP is capable of processing data across vast spatiotemporal scales and in near real time. The main code and the modules of E4D-MP for inverting individual or combined data sets of time-lapse 3D electrical resistivity, spectral induced polarization, and gravity surveys have been developed and demonstrated for sub-surface imaging. E4D-MP provides capability of imaging the processes (e.g., liquid or gas flow, solute transport, cavity development) and subsurface properties (e.g., rock/soil density, conductivity) critical for successful control of environmental engineering related efforts such as environmental remediation, carbon sequestration, geothermal exploration, and mine land reclamation, among others.
70
40596
Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites
Abstract:
The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.
69
109485
Strategies for the Optimization of Ground Resistance in Large Scale Foundations for Optimum Lightning Protection
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the standard improvements which can be made to reduce the earth resistance in difficult terrains for optimum lightning protection, what are the practical limitations, and how the modeling can be refined for accurate diagnostics and ground resistance minimization. Ground resistance minimization can be made via three different approaches: burying vertical electrodes connected in parallel, burying horizontal conductive plates or meshes, or modifying the own terrain, either by changing the entire terrain material in a large volume or by adding earth-enhancing compounds. The use of vertical electrodes connected in parallel pose several practical limitations. In order to prevent loss of effectiveness, it is necessary to keep a minimum distance between each electrode, which is typically around five times larger than the electrode length. Otherwise, the overlapping of the local equipotential lines around each electrode reduces the efficiency of the configuration. The addition of parallel electrodes reduces the resistance and facilitates the measurement, but the basic parallel resistor formula of circuit theory will always underestimate the final resistance. Numerical simulation of equipotential lines around the electrodes overcomes this limitation. The resistance of a single electrode will always be proportional to the soil resistivity. The electrodes are usually installed with a backfilling material of high conductivity, which increases the effective diameter. However, the improvement is marginal, since the electrode diameter counts in the estimation of the ground resistance via a logarithmic function. Substances that are used for efficient chemical treatment must be environmentally friendly and must feature stability, high hygroscopicity, low corrosivity, and high electrical conductivity. A number of earth enhancement materials are commercially available. Many are comprised of carbon-based materials or clays like bentonite. These materials can also be used as backfilling materials to reduce the resistance of an electrode. Chemical treatment of soil has environmental issues. Some products contain copper sulfate or other copper-based compounds, which may not be environmentally friendly. Carbon-based compounds are relatively inexpensive and they do have very low resistivities, but they also feature corrosion issues. Typically, the carbon can corrode and destroy a copper electrode in around five years. These compounds also have potential environmental concerns. Some earthing enhancement materials contain cement, which, after installation acquire properties that are very close to concrete. This prevents the earthing enhancement material from leaching into the soil. After analyzing different configurations, we conclude that a buried conductive ring with vertical electrodes connected periodically should be the optimum baseline solution for the grounding of a large size structure installed on a large resistivity terrain. In order to show this, a practical example is explained here where we simulate the ground resistance of a conductive ring buried in a terrain with a resistivity in the range of 1 kOhm·m.
68
102382
Geological Structure Identification in Semilir Formation: An Correlated Geological and Geophysical (Very Low Frequency) Data for Zonation Disaster with Current Density Parameters and Geological Surface Information
Abstract:
The VLF (Very Low Frequency) method is an electromagnetic method that uses low frequencies between 10-30 KHz which results in a fairly deep penetration. In this study, the VLF method was used for zonation of disaster-prone areas by identifying geological structures in the form of faults. Data acquisition was carried out in Trimulyo Region, Jetis District, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia with 8 measurement paths. This study uses wave transmitters from Japan and Australia to obtain Tilt and Elipt values that can be used to create RAE (Rapat Arus Ekuivalen or Current Density) sections that can be used to identify areas that are easily crossed by electric current. This section will indicate the existence of a geological structure in the form of faults in the study area which is characterized by a high RAE value. In data processing of VLF method, it is obtained Tilt vs Elliptical graph and Moving Average (MA) Tilt vs Moving Average (MA) Elipt graph of each path that shows a fluctuating pattern and does not show any intersection at all. Data processing uses Matlab software and obtained areas with low RAE values that are 0%-6% which shows medium with low conductivity and high resistivity and can be interpreted as sandstone, claystone, and tuff lithology which is part of the Semilir Formation. Whereas a high RAE value of 10% -16% which shows a medium with high conductivity and low resistivity can be interpreted as a fault zone filled with fluid. The existence of the fault zone is strengthened by the discovery of a normal fault on the surface with strike N550W and dip 630E at coordinates X= 433256 and Y= 9127722 so that the activities of residents in the zone such as housing, mining activities and other activities can be avoided to reduce the risk of natural disasters.
67
81113
Structural Analysis of Phase Transformation and Particle Formation in Metastable Metallic Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Growth of conformal ultrathin metal films has attracted a considerable amount of attention recently. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is a method capable of growing conformal thin films at low temperatures, with an exemplary control over thickness. The authors have recently reported on growth of metastable epitaxial nickel thin films via PEALD, along with a comprehensive characterization of the films and a study on the relationship between the growth parameters and the film characteristics. The goal of the current study is to use the mentioned films as a case study to investigate the temperature-activated phase transformation and agglomeration in ultrathin metallic films. For this purpose, metastable hexagonal nickel thin films were annealed using a controlled heating/cooling apparatus. The transformations in the crystal structure were observed via in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The samples were annealed to various temperatures in the range of 400-1100° C. The onset and progression of particle formation were studied in-situ via laser measurements. In addition, a four-point probe measurement tool was used to record the changes in the resistivity of the films, which is affected by phase transformation, as well as roughening and agglomeration. Thin films annealed at various temperature steps were then studied via atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, in order to get a better understanding of the correlated mechanisms, through which phase transformation and particle formation occur. The results indicate that the onset of hcp-to-bcc transformation is at 400°C, while particle formations commences at 590° C. If the annealed films are quenched after transformation, but prior to agglomeration, they show a noticeable drop in resistivity. This can be attributed to the fact that the hcp films are grown epitaxially, and are under severe tensile strain, and annealing leads to relaxation of the mismatch strain. In general, the results shed light on the nature of structural transformation in nickel thin films, as well as metallic thin films, in general.
66
69174
Observation of Inverse Blech Length Effect during Electromigration of Cu Thin Film
Abstract:
Scaling of transistors and, hence, interconnects is very important for the enhanced performance of microelectronic devices. Scaling of devices creates significant complexity, especially in the multilevel interconnect architectures, wherein current crowding occurs at the corners of interconnects. Such a current crowding creates hot-spots at the respective corners, resulting in non-uniform temperature distribution in the interconnect as well. This non-uniform temperature distribution, which is exuberated with continued scaling of devices, creates a temperature gradient in the interconnect. In particular, the increased current density at corners and the associated temperature rise due to Joule heating accelerate the electromigration induced failures in interconnects, especially at corners. This has been the classic reliability issue associated with metallic interconnects. Herein, it is generally understood that electromigration induced damages can be avoided if the length of interconnect is smaller than a critical length, often termed as Blech length. Interestingly, the effect of non-negligible temperature gradients generated at these corners in terms of thermomigration and electromigration-thermomigration coupling has not attracted enough attention. Accordingly, in this work, the interplay between the electromigration and temperature gradient induced mass transport was studied using standard Blech structure. In this particular sample structure, the majority of the current is forcefully directed into the low resistivity metallic film from a high resistivity underlayer film, resulting in current crowding at the edges of the metallic film. In this study, 150 nm thick Cu metallic film was deposited on 30 nm thick W underlayer film in the configuration of Blech structure. Series of Cu thin strips, with lengths of 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μm, were fabricated. Current density of ≈ 4 × 1010 A/m² was passed through Cu and W films at a temperature of 250ºC. Herein, along with expected forward migration of Cu atoms from the cathode to the anode at the cathode end of the Cu film, backward migration from the anode towards the center of Cu film was also observed. Interestingly, smaller length samples consistently showed enhanced migration at the cathode end, thus indicating the existence of inverse Blech length effect in presence of temperature gradient. A finite element based model showing the interplay between electromigration and thermomigration driving forces has been developed to explain this observation.
65
35815
An Investigation of Vegetable Oils as Potential Insulating Liquid
Abstract:
While choosing insulating oil, characteristic features such as thermal cooling, endurance, efficiency and being environment-friendly should be considered. Mineral oils are referred as petroleum-based oil. In this study, vegetable oils investigated as an alternative insulating liquid to mineral oil. Dissipation factor, breakdown voltage, relative dielectric constant and resistivity changes with the frequency and voltage of mineral, rapeseed and nut oils were measured. Experimental studies were performed according to ASTM D924 and IEC 60156 standards.
64
15618
Comparative Study on the Precipitation Behavior in Two Al-Mg Alloys (Al-12 wt. % Mg and Al-8 wt. % Mg)
Abstract:
Aluminum-magnesium alloys are widely used in industry thanks to their mechanical properties and corrosion resistivity. These properties are related to the magnesium content and to the applied heat treatments. Although they are already well studied, questions concerning the microstructural stability and the effect of different heat treatments are still being asked. In this work we have presented a comparative study on the behavior of the precipitation reactions during different heat treatment in two different Al-Mg alloys (Al–8 wt. % Mg and Al–12 wt. % Mg). For this purpose, we have used various experimental techniques as dilatometry, calorimetry, optical microscopy, and microhardness measurements. The obtained results shown that, the precipitation kinetics and the mechanical responses to the applied heat treatments, of the two studied alloys, are different.
