Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 62282

200
17402
Silver Nanoparticles-Enhanced Luminescence Spectra of Silicon Nanocrystals
Abstract:
Metal-enhanced luminescence of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) was determined using two different particle sizes of silver nano particles (AgNPs). SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. AgNPs were synthesized using photochemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enhanced luminescence of SiNCs by AgNPs was evaluated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Enhancement up to ×9 and ×3 times were observed for SiNCs that mixed with AgNPs which have an average particle size of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Silver NPs-enhanced luminescence of SiNCs occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs.
199
45592
Surface-Enhanced Raman Detection in Chip-Based Chromatography via a Droplet Interface
Abstract:
Raman spectroscopy has attracted much attention as a structurally descriptive and label-free detection method. It is particularly suited for chemical analysis given as it is non-destructive and molecules can be identified via the fingerprint region of the spectra. In this work possibilities are investigated how to integrate Raman spectroscopy as a detection method for chip-based chromatography, making use of a droplet interface. A demanding task in lab-on-a-chip applications is the specific and sensitive detection of low concentrated analytes in small volumes. Fluorescence detection is frequently utilized but restricted to fluorescent molecules. Furthermore, no structural information is provided. Another often applied technique is mass spectrometry which enables the identification of molecules based on their mass to charge ratio. Additionally, the obtained fragmentation pattern gives insight into the chemical structure. However, it is only applicable as an end-of-the-line detection because analytes are destroyed during measurements. In contrast to mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy can be applied on-chip and substances can be processed further downstream after detection. A major drawback of Raman spectroscopy is the inherent weakness of the Raman signal, which is due to the small cross-sections associated with the scattering process. Enhancement techniques, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), are employed to overcome the poor sensitivity even allowing detection on a single molecule level. In SERS measurements, Raman signal intensity is improved by several orders of magnitude if the analyte is in close proximity to nanostructured metal surfaces or nanoparticles. The main gain of lab-on-a-chip technology is the building block-like ability to seamlessly integrate different functionalities, such as synthesis, separation, derivatization and detection on a single device. We intend to utilize this powerful toolbox to realize Raman detection in chip-based chromatography. By interfacing on-chip separations with a droplet generator, the separated analytes are encapsulated into numerous discrete containers. These droplets can then be injected with a silver nanoparticle solution and investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Droplet microfluidics is a sub-discipline of microfluidics which instead of a continuous flow operates with the segmented flow. Segmented flow is created by merging two immiscible phases (usually an aqueous phase and oil) thus forming small discrete volumes of one phase in the carrier phase. The study surveys different chip designs to realize coupling of chip-based chromatography with droplet microfluidics. With regards to maintaining a sufficient flow rate for chromatographic separation and ensuring stable eluent flow over the column different flow rates of eluent and oil phase are tested. Furthermore, the detection of analytes in droplets with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is examined. The compartmentalization of separated compounds preserves the analytical resolution since the continuous phase restricts dispersion between the droplets. The droplets are ideal vessels for the insertion of silver colloids thus making use of the surface enhancement effect and improving the sensitivity of the detection. The long-term goal of this work is the first realization of coupling chip based chromatography with droplets microfluidics to employ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as means of detection.
198
54235
Fabrication of Modified Chitosan-Gold Nanoshell with Mercaptopropionic Acid(MPA) for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Detection as a Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate
Abstract:
Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In this case, the Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) is used to modified chitosan –gold nanoshell, which enhances the absorption between GABA and Chitosan-gold nanoshell. The sulfur end of the MPA is linked to gold which is the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles via the very strong S–Au bond, while a functional group (carboxyl group) attached to GABA. The controlling of particles’ size and the surface morphology are also the important factors during the whole experiment. The particle around 100nm is using to link to MPA, and the range of GABA from 1mM to 30mM was detected by the Raman Scattering to obtain the calibrate curve. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.
197
11710
Synthesis of Flower-Like Silver Nanoarchitectures in Special Shapes and Their Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Abstract:
Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an optical spectroscopic technique with very good potential for sensitive detection of substances. In this research, active substrates with high enhancement were provided. Novel silver particles (nanostructures) with high roughened, flower–like morphology were prepared by reduction of cation complex [Ag(NH3)2]+ in presence of sodium borohydride as reducing agent and stabilized polyacrylic acid. The products were characterized by UV/VIS absorption spectrophotometry. Special shapes of silver particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). Dispersions of this particle were put on fixed substrate to producing suitable layer for SERS. Adenine was applied as basic substance whose effect of enhancement on the layer of silver nanostructures was studied. By comparison with our work, the important influence of stabilizers, polyacrylic acid with various molecular weight and concentration, on the transfer of particles and formation of new structure was confirmed.
196
78622
In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films
Abstract:
The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.
195
96140
White Wine Discrimination Based on Deconvoluted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Signals
Abstract:
Food and beverages authentication using rapid and non-expensive analytical tools represents nowadays an important challenge. In this regard, the potential of vibrational techniques in food authentication has gained an increased attention during the last years. For wines discrimination, Raman spectroscopy appears more feasible to be used as compared with IR (infrared) spectroscopy, because of the relatively weak water bending mode in the vibrational spectroscopy fingerprint range. Despite this, the use of Raman technique in wine discrimination is in an early stage. Taking this into consideration, the wine discrimination potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique is reported in the present work. The novelty of this study, compared with the previously reported studies, concerning the application of vibrational techniques in wine discrimination consists in the fact that the present work presents the wines differentiation based on the individual signals obtained from deconvoluted spectra. In order to achieve wines classification with respect to variety, geographical origin and vintage, the peaks intensities obtained after spectra deconvolution were compared using supervised chemometric methods like Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). For this purpose, a set of 20 white Romanian wines from different viticultural Romanian regions four varieties, was considered. Chemometric methods applied directly to row SERS experimental spectra proved their efficiency, but discrimination markers identification found to be very difficult due to the overlapped signals as well as for the band shifts. By using this approach, a better general view related to the differences that appear among the wines in terms of compositional differentiation could be reached.
194
14990
Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond
Abstract:
We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.
193
35115
Nanoimprinted-Block Copolymer-Based Porous Nanocone Substrate for SERS Enhancement
Abstract:
Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for chemical detection, but the low sensitivity originated from the extremely small cross-section of the Raman scattering limits the practical use of Raman spectroscopy. To overcome this problem, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been intensively studied for several decades. Because the SERS effect is mainly induced from strong electromagnetic near-field enhancement as a result of localized surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanostructures, it is important to design the plasmonic structures with high density of electromagnetic hot spots for SERS substrate. One of the useful fabrication methods is using porous nanomaterial as a template for metallic structure. Internal pores on a scale of tens of nanometers can be strong EM hotspots by confining the incident light. Also, porous structures can capture more target molecules than non-porous structures in a same detection spot thanks to the large surface area. Herein we report the facile fabrication method of porous SERS substrate by integrating solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography and selective etching of block copolymer. We obtained nanostructures with high porosity via simple selective etching of the one microdomain of the diblock copolymer. Furthermore, we imprinted of the nanocone patterns into the spin-coated flat block copolymer film to make three-dimensional SERS substrate for the high density of SERS hot spots as well as large surface area. We used solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL) to reduce the fabrication time and cost for patterning BCP film by taking advantage of a solvent which dissolves both polystyrenre and poly(methyl methacrylate) domain of the block copolymer, and thus block copolymer film was molded under the low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a short time. After Ag deposition, we measured Raman intensity of dye molecules adsorbed on the fabricated structure. Compared to the Raman signals of Ag coated solid nanocone, porous nanocone showed 10 times higher Raman intensity at 1510 cm(-1) band. In conclusion, we fabricated porous metallic nanocone arrays with high density electromagnetic hotspots by templating nanoimprinted diblock copolymer with selective etching and demonstrated its capability as an effective SERS substrate.
192
37749
Multifunctional Plasmonic Ag-TiO2 Nano-biocompoistes: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Anti-microbial Properties
Abstract:
Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as functional nanomaterials due to their optical and antibacterial properties. Similarly, TiO2 photocatalysts have also been used as suitable nanomaterials for killing cancer cells, viruses and bacteria. Here, we report on multifunctional plasmonic Ag-TiO2 nano-biocomposite synthesized by the sol-gel technique and their optical, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial activities. The as-prepared composites of Ag–TiO2 with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersed X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. The Ag NPs were found to be uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the TiO2 matrix. The novel optical response of the Ag-TiO2 nanocomposites is due to the strong electric field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs. The Raman spectrum of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be enhanced as compared to TiO2. The enhancement of the low frequency band is evident. This indicates the SERS effect of the TiO2 NPs in close vicinity of Ag NPs. In addition, nanocomposites showed enhancement in the SERS signals of methyl orange (MO) dye molecules with increasing Ag content. The localized electromagnetic field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs was responsible for the SERS signals of the TiO2 NPs and MO molecules. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag–TiO2 nanocomposites with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were carried out against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The Ag–TiO2 composites showed antibacterial activity towards S. aureus with increasing Ag content as compared to the TiO2 nanopowder. These results foresee promising applications of the functional plasmonic metal−semiconductor based nanobiocomposites for both chemical and biological samples.
191
1391
Vibratinal Spectroscopic Identification of Beta-Carotene in Usnic Acid and PAHs as a Potential Martian Analogue
Abstract:
Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the instrumentation suite of the ESA ExoMars mission for the remote detection of life signatures in the Martian surface and subsurface. Terrestrial analogues of Martian sites have been identified and the biogeological modifications incurred as a result of extremophilic activity have been studied. Analytical instrumentation protocols for the unequivocal detection of biomarkers in suitable geological matrices are critical for future unmanned explorations, including the forthcoming ESA ExoMars mission to search for life on Mars scheduled for 2018 and Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the Pasteur instrumentation suite of this mission. Here, Raman spectroscopy using 785nm excitation was evaluated for determining various concentrations of beta-carotene in admixture with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and usnic acid have been investigated by Raman microspectrometry to determine the lowest levels detectable in simulation of their potential identification remotely in geobiological conditions in Martian scenarios. Information from this study will be important for the development of a miniaturized Raman instrument for targetting Martian sites where the biosignatures of relict or extant life could remain in the geological record.
190
15193
Influence of Laser Excitation on SERS of Silicon Nanocrystals
Abstract:
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of Silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) were obtained using two different laser excitations: 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Silver nano particles were used as plasmonics metal nano particles due to a robust SERS effect that observed when they mixed with SiNCs. SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized using photo chemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The synthesized AgNPs have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement in the SERS intensity was observed for AgNPs100/SiNCs and AgNPs30/SiNCs mixtures increasing up to 9 and 3 times respectively using 488 nm intensity; whereas the intensity of the SERS signal increased up to 7 and 2 times respectively, using 514.5 nm excitation source. The enhancement in SERS intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs. The results provide good consensus between the wavelength of the laser excitation source and surface plasmon resonance absorption band of silver nano particles consider to be an important requirement in SERS experiments.
189
34952
Investigations on Microstructural and Raman Scattering Properties of B2O3 Doped Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 Nanoceramics
Abstract:
0.5 wt. % B2O3–doped Ba (Ti1-xZrx) O3, (x=0-0.4) lead-free nanoceramics were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the ball milling technique. The influence of the substitution content on crystallographic structure, phase transition, microstructure and sintering behaviour of BT and BZT ceramics were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature revealed a structural transformation from tetragonal to rhombohedral with enhancement of ZrO2 content in the barium titanate matrix. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate microstructure and surface morphology of the sintered samples. The evolution of the Raman spectra was studied for various compositions, and the spectroscopic signature of the corresponding phase was determined. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations revealed enhanced microstructural uniformity and retarded grain growth with increasing Zr content.
188
67751
Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study
Abstract:
We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.
187
54664
Surface Enhanced Raman Substrate Detection on the Structure of γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Connected with Modified Gold-Chitosan Nanoparticles by Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA)
Abstract:
A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). As for the gold-chitosan nanoshell, it is made by using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) for the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. When the system formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.
186
90342
Preliminary Study of Gold Nanostars/Enhanced Filter for Keratitis Microorganism Raman Fingerprint Analysis
Abstract:
Myopia, ubiquitous symptom that is necessary to correct the eyesight by optical lens struggles many people for their daily life. Recent years, younger people raise interesting on using contact lens because of its convenience and aesthetics. In clinical, the risk of eye infections increases owing to the behavior of incorrectly using contact lens unsupervised cleaning which raising the infection risk of cornea, named ocular keratitis. In order to overcome the identification needs, new detection or analysis method with rapid and more accurate identification for clinical microorganism is importantly needed. In our study, we take advantage of Raman spectroscopy having unique fingerprint for different functional groups as the distinct and fast examination tool on microorganism. As we know, Raman scatting signals are normally too weak for the detection, especially in biological field. Here, we applied special SERS enhancement substrates to generate higher Raman signals. SERS filter we designed in this article that prepared by deposition of silver nanoparticles directly onto cellulose filter surface and suspension nanoparticles - gold nanostars (AuNSs) also be introduced together to achieve better enhancement for lower concentration analyte (i.e., various bacteria). Research targets also focusing on studying the shape effect of synthetic AuNSs, needle-like surface morphology may possible creates more hot-spot for getting higher SERS enhance ability. We utilized new designed SERS technology to distinguish the bacteria from ocular keratitis under strain level, and specific Raman and SERS fingerprint were grouped under pattern recognition process. We reported a new method combined different SERS substrates can be applied for clinical microorganism detection under strain level with simple, rapid preparation and low cost. Our presenting SERS technology not only shows the great potential for clinical bacteria detection but also can be used for environmental pollution and food safety analysis.
185
30905
Nanoarchitectures Cu2S Functions as Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates for Molecular Detection Application
Abstract:
The hierarchical Cu2S nano structural film is successfully fabricated via an electroplated ZnO nanorod array as a template and subsequently chemical solution process for the growth of Cu2S in the application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The as-grown Cu2S nano structures were thermally treated at temperature of 150-300 oC under nitrogen atmosphere to improve the crystal quality and unexpectedly induce the Cu nano particles on surface of Cu2S. The structure and composition of thermally treated Cu2S nano structures were carefully analyzed by SEM, XRD, XPS, and XAS. Using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as probing molecules, the SERS experiments showed that the thermally treated Cu2S nano structures exhibit excellent detecting performance, which could be used as active and cost-effective SERS substrate for ultra sensitive detecting. Additionally, this novel hierarchical SERS substrates show good reproducibility and a linear dependence between analyte concentrations and intensities, revealing the advantage of this method for easily scale-up production.