63
26273
Nanostructured Fluorine Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolisys Technique: Effect of Starting Solution Composition and Substrate Temperature on the Physical Characteristics
Abstract:
The doping it is believed as follows, at high concentration fluorine in ZnO: F films is incorporated to the lattice by substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions; at middle fluorine concentrations, F ions may form interstitials, whereas for low concentrations it is increased the carriers and mobility could be explained by the surface passivation effect of fluorine. ZnO:F thin films were deposited on sodocalcic glass substratesat 425 °C , 450°C, 475 during 8, 12, 15 min from a 0.2 M solution. Doping concentration in the starting solutions was varied, namely, [F]/[F+Zn] = 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 at. %; solvent composition was varied as well, 100:100; 50:50; 100:50(acetic acid: water: methanol ratios, in volume). In this work it is reported the characterization results of fluorine doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, using zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine as Zn an F precursors, respectively. The effect of varying the fluorine concentration in the starting solutions, the solvent composition, and the ageing time of the starting solutions, on the electrical resistivity, optical transmittance, structure and surface morphology was analyzed. In order to have a quantitative evaluation of the ZnO:F thin films for its application as transparent electrodes, the Figure of Merit was estimated from the Haacke´s formula. After a thoroughly study, it can be found that optimal conditions for the deposition of transparent and conductive ZnO:F thin films on sodocalcic substrates, were as follows; substrate temperature: solution molar concentration 0.2, doping concentration in the starting solution of [F]/[Zn]= 60 at. %, (water content)/(acetic acid) in starting solution: [H2O/ CH3OH]= 50:50, substrate temperature: 450 °C. The effects of aging of the starting solution has also been analyzed thoroughly and it has been found a dramatic effect on the electric resistivity of the material, aged by 40 days, show an electrical resitivity as low as 120 Ω/□, with a transmittance around 80% in the visible range. X-ray diffraction spectra show a polycrystalline of ZnO (wurtzite structure) where the amount of fluorine doping affects to preferential orientation (002 plane). Therefore, F introduction in lattice is by the substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions. The results show that ZnO:F thin films are potentially adequate for application as transparent conductive oxide in thin film solar cells.
62
94033
Identification of Suitable Sites for Rainwater Harvesting in Salt Water Intruded Area by Using Geospatial Techniques in Jafrabad, Amreli District, India
Abstract:
The sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers has become one of the major environmental concerns. Although, it is a natural phenomenon but, it can be induced with anthropogenic activities like excessive exploitation of groundwater, seacoast mining, etc. The geological and hydrogeological conditions including groundwater heads and groundwater pumping pattern in the coastal areas also influence the magnitude of seawater intrusion. However, this problem can be remediated by taking some preventive measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge. The present study is an attempt to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting in salt intrusion affected area near coastal aquifer of Jafrabad town, Amreli district, Gujrat, India. The physico-chemical water quality results show that out of 25 groundwater samples collected from the study area most of samples were found to contain high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with major fractions of Na and Cl ions. The Cl/HCO3 ratio was also found greater than 1 which indicates the salt water contamination in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted at nine sites within the study area to explore the extent of contamination of sea water. From the inverted resistivity sections, low resistivity zone (
61
96012
Temperature Dependent Magneto-Transport Properties of MnAl Binary Alloy Thin Films
Abstract:
High perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and low damping constant (α) in ferromagnets are one of the few necessary requirements for their potential applications in the field of spintronics. In this regards, ferromagnetic τ-phase of MnAl possesses the highest PMA (Ku > 107 erg/cc) at room temperature, high saturation magnetization (Ms~800 emu/cc) and a Curie temperature of ~395K. In this work, we have investigated the magnetotransport behaviour of this potentially useful binary system MnₓAl₁₋ₓ films were synthesized by co-sputtering (pulsed DC magnetron sputtering) on Si/SiO₂ (where SiO₂ is native oxide layer) substrate using 99.99% pure Mn and Al sputtering targets. Films of constant thickness (~25 nm) were deposited at the different growth temperature (Tₛ) viz. 30, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ºC with a deposition rate of ~5 nm/min. Prior to deposition, the chamber was pumped down to a base pressure of 2×10⁻⁷ Torr. During sputtering, the chamber was maintained at a pressure of 3.5×10⁻³ Torr with the 55 sccm Ar flow rate. Films were not capped for the purpose of electronic transport measurement, which leaves a possibility of metal oxide formation on the surface of MnAl (both Mn and Al have an affinity towards oxide formation). In-plane and out-of-plane transverse magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on films sputtered under optimized growth conditions revealed non-saturating behavior with MR values ~6% and 40% at 9T, respectively at 275 K. Resistivity shows a parabolic dependence on the field H, when the H is weak. At higher H, non-saturating positive MR that increases exponentially with the strength of magnetic field is observed, a typical character of hopping type conduction mechanism. An anomalous decrease in MR is observed on lowering the temperature. From the temperature dependence of reistivity, it is inferred that the two competing states are metallic and semiconducting, respectively and the energy scale of the phenomenon produces the most interesting effects, i.e., the metal-insulator transition and hence the maximum sensitivity to external fields, at room temperature. Theory of disordered 3D systems effectively explains the crossover temperature coefficient of resistivity from positive to negative with lowering of temperature. These preliminary findings on the MR behavior of MnAl thin films will be presented in detail. The anomalous large MR in mixed phase MnAl system is evidently useful for future spintronic applications.
60
82673
An Integrated Geophysical Investigation for Earthen Dam Inspection: A Case Study of Huai Phueng Dam, Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand
Abstract:
In the middle of September 2017, a tropical storm named ‘DOKSURI’ swept through Udon Thani, Northeastern Thailand. The storm dumped heavy rain for many hours and caused large amount of water flowing into Huai Phueng reservoir. Level of impounding water increased rapidly, and the extra water flowed over a service spillway, morning-glory type constructed by concrete material for about 50 years ago. Subsequently, a sinkhole was formed on the dam crest and five points of water piping were found on downstream slope closely to spillway. Three techniques of geophysical investigation were carried out to inspect cause of failures; Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), respectively. Result of ERI clearly shows evidence of overtop event and heterogeneity around spillway that implied possibility of previous shape of sinkhole around the pipe. The shear wave velocity of subsurface soil measured by MASW can numerically convert to undrained shear strength of impervious clay core. Result of GPR clearly reveals partial settlements of freeboard zone at top part of the dam and also shaping new refilled material to plug the sinkhole back to the condition it should be. In addition, the GPR image is a main answer to confirm that there are not any sinkholes in the survey lines, only that found on top of the spillway. Integrity interpretation of the three results together with several evidences observed during a field walk-through and data from drilled holes can be interpreted that there are four main causes in this account. The first cause is too much water flowing over the spillway. Second, the water attacking morning glory spillway creates cracks upon concrete contact where the spillway is cross-cut to the center of the dam. Third, high velocity of water inside the concrete pipe sucking fine particle of embankment material down via those cracks and flushing out to the river channel. Lastly, loss of clay material of the dam into the concrete pipe creates the sinkhole at the crest. However, in case of failure by piping, it is possible that they can be formed both by backward erosion (internal erosion along or into embedded structure of spillway walls) and also by excess saturated water of downstream material.
59
14050
Insulation Properties of Rod-Plane Electrode Covered with ATH/SIR Nano-Composite in Dry-Air
Abstract:
One of the latest trends for insulation systems to improve the insulation performance is the use of eco-friendly hybrid insulation using compressed dry-air. Despite the excellent insulation performance of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) gas, its use has been restricted due to the problems with significant global warming potential (GWP). Accordingly, lightning impulse performance of the hybrid insulation system covered with an aluminum trihydrate/silicone rubber (ATH/SIR) nanocomposite was examined in air at atmospheric pressure and in compressed air at pressures between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. In the experiments, the most common breakdown path took place along the surface of the covered rod. The insulation reliability after several discharges should be guaranteed in hybrid insulation. On the other hand, the surface of the covered rod was carbonized after several discharges. Therefore, nanoscale ATH can be used as a reinforcement of covered dielectrics to inhibit carbonization on the surface of a covered rod. The results were analyzed in terms of the surface resistivity of the cover dielectrics.
58
6273
Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments
Abstract:
In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method.
57
7829
Light Weight Mortars Produced from Recycled Foam
Abstract:
This paper presents results of an experimental study on the use of recycled foam with cement-based mixtures to produce light weight mortar. Several mortar grades were obtained by mixing cement with different amounts of recycled foam, aggregate and water. The physical and mechanical properties of the samples such as density, thermal conductivity, thermal resistivity and compressive strength were investigated. Results show that an increase in the amount of recycled foam affects the mortar, decreasing its density and mechanical properties while increasing its workability, permeability, and occluded air content. These results confirm that mortar produced with recycled foam is comparable to light weight mortar made with traditional materials.
56
80702
Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics
Abstract:
A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.
55
25540
An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites
Abstract:
It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.
54
58525
Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films
Abstract:
Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.
53
39232
Decoration of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by CdS Nanoparticles Using Magnetron Sputtering Method
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified with semiconductor nanocrystalline particles may find wide applications due to their unique properties. Here Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were successfully grown on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) via a magnetron sputtering method for the first time. The CdS/MWNTs sample was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM/TEM) and four point probe. The obtained images show clearly the decoration of the MWNTs by the CdS nanoparticles, and the XRD measurements indicate the CdS structure as hexagonal type. Moreover, the physical properties of the CdS/MWNTs were compared with the physical properties of the CdS nanoparticles grown on the silicon. Electrical measurements of CdS and CdS/MWNTs reveal that CdS/MWNTs has lower resistivity than the CdS sample which may be due to the higher carrier concentrations.
52
19111
Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan
Abstract:
In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.
51
58233
Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis
Abstract:
The objective of this study site was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection methods and recommend the best method and pattern of arrays to acquire the desire results. Proper site investigation in karst prone regions is extremely valuable in determining the location of possible voids. Two geophysical techniques were employed: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT).The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). The ERT data were acquired using a dipole-dipole array consisting of 168 electrodes. The MASW data was interpreted (re: estimated depth to physical top of rock) and used to constrain and verify the interpretation of the ERT data. The ERT data indicates poorer quality MASW data were acquired in areas where there was significant local variation in the depth to top of rock.
50
61697
Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location
Abstract:
In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.
49
75014
Performance of Segmented Thermoelectric Materials Using 'Open-Short Circuit' Technique under Different Polarity
Abstract:
Thermoelectric materials arrange in segmented design could increase the conversion of heat to electricity performance. This is due to the properties of materials that perform peak at narrow temperature range. Performance of the materials determines by dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT which consist of thermoelectric properties namely Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity. Since different materials were arrange in segmented, determination of ZT cannot be measured using the conventional approach. Therefore, this research used 'open-short circuit' technique to measure the segmented performance. Segmented thermoelectric materials consist of bismuth telluride, and lead telluride was segmented together under cold press technique. The results show thermoelectric properties measured is comparable with calculated based on commercially available of individual material. Performances of segmented sample under different polarity also indicate dependability of material with position and temperature. Segmented materials successfully measured under real condition and optimization of the segmented can be designed from the study of polarity change.