184
23835
In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of Flexible Graphene Oxide Films Containing Pt Nanoparticles in The Presense of Atomic Hydrogen
Abstract:
In-situ Raman spectroscopy of flexible graphene-oxide films examined upon exposure to hydrogen gas, air, and synthetic air. The changes in D and G peaks are attributed to defects responding to atomic hydrogen spilled over from the catalytic behavior of Pt nanoparticles distributed all over the film. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images (HRTEM) as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were carried out to define the density of the samples.
183
86919
Preparation of Silver and Silver-Gold, Universal and Repeatable, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Platforms from SERSitive
Abstract:
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique of growing importance not only in purely scientific research related to analytical chemistry. It finds more and more applications in broadly understood testing - medical, forensic, pharmaceutical, food - and everywhere works perfectly, on one condition that SERS substrates used for testing give adequate enhancement, repeatability, and homogeneity of SERS signal. This is a problem that has existed since the invention of this technique. Some laboratories use as SERS amplifiers colloids with silver or gold nanoparticles, others form rough silver or gold surfaces, but results are generally either weak or unrepeatable. Furthermore, these structures are very often highly specific - they amplify the signal only of a small group of compounds. It means that they work with some kinds of analytes but only with those which were used at a developer’s laboratory. When it comes to research on different compounds, completely new SERS 'substrates' are required. That underlay our decision to develop universal substrates for the SERS spectroscopy. Generally, each compound has different affinity for both silver and gold, which have the best SERS properties, and that's what depends on what signal we get in the SERS spectrum. Our task was to create the platform that gives a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the largest number of compounds with very high repeatability - even at the expense of the intensity of the enhancement factor (EF) (possibility to repeat research results is of the uttermost importance). As specified above SERS substrates are offered by SERSitive company. Applied method is based on cyclic potentiodynamic electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles on the conductive surface of ITO-coated glass at controlled temperature of the reaction solution. Silver nanoparticles are supplied in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO₃, 10 mM), gold nanoparticles are derived from tetrachloroauric acid (10 mM) while sodium sulfite (Na₂O₃, 5 mM) is used as a reductor. To limit and standardize the size of the SERS surface on which nanoparticles are deposited, photolithography is used. We secure the desired ITO-coated glass surface, and then etch the unprotected ITO layer which prevents nanoparticles from settling at these sites. On the prepared surface, we carry out the process described above, obtaining SERS surface with nanoparticles of sizes 50-400 nm. The SERSitive platforms present highly sensitivity (EF = 10⁵-10⁶), homogeneity and repeatability (70-80%).
182
39695
Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Plasmonic Lens Focused Longitudinal Electric Field Excitation
Abstract:
Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a scanning probe technique for individual objects and structured surfaces investigation that provides a wealth of enhanced spectral information with nanoscale spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity. It has become a powerful and promising chemical and physical information detection method in the nanometer scale. The TERS technique uses a sharp metallic tip regulated in the near-field of a sample surface, which is illuminated with a certain incident beam meeting the excitation conditions of the wave-vector matching. The local electric field, and, consequently, the Raman scattering, from the sample in the vicinity of the tip apex are both greatly tip-enhanced owning to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and the lightning-rod effect. Typically, a TERS setup is composed of a scanning probe microscope, excitation and collection optical configurations, and a Raman spectroscope. In the illumination configuration, an objective lens or a parabolic mirror is always used as the most important component, in order to focus the incident beam on the tip apex for excitation. In this research, a novel TERS setup was built up by introducing a plasmonic lens to the excitation optics as a focusing device. A plasmonic lens with symmetry breaking semi-annular slits corrugated on gold film was designed for the purpose of generating concentrated sub-wavelength light spots with strong longitudinal electric field. Compared to conventional far-field optical components, the designed plasmonic lens not only focuses an incident beam to a sub-wavelength light spot, but also realizes a strong z-component that dominants the electric field illumination, which is ideal for the excitation of tip-enhancement. Therefore, using a PL in the illumination configuration of TERS contributes to improve the detection sensitivity by both reducing the far-field background and effectively exciting the localized electric field enhancement. The FDTD method was employed to investigate the optical near-field distribution resulting from the light-nanostructure interaction. And the optical field distribution was characterized using an scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope to demonstrate the focusing performance of the lens. The experimental result is in agreement with the theoretically calculated one. It verifies the focusing performance of the plasmonic lens. The optical field distribution shows a bright elliptic spot in the lens center and several arc-like side-lobes on both sides. After the focusing performance was experimentally verified, the designed plasmonic lens was used as a focusing component in the excitation configuration of TERS setup to concentrate incident energy and generate a longitudinal optical field. A collimated linearly polarized laser beam, with along x-axis polarization, was incident from the bottom glass side on the plasmonic lens. The incident light focused by the plasmonic lens interacted with the silver-coated tip apex and enhanced the Raman signal of the sample locally. The scattered Raman signal was gathered by a parabolic mirror and detected with a Raman spectroscopy. Then, the plasmonic lens based setup was employed to investigate carbon nanotubes and TERS experiment was performed. Experimental results indicate that the Raman signal is considerably enhanced which proves that the novel TERS configuration is feasible and promising.
181
19270
Structural Determination of Nanocrystalline Si Films Using Raman Spectroscopy and the Ellipsometry
Abstract:
Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at relatively low growth temperatures (Ts=100 °C). The films grown on glass substrate in order to use the new generation of substrates sensitive to elevated temperatures. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of the argon gas diluted in hydrogen, on the structural properties and the evolution of the micro structure in the films. Raman peak position, intensity and line width were used to characterize the quality and the percentage of the crystallites in the films. The results of this investigation suggest the existence of a threshold dilution around a gas mixture of argon (40%) and hydrogen (60%) for which the crystallization occurs, even at low deposition temperatures. The difference between the amorphous and the crystallized structures is well confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique.
180
86926
Repeatable Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrates from SERSitive for Wide Range of Chemical and Biological Substances
Abstract:
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique used to analyze very low concentrations of substances in solutions, even in aqueous solutions - which is its advantage over IR. This technique can be used in the pharmacy (to check the purity of products); forensics (whether at a crime scene there were any illegal substances); or medicine (serving as a medical test) and lots more. Due to the high potential of this technique, its increasing popularity in analytical laboratories, and simultaneously - the absence of appropriate platforms enhancing the SERS signal (crucial to observe the Raman effect at low analyte concentration in solutions (1 ppm)), we decided to invent our own SERS platforms. As an enhancing layer, we have chosen gold and silver nanoparticles, because these two have the best SERS properties, and each has an affinity for the other kind of particles, which increases the range of research capabilities. The next step was to commercialize them, which resulted in the creation of the company ‘SERSitive.eu’ focusing on production of highly sensitive (Ef = 10⁵ – 10⁶), homogeneous and reproducible (70 - 80%) substrates. SERStive SERS substrates are made using the electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles technique. Thanks to a very detailed analysis of data based on studies optimizing such parameters as deposition time, temperature of the reaction solution, applied potential, used reducer, or reagent concentrations using a standardized compound - p-mercaptobenzoic acid (PMBA) at a concentration of 10⁻⁶ M, we have developed a high-performance process for depositing precious metal nanoparticles on the surface of ITO glass. In order to check a quality of the SERSitive platforms, we examined the wide range of the chemical compounds and the biological substances. Apart from analytes that have great affinity to the metal surfaces (e.g. PMBA) we obtained very good results for those fitting less the SERS measurements. Successfully we received intensive, and what’s more important - very repetitive spectra for; amino acids (phenyloalanine, 10⁻³ M), drugs (amphetamine, 10⁻⁴ M), designer drugs (cathinone derivatives, 10⁻³ M), medicines and ending with bacteria (Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) and fungi.
179
41975
Determination of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Based on Combination of Nanocomposite [email protected]@JB303 and Magnetically Assisted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MA-SERS)
Abstract:
Prostate cancer is now one of the most serious oncological diseases in men with an incidence higher than that of all other solid tumors combined. Diagnosis of prostate cancer usually involves detection of related genes or detection of marker proteins, such as PSA. One of the new potential markers is PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen). PSMA is a unique membrane bound glycoprotein, which is considerably overexpressed on prostate cancer as well as neovasculature of most of the solid tumors. Commonly applied methods for a detection of proteins include techniques based on immunochemical approaches, including ELISA and RIA. Magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) can be considered as an interesting alternative to generally accepted approaches. This work describes a utilization of MA-SERS in a detection of PSMA in human blood. This analytical platform is based on magnetic nanocomposites [email protected], functionalized by a low-molecular selector labeled as JB303. The system allows isolating the marker from the complex sample using application of magnetic force. Detection of PSMA is than performed by SERS effect given by a presence of silver nanoparticles. This system allowed us to analyze PSMA in clinical samples with limits of detection lower than 1 ng/mL.
178
93514
Understanding the Information in Principal Component Analysis of Raman Spectroscopic Data during Healing of Subcritical Calvarial Defects
Abstract:
Bone healing is a complex and sequential process involving changes at the molecular level. Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to study bone mineral and matrix environments simultaneously. In this study, subcritical calvarial defects are used to study bone composition during healing without discomposing the fracture. The model allowed to monitor the natural healing of bone avoiding mechanical harm to the callus. Calvarial defects were created using 1mm burr drill in the parietal bones of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) that served in vivo defects. After 7 days, their skulls were harvested after euthanizing. One additional defect per sample was created on the opposite parietal bone using same calvarial defect procedure to serve as control defect. Raman spectroscopy (785 nm) was established to investigate bone parameters of three different skull surfaces; in vivo defects, control defects and normal surface. Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized for the data analysis and interpretation of Raman spectra and helped in the classification of groups. PCA was able to distinguish in vivo defects from normal surface and control defects. PC1 shows that the major variation at 958 cm⁻¹, which corresponds to ʋ1 phosphate mineral band. PC2 shows the major variation at 1448 cm⁻¹ which is the characteristic band of CH2 deformation and corresponds to collagens. Raman parameters, namely, mineral to matrix ratio and crystallinity was found significantly decreased in the in vivo defects compared to surface and controls. Scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images show the formation of newly generated matrix by means of bony bridges of collagens. Optical profiler shows that surface roughness increased by 30% from controls to in vivo defects after 7 days. These results agree with Raman assessment parameters and confirm the new collagen formation during healing.
177
30920
Spectroscopy Investigation of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano Ferrite Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis
Abstract:
Nickel-zinc ferrite, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 was prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 5 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra alows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.
176
54392
Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) Modifying Chitosan-Gold Nano Composite for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Analysis Using Raman Scattering
Abstract:
The goal of this experiment is to develop a sensor that can quickly check the concentration by using the nanoparticles made by chitosan and gold. Using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) is the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. As for the GABA, what is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability pass through the nervous system. A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). When the system is formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.
175
41916
Determination of the Stability of Haloperidol Tablets and Phenytoin Capsules Stored in the Inpatient Dispensary System (Swisslog) by the Respective HPLC and Raman Spectroscopy Assay
Abstract:
A public general hospital in Singapore has recently implemented an automated unit-dose machine in their inpatient dispensary, Swisslog, with the objective of reducing human error and improving patient safety. However, a concern in stability arises as tablets are removed from their original packaging (bottled loose tablets/capsules) and are repackaged into individual, clear plastic wrappers as unit doses in the system. Drugs that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic would be more susceptible to degradation as the wrapper does not offer full protection. Hence, this study was carried out to study the stability of haloperidol tablets and phenytoin capsules that are light-sensitive and hygroscopic respectively. Validated HPLC-UV assays were first established for quantification of these two compounds. The medications involved were put in the Swisslog and sampled every week for one month. The collected data was analysed and showed no degradation over time. This study also explored an alternative approach for drug stability determination-Raman spectroscopy. The advantage of Raman spectroscopy is its high time efficiency and non-destructive nature. The results suggest that drug degradation can indeed be detected using Raman microscopy, but further research is needed to establish this approach for quantification or qualification of compounds. NanoRam®, a portable Raman spectrocope was also used alongside Raman microscopy but was unsuccessful in detecting degradation in this study.
174
88298
Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure
Abstract:
We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.
173
86031
Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide
Abstract:
Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.
172
19673
Structural and Vibrational Studies of Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 Ferrites
Abstract:
Nickel–Aluminium ferrites with the general formula Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were studied using X-ray diffraction, Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy. XRD diffraction patterns and their Reitveld refinements show that all samples have a pure single-phase cubic spinel structure. From these patterns, the lattice parameters of these samples have been calculated and compared with those predicted theoretically. Most of the values were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Infra Red spectra showed two significant absorption bands. The high band corresponds to tetrahedral (A) sites and the lower band to octahedral [B] sites, thus confirming the single phase spinel structure. For all compositions, Raman spectra show the five active modes A1g + E1g + 3 T2g of the motion of O2- ions and both the A-site and B-site ions. The Raman frequencies trend with aluminium concentration show a blue shift for all modes consistent with the replacement of Fe3+ by lower mass Al3+. Composition dependence of the Raman frequency modes is discussed in relationship with the cations distribution among the A-sites and B-sites.
171
20783
Carbon Nanofilms on Diamond for All-Carbon Chemical Sensors
Abstract:
A study on chemical sensing properties of carbon nanofilms on diamond for developing all-carbon chemical sensors is presented. The films were obtained by high temperature graphitization of diamond followed by successive plasma etchings. Characterization of the films was done by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. Fast and selective response to common organic vapors as seen as sensitivity of electrical conductance was observed. The phenomenological description of the chemical sensitivity is proposed as a function of the surface and bulk material properties of the films.
170
19208
Influence of Shear Deformation on Carbon Onions Stability under High Pressure
Abstract:
In this study we investigated the stability of polyhedral carbon onions under influence of shear deformation and high pressures above 43 GPa by means of by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was found that at pressures up to 29 GPa and shear deformations of 40 degrees the onions are stable. At shear deformation applying at pressures above 30 GPa carbon onions collapsed with formation of amorphous carbon. At pressures above 43 GPa diamond-like carbon (DLC) was obtained.
169
32610
A Structural and Magnetic Investigation of the Inversion Degree in Spinel NiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4 and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Ferrites Prepared by Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis
Abstract:
NiFe2O4 (nickel ferrite), ZnFe2O4 (zinc ferrite) and Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (nickel-zinc ferrite) were prepared by mechanochemical route in a planetary ball mill starting from mixture of the appropriate quantities of the Ni(OH)2/Fe(OH)3, Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 and Ni(OH)2/Zn(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 hydroxide powders. In order to monitor the progress of chemical reaction and confirm phase formation, powder samples obtained after 25 h, 18 h and 10 h of milling were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is shown that the soft mechanochemical method, i.e. mechanochemical activation of hydroxides, produces high quality single phase ferrite samples in much more efficient way. From the IR spectroscopy of single phase samples it is obvious that energy of modes depends on the ratio of cations. It is obvious that all samples have more than 5 Raman active modes predicted by group theory in the normal spinel structure. Deconvolution of measured spectra allows one to conclude that all complex bands in the spectra are made of individual peaks with the intensities that vary from spectrum to spectrum. The deconvolution of Raman spectra allows to separate contributions of different cations to a particular type of vibration and to estimate the degree of inversion.
168
18767
Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field
Abstract:
One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.
167
94217
Rare-Earth Ions Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals: Luminescence and Raman Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Lithium Niobate (LN) is one of the widely used ferroelectrics having a wide number of applications such as phase-conjugation, holographic storage, frequency doubling, SAW sensors. Furthermore, the possibility of doping with rare-earth ions leads to new laser applications. Ho and Tm dopants seem interesting due to laser emission obtained at around 2 µm. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic technique providing a possibility to obtain a number of information about physicochemical and also optical properties of a given material. Polarized Raman measurements were carried out on Ho and Tm doped LN crystals with excitation wavelengths of 532nm and 785nm. In obtained Raman anti-Stokes spectra, we detect expected modes according to Raman selection rules. In contrast, Raman Stokes spectra are significantly different compared to what is expected by selection rules. Additional forbidden lines are detected. These lines have quite high intensity and are well defined. Moreover, the intensity of mentioned additional lines increases with an increase of Ho or Tm concentrations in the crystal. These additional lines are attributed to emission lines reflecting the photoluminescence spectra of these crystals. It means that in our case we were able to detect, within a very good resolution, in the same Stokes spectrum, the transitions between the electronic states, and the vibrational states as well. The analysis of these data is reported as a function of Ho and Tm content, for different polarizations and wavelengths, of the incident laser beam. Results also highlight additional information about π and σ polarizations of crystals under study.
166
29332
Structural and Magnetic Properties of NiFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method
Abstract:
Nickel spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 525 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in nickel ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed.
165
118860
Characterization of Self-Assembly Behavior of 1-Dodecylamine Molecules on Au (111) Surface
Abstract:
Self-assembled characteristics and adsorption performance of 1-dodecylamine molecules on gold (Au) (111) surfaces were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The present study focused on the formation of 1-dodecylamine (DDA) on a gold surface with respect to the ex-situ arrangement of an adlayer on the Au(111) surface, and phase transition at potential dynamics carried out by EC-STM. This study reveals that alkyl amine molecules were formed an adsorption pattern with highly regular “lie down shape” on Au(111) surface, even in an extreme acid system (pH = 1). Acidic electrolyte (HClO₄) could protonate the surface of alkyl amine of a monolayer of the gold surface when potential shifts to negative. The quite stability of 1-dodecylamine on the gold surface maintained the monolayer across the potential window (0.1-0.8V). This transform model was confirmed by EC-STM. In addition, amine-modified Au(111) electrode adlayer used to examine how to affect an electron transfer across an interface using [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/[Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻ redox pair containing 0.1 M HClO₄ solution.
164
38444
Anharmonic Behavior in BaTiO3: Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy
Abstract:
BaTiO3 (BT) is a well known ferroelectric material which has been thoroughly studied during several decades since it undergoes successive cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase transitions on cooling. It has several ferroelectric properties that allow it to be a good material for electronic applications such as the design of ferroelectric memories and pyroelectric elements. In the present work, we report the analysis of temperature dependence of Raman frequency and damping of the A1 modes polarized along the FE c axis as well as the optical phonons E corresponding to the ionic motions in the plane normal to c. Measurements were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 408 K (tetragonal phase) within different scattering configurations. Spectroscopic parameters of BT have determined using a high resolution Raman spectrometer and a fitting program. All the first order frequency modes exhibit a quasi linear decrease as function of the temperature, except for the A1[TO1], E[TO2] and E[TO4] lines which reveal a parabolic dependence illustrating an anharmonic process. The phonon frequency downshifts and damping evolutions are interpreted in terms of normal volume expansion and third- and fourth-order anharmonic potentials.
163
63565
Fabrication of Highly Conductive Graphene/ITO Transparent Bi-Film through Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organic Additives-Free Sol-Gel Techniques
Abstract:
Indium tin oxide (ITO) remains the industrial standard transparent conducting oxides with better performances. Recently, graphene becomes as a strong material with unique properties to replace the ITO. However, graphene/ITO hybrid composite material is a newly born field in the electronic world. In this study, the graphene/ITO composite bi-film was synthesized by a two steps process. 10 wt.% tin-doped, ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO3)3.H2O and SnCl4 without using organic additives. The wettability and surface free energy (97.6986 mJ/m2) enhanced oxygen plasma treated glass substrates were used to form voids free continuous ITO film. The spin-coated samples were annealed at 600 0C for 1 hour under low vacuum conditions to obtained crystallized, ITO film. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of ITO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The Scherrer equation was used to determine the crystallite size. Detailed information about chemical composition and elemental composition of the ITO film were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled with FE-SEM respectively. Graphene synthesis was done under chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by using Cu foil at 1000 0C for 1 min. The quality of the synthesized graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy (532nm excitation laser beam) and data was collected at room temperature and normal atmosphere. The surface and cross-sectional observation were done by using FE-SEM. The optical transmission and sheet resistance were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and four point probe head at room temperature respectively. Electrical properties were also measured by using V-I characteristics. XRD patterns reveal that the films contain the In2O3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of the cubic structure with the main peak of (222) plane. The peak positions of In3d5/2 (444.28 eV) and Sn3d5/2 (486.7 eV) in XPS results indicated that indium and tin are in the oxide form only. The UV-visible transmittance shows 91.35 % at 550 nm with 5.88 x 10-3 Ωcm specific resistance. The G and 2D band in Raman spectroscopy of graphene appear at 1582.52 cm-1 and 2690.54 cm-1 respectively when the synthesized CVD graphene on SiO2/Si. The determined intensity ratios of 2D to G (I2D/IG) and D to G (ID/IG) were 1.531 and 0.108 respectively. However, the above-mentioned G and 2D peaks appear at 1573.57 cm-1 and 2668.14 cm-1 respectively when the CVD graphene on the ITO coated glass, the positions of G and 2D peaks were red shifted by 8.948 cm-1 and 22.396 cm-1 respectively. This graphene/ITO bi-film shows modified electrical properties when compares with sol-gel derived ITO film. The reduction of sheet resistance in the bi-film was 12.03 % from the ITO film. Further, the fabricated graphene/ITO bi-film shows 88.66 % transmittance at 550 nm wavelength.
162
66120
Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva
Abstract:
Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.
161
2600
In-Situ Studies of Cyclohexane Oxidation Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy for the Refinement of Mechanism Based Kinetic Models
Abstract:
The reaction mechanisms of many liquid-phase reactions in organic chemistry have not yet been sufficiently clarified. Process conditions of several hundred degrees celsius and pressures to ten megapascals complicate the sampling and the determination of kinetic data. Space resolved in-situ measurements promises new insights. A non-invasive in-situ measurement technique has the advantages that no sample preparation is necessary, there is no change in sample mixture before analysis and the sampling do no lead to interventions in the flow. Thus, the goal of our research was the development of a contact-free spatially resolved measurement technique for kinetic studies of liquid phase reaction under process conditions. Therefore we used laser Raman spectroscopy combined with an optical transparent microchannel reactor. To show the performance of the system we choose the oxidation of cyclohexane as sample reaction. Cyclohexane oxidation is an economically important process. The products are intermediates for caprolactam and adipic acid, which are starting materials for polyamide 6 and 6.6 production. To maintain high selectivities of 70 to 90 %, the reaction is performed in industry at a low conversion of about six percent. As Raman spectroscopy is usually very selective but not very sensitive the detection of the small product concentration in cyclohexane oxidation is quite challenging. To meet these requirements, an optical experimental setup was optimized to determine the concentrations by laser Raman spectroscopy with respect to good detection sensitivity. With this measurement technique space resolved kinetic studies of uncatalysed and homogeneous catalyzed cyclohexane oxidation were carried out to obtain details about the reaction mechanism.
160
36032
Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method
Abstract:
Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.
159
19923
Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method
Abstract:
In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.
158
60116
Study of Waveguide Silica Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy
Abstract:
In the paper, we study the effects of introducing hafnium oxide on Raman spectra of silica glass planar waveguide activated by 0.3 mol% Er3+ ions. This work compares Raman spectra measured for three thin films deposited on silicon substrate. The films were prepared with different molar ratio of Si/Hf using sol-gel method and deposited by dip coating technique. The effect of hafnium oxide incorporation on the waveguides shows the evolution of the structure of this material. This structural information is useful to understand the luminescence intensity by means of ion–ion interaction mechanisms.
157
61763
Detection of Telomerase Activity as Cancer Biomarker Using Nanogap-Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor
Abstract:
Telomerase activity is overexpressed in over 85% of human cancers while suppressed in normal somatic cells. Telomerase has been attracted as a universal cancer biomarker. Therefore, the development of effective telomerase activity detection methods is urgently demanded in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report a nanogap-rich Au nanowire (NW) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for detection of human telomerase activity. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors were prepared simply by uniformly depositing nanoparticles (NPs) on single-crystalline Au NWs. We measured SERS spectra of methylene blue (MB) from 60 different nanogap-rich Au NWs and obtained the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.80%, confirming the superb reproducibility of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors enable us to detect telomerase activity in 0.2 cancer cells/mL. Furthermore, telomerase activity is detectable in 7 different cancer cell lines whereas undetectable in normal cell lines, which suggest the potential applicability of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor in cancer diagnosis. We expect that the present nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor can be useful in biomedical applications including a diverse biomarker sensing.
156
96040
Raman, Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Isotopic Ratios Methods Used to Investigate Human Dentine and Enamel
Abstract:
A detailed knowledge of the teeth structure is mandatory to understand and explain the defects and the dental pathology, but especially to take a correct decision regarding dental prophylaxis and treatment. The present work is an alternative study to the traditional investigation methods used in dentistry, a study based on the use of modern, sensitive physical methods to investigate human enamel and dentin. For the present study, several teeth collected from patients of different ages were used for structural and dietary investigation. The samples were investigated by Raman spectroscopy for the molecular structure analysis of dentin and enamel, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to view the dental topography at the micrometric size and mass spectrometry for isotopic ratios as a fingerprint of patients’ personal diet. The obtained Raman spectra and their interpretation are in good correlation with the literature and may give medical information by comparing affected dental structures with healthy ones. AFM technique gave us the possibility to study in details the dentin and enamel surface to collect information about dental hardness or dental structural changes. δ¹³C values obtained for the studied samples can be classified in C4 category specific to young people and children diet (sweets, cereals, juices, pastry). The methods used in this attempt furnished important information about dentin and enamel structure and dietary habits and each of the three proposed methods can be extended at a larger level in the study of the teeth structure.
155
96133
Raman, Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry for Isotopic Ratios Methods Used to Investigate Human Dentine and Enamel
Abstract:
A detailed knowledge of the teeth structure is mandatory to understand and explain the defects and the dental pathology, but especially to take a correct decision regarding dental prophylaxis and treatment. The present work is an alternative study to the traditional investigation methods used in dentistry, a study based on the use of modern, sensitive physical methods to investigate human enamel and dentin. For the present study, several teeth collected from patients of different ages were used for structural and dietary investigation. The samples were investigated by Raman spectroscopy for the molecular structure analysis of dentin and enamel, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to view the dental topography at the micrometric size and mass spectrometry for isotopic ratios as a fingerprint of patients’ personal diet. The obtained Raman spectra and their interpretation are in good correlation with the literature and may give medical information by comparing affected dental structures with healthy ones. AFM technique gave us the possibility to study in details the dentin and enamel surface to collect information about dental hardness or dental structural changes. δ¹³C values obtained for the studied samples can be classified in C4 category specific to young people and children diet (sweets, cereals, juices, pastry). The methods used in this attempt furnished important information about dentin and enamel structure and dietary habits and each of the three proposed methods can be extended at a larger level in the study of the teeth structure.
154
11691
The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of a-C:H Films
Abstract:
Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.
153
14544
Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps as a New Method for Determination of Salt Composition of Multi-Component Solutions
Abstract:
The paper presents the results of clusterization by Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) applied for analysis of array of Raman spectra of multi-component solutions of inorganic salts, for determination of types of salts present in the solution. It is demonstrated that use of SOM is a promising method for solution of clusterization and classification problems in spectroscopy of multi-component objects, as attributing a pattern to some cluster may be used for recognition of component composition of the object.
152
29502
Raman Spectroscopic of Cardioprotective Mechanism During the Metabolic Inhibition of Heart Cells
Abstract:
Following ischaemia/reperfusion injury, as in a myocardial infraction, cardiac myocytes undergo oxidative stress which leads to several potential outcomes including; necrotic or apoptotic cell death or dysregulated calcium homeostasis or disruption of the electron transport chain. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide donors protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia and reperfusion. However until present, the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is not fully understood and has not been investigated before using Raman spectroscopy. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to develop a novel technique, pre-resonance Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to metabolic inhibition and re-energisation. The results demonstrated the first time that Raman microspectroscopy technique has the capability to monitor the metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes and to monitor the effectiveness of cardioprotection by nitric oxide donor prior to metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes. Metabolic inhibition and reenergisation were used in this study to mimic the low and high oxygen levels experienced by cells during ischaemic and reperfusion treatments. A laser wavelength of 488 nm used in this study has been found to provide the most sensitive means of observe the cellular mechanisms of myoglobin during nitric oxide donor preconditioning, metabolic inhibition and re-energisation and did not cause any damage to the cells. The data also highlight the considerably different cellular responses to metabolic inhibition to ischaemia. Moreover, the data has been shown the relationship between the release of myoglobin and chemical ischemia where that the release of myoglobin from the cell only occurred if a cell did not recover contractility.