48
14184
High Efficiency Achievement by a New Heterojunction N-Zno:Al/P-Si Solar Cell
Abstract:
This paper presents a new structure of solar cell based on p-type microcrystalline silicon as an absorber and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide as an optical window. The ZnO:Al layer deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature yields a low resistivity about 7,64.10-2Ω.cm and more than 85% mean optical transmittance in the VIS–NIR range, with an optical band gap of 3.3 eV. These excellent optical properties of this layer in combination with an optimal contact at the front surface result in a superior light trapping yielding to efficiencies about 20%. In order to improve efficiency, we have used a p+-µc-Si thin layer highly doped as a back surface field which minimizes significantly the impact of rear surface recombination velocity on voltage and current leading to a high efficiency of 24%. Optoelectronic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve by means of a numerical simulation with Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) device simulator.
47
43667
Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Gd Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method
Abstract:
ZnO thin films with various Gd doping concentration (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 mol/L) have been synthesized by sol–gel method on quartz substrates at annealing temperature of 600 ºC. X-ray analysis reveals that ZnO(Gd) films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. No peaks that correspond to Gd metal clusters or gadolinium acetylacetonate are detected in the patterns. The position of the main peak (101) shifts to higher angles after doping. The surface morphologies studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that the grain size and the films thickness reduced gradually with the increment of Gd concentration. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the films are smooth and high dense grain. The roughness of doped films decreased from 6.05 to 4.84 rms with the increment of dopant concentration.The optical measurements using a UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that the Gd doped ZnO thin films have high transmittance (above 80%) in the visible range and the optical band gap increase with doping concentration from 3.13 to 3.39 eV. The doped films show low electrical resistivity 2.6 × 10-3Ω.cm.at high doping concentration.
46
21063
Preparation and Properties of PP/EPDM Reinforced with Graphene
Abstract:
Polypropylene(PP)/Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) samples (80/20) containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 (expressed in mass fraction) graphene were prepared using melt compounding method to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability as well as electrical resistance of samples. X-Ray diffraction data confirmed that graphene platelets are well dispersed in PP/EPDM. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength and hardness demonstrated increasing trend by graphene loading which exemplifies substantial reinforcing nature of this kind of nano filler and it's good interaction with polymer chains. At the same time it is found that thermo-oxidative degradation of PP/EPDM nanocomposites is noticeably retarded with the increasing of graphene content. Electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposite was dramatically changed by forming electrical percolation threshold and leads to change electrical behavior from insulator to semiconductor. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
45
6422
Electrical and Magnetoelectric Properties of (y)Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y)Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Magnetoelectric Composites
Abstract:
(y) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 magnetoelectric composites with y = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 were prepared by a conventional standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase formation of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites. logρdc Vs 1/T graphs reveal that the dc resistivity decreases with increasing temperature exhibiting semiconductor behavior. The plots of logσac Vs logω2 are almost linear indicating that the conductivity increases with increase in frequency i.e, conductivity in the composites is due to small polaron hopping. Dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were studied as a function of frequency in the range 100Hz–1MHz which reveals the normal dielectric behavior except the composite with y=0.1 and as a function of temperature at four fixed frequencies (i.e. 100Hz, 1KHz, 10KHz, 100KHz). ME voltage coefficient decreases with increase in ferrite content and was observed to be maximum of about 7.495 mV/cmOe for (0.1) Li0.5Ni0.7Zn0.05Fe2O4 + (0.9) Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 composite.
44
29494
Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source
Abstract:
Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.
43
87205
Understanding the Role of Alkali-Free Accelerators in Wet-Mix Shotcrete
Abstract:
Most of the shotcrete projects require compliance with meeting a specified early-age strength target (e.g., reaching 1 MPa in 1 hour) that is selected based on the underground conditions. To meet the desired early-age performance characteristics, accelerators are commonly used as they increase early-age strength development rate and accelerate the setting thereby reducing sagging and rebound. The selection of accelerator type and its dosage is made by the setting time and strength required for the shotcrete application. While alkaline and alkali-free accelerators are the two main types used in wet-mix shotcrete; alkali-free admixtures increasingly substitute the alkaline accelerators to improve the performance and working safety. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of alkali-free accelerators in wet-mix on various tests including set time, early and later-age compressive strength, boiled absorption, and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the comparison between accelerated and non-accelerated samples will be made to demonstrate the interaction between cement and accelerators. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescent resin impregnated thin section and cut and polished surface images will be used to understand the microstructure characterization of mixes in the presence of accelerators.
42
60898
Rock Property Calculation for Determine Hydrocarbon Zone Based on Petrophysical Principal and Sequence Stratigraphic Correlation in Blok M
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to identify rock zone containing hydrocarbons with calculating rock property includes volume shale, total porosity, effective porosity and water saturation. Identification method rock property based on GR log, resistivity log, neutron log and density rock. Zoning is based on sequence stratigraphic markers that are sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and flooding surface (FS) which correlating ten well log in blok “M”. The results of sequence stratigraphic correlation consist of eight zone that are two LST zone, three TST zone and three HST zone. The result of rock property calculation in each zone is showing two LST zone containing hydrocarbons. LST-1 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 25%, average total porosity (PHIT) 14%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 11% and average water saturation 0,83. LST-2 zone has average volume shale (Vsh) 19%, average total porosity (PHIT) 21%, average effective porosity (PHIE) 17% and average water saturation 0,82.
41
106069
Development of Low-Cost Vibro-Acoustic, and Fire-Resistant, Insulation Material from Natural and Sustainable Sources
Abstract:
The topic of the research is to develop sustainable fire-resistant materials for vibration and acoustic damping of structure and airborne noises from sustainable recycled materials and biodegradable binders. The paper reports, methods and techniques of enhancing fire resistive, vibration and acoustic properties of building insulation materials made from natural resources like wood and recycled materials like rubber and textile waste. The structures are designed to optimize the number, size and stratification of closed (heat insulating) and open (noise insulating) pores. The samples produced are tested for their heat and noise insulating properties, including vibration damping and their structural properties (airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity and elastic modulus). The structural properties are then used in theoretical models to check the acoustic insulation measurements. Initial data indicate that one layer of such material can yield as much as 18 times more damping, increasing the loss factor by 18%.
40
57827
Potentiostatic Electrodeposition of Cu₂O Films as P-Type Electrode at Room Temperature
Abstract:
Single phase Cu₂O films have been prepared via an electrodeposition technique onto ITO glass substrates at room temperature. Likewise, Cu₂O films were deposited using a potentiostatic process from an alkaline electrolyte containing copper (II) nitrate and 1M sodium citrate. Single phase Cu₂O films were electrodeposited at a cathodic deposition potential of 500mV for a reaction period of 90 min, and pH of 12 to yield a film thickness of 0.49 µm. The mechanism for nucleation of Cu₂O films was found to vary with deposition potential. Applying the Scharifker and Hills model at -500 and -600 mV to describe the mechanism of nucleation for the electrochemical reaction, the nucleation mechanism consisted of a mix between instantaneous and progressive growth mechanisms at -500 mV, while above -600 mV the growth mechanism was instantaneous. Using deposition times from 30 to 90 min at -500 mV deposition potential, pure Cu2O films with different microstructures were electrodeposited. Changing the deposition time from 30 to 90 min varied the microstructure from cubic to more complex polyhedra. The transmittance of electrodeposited Cu₂O films ranged from 20-70% in visible range, and samples exhibited a 2.4 eV band gap. The electrical resistivity for electrodeposited Cu₂O films was found to decrease with increasing deposition time from 0.854 x 105 Ω-cm at 30 min to 0.221 x 105 Ω-cm at 90 min without any thermal treatment following the electrodeposition process.
39
10561
Pulse Method for Investigation of Zr-C Phase Diagram at High Carbon Content Domain under High Temperatures
Abstract:
The microsecond electrical pulse heating technique which provides uniform energy input into an investigated specimen is considered. In the present study we investigated ZrC+C carbide specimens in a form of a thin layer (about 5 microns thick) that were produced using a method of magnetron sputtering on insulating substrates. Specimens contained (at. %): Zr–17.88; C–67.69; N–8.13; O–5.98. Current through the specimen, voltage drop across it and radiation at the wavelength of 856 nm were recorded in the experiments. It enabled us to calculate the input energy, specific heat (from 2300 to 4500 K) and resistivity (referred to the initial dimensions of a specimen). To obtain the true temperature a black body specimen was used. Temperature of the beginning and completion of a phase transition (solid–liquid) was measured.Temperature of the onset of melting was 3150 K at the input energy 2.65 kJ/g; temperature of the completion of melting was 3450 K at the input energy 5.2 kJ/g. The specific heat of the solid phase of investigated carbide calculated using our data on temperature and imparted energy, is close to 0.75 J/gК for temperature range 2100–2800 K. Our results are considered together with the equilibrium Zr-C phase diagram.
38
95715
Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃
Abstract:
Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.
37
48551
Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete
Abstract:
Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.
36
83643
Induction Heating and Electromagnetic Stirring of Bi-Phasic Metal/Glass Molten Bath for Mixed Nuclear Waste Treatment
Abstract:
For nuclear waste treatment and confinement, a specific IN-CAN melting module based on low-frequency induction heating have been designed. The frequency of 50Hz has been chosen to improve penetration length through metal. In this design, the liquid metal, strongly stirred by electromagnetic effects, presents shape of a dome caused by strong Laplace forces developing in the bulk of bath. Because of a lower density, the glass phase is located above the metal phase and is heated and stirred by metal through interface. Electric parameters (Intensity, frequency) give precious information about metal load and composition (resistivity of alloy) through impedance modification. Then, power supply can be adapted to energy transfer efficiency for suitable process supervision. Modeling of this system allows prediction of metal dome shape (in agreement with experimental measurement with a specific device), glass and metal velocity, heat and motion transfer through interface. MHD modeling is achieved with COMSOL and Fluent. First, a simplified model is used to obtain the shape of the metal dome. Then the shape is fixed to calculate the fluid flow and the thermal part.