151
17561
TiO2 Formation after Nanotubes Growth on Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface for Different Annealing Temperatures
Abstract:
Surface modification of titanium and its alloys using TiO2 nanotube growth has been widely studied for biomedical field due to excellent interaction between implant and biological environment. The success of this treatment is directly related to anatase phase formation (TiO2 phase) which affects the cells growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phases formed in the nanotubes growth on the Ti-15Mo surface. Nanotubes were grown by electrochemical anodization of the alloy in ammonium fluoride based glycerol electrolyte for 24 hours at 20V. Then, the samples were annealed at 200°,400°, 450°, 500°, 600°, and 800° C for 1 hour. Contact angles measurements, scanning electron microscopy images and X rays diffraction analysis (XRD) were carried out for all samples. Raman Spectroscopy was used to evaluate TiO2 phases transformation in nanotubes samples as well. The results of XRD showed anatase formation for lower temperatures, while at 800 ° C the rutile phase was observed all over the surface. Raman spectra indicate that this phase transition occurs between 500 and 600 °C. The different phases formed have influenced the nanotubes morphologies, since higher annealing temperatures induced agglutination of the TiO2 layer, disrupting the tubular structure. On the other hand, the nanotubes drastically reduced the contact angle, regardless the annealing temperature.
150
76369
Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of MnTiO₃-TiO₂ Eutectic
Abstract:
Oxide-oxide eutectic is attracting increasing interest of scientific community because of their unique properties and numerous potential applications. Some of the most interesting examples of applications are metamaterials, glucose sensors, photoactive materials, thermoelectric materials, and photocatalysts. Their unique properties result from the fact that composite materials consist of two or more phases. As a result, these materials have additive and product properties. Additive properties originate from particular phases while product properties originate from the interaction between phases. MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic is one of such materials. TiO2 is a well-known semiconductor, and it is used as a photocatalyst. Moreover, it may be used to produce solar cells, in a gas sensing devices and in electrochemistry. MnTiO3 is a semiconductor and antiferromagnetic. Therefore it has potential application in integrated circuits devices, and as a gas and humidity sensor, in non-linear optics and as a visible-light activated photocatalyst. The above facts indicate that eutectic MnTiO3-TiO2 constitutes an extremely promising material that should be studied. Despite that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method to characterize materials, to our knowledge Raman studies of eutectics are very limited, and there are no studies of the MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic. While to our knowledge the papers regarding this material are scarce. The MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic, as well as TiO2 and MnTiO3 single crystals, were grown by the micro-pulling-down method at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Poland. A nitrogen atmosphere was maintained during whole crystal growth process. The as-grown samples of MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic, as well as TiO2 and MnTiO3 single crystals, are black and opaque. Samples were cut perpendicular to the growth direction. Cross sections were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and with Raman spectroscopy. The present studies showed that maintaining nitrogen atmosphere during crystal growth process may result in obtaining black TiO2 crystals. SEM and Raman experiments showed that studied eutectic consists of three distinct regions. Furthermore, two of these regions correspond with MnTiO3, while the third region corresponds with the TiO2-xNx phase. Raman studies pointed out that TiO2-xNx phase crystallizes in rutile structure. The studies show that Raman experiments may be successfully used to characterize eutectic materials. The MnTiO3-TiO2 eutectic was grown by the micro-pulling-down method. SEM and micro-Raman experiments were used to establish phase composition of studied eutectic. The studies revealed that the TiO2 phase had been doped with nitrogen. Therefore the TiO2 phase is, in fact, a solid solution with TiO2-xNx composition. The remaining two phases exhibit Raman lines of both rutile TiO2 and MnTiO3. This points out to some kind of coexistence of these phases in studied eutectic.
149
82981
The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in Olive Oil Analysis
Abstract:
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a complex matrix mainly composed by fatty acid and other minor compounds, among which carotenoids are well known for their antioxidative function that is a key mechanism of protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and macular degeneration in humans. EVOO composition in terms of such constituents is generally the result of a complex combination of genetic, agronomical and environmental factors. To selectively improve the quality of EVOOs, the role of each factor on its biochemical composition need to be investigated. By selecting fruits from four different cultivars similarly grown and harvested, it was demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis, is able to discriminate the different cultivars, also as a function of the harvest date, based on the relative content and composition of fatty acid and carotenoids. In particular, a correct classification up to 94.4% of samples, according to the cultivar and the maturation stage, was obtained. Moreover, by using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography as reference techniques, the Raman spectral features further allowed to build models, based on partial least squares regression, that were able to predict the relative amount of the main fatty acids and the main carotenoids in EVOO, with high coefficients of determination. Besides genetic factors, climatic parameters, such as light exposition, distance from the sea, temperature, and amount of precipitations could have a strong influence on EVOO composition of both major and minor compounds. This suggests that the Raman spectra could act as a specific fingerprint for the geographical discrimination and authentication of EVOO. To understand the influence of environment on EVOO Raman spectra, samples from seven regions along the Italian coasts were selected and analyzed. In particular, it was used a dual approach combining Raman spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) with principal component and linear discriminant analysis. A correct classification of 82% EVOO based on their regional geographical origin was obtained. Raman spectra were obtained by Super Labram spectrometer equipped with an Argon laser (514.5 nm wavelenght). Analyses of stable isotope content ratio were performed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer connected to an elemental analyzer and to a pyrolysis system. These studies demonstrate that RR spectroscopy is a valuable and useful technique for the analysis of EVOO. In combination with statistical analysis, it makes possible the assessment of specific samples’ content and allows for classifying oils according to their geographical and varietal origin.
148
39331
Electrohydrodynamic Patterning for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Abstract:
Medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, homeland security and forensics increasingly demand specific and field-deployable analytical technologies for quick point-of-care diagnostics. Although technological advancements have made optical methods well-suited for miniaturization, a highly-sensitive detection technique for minute sample volumes is required. Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical tool, but has very weak signals and hence is unsuitable for trace level analysis. Enhancement via localized optical fields (surface plasmons resonances) on nanoscale metallic materials generates huge signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), enabling single molecule detection. This enhancement can be tuned by manipulation of the surface roughness and architecture at the sub-micron level. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for SERS-based sensing devices. While most SERS substrates are manufactured by conventional lithographic methods, the development of a cost-effective approach to create nanostructured surfaces is a much sought-after goal in the SERS community. Here, a method is established to create controlled, self-organized, hierarchical nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic (HEHD) instabilities. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements. HEHD pattern formation enables the fabrication of multiscale 3D structured arrays as SERS-active platforms. Importantly, each of the HEHD-patterned individual structural units yield a considerable SERS enhancement. This enables each single unit to function as an isolated sensor. Each of the formed structures can be effectively tuned and tailored to provide high SERS enhancement, while arising from different HEHD morphologies. The HEHD fabrication of sub-micrometer architectures is straightforward and robust, providing an elegant route for high-throughput biological and chemical sensing. The superior detection properties and the ability to fabricate SERS substrates on the miniaturized scale, will facilitate the development of advanced and novel opto-fluidic devices, such as portable detection systems, and will offer numerous applications in biomedical diagnostics, forensics, ecological warfare and homeland security.
147
74791
Flexible Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Nanofibers Decorated with Ag Nanoparticles as Effective 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates
Abstract:
With the rapid development of chemical industry, the consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has increased extensively. In the process of VOCs production and application, plenty of them have been transferred to environment. As a result, it has led to pollution problems not only in soil and ground water but also to human beings. Thus, it is important to develop a sensitive and cost-effective analytical method for trace VOCs detection in environment. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), as one of the most sensitive optical analytical technique with rapid response, pinpoint accuracy and noninvasive detection, has been widely used for ultratrace analysis. Based on the plasmon resonance on the nanoscale metallic surface, SERS technology can even detect single molecule due to abundant nanogaps (i.e. 'hot spots') on the nanosubstrate. In this work, a self-supported flexible silver nitrate (AgNO3)/ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) hybrid nanofibers was fabricated by electrospinning. After an in-situ chemical reduction using ice-cold sodium borohydride as reduction agent, numerous silver nanoparticles were formed on the nanofiber surface. By adjusting the reduction time and AgNO3 content, the morphology and dimension of silver nanoparticles could be controlled. According to the principles of solid-phase extraction, the hydrophobic substance is more likely to partition into the hydrophobic EPM membrane in an aqueous environment while water and other polar components are excluded from the analytes. By the enrichment of EPM fibers, the number of hydrophobic molecules located on the 'hot spots' generated from criss-crossed nanofibers is greatly increased, which further enhances SERS signal intensity. The as-prepared Ag/EPM hybrid nanofibers were first employed to detect common SERS probe molecule (p-aminothiophenol) with the detection limit down to 10-12 M, which demonstrated an excellent SERS performance. To further study the application of the fabricated substrate for monitoring hydrophobic substance in water, several typical VOCs, such as benzene, toluene and p-xylene, were selected as model compounds. The results showed that the characteristic peaks of these target analytes in the mixed aqueous solution could be distinguished even at a concentration of 10-6 M after multi-peaks gaussian fitting process, including C-H bending (850 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1581 cm-1, 1600 cm-1) of benzene, C-H bending (844 cm-1 ,1151 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1001 cm-1), CH3 bending vibration (1377 cm-1) of toluene, C-H bending (829 cm-1), C-C stretching (1614 cm-1) of p-xylene. The SERS substrate has remarkable advantages which combine the enrichment capacity from EPM and the Raman enhancement of Ag nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the huge specific surface area resulted from electrospinning is benificial to increase the number of adsoption sites and promotes 'hot spots' formation. In summary, this work provides powerful potential in rapid, on-site and accurate detection of trace VOCs using a portable Raman.
146
74790
Raman Scattering Broadband Spectrum Generation in Compact Yb-Doped Fiber Laser
Abstract:
Nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique has become one of the main techniques to achieve mode-locked fiber lasers for its compactness, implementation, and low cost. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on NPR technique in the all normal dispersion (ANDi) regime. In the laser cavity, there are no physical filter and polarization controller in laser cavity. Mode-locked pulse train is achieved in ANDi regime based on NPR technique. The fiber birefringence induced filtering effect is the mainly reason for mode-locking. After that, an extra 20 m long single-mode fiber is inserted in two different positions, dissipative soliton operation and noise like pulse operations are achieved correspondingly. The nonlinear effect is obviously enhanced in the noise like pulse regime and broadband spectrum generated owing to enhanced stimulated Raman scattering effect. When the pump power is 210 mW, the central wavelength is 1030 nm, and the corresponding 1st order Raman scattering stokes wave generates and locates at 1075 nm. When the pump power is 370 mW, the 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering stokes wave generate and locate at 1080 nm, 1126 nm respectively. When the pump power is 600 mW, the Raman continuum is generated with cascaded multi-order stokes waves, and the spectrum extends to 1188 nm. The total flat spectrum is from 1000nm to 1200nm. The maximum output average power and pulse energy are 18.0W and 14.75nJ, respectively.
145
103873
Body Fluids Identification by Raman Spectroscopy and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Abstract:
The identification of human body fluids during forensic investigations is a critical step to determine key details, and present strong evidence to testify criminal in a case. With the popularity of DNA and improved detection technology, the potential question must be revolved that whether the suspect’s DNA derived from saliva or semen, menstrual or peripheral blood, how to identify the red substance or aged blood traces on the spot is blood; How to determine who contribute the right one in mixed stains. In recent years, molecular approaches have been developing increasingly on mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers, but appear expensive, time-consuming, and destructive disadvantages. Physicochemical methods are utilized frequently such us scanning electron microscopy/energy spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence and so on, but results only showing one or two characteristics of body fluid itself and that out of working in unknown or mixed body fluid stains. This paper focuses on using chemistry methods Raman spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to discriminate species of peripheral blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, urine or sweat. Firstly, non-destructive, confirmatory, convenient and fast Raman spectroscopy method combined with more accurate matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method can totally distinguish one from other body fluids. Secondly, 11 spectral signatures and specific metabolic molecules have been obtained by analysis results after 70 samples detected. Thirdly, Raman results showed peripheral and menstrual blood, saliva and vaginal have highly similar spectroscopic features. Advanced statistical analysis of the multiple Raman spectra must be requested to classify one to another. On the other hand, it seems that the lactic acid can differentiate peripheral and menstrual blood detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, but that is not a specific metabolic molecule, more sensitivity ones will be analyzed in a forward study. These results demonstrate the great potential of the developed chemistry methods for forensic applications, although more work is needed for method validation.
144
47110
Improved Performance of Mn Substituted Ceria Nanospheres for Water Gas Shift Reaction: Influence of Preparation Conditions
Abstract:
The present study reports the development of noble metal free nano catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction. Mn-substituted CeO2 solid solution catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation, combustion and hydrothermal methods. The formation of solid solution was confirmed by XRD with Rietveld refinement and the percentage of carbon and nitrogen doping was ensured by CHNS analyzer. Raman spectroscopic confirmed the oxygen vacancies. The surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution confirmed by N2 physisorption analysis, whereas, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XPS data confirmed the oxidation state of the Mn ion. The particle size and morphology (spherical shape) of the material was confirmed using FESEM and HRTEM analysis. Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-δ was calcined at 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the catalyst calcined at 400 °C has the best redox properties. The activity of the designed catalysts for CO oxidation (0.2 vol%), carried out with GHSV of 21,000 h-1 and it has been observed that co-precipitation favored the best active catalyst towards CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction, due to the high surface area, improved reducibility, oxygen mobility and highest quantity of surface oxygen species. The activation energy of low temperature CO oxidation on Ce0.8Mn0.2O2- δ (combustion) was 5.5 kcal.K-1.mole-1. The designed catalysts were tested for water gas shift reaction. The present study demonstrates that Mn ion substituted ceria at 400 °C calcination temperature prepared by co-precipitation method promise to revive a green sustainable energy production approach.
143
9393
Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases
Abstract:
Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.