35
39783
Evaluation of Aquifer Protective Capacity and Soil Corrosivity Using Geoelectrical Method
Abstract:
A geoelectric survey was carried out in some parts of Angwan Gwari, an outskirt of Lapai Local Government Area on Niger State which belongs to the Nigerian Basement Complex, with the aim of evaluating the soil corrosivity, aquifer transmissivity and protective capacity of the area from which aquifer characterisation was made. The G41 Resistivity Meter was employed to obtain fifteen Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding data along profiles in a square grid network. The data were processed using interpex 1-D sounding inversion software, which gives vertical electrical sounding curves with layered model comprising of the apparent resistivities, overburden thicknesses and depth. This information was used to evaluate longitudinal conductance and transmissivities of the layers. The results show generally low resistivities across the survey area and an average longitudinal conductance variation from 0.0237Siemens in VES 6 to 0.1261 Siemens in VES 15 with almost the entire area giving values less than 1.0 Siemens. The average transmissivity values range from 96.45 Ω.m2 in VES 4 to 299070 Ω.m2 in VES 1. All but VES 4 and VES14 had an average overburden greater than 400 Ω.m2, these results suggest that the aquifers are highly permeable to fluid movement within, leading to the possibility of enhanced migration and circulation of contaminants in the groundwater system and that the area is generally corrosive.
34
76212
Resistance to Chloride Penetration of High Strength Self-Compacting Concretes: Pumice and Zeolite Effect
Abstract:
This paper aims to contribute to the characterization and the understanding of fresh state, compressive strength and chloride penetration tendency of high strength self-compacting concretes (HSSCCs) where Portland cement type II is partially substituted by 10% and 15% of natural pumice and zeolite. First, five concrete mixtures with a control mixture without any pozzolan are prepared and tested in both fresh and hardened states. Then, resistance to chloride penetration for all formulation is investigated in non-steady state and steady state by measurement of chloride penetration and diffusion coefficient. In non-steady state, the correlation between initial current and chloride penetration with diffusion coefficient is studied. Moreover, the relationship between diffusion coefficient in non-steady state and electrical resistivity is determined. The concentration of free chloride ions is also measured in steady state. Finally, chloride penetration for all formulation is studied in immersion and tidal condition. The result shows that, the resistance to chloride penetration for HSSCC in immersion and tidal condition increases by incorporating pumice and zeolite. However, concrete with zeolite displays a better resistance. This paper shows that the HSSCC with 15% pumice and 10% zeolite is suitable in fresh, hardened, and durability characteristics.
33
79882
Evaluation of Coal Quality and Geomechanical Moduli Using Core and Geophysical Logs: Study from Middle Permian Barakar Formation of Gondwana Coalfield
Abstract:
Middle Permian Barakar formation is the major economic coal bearing unit of vast east-west trending Damodar Valley basin of Gondwana coalfield. Primary sedimentary structures were studied from the core holes, which represent majorly four facies groups: sandstone dominated facies, sandstone-shale heterolith facies, shale facies and coal facies. Total eight major coal seams have been identified with the bottom most seam being the thickest. Laterally, continuous coal seams were deposited in the calm and quiet environment of extensive floodplain swamps. Channel sinuosity and lateral channel migration/avulsion results in lateral facies heterogeneity and coal splitting. Geophysical well logs (Gamma-Resistivity-Density logs) have been used to establish the vertical and lateral correlation of various litho units field-wide, which reveals the predominance of repetitive fining upwards cycles. Well log data being a permanent record, offers a strong foundation for generating log based property evaluation and helps in characterization of depositional units in terms of lateral and vertical heterogeneity. Low gamma, high resistivity, low density is the typical coal seam signatures in geophysical logs. Here, we have used a density cutoff of 1.6 g/cc as a primary discriminator of coal and the same has been employed to compute various coal assay parameters, which are ash, fixed carbon, moisture, volatile content, cleat porosity, vitrinite reflectance (VRo%), which were calibrated with the laboratory based measurements. The study shows ash content and VRo% increase from west to east (towards basin margin), while fixed carbon, moisture and volatile content increase towards west, depicting increased coal quality westwards. Seam wise cleat porosity decreases from east to west, this would be an effect of overburden, as overburden pressure increases westward with the deepening of basin causing more sediment packet deposited on the western side of the study area. Coal is a porous, viscoelastic material in which velocity and strain both change nonlinearly with stress, especially for stress applied perpendicular to the bedding plane. Usually, the coal seam has a high velocity contrast relative to its neighboring layers. Despite extensive discussion of the maceral and chemical properties of coal, its elastic characteristics have received comparatively little attention. The measurement of the elastic constants of coal presents many difficulties: sample-to-sample inhomogeneity and fragility and velocity dependence on stress, orientation, humidity, and chemical content. In this study, a conclusive empirical equation VS= 0.80VP-0.86 has been used to model shear velocity from compression velocity. Also the same has been used to compute various geomechanical moduli. Geomech analyses yield a Poisson ratio of 0.348 against coals. Average bulk modulus value is 3.97 GPA, while average shear modulus and Young’s modulus values are coming out as 1.34 and 3.59 GPA respectively. These middle Permian Barakar coals show an average 23.84 MPA uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) with 4.97 MPA cohesive strength and 0.46 as friction coefficient. The output values of log based proximate parameters and geomechanical moduli suggest a medium volatile Bituminous grade for the studied coal seams, which is found in the laboratory based core study as well.
32
104855
Effects of Small Amount of Poly(D-Lactic Acid) on the Properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Microcrystalline Cellulose/Poly(D-Lactic Acid) Blends
Abstract:
This research is a systematic study of effects of poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) on the properties of poly(L-lactic acid)(PLLA)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/PDLA blends by stereo complex crystallization. Blends were prepared with constant percentage of (3 percent) MCC and different percentage of PDLA by solution casting methods. These blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the confirmation of blends compatibility, Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the analysis of morphology, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) for thermal properties measurement. FTIR Analysis results confirm no new characteristic absorption peaks appeared in the spectrum instead shifting of peaks due to hydrogen bonding help to have compatibility of blends component. Development of three new peaks from XRD analysis indicates strongly the formation of stereo complex crystallinity in the PLLA structure with the addition of PDLA. TGA and DTG results indicate that PDLA can improve the heat resistivity of the PLLA/MCC blends by increasing its degradation temperature. Comparison of DTA peaks also ensure developed thermal properties. Image of SEM shows the improvement of surface morphology.
31
46665
Compositional Dependence of Hydroxylated Indium-Oxide on the Reaction Rate of CO2/H2 Reduction
Abstract:
A major goal in the emerging field of solar fuels is to realize an ‘artificial leaf’ – a material that converts light energy in the form of solar photons into chemical energy – using CO2 as a feedstock to generate useful chemical species. Enabling this technology will allow the greenhouse gas, CO2, emitted from energy and manufacturing production exhaust streams to be converted into valuable solar fuels or chemical products. Indium Oxide (In2O3) with surface hydroxyl (OH) groups have been shown to reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to CO with a reaction rate of 15 μmol gcat−1 h−1. The likely mechanism is via a Frustrated Lewis Pair sites heterolytically splitting H2 to be absorbed and form protonic and hydric sites that can dissociate CO2. In this study, we investigate the dependence of oxygen composition of In2O3 on the CO2 reduction rate. In2O3-x films on quartz fiber paper were DC sputtered with an Indium target and varying O2/Ar plasma mixture. OH surface groups were then introduced by immersing the In2O3-x samples in KOH. We show that hydroxylated In2O3-x reduces more CO2 than non-hydroxylated groups and that a hydroxylated and higher O2/Ar ratio sputtered In2O3-x has a higher reaction rate of 45 μmol gcat-1 h-1. We show by electrical resistivity-temperature curves that H2 is adsorbed onto the surface of In2O3 whereas CO2 itself does not affect the indium oxide surface. We also present activation and ionization energy levels of the hydroxylated In2O3-x under vacuum, CO2 and H2 atmosphere conditions.
30
89585
Influence of Sr(BO2)2 Doping on Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 Phase
Abstract:
Chemical doping with different elements and compounds at various amounts represents the most suitable approach to improve the superconducting properties of bismuth-based superconductors for technological applications. In this paper, the influence of partial substitution of Sr(BO2)2 for SrO on the phase formation kinetics and transport properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS has been studied for the first time. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2-xCa2Cu3Oy[Sr(BO2)2]x, x=0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.25, were prepared by the standard solid state processing. The appropriate mixtures were calcined at 845 oC for 40 h. The resulting materials were pressed into pellets and annealed at 837 oC for 30 h in air. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and Sr(BO2)2-doped (Bi,Pb)-2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistivity (&rho;) and transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. The surface morphology changes in the prepared samples were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and Jc studies have shown that the low level Sr(BO2)2 doping (x=0.0375-0.075) to the Sr-site promotes the formation of high-Tc phase and leads to the enhancement of current carrying capacity in (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS. The doped sample with x=0.0375 has the best performance compared to other prepared samples. The estimated volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~70 % for x=0.0375. Moreover, strong increase in the self-field Jc value was observed for this dopant amount (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to an undoped sample (Jc=110 A/cm2). Pronounced enhancement of superconducting properties of (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation as well as the improvement of inter-grain connectivity by small amounts of Sr(BO2)2 dopant.
29
102210
Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I
Abstract:
Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.
28
17133
Hidrothermal Alteration Study of Tangkuban Perahu Craters, and Its Implication to Geothermal Conceptual Model
Abstract:
Tangkuban Perahu is located in West Java, Indonesia. It is active stratovolcano type and still showing hidrothermal activity. The main purpose of this study is to find correlation between subsurface structure and hidrothermal activity on the surface. Using topographic map, SRTM images, and field observation, geological condition and alteration area was mapped. Alteration sample analyzed trough petrographic analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Altered rock in study area showing white-yellowish white colour, and texture changing variation from softening to hardening because of alteration by sillica and sulphur. Alteration mineral which can be observed in petrographic analysis and XRD analysis consist of crystobalite, anatase, alunite, and pyrite. This mineral assemblage showing advanced argillic alteration type with West-East alteration area orientation. Alteration area have correlation with manifestation occurance such as steam vents, solfatara, and warm to hot pools. Most of manifestation occured in main crater like Ratu Crater and Upas crater, and parasitic crater like Domas Crater and Jarian Crater. This manifestation indicates permeability in subsurface which can be created trough structural process with same orientation. For further study geophysics method such as Magneto Telluric (MT) and resistivity can be required to find permeability zone pattern in Tangkuban Perahu subsurface.
27
29610
An Efficient Aptamer-Based Biosensor Developed via Irreversible Pi-Pi Functionalisation of Graphene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite
Abstract:
An efficient graphene/zinc oxide (PSE-G/ZnO) platform based on pi-pi stacking, non-covalent interactions for the development of aptamer-based biosensor was presented in this study. As a proof of concept, the DNA recognition capability of the as-developed PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor was evaluated using Coconut Cadang-cadang viroid disease (CCCVd). The G/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesised via a simple, green and efficient approach. The pristine graphene was produced through a single step exfoliation of graphite in sonochemical alcohol-water treatment while the zinc nitrate hexahydrate was mixed with the graphene and subjected to low temperature hydrothermal growth. The developed facile, environmental friendly method provided safer synthesis procedure by eliminating the need of harsh reducing chemicals and high temperature. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterised by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to evaluate its crystallinity, morphology and purity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for the detection of CCCVd sequence with the use of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]). Recognition of the RNA analytes was achieved via the significant increase in resistivity for the double stranded DNA, as compared to single-stranded DNA. The PSE-G/ZnO enhanced aptamer-based biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity than the bare biosensor, attributing to the synergistic effect of high electrical conductivity of graphene and good electroactive property of ZnO.
26
75786
Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe Thin Films for Low Resistive Ohmic Back Contact for CdS/CdTe Solar Cells
Abstract:
ZnTe is direct band gap, the P-type semiconductor with the high absorption coefficient of the order of 104cm-1 is suitable for solar cell development. It can be used as a low resistive ohmic contact to CdS/CdTe or tandem solar cell application. ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe thin film have been electrochemically synthesized on to fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates using three electrode systems containing Ag/AgCl, graphite and FTO as reference, counter and working electrode respectively were used to deposit the thin films. The aqueous electrolytic solution consist of 0.5M TeO2, 0.2M ZnSO4, and 0.1M Na3C6H5O7:2H2O, 0.1MC6H8O7:H2O and 0.1mMCuSO4 with PH 2.5 at room temperature was used. The reaction mechanism is studied in the cyclic voltammetry to identify the deposition potentials of ZnTe and Cu-ZnTe.The potential was optimized in the range -0,9 to -1,1 V. Vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of deposition potential on the structural properties was studied by using X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction result reveled cubic crystal structure of ZnTe with preferential (111) orientation with cubic structure. The surface morphology and film composition were analyzed by means of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X- Rays (EDAX). The optical absorption measurement has been analyzed for the band gap determination of deposited layers about 2.26 eV by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The drastic change in resistivity has been observed due to incorporation of copper probably due to the diffusion of Cu into grain boundaries.
25
11906
Characterization of High Phosphorus Gray Iron for the Stub- Anode Connection in the Aluminium Reduction Cells
Abstract:
High phosphorus gray iron (HPGI) is used to connect the steel stub of an anode rod to a prebaked anode carbon block in the aluminium reduction cells. In this paper, a complete characterization for HPGI was done, includes studying the chemical composition of the HPGI collar, anodic voltage drop, collar temperature over 30 days anode life cycle, microstructure and mechanical properties. During anode life cycle, the carbon content in HPGI was lowed from 3.73 to 3.38%, and different changes in the anodic voltage drop at the stub- collar-anode connection were recorded. The collar temperature increases over the anode life cycle and reaches to 850°C in four weeks after anode changing. Significant changes in the HPGI microstructure were observed after 3 and 30 days from the anode changing. To simulate the actual operating conditions in the steel stub/collar/carbon anode connection, a bench-scale experimental set-up was designed and used for electrical resistance and resistivity respectively. The results showed the current HPGI properties needed to modify or producing new alloys with excellent electrical and mechanical properties. The steel stub and HPGI thermal expansion were measured and studied. Considerable permanent expansion was observed for the HPGI collar after the completion of the heating-cooling cycle.
24
59309
Effect of Temperature on the Properties of Cement Paste Modified with Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The advent of nanotechnology has enabled innovative solutions towards improving the behavior of infrastructure materials. Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by improving the performance and durability of construction materials, as well as imparting new functionalities to these materials. Due to variability in the environmental temperature during mixing and curing of cementitious materials in practice, it is important to understand how curing temperature influences the behavior of cementitious materials. In addition, high temperature curing is relevant in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. Knowledge of the influence of temperature on the performance of cementitious materials modified with nanoparticles is important in the nanoengineering of cementitious materials in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. This presentation aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the hydration, mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that temperature improved the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at high temperatures showed an increase in the compressive strength at early age but the strength gain decreased at late ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at high temperatures was shown to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at high temperature.
23
62767
The Effect of Silanization on Alumina for Improving the Compatibility with Poly(Methacrylic Acid) Matrix for Dental Restorative Materials
Abstract:
In modern dentistry, the application of resin-based composites continues to increase and in the majority of countries has completely replaced mercury amalgams. Alumina (Al2O3) is a representative bioinert ceramic with a variety of applications in industry as well as in medicine. Alumina has the potential to improve electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of polymers. The application of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) in medicine was poorly investigated in the past but can lead to good results by the incorporation of alumina particles that can bring bioinertness to the composite. However, because of the differences related to chemical bonding of these materials, the interaction is very weak at the interface leading to no significant values in practical situations. The aim of this work was to modify the structure of alumina with silane coupling agents and to study the influence of silanization on the physicomechanical properties of the resulting composite materials. Two silanes were used in this study: 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) and dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). Both silanes proved to have a significant effect on the overall performance of composites by establishing bonds with the polymer matrix and the filler. All these improvements in dental adhesive systems made for bonding resin composites to tooth structure have enhanced the clinical application of polymeric restorative materials to the position that they are now considered the material of choice for esthetic restoration.
22
36353
Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool
Abstract:
Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.
21
18001
Electromechanical Reliability of ITO/Ag/ITO Multilayer Coated Pet Substrate for Optoelectronic Application
Abstract:
Successful design and fabrication of flexible devices for electrode components requires a low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, high mechanical reliability. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is currently the predominant transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film in potential applications such as flexible organic light- emitting diodes, flat-panel displays, solar cells, and thin film transistors (TFTs). However ITO films are too brittle and their resistivity is rather high in some cases compared with ITO/Ag/ ITO, and they cannot completely meet flexible optoelectronic device requirements. Therefore, in this work the mechanical properties of ITO /Ag/ITO multilayer film that deposited on Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared with the single layered ITO sample were investigated using bending fatigue, twisting fatigue and thermal cycling experiments. The electrical resistance was monitored during the application of mechanical and thermal loads to see the pattern of relationship between the load and the electrical continuity as a consequent of failure. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to provide surface characterization of the mechanically-tested samples. The effective embedment of the Ag layer between upper and lower ITO films led to metallic conductivity and superior flexibility to the single ITO electrode, due to the high failure strain of the ductile Ag layer. These results indicate that flexible ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes are a promising candidate for use as transparent conductor in flexible displays. They provided significantly reduced sheet resistance compared to ITO, and improved bending and twisting properties both as a function of radius, angle and thermal cycling.
20
63153
Ultra-High Voltage Energization of Electrostatic Precipitators for Coal Fired Boilers
Abstract:
Strict air pollution control is today high on the agenda world-wide. By reducing the particular emission, not only the mg/Nm3 will be reduced – also parts of mercury and other hazardous matters attached to the particles will be reduced. Furthermore, it is possible to catch the fine particles (PM2.5). For particulate control, the precipitators are still the preferred choice and much efforts have been done to improve the efficiencies. Many ESP’s have seen electrical upgrading by changing the traditional 1 phase power system into either 3 phase or SMPS (High Frequency) units. However, there exist a 4th type of power supply – the pulse type. This is unfortunately widely unknown, but may be of great benefit to power plants. The FLSmidth type is called COROMAX® and it is a high voltage pulse generator for precipitators using a semiconductor switch operating at medium potential. The generated high voltage pulses have rated amplitude of 80 kV and duration of 75 μs and are superimposed on a variable base voltage of 60 kV rated voltage. Hereby, achieving a peak voltage of 140 kV. COROMAX® has the ability to increase the voltage beyond the natural spark limit inside the precipitator. Voltage levels may often be twice as high after installation of COROMAX®. Hereby also the migration velocity increases and thereby the efficiency. As the collection efficiency is proportional to the voltage peak and mean values, this also increases the collection efficiency of the fine particles where test has shown 80% removal of particles less than 0.07 micron. Another great advantage is the indifference to back-corona. Simultaneously with emission reduction, the power consumption will also be reduced. Another great advantage of the COROMAX® system is that the emission can be improved without the need to change the internal parts or enlarge the ESP. Recently, more than 150 units have been installed in China, where emissions have been reduced to ultra-low levels.
19
31401
Thorium-Doped PbS Thin Films for Radiation Damage Studies
Abstract:
We present a new method to produce a model system for the study of radiation damage in non-radioactive materials. The method is based on homogeneously incorporating 228Th ions in PbS thin films using a small volume chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The common way to alloy metals with radioactive elements is by melting pure elements, which requires considerable amounts of radioactive material with its safety consequences such as high sample activity. Controlled doping of the thin films with (very) small amounts (100-200ppm) of radioactive elements such as thorium is expected to provide a unique path for studying radiation damage in materials due to decay processes without the need of sealed enclosure. As a first stage, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films (~100 nm thick) with the stable isotope (t1/2~106 years), 232Th. Next, we developed CBD process for controlled doping of PbS thin films with active 228Th isotope. This was achieved by altering deposition parameters such as temperature, pH, reagent concentrations and time. The 228Th-doped films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, which indicated a single phase material. Film morphology and thickness were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping in the analytical transmission electron microscope (A-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles and autoradiography indicated that the Th ions were homogeneously distributed throughout the films, suggesting Pb substitution by Th ions in the crystal lattice. The properties of the PbS (228Th) film activity were investigated by using alpha-spectroscopy and gamma spectroscopy. The resulting films are applicable for isochronal annealing of resistivity measurements and currently under investigation. This work shows promise as a model system for the analysis of dilute defect systems in semiconductor thin films.