142
22122
Photoluminescence Study of Erbium-Mixed Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals
Abstract:
Alkylated silicon nanocrystals (C11-SiNCs) were prepared successfully by galvanostatic etching of p-Si(100) wafers followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in refluxing toluene in order to extract C11-SiNCs from porous silicon. Erbium trichloride was added to alkylated SiNCs using a simple mixing chemical route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on mixing SiNCs with erbium ions (III) by this chemical method. The chemical characterization of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ (Er/C11-SiNCs) were carried out using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The erbium-mixed alkylated SiNCs shows an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that originates from radiative recombination of Si. Er/C11-SiNCs mixture also exhibits a weak PL emission peak at 1536 nm that originates from the intra-4f transition in erbium ions (Er3+). The PL peak of Si in Er/C11-SiNCs mixture is increased in the intensity up to three times as compared to pure C11-SiNCs. The collected data suggest that this chemical mixing route leads instead to a transfer of energy from erbium ions to alkylated SiNCs.
141
14503
Application of Adaptive Neural Network Algorithms for Determination of Salt Composition of Waters Using Laser Spectroscopy
Abstract:
In this study, a comparative analysis of the approaches associated with the use of neural network algorithms for effective solution of a complex inverse problem – the problem of identifying and determining the individual concentrations of inorganic salts in multicomponent aqueous solutions by the spectra of Raman scattering of light – is performed. It is shown that application of artificial neural networks provides the average accuracy of determination of concentration of each salt no worse than 0.025 M. The results of comparative analysis of input data compression methods are presented. It is demonstrated that use of uniform aggregation of input features allows decreasing the error of determination of individual concentrations of components by 16-18% on the average.
140
69420
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
139
69419
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
138
69421
Influence of Bias Voltage on Amorphous Silicon Deposition as Seed Layer in the Tribological Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Thin Films
Abstract:
Failures in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings in biomedical applications are mainly attributed to different mechanism at the interface substrate-coating. This paper focuses on the variation of bias voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV) during amorphous silicon deposition as seed layer for amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings on AISI 316L substrates. An Active Screen Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition process was used to carry out the experiment. Surface characterization was performed with contact profilometry, obtaining an average roughness from 19 nm up to 30 nm. Mechanical properties were measured using nanoindentation, obtaining the Young’s modulus (170–210 GPa) and hardness (25–30 GPa). Using Raman spectroscopy, the intensity ratio between D and G peaks was calculated in order to stablish the amorphous carbon classification. Friction coefficient was obtained through a Pin on Disk test performed in Hanks solution and dry atmosphere, obtaining a friction coefficient under 0.1 during 30000 cycles using 20 N applied load. Adhesion was evaluated calculating the critical load in a Scratch test. The Electrochemical study was evaluated using Tafel tests obtaining the corresponding polarization curve. The surface tension (30-35 nJ/cm2) was studied with the angle contact test. Adhesion forces between live cell and coating surface were measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.
137
35339
Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric
Abstract:
An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.
136
63073
Facile Fabrication of TiO₂NT/Fe₂O₃@Ag₂CO₃ Nanocomposite and Its Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activity
Abstract:
Due to the increasing need to environment protection in real time need to energize new materials are under extensive investigations. Between others, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) nanocomposite with iron oxide and silver carbonate, are promising alternatives as high-efficiency visible light photocatalyst due to their unique properties and their superior charge transport properties. Our efforts in this domain aim the construction of novel nanocomposite of TiO2NT/[email protected] The structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). XRD results confirm the interaction of TiO2-NT with iron oxide. This novel nanocomposite shows remarkably enhanced performance for phenol compounds photodegradation. The experimental data shows a promising photocatalytic activity. In particular, a maximum value of 450 mg/g was removed within 60 min at solar light irradiation with degradation efficiency of 99.5%. The high photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite is found to be related to the increased adsorption toward chemical species, enhanced light absorption and efficient charge separation and transfer. Finally, the designed TiO2NT/[email protected] nanocomposite has a great degree of sustainability and could has a potential application for the industrial treatment of wastewater containing toxic organic materials.
135
118601
Visible-Light-Driven OVs-BiOC1 Nanoplates with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity toward NO Oxidation
Abstract:
A series of BiOCl nanoplates with different oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentrations were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The concentration of OVs of BiOCl can be tuned by the ratios of water/ethylene glycol. Such nanoplates containing oxygen vacancies served as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for NO oxidation. Compared with pure BiOCl, the enhanced photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the introduction of OVs, which greatly enhanced light absorption, promoted electron transfer, activated oxygen molecules. The present work could provide insights into the understanding of the role of OVs in photocatalysts for reference. Combined with characterization analysis, such as XRD(X-ray diffraction), XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM(Transmission Electron Microscopy), PL(Fluorescence Spectroscopy), and DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, the effect of vacancies on photoelectrochemical properties of BiOCl photocatalysts are shown. Furthermore, the possible reaction mechanisms of photocatalytic NO oxidation were also revealed. According to the results of in situ DRIFTS ( Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy), various intermediates were produced during different time intervals of NO photodegradation. The possible pathways are summarized below. First, visible light irradiation induces electron-hole pairs on the surface of OV-BOC (BiOCl with oxygen vacancies). Second, photogenerated electrons form superoxide radical with the contacted oxygen. Then, the NO molecules adsorbed on the surface of OV-BOC are attacked by superoxide radical and form nitrate instead of NO₂ (by-products). Oxygen vacancies greatly improve the photocatalytic oxidation activity of NO and effectively inhibit the production of harmful by-products during the oxidation of NO.
134
65237
Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator
Abstract:
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
133
32916
Silver Grating for Strong and Reproducible SERS Response
Abstract:
One of the most significant obstacles for the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is the poor reproducibility of SERS active substrates: SERS intensity can be varied from one substrate to another and moreover along the one substrate surface. High enhancement of the near-field intensity is the key factor for ultrasensitive SERS realization. SERS substrate can be prepared through introduction of highly ordered metal array, where light focusing is achieved through excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs). In this work, we report the preparation of silver nanostructures with plasmon absorption peaks tuned by the metal arrangement. Excimer laser modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) followed by silver evaporation is proposed as an effective way for the creation of reproducible and effective surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP)-based SERS substrate. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to optimize structure parameter for effective SPP excitation. It was found that the narrow range of grating periodicity and metal thickness exist, where SPPs can be most efficiently excited. In spite of the fact, that SERS response was almost always achieved, the enhancement factor was found to vary more with the effectivity of SPP excitation. When the real structure parameters were set to optimal for SPP excitation, a SERS enhancement factor was achieved up to four times. Theoretical and experimental investigation of SPP excitation on the two-dimensional periodical silver array was performed with the aim to make SERS response as high as possible.
132
27866
Phase Transition of Aqueous Ternary (THF + Polyvinylpyrrolidone + H2O) System as Revealed by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Determination of the behavior of clathrate hydrate with inhibitor in the THz region will provide useful information about hydrate plug control in the upstream of the oil and gas industry. In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) revealed the inhibition of the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different molecular weights. Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4–2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and real part of refractive indices are obtained in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.
131
105450
Highly Sensitive Nanostructured Chromium Oxide Sensor for Analysis of Diabetic Patient’s Breath
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a serious illness and can be life-threatening if left untreated. Acetone present in the exhaled breath of a diabetic person is a biomarker of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and is higher than its usual concentration present in the breath of healthy people. In the present work, a portable gas sensor system based on chromium oxide (Cr₂O₃) nanoparticles has been developed that can analyze diabetic patient’s breath. Undoped and indium (In) doped Cr₂O₃ nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy for their structural, morphological and optical properties. Thick film gas sensors were fabricated out of synthesized samples. To diagnose diabetes, the sensors’ response to low concentrations of acetone was measured, and it was found that the addition of indium dramatically enhances the acetone gas sensing response. Moreover, the fabricated sensors were highly stable, reproducible and resistant to humidity. Enhancement of sensor response of doped sensors towards acetone can be ascribed to increase in defects due to addition of a dopant, and it was found that in-doped Cr₂O₃ sensors are more useful for analysis of breath of diabetic patients.
130
2457
Ceramic Composites and Its Applications for Pb Adsorption
Abstract:
Surface functionalization of ceramic composites with a special focus on tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) is discoursed. Mesoporous ceramic HAp-TEOS composites were prepared by the incorporation of hydroxyapatite into tetraethyl orthosilicate by sol-gel method. The resulting samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The removal of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solutions was evaluated using Atomic Absorbtion Spectroscopy (AAS). Removal experiments of Pb2+ ions were carried out in aqueous solutions with controlled Pb2+ at pH ~ 3 and pH ~ 5. After removal experiment of Pb2+ at pH 3 and pH 5, porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is transformed into PbHAp_3 and PbHAp_5 via the adsorption of Pb2+ ions followed by the cation exchange reaction. The diffraction patterns show that THAp nanoparticles were successfully coated with teos without any structural changes. On the other, the AAS analysis showed that THAp can be useful in the removal Pb2+ from water contaminated.
129
34366
Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy for the Characterization of CdSxSe1-x Quantum Dots in a Glass Matrix
Abstract:
When semiconductor particles are reduced in scale to nanometer dimension, their optical and electro-optical properties strongly differ from those of bulk crystals of the same composition. Since sampling is often not allowed concerning cultural heritage artefacts, the potentialities of two non-invasive techniques, such as Raman and Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS), have been investigated and the results of the analysis on some original glasses of different colours (from yellow to orange and deep red) and periods (from the second decade of the 20th century to present days) are reported in the present study. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the application of non-invasive techniques to the investigation of the structure and distribution of nanoparticles dispersed in a glass matrix, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, together with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction Tomography (EDT) have also been used. Raman spectroscopy allows a fast and non-destructive measure of the quantum dots composition and size, thanks to the evaluation of the frequencies and the broadening/asymmetry of the LO phonons bands, respectively, though the important role of the compressive strain arising from the glass matrix and the possible diffusion of zinc from the matrix to the nanocrystals should be taken into account when considering the optical-phonons frequency values. The incorporation of Zn has been assumed by an upward shifting of the LO band related to the most abundant anion (S or Se), while the role of the surface phonons as well as the confinement-induced scattering by phonons with a non-zero wavevectors on the Raman peaks broadening has been verified. The optical band gap varies from 2.42 eV (pure CdS) to 1.70 eV (CdSe). For the compositional range between 0.5≤x≤0.2, the presence of two absorption edges has been related to the contribution of both pure CdS and the CdSxSe1-x solid solution; this particular feature is probably due to the presence of unaltered cubic zinc blende structures of CdS that is not taking part to the formation of the solid solution occurring only between hexagonal CdS and CdSe. Moreover, the band edge tailing originating from the disorder due to the formation of weak bonds and characterized by the Urbach edge energy has been studied and, together with the FWHM of the Raman signal, has been assumed as a good parameter to evaluate the degree of topological disorder. SEM-EDS mapping showed a peculiar distribution of the major constituents of the glass matrix (fluxes and stabilizers), especially concerning those samples where a layered structure has been assumed thanks to the spectroscopic study. Finally, TEM-EDS and EDT were used to get high-resolution information about nanocrystals (NCs) and heterogeneous glass layers. The presence of ZnO NCs (< 4 nm) dispersed in the matrix has been verified for most of the samples, while, for those samples where a disorder due to a more complex distribution of the size and/or composition of the NCs has been assumed, the TEM clearly verified most of the assumption made by the spectroscopic techniques.
128
108557
Associação Mineira de Reabilitação (AMR)
Abstract:
The identification of human body fluids during forensic investigations is a critical step to determine key details, and present strong evidence to testify criminal in a case. With the popularity of DNA and improved detection technology, the potential question must be revolved that whether the suspect’s DNA derived from saliva or semen, menstrual or peripheral blood, how to identify the red substance or aged blood traces on the spot is blood; How to determine who contribute the right one in mixed stains. In recent years, molecular approaches have been developing increasingly on mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers, but appear expensive, time-consuming, and destructive disadvantages. Physicochemical methods are utilized frequently such us scanning electron microscopy/energy spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence and so on, but results only showing one or two characteristics of body fluid itself and that out of working in unknown or mixed body fluid stains. This paper focuses on using chemistry methods Raman spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to discriminate species of peripheral blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, urine or sweat. Firstly, non-destructive, confirmatory, convenient and fast Raman spectroscopy method combined with more accurate matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method can totally distinguish one from other body fluids. Secondly, 11 spectral signatures and specific metabolic molecules have been obtained by analysis results after 70 samples detected. Thirdly, Raman results showed peripheral and menstrual blood, saliva and vaginal have highly similar spectroscopic features. Advanced statistical analysis of the multiple Raman spectra must be requested to classify one to another. On the other hand, it seems that the lactic acid can differentiate peripheral and menstrual blood detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, but that is not a specific metabolic molecule, more sensitivity ones will be analyzed in a forward study. These results demonstrate the great potential of the developed chemistry methods for forensic applications, although more work is needed for method validation.
127
67358
Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles
Abstract:
In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.
126
91223
Fabrication of Porous Materials for the Removal of Lead from Waste Water
Abstract:
Adsorption of lead by a natural porous material was studied to establish a baseline for the removal of heavy metals from drinking and waste water. Samples were examined under different conditions such as solution pH, solution concentration, solution temperature, and exposure time. New materials with potentially enhanced adsorption properties were developed by functionalizing the surface of the natural porous material to fabricate graphene based coated and sulfide based treated porous material. The functionalized materials were characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Solution pH effect on removal efficiency has been investigated in acidic (pH = 4), neutral (pH = 6) and basic (pH = 10) pH levels. All adsorbent materials showed highest adsorption capacities at neutral pH levels. Batch experiment was employed to assess the efficacy for the removal of lead with the sorption kinetics and the adsorption isotherms being determined for the natural and treated porous materials. The addition of graphene-based and sulfide-based materials increased the lead removal capacity of the natural clean porous material. Theoretical calculations confirmed pseudo-second order model as kinetic mechanism for lead adsorption for all adsorbents.
125
47692
A Simple Chemical Precipitation Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone as a Capping Agent and Their Characterization
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple chemical precipitation route for the preparation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, synthesized by using titanium tetra isopropoxide as a precursor and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent, is reported. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) of the samples were recorded and the phase transformation temperature of titanium hydroxide, Ti(OH)4 to titanium oxide, TiO2 was investigated. The as-prepared Ti(OH)4 precipitate was annealed at 800&deg;C to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal, structural, morphological and textural characterizations of the TiO2 nanoparticle samples were carried out by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The as-prepared precipitate was characterized using DSC-TGA and confirmed the mass loss of around 30%. XRD results exhibited no diffraction peaks attributable to anatase phase, for the reaction products, after the solvent removal. The results indicate that the product is purely rutile. The vibrational frequencies of two main absorption bands of prepared samples are discussed from the results of the FTIR analysis. The formation of nanosphere of diameter of the order of 10 nm, has been confirmed by FESEM. The optical band gap was found by using UV-Visible spectrum. From photoluminescence spectra, a strong emission was observed. The obtained results suggest that this method provides a simple, efficient and versatile technique for preparing TiO2 nanoparticles and it has the potential to be applied to other systems for photocatalytic activity.
124
56636
Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy Study of Size Dependent Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity on Erythrocytes
Abstract:
Raman Tweezers technique has become prevalent in single cell studies. This technique combines Raman spectroscopy which gives information about molecular vibrations, with optical tweezers which use a tightly focused laser beam for trapping the single cells. Thus Raman Tweezers enabled researchers analyze single cells and explore different applications. The applications of Raman Tweezers include studying blood cells, monitoring blood-related disorders, silver nanoparticle-induced stress, etc. There is increased interest in the toxic effect of nanoparticles with an increase in the various applications of nanoparticles. The interaction of these nanoparticles with the cells may vary with their size. We have studied the effect of silver nanoparticles of sizes 10nm, 40nm, and 100nm on erythrocytes using Raman Tweezers technique. Our aim was to investigate the size dependence of the nanoparticle effect on RBCs. We used 785nm laser (Starbright Diode Laser, Torsana Laser Tech, Denmark) for both trapping and Raman spectroscopic studies. 100 x oil immersion objectives with high numerical aperture (NA 1.3) is used to focus the laser beam into a sample cell. The back-scattered light is collected using the same microscope objective and focused into the spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Vyon iHR320 with 1200grooves/mm grating blazed at 750nm). Liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (Symphony CCD-1024x256-OPEN-1LS) was used for signal detection. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to separate the blood components. 1.5 ml of silver nanoparticles was washed twice with distilled water leaving 0.1 ml silver nanoparticles in the bottom of the vial. The concentration of silver nanoparticles is 0.02mg/ml so the 0.03mg of nanoparticles will be present in the 0.1 ml nanoparticles obtained. The 25 ul of RBCs were diluted in 2 ml of PBS solution and then treated with 50 ul (0.015mg) of nanoparticles and incubated in CO2 incubator. Raman spectroscopic measurements were done after 24 hours and 48 hours of incubation. All the spectra were recorded with 10mW laser power (785nm diode laser), 60s of accumulation time and 2 accumulations. Major changes were observed in the peaks 565 cm-1, 1211 cm-1, 1224 cm-1, 1371 cm-1, 1638 cm-1. A decrease in intensity of 565 cm-1, increase in 1211 cm-1 with a reduction in 1224 cm-1, increase in intensity of 1371 cm-1 also peak disappearing at 1635 cm-1 indicates deoxygenation of hemoglobin. Nanoparticles with higher size were showing maximum spectral changes. Lesser changes observed in case of 10nm nanoparticle-treated erythrocyte spectra.
123
9552
Modified Surface Morphology, Structure and Enhanced Weathering Performance of Polyester-Urethane/Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings
Authors:
Abstract:
Organoclay loaded (0-5 weight %) polyester-urethane (PU) coatings were prepared with a branched hydroxyl-bearing polyester and an aliphatic poly-isocyanate. TEM micrographs show partial exfoliation and intercalation of clay platelets in organoclay-polyester dispersions. AFM surface images reveals that the PU hard domains tend to regularise and also self-organise into spherical shapes of sizes 50 nm (0 wt %), 60 nm (2 wt %) and 190 nm (4 wt %) respectively. IR analysis shows that PU chains have increasing tendency to interact with exfoliated clay platelets through hydrogen bonding. This interaction strengthens inter-chain linkages in PU matrix and hence improves anti-ageing properties. 1000 hours of accelerated weathering was evaluated by ATR spectroscopy, while yellowing and overall discoloration was quantified by the Δb* and ΔE* values of the CIELab colour scale. Post-weathering surface properties also showed improvement as the loss of thickness and reduction in gloss in neat PU was 25% and 42%; while it was just 3.5% and 14% respectively for the 2 wt% nanocomposite coating. This work highlights the importance of modifying surface and bulk properties of PU coatings at nanoscale, which led to improved performance in accelerated weathering conditions.
122
3116
Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor
Abstract:
This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET = 3.691m,/g.
121
42545
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Multiplex Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Platforms
Abstract:
Owing to its fingerprint molecular specificity and high sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an established analytical tool for chemical and biological sensing capable of single-molecule detection. A strong Raman signal can be generated from SERS-active platforms given the analyte is within the enhanced plasmon field generated near a noble-metal nanostructured substrate. The key requirement for generating strong plasmon resonances to provide this electromagnetic enhancement is an appropriate metal surface roughness. Controlling nanoscale features for generating these regions of high electromagnetic enhancement, the so-called SERS ‘hot-spots’, is still a challenge. Significant advances have been made in SERS research, with wide-ranging techniques to generate substrates with tunable size and shape of the nanoscale roughness features. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for miniaturised sensing devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been concurrently, a topic of extensive research however, their applications for plasmonics has been only recently beginning to gain interest. CNTs can provide low-cost, large-active-area patternable substrates which, coupled with appropriate functionalization capable to provide advanced SERS-platforms. Herein, advanced methods to generate CNT-based SERS active detection platforms will be discussed. First, a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) lithographic technique will be introduced for patterning CNT-polymer composites, providing a straightforward, single-step approach for generating high-fidelity sub-micron-sized nanocomposite structures within which anisotropic CNTs are vertically aligned. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements with each of the EHD-CNTs individual structural units functioning as an isolated sensor. Further, gold-functionalized VACNTFs are fabricated as SERS micro-platforms. The dependence on the VACNTs’ diameters and density play an important role in the Raman signal strength, thus highlighting the importance of structural parameters, previously overlooked in designing and fabricating optimized CNTs-based SERS nanoprobes. VACNTs forests patterned into predesigned pillar structures are further utilized for multiplex detection of bio-analytes. Since CNTs exhibit electrical conductivity and unique adsorption properties, these are further harnessed in the development of novel chemical and bio-sensing platforms.
120
29422
Deposition of Diamond Like Carbon Thin Film by Pulse Laser Deposition for Surgical Instruments
Abstract:
Thin film of amorphous carbon (DLC) was deposited on 316 steel using Nd: YAG laser having energy 300mJ. Pure graphite was used as a target. The vacuum in the deposition chamber was generated in the range of 10-6 mbar by turbo molecular pump. Ratio of sp3 to sp2 content shows amorphous nature of the film. This was confirmed by Raman spectra having two peaks around 1300 cm-1 i.e. D-band to 1700 cm-1 i.e. G-band. If sp3 bonding ratio is high, the films behave like diamond-like whereas, with high sp2, films are graphite-like. The ratio of sp3 and sp2 contents in the film depends upon the deposition method, hydrogen contents and system parameters. The structural study of the film was carried out by XRD. The hardness of the films as measured by Vickers hardness tester and was found to be 28 GPa. The EDX result shows the presence of carbon contents on the surface in high rate and optical microscopy result shows the smoothness of the film on substrate. The film possesses good adhesion and can be used to coat surgical instruments.
119
47639
Low Temperature PVP Capping Agent Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method and Their Properties
Abstract:
We are reporting a simple and low-cost chemical precipitation method adopted to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied on the dried gel sample to record the phase transformation temperature of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 to zinc oxide (ZnO) to obtain the annealing temperature of 800C. The thermal, structure, morphology and optical properties have been employed by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction results confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The two intensive peaks at 160 and 432 cm-1 in the Raman Spectrum are mainly attributed to the first order modes of the wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. The energy band gap obtained from the UV-Vis absorption spectra, shows a blue shift, which is attributed to increase in carrier concentration (Burstein Moss Effect). Photoluminescence studies of the single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, show a strong peak centered at 385 nm, corresponding to the near band edge emission in ultraviolet range. The mixed shape of grapes, sphere, hexagonal and rock like structure has been noticed in FESEM. The results showed that PVP is a suitable capping agent for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles by simple chemical precipitation method.
118
19041
Raman Line Mapping on Melt Spun Polycarbonate/MWNT Fiber-Based Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Raman spectroscopy was used for characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) and Polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotube (PC/MWNT) based fibers with 0.55% and 0.75% of MWNT (PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75). PC/MWNT55 and PC/MWNT75 fibers was prepared by melt spinning device using nanocomposites made by two different route, viz., solvent casting and melt extrusion. Fibers prepared from melt extruded nanocomposites showed smooth and uniform morphology as compared to solvent casting based nanocomposites. The Raman mapping confirmed that the melt extruded based nanocomposites had better dispersion of MWNT in Polycarbonate (PC) than solvent casting carbon nanotube.
117
24790
Optical Properties of Tetrahydrofuran Clathrate Hydrates at Terahertz Frequencies
Abstract:
Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to observe the THF clathrate hydrate system with dosage of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with three different average molecular weights (10,000 g/mol, 40,000 g/mol, 360,000 g/mol). Distinct footprints of phase transition in the THz region (0.4 - 2.2 THz) were analyzed and absorption coefficients and complex refractive indices are obtained and compared in the temperature range of 253 K to 288 K. Along with the optical properties, ring breathing and stretching modes for different molecular weights of PVP in THF hydrate are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.
116
39619
Polydopamine Nanoparticle as a Stable and Capacious Nano-Reservoir of Rifampicin
Abstract:
Application of nanoscience in biomedical field has come across as a new era. This study involves the synthesis of nano drug carrier with antibiotic loading. Based on the founding that polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles could be formed via self-polymerization of dopamine at alkaline pH, one-step synthesis of rifampicin coupled polydopamine (PDA-R) nanoparticles was achieved by adding rifampicin into the dopamine solution. The successful yield of PDA nanoparticles with or without the presence of rifampicin during the polymerization process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Drug loading was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and the loading efficiency of rifampicin was calculated to be 76%. Such highly capacious nano-reservoir was found very stable with little drug leakage at pH 3.
115
112811
Effect of BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ Glass Additive on Structural and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO₃ Ceramics
Abstract:
The effects of xBi₂O₃-yBaO-zP₂O₅ (BBP) glass addition on the sintering, structural, and dielectric properties of BaTiO₃ ceramic (BT) are studied. The BT ceramic was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method while the glasses BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ (BBP) were elaborated by melting and quenching process. Different composites BT-xBBP were formed by mixing the BBP glasses with BT ceramic. For each glass composition, where the ratio (x:y:z) is maintained constant, we have developed three composites with different glass weight percentage (x = 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt %). Addition of the glass helps in better sintering at lower temperatures with the presence of liquid phase at the respective sintering temperatures. The results showed that the sintering temperature decreased from more than 1300°C to 900°C. Density measurements of the composites are performed using the standard Archimedean method with water as medium liquid. It is found that their density and molar volume decrease and increase with glass content, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize their structural approach. This technique has allowed the identification of different structural units of phosphate and the characteristic vibration modes of the BT. The electrical properties of the composite samples are carried out by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz under various temperatures from 300 to 473 K. The obtained results show that their dielectric properties depend both on the content of the glass in the composite and the Bi/P ratio in the glasses.
114
21218
Property of Diamond Coated Tools for Lapping Single-Crystal Sapphire Wafer
Abstract:
Diamond coatings were prepared on cemented carbide by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Lapping experiment of single-crystal sapphire wafer was carried out using the prepared diamond coated tools. The diamond coatings and machined surface of the sapphire wafer were evaluated by SEM, laser confocal microscope and Raman spectrum. The results indicate that the lapping sapphire chips are small irregular debris and long thread-like debris. There is graphitization of diamond crystal during the lapping process. A low surface roughness can be obtained using a spherical grain diamond coated tool.
113
81621
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2
Abstract:
Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.
112
58192
Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles
Abstract:
ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
111
22058
An Approach To Flatten The Gain Of Fiber Raman Amplifiers With Multi-Pumping
Abstract:
The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.
110
37230
Microwave-Assisted 3D Porous Graphene for Its Multi-Functionalities
Abstract:
Porous graphene has extensive potential applications in variety of fields such as hydrogen storage, CO oxidation, gas separation, supercapacitors, fuel cells, nanoelectronics, oil adsorption, and so on. However, the generation of some carbon atoms vacancies for precise small holes have been not extensively studied to prevent the agglomerates of graphene sheets and to obtain porous graphene with high surface area. Recently, many research efforts have been presented to develop physical and chemical synthetic approaches for porous graphene. But physical method has very high cost of manufacture and chemical method consumes so many hours for porous graphene. Herein, we propose a porous graphene contained holes with atomic scale precision by embedding metal nano-particles through microwave irradiation for hydrogen storage and CO oxidation multi- functionalities. This proposed synthetic method is appropriate for fast and convenient production of three dimensional nanostructures, which have nanoholes on the graphene surface in consequence of microwave irradiation. The metal nanoparticles are dispersed quickly on the graphene surface and generated uniform nanoholes on the graphene nanosheets. The morphological and structural characterization of the porous graphene were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and RAMAN spectroscopy, respectively. The metal nanoparticle-embedded porous graphene exhibits a microporous volume of 2.586cm3g-1 with an average pore radius of 0.75 nm. HR-TEM analysis was carried out to further characterize the microstructures. By investigating the RAMAN spectra, we can understand the structural changes of graphene. The results of this work demonstrate a possibility to produce a new class of porous graphene. Furthermore, the newly acquired knowledge for the diffusion into graphene can provide useful guidance for the development of the growth of nanostructure.