18
6302
Dynamic Model for Forecasting Rainfall Induced Landslides
Abstract:
Forecasting the potential for disastrous events such as landslides has become one of the major necessities in the current world. Most of all, the landslides occurred in Sri Lanka are found to be triggered mostly by intense rainfall events. The study area is the landslide near Gerandiella waterfall which is located by the 41st kilometer post on Nuwara Eliya-Gampala main road in Kotmale Division in Sri Lanka. The landslide endangers the entire Kotmale town beneath the slope. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform is very much useful when it comes to the need of emulating the real-world processes. The models are used in a wide array of applications ranging from simple evaluations to the levels of forecast future events. This project investigates the possibility of developing a dynamic model to map the spatial distribution of the slope stability. The model incorporates several theoretical models including the infinite slope model, Green Ampt infiltration model and Perched ground water flow model. A series of rainfall values can be fed to the model as the main input to simulate the dynamics of slope stability. Hydrological model developed using GIS is used to quantify the perched water table height, which is one of the most critical parameters affecting the slope stability. Infinite slope stability model is used to quantify the degree of slope stability in terms of factor of safety. DEM was built with the use of digitized contour data. Stratigraphy was modeled in Surfer using borehole data and resistivity images. Data available from rainfall gauges and piezometers were used in calibrating the model. During the calibration, the parameters were adjusted until a good fit between the simulated ground water levels and the piezometer readings was obtained. This model equipped with the predicted rainfall values can be used to forecast of the slope dynamics of the area of interest. Therefore it can be investigated the slope stability of rainfall induced landslides by adjusting temporal dimensions.
17
38044
Characterization of the Groundwater Aquifers at El Sadat City by Joint Inversion of VES and TEM Data
Abstract:
Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient Electro Magnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo–Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal, and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along three profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geo-electrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.
16
29137
Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles for Novel Applications
Abstract:
The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great interest over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulphide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulphides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be applied to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferro-fluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Noble metal like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.
15
20182
Novel Routes to the Synthesis and Functionalization of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great deal of attention over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties as compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: Firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulfide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulfides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferrofluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Coinage metals like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.
14
47450
Enhanced Dielectric Properties of La Substituted CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Spinel ferrite magnetic nanomaterials have received a great deal of attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential applications in various fields such as magnetic data storage and microwave device applications. Among the family of spinel ferrites, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) has been widely used in the field of high-frequency applications because of its remarkable material qualities such as moderate saturation magnetization, high coercivity, large permeability at higher frequency and high electrical resistivity. For aforementioned applications, the materials should have an improved electrical property, especially enhancement in the dielectric properties. It is well known that the substitution of rare earth metal cations in Fe3+ site of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles leads to structural distortion and thus significantly influences the structural and morphological properties whereas greatly modifies the electrical and magnetic properties of a material. In the present investigation, we report on the influence of lanthanum (La3+) ion substitution on the structural, morphological, dielectric and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure with the signature of LaFeO3 phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis also confirms the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure and Fe-O symmetrical stretching vibrations of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the size of the particles gradually increases with increasing La3+ ion concentrations whereas the agglomeration gets slightly reduced for La3+ ion substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles than that of undoped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were recorded as a function of frequency and temperature which reveals that the dielectric constant gradually increases with increasing temperatures as well as La3+ ion concentrations. The increased dielectric constant might be the reason that the formation of LaFeO3 secondary phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Magnetic measurement demonstrates that the saturation magnetization gradually decreases from 61.45 to 25.13 emu/g with increasing La3+ ion concentrations which is due to the nonmagnetic nature of La3+ ions substitution.
13
64791
A Stepwise Approach for Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Optimization
Abstract:
Due to the low concentration of the analytes in biological samples, the use of Biological Microelectromechanical System (Bio-MEMS) biosensors for biomolecules detection results in a minuscule output signal that is not good enough for practical applications. In response to this, a need has arisen for an optimized biosensor capable of giving high output signal in response the detection of few analytes in the sample; the ultimate goal is being able to convert the attachment of a single biomolecule into a measurable quantity. For this purpose, MEMS microcantilevers based biosensors emerged as a promising sensing solution because it is simple, cheap, very sensitive and more importantly does not need analytes optical labeling (Label-free). Among the different microcantilever transducing techniques, piezoresistive based microcantilever biosensors became more prominent because it works well in liquid environments and has an integrated readout system. However, the design of piezoresistive microcantilevers is not a straightforward problem due to coupling between the design parameters, constraints, process conditions, and performance. It was found that the parameters that can be optimized to enhance the sensitivity of Piezoresistive microcantilever-based sensors are: cantilever dimensions, cantilever material, cantilever shape, piezoresistor material, piezoresistor doping level, piezoresistor dimensions, piezoresistor position, Stress Concentration Region's (SCR) shape and position. After a systematic analyzation of the effect of each design and process parameters on the sensitivity, a step-wise optimization approach was developed in which almost all these parameters were variated one at each step while fixing the others to get the maximum possible sensitivity at the end. At each step, the goal was to optimize the parameter in a way that it maximizes and concentrates the stress in the piezoresistor region for the same applied force thus get the higher sensitivity. Using this approach, an optimized sensor that has 73.5x times higher electrical sensitivity (ΔR⁄R) than the starting sensor was obtained. In addition to that, this piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor it is more sensitive than the other similar sensors previously reported in the open literature. The mechanical sensitivity of the final senior is -1.5×10-8 Ω/Ω ⁄pN; which means that for each 1pN (10-10 g) biomolecules attach to this biosensor; the piezoresistor resistivity will decrease by 1.5×10-8 Ω. Throughout this work COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, a commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool, has been used to simulate the sensor performance.
12
66942
Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Using Infra-Red-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis
Abstract:
Antimicrobial drugs have an important role in controlling illness associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing like disk diffusion are time-consuming and other method including E-test, genotyping are relatively expensive. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 550 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 85% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.
11
107459
Occurrence of Half-Metallicity by Sb-Substitution in Non-Magnetic Fe₂TiSn
Abstract:
Fe₂TiSn is a non-magnetic full Heusler alloy with a small gap (~ 0.07 eV) at the Fermi level. The electronic structure is highly symmetric in both the spin bands and a small percentage of substitution of holes or electrons can push the system towards spin polarization. A stable 100% spin polarization or half-metallicity is very desirable in the field of spintronics, making Fe₂TiSn a highly attractive material. However, this composition suffers from an inherent anti-site disorder between Fe and Ti sites. This paper reports on the method adopted to control the anti-site disorder and the realization of the half-metallic ground state in Fe₂TiSn, achieved by chemical substitution. Here, Sb was substituted at Sn site to obtain Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ compositions with x = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.6. All prepared compositions with x ≤ 0.6 exhibit long-range L2₁ ordering and a decrease in Fe – Ti anti-site disorder. The transport and magnetic properties of Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ compositions were investigated as a function of temperature in the range, 5 K to 400 K. Electrical resistivity, magnetization, and Hall voltage measurements were carried out. All the experimental results indicate the presence of the half-metallic ground state in x ≥ 0.25 compositions. However, the value of saturation magnetization is small, indicating the presence of compensated magnetic moments. The observed magnetic moments' values are in close agreement with the Slater–Pauling rule in half-metallic systems. Magnetic interactions in Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ are understood from the local crystal structural perspective using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The changes in bond distances extracted from EXAFS analysis can be correlated with the hybridization between constituent atoms and hence the RKKY type magnetic interactions that govern the magnetic ground state of these alloys. To complement the experimental findings, first principle electronic structure calculations were also undertaken. The spin-polarized DOS complies with the experimental results for Fe₂TiSn₁₋ₓSbₓ. Substitution of Sb (an electron excess element) at Sn–site shifts the majority spin band to the lower energy side of Fermi level, thus making the system 100% spin polarized and inducing long-range magnetic order in an otherwise non-magnetic Fe₂TiSn. The present study concludes that a stable half-metallic system can be realized in Fe₂TiSn with ≥ 50% Sb – substitution at Sn – site.
10
56835
Marine Environmental Monitoring Using an Open Source Autonomous Marine Surface Vehicle
Abstract:
An open source based autonomous unmanned marine surface vehicle (UMSV) is developed for some of the marine applications such as pollution control, environmental monitoring and thermal imaging. A double rotomoulded hull boat is deployed which is rugged, tough, quick to deploy and moves faster. It is suitable for environmental monitoring, and it is designed for easy maintenance. A 2HP electric outboard marine motor is used which is powered by a lithium-ion battery and can also be charged from a solar charger. All connections are completely waterproof to IP67 ratings. In full throttle speed, the marine motor is capable of up to 7 kmph. The motor is integrated with an open source based controller using cortex M4F for adjusting the direction of the motor. This UMSV can be operated by three modes: semi-autonomous, manual and fully automated. One of the channels of a 2.4GHz radio link 8 channel transmitter is used for toggling between different modes of the USMV. In this electric outboard marine motor an on board GPS system has been fitted to find the range and GPS positioning. The entire system can be assembled in the field in less than 10 minutes. A Flir Lepton thermal camera core, is integrated with a 64-bit quad-core Linux based open source processor, facilitating real-time capturing of thermal images and the results are stored in a micro SD card which is a data storage device for the system. The thermal camera is interfaced to an open source processor through SPI protocol. These thermal images are used for finding oil spills and to look for people who are drowning at low visibility during the night time. A Real Time clock (RTC) module is attached with the battery to provide the date and time of thermal images captured. For the live video feed, a 900MHz long range video transmitter and receiver is setup by which from a higher power output a longer range of 40miles has been achieved. A Multi-parameter probe is used to measure the following parameters: conductivity, salinity, resistivity, density, dissolved oxygen content, ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), pH level, temperature, water level and pressure (absolute).The maximum pressure it can withstand 160 psi, up to 100m. This work represents a field demonstration of an open source based autonomous navigation system for a marine surface vehicle.
9
104347
Modification of Magneto-Transport Properties of Ferrimagnetic Mn₄N Thin Films by Ni Substitution and Their Magnetic Compensation
Abstract:
Ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin film exhibits both small saturation magnetization and rather large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) when x is small. Both of them are suitable features for application to current induced domain wall motion devices using spin transfer torque (STT). In this work, we successfully grew antiperovskite 30-nm-thick Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN epitaxial thin films on MgO(001) and STO(001) substrates by MBE in order to investigate their crystalline qualities and magnetic and magneto-transport properties. Crystalline qualities were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature. Anomalous Hall effect was measured by physical properties measurement system. Both measurements were performed at room temperature. Temperature dependence of magnetization was measured by VSM-Superconducting quantum interference device. XRD patterns indicate epitaxial growth of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin films on both substrates, ones on STO(001) especially have higher c-axis orientation thanks to greater lattice matching. According to VSM measurement, PMA was observed in Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on MgO(001) when x ≤ 0.25 and on STO(001) when x ≤ 0.5, and MS decreased drastically with x. For example, MS of Mn₃.₉Ni₀.₁N on STO(001) was 47.4 emu/cm³. From the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAH) of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN thin films on STO(001) with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane, we found out Mr/MS was about 1 when x ≤ 0.25, which suggests large magnetic domains in samples and suitable features for DW motion device application. In contrast, such square curves were not observed for Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on MgO(001), which we attribute to difference in lattice matching. Furthermore, it’s notable that although the sign of ρAH was negative when x = 0 and 0.1, it reversed positive when x = 0.25 and 0.5. The similar reversal occurred for temperature dependence of magnetization. The magnetization of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN on STO(001) increases with decreasing temperature when x = 0 and 0.1, while it decreases when x = 0.25. We considered that these reversals were caused by magnetic compensation which occurred in Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN between x = 0.1 and 0.25. We expect Mn atoms of Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN crystal have larger magnetic moments than Ni atoms do. The temperature dependence stated above can be explained if we assume that Ni atoms preferentially occupy the corner sites, and their magnetic moments have different temperature dependence from Mn atoms at the face-centered sites. At the compensation point, Mn₄₋ₓNiₓN is expected to show very efficient STT and ultrafast DW motion with small current density. What’s more, if angular momentum compensation is found, the efficiency will be best optimized. In order to prove the magnetic compensation, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism will be performed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry is a candidate method to analyze the accurate composition ratio of samples.
8
60348
Fabrication of SnO₂ Nanotube Arrays for Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties
Abstract:
Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used in the gas-detection market due to their high sensitivity, fast response, and simple device structures. However, the high working temperature of MOS gas sensors makes them difficult to integrate with the appliance or consumer goods. One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures are considered to have the potential to lower their working temperature due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, confined electrical conduction channels, and small feature sizes. Unfortunately, the difficulty of fabricating 1-D nanostructure electrodes has hindered the development of low-temperature MOS gas sensors. In this work, we proposed a method to fabricate nanotube-arrays, and the SnO₂ nanotube-array sensors with different wall thickness were successfully prepared and examined. The fabrication of SnO₂ nanotube arrays incorporates the techniques of barrier-free anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO₂. First, 1.0 µm Al film was deposited on ITO glass substrate by electron beam evaporation and then anodically oxidized by five wt% phosphoric acid solution at 5°C under a constant voltage of 100 V to form porous aluminum oxide. As the Al film was fully oxidized, a 15 min over anodization and a 30 min post chemical dissolution were used to remove the barrier oxide at the bottom end of pores to generate a barrier-free AAO template. The ALD using reactants of TiCl4 and H₂O was followed to grow a thin layer of SnO₂ on the template to form SnO₂ nanotube arrays. After removing the surface layer of SnO₂ by H₂ plasma and dissolving the template by 5 wt% phosphoric acid solution at 50°C, upright standing SnO₂ nanotube arrays on ITO glass were produced. Finally, Ag top electrode with line width of 5 μm was printed on the nanotube arrays to form SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. Two SnO₂ nanotube-arrays with wall thickness of 30 and 60 nm were produced in this experiment for the evaluation of gas sensing ability. The flat SnO₂ films with thickness of 30 and 60 nm were also examined for comparison. The results show that the properties of ALD SnO₂ films were related to the deposition temperature. The films grown at 350°C had a low electrical resistivity of 3.6×10-3 Ω-cm and were, therefore, used for the nanotube-array sensors. The carrier concentration and mobility of the SnO₂ films were characterized by Ecopia HMS-3000 Hall-effect measurement system and were 1.1×1020 cm-3 and 16 cm3/V-s, respectively. The electrical resistance of SnO₂ film and nanotube-array sensors in air and in a 5% H₂-95% N₂ mixture gas was monitored by Pico text M3510A 6 1/2 Digits Multimeter. It was found that, at 200 °C, the 30-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor performs the highest responsivity to 5% H₂, followed by the 30-nm SnO₂ film sensor, the 60-nm SnO₂ film sensor, and the 60-nm-wall SnO₂ nanotube-array sensor. However, at temperatures below 100°C, all the samples were insensitive to the 5% H₂ gas. Further investigation on the sensors with thinner SnO₂ is necessary for improving the sensing ability at temperatures below 100 °C.
7
43994
Stimulation of Nerve Tissue Differentiation and Development Using Scaffold-Based Cell Culture in Bioreactors
Abstract:
Nerve tissue engineering is the main field of research aimed at finding an alternative to autografts as a treatment for nerve injuries. Scaffolds are used as a support to enhance nerve regeneration. In order to successfully design novel scaffolds and in vitro cell culture systems, a deep understanding of the factors affecting nerve regeneration processes is needed. Physical and biological parameters associated with the culture environment have been identified as potentially influential in nerve cell differentiation, including electrical stimulation, exposure to extracellular-matrix (ECM) proteins, dynamic medium conditions and co-culture with glial cells. The mechanisms involved in driving the cell to differentiation in the presence of these factors are poorly understood; the complexity of each of them raises the possibility that they may strongly influence each other. Some questions that arise in investigating nerve regeneration include: What are the best protein coatings to promote neural cell attachment? Is the scaffold design suitable for providing all the required factors combined? What is the influence of dynamic stimulation on cell viability and differentiation? In order to study these effects, scaffolds adaptable to bioreactor culture conditions were designed to allow electrical stimulation of cells exposed to ECM proteins, all within a dynamic medium environment. Gold coatings were used to make the surface of viscose rayon microfiber scaffolds (VRMS) conductive, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin (LN) surface coatings were used to mimic the ECM environment and allow the attachment of rat PC12 neural cells. The robustness of the coatings was analyzed by surface resistivity measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunocytochemistry. Cell attachment to protein coatings of PLL, LN and PLL+LN was studied using DNA quantification with Hoechst. The double coating of PLL+LN was selected based on high levels of PC12 cell attachment and the reported advantages of laminin for neural differentiation. The underlying gold coatings were shown to be biocompatible using cell proliferation and live/dead staining assays. Coatings exhibiting stable properties over time under dynamic fluid conditions were developed; indeed, cell attachment and the conductive power of the scaffolds were maintained over 2 weeks of bioreactor operation. These scaffolds are promising research tools for understanding complex neural cell behavior. They have been used to investigate major factors in the physical culture environment that affect nerve cell viability and differentiation, including electrical stimulation, bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions, and combinations of these parameters. The cell and tissue differentiation response was evaluated using DNA quantification, immunocytochemistry, RT-qPCR and functional analyses.
6
38411
The Photovoltaic Panel at End of Life: Experimental Study of Metals Release
Abstract:
The solar photovoltaic (PV) modules are considered to have a negligible environmental impact compared to the fossil energy. Therefore also the waste management and the corresponding potential environmental hazard needs to be considered. The case of the photovoltaic panel is unique because the time lag from the manufacturing to the decommissioning as waste usually takes 25-30 years. Then the environmental hazard associated with end life of PV panels has been largely related to their metal contents. The principal concern regards the presence of heavy metals as Cd in thin film (TF) modules or Pb and Cr in crystalline silicon (c-Si) panels. At the end of life of PV panels, these dangerous substances could be released in the environment, if special requirements for their disposal are not adopted. Nevertheless, in literature, only a few experimental study about metal emissions from silicon crystalline/thin film panels and the corresponding environmental effect are present. As part of a study funded by the Italian national consortium for the waste collection and recycling (COBAT), the present work was aimed to analyze experimentally the potential release into the environment of hazardous elements, particularly metals, from PV waste. In this paper, for the first time, eighteen releasable metals a large number of photovoltaic panels, by c-Si and TF, manufactured in the last 30 years, together with the environmental effects by a battery of ecotoxicological tests, were investigated. Leaching tests are conducted on the crushed samples of PV module. The test is conducted according to Italian and European Standard procedure for hazard assessment of the granular waste and of the sludge. The sample material is shaken for 24 hours in HDPE bottles with an overhead mixer Rotax 6.8 VELP at indoor temperature and using pure water (18 MΩ resistivity) as leaching solution. The liquid-to-solid ratio was 10 (L/S=10, i.e. 10 liters of water per kg of solid). The ecotoxicological tests were performed in the subsequent 24 hours. A battery of toxicity test with bacteria (Vibrio fisheri), algae (Pseudochirneriella subcapitata) and crustacea (Daphnia magna) was carried out on PV panel leachates obtained as previously described and immediately stored in dark and at 4°C until testing (in the next 24 hours). For understand the actual pollution load, a comparison with the current European and Italian benchmark limits was performed. The trend of leachable metal amount from panels in relation to manufacturing years was then highlighted in order to assess the environmental sustainability of PV technology over time. The experimental results were very heterogeneous and show that the photovoltaic panels could represent an environmental hazard. The experimental results showed that the amounts of some hazardous metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni), for c-Si and TF, exceed the law limits and they are a clear indication of the potential environmental risk of photovoltaic panels "as a waste" without a proper management.