109
47969
Understanding Magnetic Properties of Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 Using Local Structure Probes
Abstract:
Co-existence of long-range ferromagnetism and semi-conductivity with correlated behavior of structural, magnetic, optical and electrical properties in various sites doping at CdCr2Se4 makes it a most promising candidate for spin-based electronic applications and magnetic devices. It orders ferromagnetically below TC = 130 K with a direct band gap of ~ 1.5 eV. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct antiferromagnetic Cr-Cr spin couplings and the ferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr exchange interactions. With an aim of understanding the influence of crystal structure on its magnetic properties without disturbing the magnetic site, we investigated four compositions with 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of Sn-substitution at Cd-site. Partial substitution of Cd2+ (0.78Å) by small sized nonmagnetic ion, Sn4+ (0.55Å), is expected to bring about local lattice distortion as well as a change in electronic charge distribution. The structural disorder would affect the Cd/Sn – Se bonds thus affecting the Cr-Cr and Cr-Se-Cr bonds. Whereas, the charge imbalance created due to Sn4+ substitution at Cd2+ leads to the possibility of Cr mixed valence state. Our investigation of the local crystal structure using the EXAFS, Raman spectroscopy and magnetic properties using SQUID magnetometry of the Cd1-xSnxCr2Se4 series reflects this premise. All compositions maintain the Fd3m cubic symmetry with tetrahedral distribution of Sn at Cd-site, as confirmed by XRD analysis. Lattice parameters were determined from the Rietveld refinement technique of the XRD data and further confirmed from the EXAFS spectra recorded at Cr K-edge. Presence of five Raman-active phonon vibrational modes viz. (T2g (1), T2g (2), T2g (3), Eg, A1g) in the Raman spectra further confirms the crystal symmetry. Temperature dependence of the Raman data provides interesting insight to the spin– phonon coupling, known to dominate the magneto-capacitive properties in the parent compound. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the longitudinal damping of Eg mode associated with Se-Cd/Sn-Se bending and T2g (2) mode associated to Cr-Se-Cr interaction, show interesting deviations with respect to increase in Sn substitution. Besides providing the estimate of TC, the magnetic measurements recorded as a function of field provide the values of total magnetic moment for all the studied compositions indicative of formation of multiple Cr valences.
108
108257
Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis
Abstract:
The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.
107
120560
Structural Changes Induced in Graphene Oxide Film by Low Energy Ion Beam Irradiation
Abstract:
Graphene oxide consists of sp³ hybridization along with sp² hybridization due to the presence of different oxygen-containing functional groups on its edges and basal planes. However, its sp³ / sp² hybridization can be tuned by various methods to utilize it in different applications, like transistors, solar cells and biosensors. Ion beam irradiation can also be one of the methods to optimize sp² and sp³ hybridization ratio for its desirable properties. In this work, graphene oxide films were irradiated with 100 keV Argon ions at different fluences varying from 10¹³ to 10¹⁶ ions/cm². Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements showed an increase in crystallinity at the low fluence of 10¹³ ions/cm². Raman spectroscopy performed on irradiated samples determined the defects induced by the ion beam qualitatively. Also, identification of different groups and their removal with different fluences was done using Fourier infrared spectroscopy technique.
106
63334
All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators
Authors:
Abstract:
The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 &mu;m is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-&mu;m laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-&mu;m III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 &mu;m (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 &mu;m)2.
105
18698
Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix
Abstract:
This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.
104
40134
Raman and FTIR Studies of Azobenzene: Experimental and Theoretical Approach
Authors:
Abstract:
Photoisomerization has been attracting to researchers due to its wide range of applications in optical switches, polymeric chains, liquid-crystalline systems and bilayer membranes etc. Azobenzene is a photochromic molecule which exhibits a reversible isomerisation process between its trans and cis isomers of different stability. An investigation has been conducted of the effects of temperature on intensity and position of Raman band of N=N, C-N stretching modes of Azobenzene (AZBN). It was found that the N=N stretching mode of Raman band shape shifts to lower frequency region with the increase in temperature. The Raman intensity was also decreased with the increase of temperature. The change in bandwidth with the increase in temperature has been studied. The FTIR spectrum of the molecule is recorded so as to complement the Raman spectra. In order to investigate the possibility of undergoing dimerization and trimerization as well as the stability of this molecule, ab initio calculation for geometry optimization and vibrational wavenumber calculation have been performed. Theoretically calculated values are found in good agreement with the experimental results.
103
111335
A Non-Destructive TeraHertz System and Method for Capsule and Liquid Medicine Identification
Abstract:
The medicine and drugs has in the past been manufactured to the final products and then used laboratory analysis to verify their quality. However the industry needs crucially a monitoring technique for the final batch to batch quality check. The introduction of process analytical technology (PAT) provides an incentive to obtain real-time information about drugs on the production line, with the following optical techniques being considered: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, mid-infrared spectroscopy with the use of chemometric techniques to quantify the final product. However, presents problems in that the spectra obtained will consist of many combination and overtone bands of the fundamental vibrations observed, making analysis difficult. In this work, we describe a non-destructive system and method for capsule and liquid medicine identification, more particularly, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and/or designed terahertz portable system for identifying different types of medicine in the package of capsule or in liquid medicine bottles. The target medicine can be detected directly, non-destructively and non-invasively.
102
38068
Reflectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface
Abstract:
Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.
101
24607
Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery
Abstract:
The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions.The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.
100
71511
Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells
Abstract:
Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.
99
100272
Growth of Multi-Layered Graphene Using Organic Solvent-PMMA Film as the Carbon Source under Low Temperature Conditions
Abstract:
Multi-layered graphene has been produced under low temperature chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth conditions by utilizing an organic solvent and polymer film source. Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was dissolved in chlorobenzene solvent and used as a drop-cast film carbon source on a quartz slide. A source temperature (Tsource) of 180 &deg;C provided sufficient carbon to grow graphene, as identified by Raman spectroscopy, on clean copper foil catalytic surfaces.&nbsp; Systematic variation of hydrogen gas (H2) flow rate from 25 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to 100 sccm and CVD temperature (Tgrowth) from 400 to 800 &deg;C, yielded graphene films of varying quality as characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The optimal graphene growth parameters were found to occur with a hydrogen flow rate of 75 sccm sweeping the 180 &deg;C source carbon past the Cu foil at 600 &deg;C for 1 min. The deposition at 600 &deg;C with a H2 flow rate of 75 sccm yielded a 2D band peak with ~53.4 cm-1 FWHM and a relative intensity ratio of the G to 2D bands (IG/I2D) of 0.21. This recipe fabricated a few layers of good quality graphene.
98
19437
Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0.1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method
Abstract:
In this work, the effect of particle size on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto combustion method was investigated. The different sized CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved after annealing at different temperature 500, 700 and 900 oC. The structural phases, crystallite size and lattice parameter of synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated increase in particle size with increase of annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy study indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in Gd3+ ions doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two absorption bands in the frequency range around 580 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicated the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Vibrating Sample magnetometer study showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity changes with particle size of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite.
97
95848
The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods
Abstract:
The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.
96
14548
Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant
Abstract:
Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.
95
31977
Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction
Abstract:
Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.
94
78905
Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles
Abstract:
In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
93
110369
Influence of Surface Preparation Effects on the Electrochemical Behavior of 2098-T351 Al–Cu–Li Alloy
Abstract:
The Al-Cu-Li alloys are advanced materials for aerospace application because of their interesting mechanical properties and low density when compared with conventional Al-alloys. However, Al-Cu-Li alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion. The near-surface deformed layer (NSDL) induced by the rolling process during the production of the alloy and its removal by polishing can influence on the corrosion susceptibility of these alloys. In this work, the influence of surface preparation effects on the electrochemical activity of AA2098-T351 (Al–Cu–Li alloy) was investigated using a correlation between surface chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical activity. Two conditions were investigated, polished and as-received surfaces of the alloy. The morphology of the two types of surfaces was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical microscopy. The surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Global electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and EIS technique) and a local electrochemical technique (Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-LEIS) were used to examine the electrochemical activity of the surfaces. The results obtained in this study showed that in the as-received surface, the near-surface deformed layer (NSDL), which is composed of Mg-rich bands, influenced the electrochemical behavior of the alloy. The results showed higher electrochemical activity to the polished surface condition compared to the as-received one.
92
58576
Nanomechanical Characterization of Titanium Alloy Modified by Nitrogen Ion Implantation
Abstract:
An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2&middot;1017 and 4&middot;1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.
91
34539
Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 and CO) Production
Abstract:
In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x) Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x) OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.
90
94750
Amino Acid Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in 1M HCl: Electrochemical, Surface and Density Functional Theory Studies
Abstract:
The amino acids based corrosion inhibitors 2-(3-(carboxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl) acetate (Z-1),2-(3-(1-carboxyethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl) propanoate (Z-2) and 2-(3-(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)-3- phenylpropanoate (Z-3) were synthesized by the reaction of amino acids, glyoxal and formaldehyde, and characterized by the FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized inhibitors was studied by electrochemical (EIS and PDP), surface and DFT methods. The results show, the studied Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 are effective inhibitors, showed the maximum inhibition efficiency of 88.52 %, 89.48 and 96.08% at concentration 200ppm, respectively. The results of potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) study showed that Z-1 act as a cathodic inhibitor, while Z-2 and Z-3 act as mixed type inhibitors. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that zwitterions inhibit the corrosion through adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of synthesized zwitterions on the mild steel surface was followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The formation of zwitterions film on mild steel surface was confirmed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The quantum chemical parameters were used to study the reactivity of inhibitors and supported the experimental results. An inhibitor adsorption model is proposed.
89
32199
Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 & Co) Production
Abstract:
In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x)Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x)OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.
88
15768
Stimulated Raman Scattering of Ultra Intense Hollow Gaussian Beam
Abstract:
Effect of relativistic nonlinearity on stimulated Raman scattering of the propagating laser beam carrying null intensity in center (hollow Gaussian beam) by excited plasma wave are studied in a collisionless plasma. The construction of the equations is done employing the fluid theory which is developed with partial differential equation and Maxwell’s equations. The analysis is done using eikonal method. The phenonmenon of Stimulated Raman scattering is shown along with the excitation of seed plasma wave. The power of plasma wave and back reflectivity is observed for higher order of hollow Gaussian beam. Back reflectivity is studied numerically for various orders of HGLB with different value of plasma density, laser power and beam radius. Numerical analysis shows that these parameters play vital role on reflectivity characteristics.
87
97326
Enhancement of Hydrophobicity of Thermally Evaporated Bi Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition
Abstract:
Surface-dependent properties such as hydrophobicity can be modified significantly by oblique angle deposition technique. Bi thin films were studied for their hydrophobic nature. The effects of oblique angle deposition on structural, surface morphology, electrical and wettability properties of Bi thin films have been studied and a comparison of these physical properties of normally deposited and obliquely deposited Bi films has been carried out in this study. X-ray diffraction studies found that films have highly oriented hexagonal crystal structure and crystallite size is smaller for obliquely deposited (70 nm) film as compared to that of the normally deposited film (111 nm). Raman spectra of the films consist of peaks corresponding to E_g and A_1g first-order Raman modes of bismuth. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the surface roughness of obliquely deposited film is higher as compared to that of normally deposited film. Contact angle measurements revealed that both films are strongly hydrophobic in nature with the contact angles of 105ᵒ and 119ᵒ for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively. Oblique angle deposition enhances the hydrophobicity of the film. The electrical conductivity of the film is significantly reduced by oblique angle deposition. The activation energies for electrical conduction were determined by four-probe measurements and are 0.016 eV and 0.018 eV for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively.
86
89303
Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications
Abstract:
In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
85
45298
Room Temperature Electron Spin Resonance and Raman Study of Nanocrystalline Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O (0.005 < x < 0.05) Synthesized by Pyrophoric Method
Abstract:
Owing to the important potential applications over decades, transition metal (TM: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, V etc.) doped ZnO-based diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) always attract research attention for more and newer investigations. One of the interesting aspects of these materials is to study and understand the magnetic property at room temperature properly, which is very crucial to select a material for any related application. In this regard, Electron spin resonance (ESR) study has been proven to be a powerful technique to investigate the spin dynamics of electrons inside the system, which are responsible for the magnetic behaviour of any system. ESR as well as the Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy studies are also helpful to study the defects present or created inside the system in the form of oxygen vacancy or cluster instrumental in determining the room temperature ferromagnetic property of transition metal doped ZnO system, which can be controlled through varying dopant concentration, appropriate synthesis technique and sintering of the samples. For our investigation, we synthesised Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline samples with composition Zn1-xCux ( 0.005< x < 0.05) by pyrophoric method and sintered at a low temperature of 650 0C. The microwave absorption is studied by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of X-band (9.46 GHz) at room temperature. Systematic analysis of the obtained ESR spectra reveals that all the compositions of Cu-doped ZnO samples exhibit resonance signals of appreciable line widths and g value ~ 2.2, typical characteristic of ferromagnetism in the sample. Raman scattering and the photoluminescence study performed on the samples clearly indicated the presence of pronounced defect related peaks in the respective spectra. Cu doping in ZnO with varying concentration also observed to affect the optical band gap and the respective absorption edges in the UV-Vis spectra. FTIR spectroscopy reveals the Cu doping effect on the stretching bonds of ZnO. To probe into the structural and morphological changes incurred by Cu doping, we have performed XRD, SEM and EDX study, which confirms adequate Cu substitution without any significant impurity phase formation or lattice disorder. With proper explanation, we attempt to correlate the results observed for the structural optical and magnetic behaviour of the Cu-doped ZnO samples. We also claim that our result can be instrumental for appropriate applications of transition metal doped ZnO based DMS in the field of optoelectronics and Spintronics.