5
104986
A Robust Stretchable Bio Micro-Electromechanical Systems Technology for High-Strain in vitro Cellular Studies
Abstract:
We demonstrate here a viable stretchable bio-microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) technology for use with biological studies concerned with the effect of high mechanical strains on living cells. An example of this is traumatic brain injury (TBI) where neurons are damaged with physical force to the brain during, e.g., accidents and sports. Robust, miniaturized integrated systems are needed by biologists to be able to study the effect of TBI on neuron cells in vitro. The major challenges in this area are (i) to develop micro, and nanofabrication processes which are based on stretchable substrates and to (ii) create systems which are robust and performant at very high mechanical strain values—sometimes as high as 100%. At the time of writing, such processes and systems were rapidly evolving subject of research and development. The BioMEMS which we present here is composed of an elastomer substrate (low Young’s modulus ~1 MPa) onto which is patterned robust electrodes and insulators. The patterning of the thin films is achieved using standard photolithography techniques directly on the elastomer substrate—thus making the process generic and applicable to many materials’ in based systems. The chosen elastomer used is commercial ‘Sylgard 184’ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It is spin-coated onto a silicon wafer. Multistep ultra-violet based photolithography involving commercial photoresists are then used to pattern robust thin film metallic electrodes (chromium/gold) and insulating layers (parylene) on the top of the PDMS substrate. The thin film metals are deposited using thermal evaporation and shaped using lift-off techniques The BioMEMS has been characterized mechanically using an in-house strain-applicator tool. The system is composed of 12 electrodes with one reference electrode transversally-orientated to the uniaxial longitudinal straining of the system. The electrical resistance of the electrodes is observed to remain very stable with applied strain—with a resistivity approaching that of evaporated gold—up to an interline strain of ~50%. The mechanical characterization revealed some interesting original properties of such stretchable BioMEMS. For example, a Poisson effect induced electrical ‘self-healing’ of cracking was identified. Biocompatibility of the commercial photoresist has been studied and is conclusive. We will present the results of the BioMEMS, which has also characterized living cells with a commercial Multi Electrode Array (MEA) characterization tool (Multi Channel Systems, USA). The BioMEMS enables the cells to be strained up to 50% and then characterized electrically and optically.
4
84468
Structure Domains Tuning Magnetic Anisotropy and Motivating Novel Electric Behaviors in LaCoO₃ Films
Abstract:
Great efforts have been taken to reveal the intrinsic origins of emerging ferromagnetism (FM) in strained LaCoO₃ (LCO) films. However, some macro magnetic performances of LCO are still not well understood and even controversial, such as magnetic anisotropy. Determining and understanding magnetic anisotropy might help to find the true causes of FM in turn. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was the first time to be directly observed in high-quality LCO films with different thickness. The in-plane (IP) and out of plane (OOP) remnant magnetic moment ratio of 30 unit cell (u.c.) films is as large as 20. The easy axis lays in the OOP direction with an IP/OOP coercive field ratio of 10. What's more, the PMA could be simply tuned by changing the thickness. With the thickness increases, the IP/OOP magnetic moment ratio remarkably decrease with magnetic easy axis changing from OOP to IP. Such a huge and tunable PMA performance exhibit strong potentials in fundamental researches or applications. What causes PMA is the first concern. More OOP orbitals occupation may be one of the micro reasons of PMA. A cluster-like magnetic domain pattern was found in 30 u.c. with no obvious color contrasts, similar to that of LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ films. And the nanosize domains could not be totally switched even at a large OOP magnetic field of 23 T. It indicates strong IP characters or none OOP magnetism of some clusters. The IP magnetic domains might influence the magnetic performance and help to form PMA. Meanwhile some possible nonmagnetic clusters might be the reason why the measured moments of LCO films are smaller than the calculated values 2 μB/Co, one of the biggest confusions in LCO films.What tunes PMA seems much more interesting. Totally different magnetic domain patterns were found in 180 u.c. films with cluster magnetic domains surrounded by < 110 > cross-hatch lines. These lines were regarded as structure domain walls (DWs) determined by 3D reciprocal space mapping (RSM). Two groups of in-plane features with fourfold symmetry were observed near the film diffraction peaks in (002) 3D-RSM. One is along < 110 > directions with a larger intensity, which is well match the lines on the surfaces. The other is much weaker and along < 100 > directions, which is from the normal lattice titling of films deposited on cubic substrates. The < 110 > domain features obtained from (103) and (113) 3D-RSMs exhibit similar evolution of the DWs percentages and magnetic behavior. Structure domains and domain walls are believed to tune PMA performances by transform more IP magnetic moments to OOP. Last but not the least, thick films with lots of structure domains exhibit different electrical transport behaviors. A metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) and an angular dependent negative magnetic resistivity were observed near 150 K, higher than FM transition temperature but similar to that of spin-orbital coupling related 1/4 order diffraction peaks.
3
77453
Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant UPEC Using FTIR-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis
Abstract:
Antimicrobial drugs have played an indispensable role in controlling illness and death associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global healthcare problem. Many antibiotics had lost their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era because many bacteria have adapted defenses against these antibiotics. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing require the isolation of the pathogen from a clinical specimen by culturing on the appropriate media (this culturing stage lasts 24 h-first culturing). Then, chosen colonies are grown on media containing antibiotic(s), using micro-diffusion discs (second culturing time is also 24 h) in order to determine its bacterial susceptibility. Other methods, genotyping methods, E-test and automated methods were also developed for testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Most of these methods are expensive and time-consuming. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, effective and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria; nonetheless, its true potential in routine clinical diagnosis has not yet been established. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The UTI E.coli bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 700 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 90% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.
2
107973
The Dependence of Carbonate Pore Geometry on Fossils: Examples from Zechstein, Poland
Authors:
Abstract:
Carbonate porosity can be deceptive in the aspect of hydrocarbon exploration due to pore geometry variations, which are to some extent controlled by fossils. Therefore, the main aim of this paper was to assess the dependence of pore geometry and reservoir quality on fossils. The Permian Zechstein Limestone (Ca1) carbonates from the Brońsko Reef, located on the Wolsztyn Ridge in West Poland, were examined. Seventy meters of drill cores were described along with well log examination and transmitted-light microscope research. The archival porosity-permeability data was utilized to calibrate the well logs and look for the potential petrophysical trends. Several organism assemblages were recognized in the reef. Its bottom was colonized by the branched bryozoans which were fragmented and dissolved leaving poorly connected molds. Subsequently, numerous bivalves and gastropods appeared and their shells were heavily dissolved to form huge, albeit poorly communicated caverns. Such pores were also typical for local brachiopod occurrences. Although the caverns were widespread, and probably linked to the meteoric dissolution or freshwater flushing, severe anhydrite cementation has destroyed the majority of pores. Close to the top of Ca1, near the center of the reef, the fossil-rich zone comprising fenestrate bryozoans, extremely abundant encrusting foraminifers, bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods and ostracods, was identified. The zone contained extremely frequent dissolution channels formed within former shells of foraminifers, which had previously encrusted the bryozoans. The deposition of Ca1 strata has ultimately terminated with a poorly porous and generally impermeable stromatolitic layer containing scarce fossils. In general, the permeability of the reef rocks studied turned out to be the highest under the presence of foraminifer-related channels. In such cases, it frequently approached 100 mD. The presence of channels and other pores gave the average effective porosity derived from shallow resistivity and helium porosimetry of around 16 and 18 %, respectively. The highest porosity (over 18 %), often co-occurring with relatively low permeability (chiefly below 20 mD) was noted for the bottommost zone of the reef, represented by branched bryozoans. This is probably owing to a large amount of unconnected bryozoan-related molds. It was concluded that fossils played a major role in porosity formation and controlled the pore geometry significantly. While the dissolution of bivalves and brachiopods resulted in cavernous porosity formation, numerous molds were typically related with the alteration of branched bryozoans, gastropods and ostracods. Importantly, the bendy dissolution channels after the encrusting foraminifers appeared to be decisive in improving reservoir quality – specifically when permeability is considered. Acknowledgment: The research was financed by the Polish National Science Centre’s project No. UMO-2016/23/N/ST10/00350.
1
73771
Landslide Hazard Assessment Using Physically Based Mathematical Models in Agricultural Terraces at Douro Valley in North of Portugal
Abstract:
The Douro Demarked Region (DDR) is a production Porto wine region. On the NE of Portugal, the strong incision of the Douro valley developed very steep slopes, organized with agriculture terraces, have experienced an intense and deep transformation in order to implement the mechanization of the work. The old terrace system, based on stone vertical wall support structure, replaced by terraces with earth embankments experienced a huge terrace instability. This terrace instability has important economic and financial consequences on the agriculture enterprises. This paper presents and develops cartographic tools to access the embankment instability and identify the area prone to instability. The priority on this evaluation is related to the use of physically based mathematical models and develop a validation process based on an inventory of the past embankment instability. We used the shallow landslide stability model (SHALSTAB) based on physical parameters such us cohesion (c’), friction angle(ф), hydraulic conductivity, soil depth, soil specific weight (ϱ), slope angle (α) and contributing areas by Multiple Flow Direction Method (MFD). A terraced area can be analysed by this models unless we have very detailed information representative of the terrain morphology. The slope angle and the contributing areas depend on that. We can achieve that propose using digital elevation models (DEM) with great resolution (pixel with 40cm side), resulting from a set of photographs taken by a flight at 100m high with pixel resolution of 12cm. The slope angle results from this DEM. In the other hand, the MFD contributing area models the internal flow and is an important element to define the spatial variation of the soil saturation. That internal flow is based on the DEM. That is supported by the statement that the interflow, although not coincident with the superficial flow, have important similitude with it. Electrical resistivity monitoring values which related with the MFD contributing areas build from a DEM of 1m resolution and revealed a consistent correlation. That analysis, performed on the area, showed a good correlation with R2 of 0,72 and 0,76 at 1,5m and 2m depth, respectively. Considering that, a DEM with 1m resolution was the base to model the real internal flow. Thus, we assumed that the contributing area of 1m resolution modelled by MFD is representative of the internal flow of the area. In order to solve this problem we used a set of generalized DEMs to build the contributing areas used in the SHALSTAB. Those DEMs, with several resolutions (1m and 5m), were built from a set of photographs with 50cm resolution taken by a flight with 5km high. Using this maps combination, we modelled several final maps of terrace instability and performed a validation process with the contingency matrix. The best final instability map resembles the slope map from a DEM of 40cm resolution and a MFD map from a DEM of 1m resolution with a True Positive Rate (TPR) of 0,97, a False Positive Rate of 0,47, Accuracy (ACC) of 0,53, Precision (PVC) of 0,0004 and a TPR/FPR ratio of 2,06.