84
79133
Detection, Isolation, and Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Acute and Chronic Staphylococcus aureus Infection in an Endothelial Cell Culture Model
Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen, which by entering host cells may evade immunologic host response as well as antimicrobial treatment. In that way, S. aureus can cause persistent intracellular infections which are difficult to treat. Depending on the strain, S. aureus may persist at different intracellular locations like the phagolysosome. The first barrier invading pathogens from the blood stream that they have to cross are the endothelial cells lining the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. Upon proceeding from an acute to a chronic infection, intracellular pathogens undergo certain biochemical and structural changes including a deceleration of metabolic processes to adopt for long-term intracellular survival and the development of a special phenotype designated as small colony variant. In this study, the endothelial cell line Ea.hy 926 was used as a model for acute and chronic S. aureus infection. To this end, Ea.hy 926 cells were cultured on QIAscout™ Microraft Arrays, a special graded cell culture substrate that contains around 12,000 microrafts of 200 µm edge length. After attachment to the substrate, the endothelial cells were infected with GFP-expressing S. aureus for 3 weeks. The acute infection and the development of persistent bacteria was followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning the whole Microraft Array for the presence and for detailed determination of the intracellular location of fluorescent intracellular bacteria every second day. After three weeks of infection representative microrafts containing infected cells, cells with protruded infections and cells that did never show any infection were isolated and fixed for Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation. For comparison, also microrafts with acute infection were isolated. The acquired Raman spectra are correlated with the fluorescence microscopic images to give hints about a) the molecular alterations in endothelial cells during acute and chronic infection compared to non-infected cells, and b) metabolic and structural changes within the pathogen when entering a mode of persistence within host cells. We thank Dr. Ruth Kläver from QIAGEN GmbH for her support regarding QIAscout technology. Financial support by the BMBF via the CSCC (FKZ 01EO1502) and from the DFG via the Jena Biophotonic and Imaging Laboratory (JBIL, FKZ PO 633/29-1, BA 1601/10-1) is highly acknowledged.
83
41587
Photocatalytic Properties of Pt/Er-KTaO3
Abstract:
Photoactive materials have attracted attention due to their potential application in the degradation of environmental pollutants to non-hazardous compounds in an eco-friendly route. Among semiconductor photocatalysts, tantalates such as potassium tantalate (KTaO3) is one of the excellent functional photomaterial. However, tantalates-based materials are less active under visible-light irradiation, the enhancement in photoactivity could be improved with the modification of opto-eletronic properties of KTaO3 by doping rare earth metal (Er) and further photodeposition of noble metal nanoparticles (Pt). Inclusion of rare earth element in orthorhombic structure of tantalate can generate one high-energy photon by absorbing two or more incident low-energy photons, which convert visible-light and infrared-light into the ultraviolet-light to satisfy the requirement of KTaO3 photocatalysts. On the other hand, depositions of noble metal nanoparticles on the surface of semiconductor strongly absorb visible-light due to their surface plasmon resonance, in which their conducting electrons undergo a collective oscillation induced by electric field of visible-light. Furthermore, the high dispersion of Pt nanoparticles, which will be obtained by photodeposition process is additional important factor to improve the photocatalytic activity. The present work is aimed to study the effect of photocatalytic process of the prepared Er-doped KTaO3 and further incorporation of Pt nanoparticles by photodeposition. Moreover, the research is also studied correlations between photocatalytic activity and physico-chemical properties of obtained Pt/Er-KTaO3 samples. The Er-doped KTaO3 microcomposites were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Then photodeposition method was used for Pt loading over Er-KTaO3. The structural and optical properties of Pt/Er-KTaO3 photocatalytic were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), volumetric adsorption method (BET), UV-Vis absorption measurement, Raman spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of Pt/Er-KTaO3 microcomposites were investigated by degradation of phenol in aqueous phase as model pollutant under visible and ultraviolet-light irradiation. Results of this work show that all the prepared photocatalysis exhibit low BET surface area, although doping of the bare KTaO3 with rare earth element (Er) presents a slight increase in this value. The crystalline structure of Pt/Er-KTaO3 powders exhibited nearly identical positions for the main peak at about 22,8o and the XRD pattern could be assigned to an orthorhombic distorted perovskite structure. The Raman spectra of obtained semiconductors confirmed demonstrating perovskite-like structure. The optical absorption spectra of Pt nanoparticles exhibited plasmon absorption band for main peaks at about 216 and 264 nm. The addition of Pt nanoparticles increased photoactivity compared to Er-KTaO3 and pure KTaO3. Summary optical properties of KTaO3 change with its doping Er-element and further photodeposition of Pt nanoparticles.
82
41607
Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2/Ag2O Heterojunction Nanotubes Arrays Obtained by Electrochemical Method
Abstract:
During the last years, TiO2 nanotubes have been widely studied due to their unique highly ordered array structure, unidirectional charge transfer and higher specific surface area compared to conventional TiO2 powder. These photoactive materials, in the form of thin layer, can be activated by low powered and low cost irradiation sources (such as LEDs) to remove VOCs, microorganism and to deodorize air streams. This is possible due to their directly growth on a support material and high surface area, which guarantee enhanced photon absorption together with an extensive adsorption of reactant molecules on the photocatalyst surface. TiO2 nanotubes exhibit also lots of other attractive properties, such as potential enhancement of electron percolation pathways, light conversion, and ion diffusion at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Pure TiO2 nanotubes were previously used to remove organic compounds from the gas phase as well as in water splitting reaction. The major factors limiting the use of TiO2 nanotubes, which have not been fully overcome, are their relatively large band gap (3-3,2 eV) and high recombination rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Many different strategies were proposed to solve this problem, however titania nanostructures containing incorporated metal oxides like Ag2O shows very promising, new optical and photocatalytic properties. Unfortunately, there is still very limited number of reports regarding application of TiO2/MxOy nanostructures. In the present work, we prepared TiO2/Ag2O nanotubes obtained by anodization of Ti-Ag alloys containing 5, 10 and 15 wt. % Ag. Photocatalysts prepared in this way were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), luminescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The activities of new TiO2/Ag2O were examined by photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase reaction and phenol in aqueous phase using 1000 W Xenon lamp (Oriel) and light emitting diodes (LED) as a irradiation sources. Additionally efficiency of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) removal from the gas phase was estimated. The number of surviving bacteria was determined by the serial twofold dilution microtiter plate method, in Tryptic Soy Broth medium (TSB, GibcoBRL).
81
59785
Sol-Gel Erbium-Doped Silica-Hafnia Planar Waveguides
Abstract:
Erbium actived silica-hafnia planar waveguides have been prepared by sol-gel route. The films were deposited on vitreous silica substrates using dip-coating technique. The parameters of preparation have been chosen to optimize the waveguides for operation in the near infrared (NIR) region, and to increase the luminescence efficiency of the metastable 4I13/2 state of Erbium ions. The waveguides properties were determined by m-lines spectroscopy, loss measurements. Waveguide Raman and luminescence spectroscopy were used to obtain information about the structure of the prepared films and about the dynamical process related to the emission in the C telecom band (1530nm-1565nm) of the Erbium ions. The results are discussed with the aim of comparing the structural and optical properties of Erbium activated silica-hafnia planar waveguides with different molar ratio of Si / Hf.
80
22309
Functionalization of Single-Walled Nanotubes by Synthesied Pigments
Abstract:
Water soluble compoundes were attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form water-soluble nano pigments. functionalized SWNTs were then characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UV analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and defunctionalization test and Representative results concerning the solubility. The product can be dissolved in water and High-resolution transmission electron microscope images showed that the SWNTs were efficiently functionalized, thus the p-stacking interaction between aromatic rings and COOH of SWNTs was considered responsible for the high solubility and High transmission electron in singlewall nanotubes.
79
68675
Identification of Membrane Foulants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation for the Treatment of Reject Brine
Abstract:
Management of reverse osmosis (RO) brine has become a major area of research due to the environmental concerns associated with it. This study worked on studying the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system in the treatment of this RO brine. The system displayed great potential in terms of its flux and salt rejection, where different operating conditions such as the feed temperature, feed salinity, feed and permeate flow rates were varied. The highest flux of 16.7 LMH was reported with a salt rejection of 99.5%. Although the DCMD has displayed potential of enhanced water recovery from highly saline solutions, one of the major drawbacks associated with the operation is the fouling of the membranes which impairs the system performance. An operational run of 77 hours for the treatment of RO brine of 56,500 ppm salinity was performed in order to investigate the impact of fouling of the membrane on the overall operation of the system over long time operations. Over this time period, the flux was observed to have reduced by four times its initial flux. The fouled membrane was characterized through different techniques for the identification of the organic and inorganic foulants that have deposited on the membrane surface. The Infrared Spectroscopy method (IR) was used to identify the organic foulants where SEM images displayed the surface characteristics of the membrane. As for the inorganic foulants, they were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The major foulants found on the surface of the membrane were inorganic salts such as sodium chloride and calcium sulfate.
78
109413
Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization
Abstract:
Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.
77
99492
Dielectric, Energy Storage and Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of Tin Doped Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂TiO₃ Lead-Free Ceramics
Abstract:
Lead free Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂SnxTi₁₋ₓO₃ (x = 0.01 and 0.05 mole %) ferroelectric ceramics have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. The room temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns identified the tetragonal phase for x = 0.01 composition whereas co-existence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases for x =0.05 composition. Raman spectroscopy results corroborated with the XRD results at room temperature. The maximum dielectric properties (ɛm ~ 8591, tanδ ~ 0.018) were obtained for the compound with x = 0.01 at 5 kHz. Further, the tetragonal to cubic (TC) transition temperature was observed at 122 °C and 102 °C for the ceramics with x =0.01 and x = 0.05, respectively. The temperature dependent P-E loops also revealed the existence of TC at these particular temperature values. The energy storage density (Ed) of both compounds was calculated from room temperature P – E loops at an applied electric field of 20 kV/cm. The maximum Ed ~ 224 kJ/m³ was achieved for the sample with x = 0.01 as compared to 164 kJ/m³ for the x =0.05 composition. The value of Ed is comparable to other BaTiO₃ based lead free ferroelectric systems. Impedance spectroscopy analysis exhibited the bulk and grain boundary contributions above 300 °C under the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The above properties make these ceramics suitable for energy storage devices.
76
60921
Gate Voltage Controlled Humidity Sensing Using MOSFET of VO2 Particles
Abstract:
This article presents gate-voltage controlled humidity sensing performance of vanadium dioxide nanoparticles prepared from NH4VO3 precursor using microwave irradiation technique. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and Raman analyses reveal the formation of VO2 (B) with V2O5 and an amorphous phase. The BET surface area is found to be 67.67 m2/g. The humidity sensing measurements using the patented lateral-gate MOSFET configuration was carried out. The results show the optimum response at 5 V up to 8 V of gate voltages for 10 to 80% of relative humidity. The dose-response equation reveals the enhanced resilience of the gated VO2 sensor which may saturate above 272% humidity. The response and recovery times are remarkably much faster (about 60 s) than in non-gated VO2 sensors which normally show response and recovery times of the order of 5 minutes (300 s).
75
37845
Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors
Abstract:
The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.
74
100336
Raman Spectroscopic Detection of the Diminishing Toxic Effect of Renal Waste Creatinine by Its in vitro Reaction with Drugs N-Acetylcysteine and Taurine
Abstract:
Creatinine is a toxic chemical waste generated from muscle metabolism. Abnormally high levels of creatinine in the body fluid indicate possible malfunction or failure of the kidneys. This leads to a condition termed as creatinine induced nephrotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine is an antioxidant drug which is capable of preventing creatinine induced nephrotoxicity and is helpful to treat renal failure in its early stages. Taurine is another antioxidant drug which serves similar purpose. The kidneys have a natural power that whenever reactive oxygen species radicals increase in the human body, the kidneys make an antioxidant shell so that these radicals cannot harm the kidney function. Taurine plays a vital role in increasing the power of that shell such that the glomerular filtration rate can remain in its normal level. Thus taurine protects the kidneys against several diseases. However, taurine also has some negative effects on the body as its chloramine derivative is a weak oxidant by nature. N-acetylcysteine is capable of inhibiting the residual oxidative property of taurine chloramine. Therefore, N-acetylcysteine is given to a patient along with taurine and this combination is capable of suppressing the negative effect of taurine. Both N-acetylcysteine and taurine being affordable, safe, and widely available medicines, knowledge of the mechanism of their combined effect on creatinine, the favored route of administration, and the proper dose may be highly useful in their use for treating renal patients. Raman spectroscopy is a precise technique to observe minor structural changes taking place when two or more molecules interact. The possibility of formation of a complex between a drug molecule and an analyte molecule in solution can be explored by analyzing the changes in the Raman spectra. The formation of a stable complex of creatinine with N-acetylcysteinein vitroin aqueous solution has been observed with the help of Raman spectroscopic technique. From the Raman spectra of the mixtures of aqueous solutions of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinein different molar ratios, it is observed that the most stable complex is formed at 1:1 ratio of creatinine andN-acetylcysteine. Upon drying, the complex obtained is gel-like in appearance and reddish yellow in color. The complex is hygroscopic and has much better water solubility compared to creatinine. This highlights that N-acetylcysteineplays an effective role in reducing the toxic effect of creatinine by forming this water soluble complex which can be removed through urine. Since the drug taurine is also known to be useful in reducing nephrotoxicity caused by creatinine, the aqueous solution of taurine with those of creatinine and N-acetylcysteinewere mixed in different molar ratios and were investigated by Raman spectroscopic technique. It is understood that taurine itself does not undergo complexation with creatinine as no additional changes are observed in the Raman spectra of creatinine when it is mixed with taurine. However, when creatinine, N-acetylcysteine and taurine are mixed in aqueous solution in molar ratio 1:1:3, several changes occurring in the Raman spectra of creatinine suggest the diminishing toxic effect of creatinine in the presence ofantioxidant drugs N-acetylcysteine and taurine.
73
31325
Carbonation of Wollastonite (001) competing Hydration: Microscopic Insights from Ion Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory
Authors:
Abstract:
In this work, we report about the influence of the chemical potential of water on the carbonation reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) as model surface of cement and concrete. Total energy calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) combined with kinetic barrier predictions based on nudge elastic band (NEB) method show that the exposure of the water-free wollastonite surface to CO2 results in a barrier-less carbonation. CO2 reacts with the surface oxygen and forms carbonate (CO32-) complexes together with a major reconstruction of the surface. The reaction comes to a standstill after one carbonate monolayer has been formed. In case one water monolayer is covering the wollastonite surface, the carbonation is no more barrier-less, yet ending in a localized monolayer. Covered with multilayers of water, the thermodynamic ground state of the wollastonite completely changes due to a metal-proton exchange reaction (MPER, also called early stage hydration) and Ca2+ ions are partially removed from solid phase into the H2O/wollastonite interface. Mobile Ca2+ react again with CO2 and form carbonate complexes, ending in a delocalized layer. By means of high resolution time-of-flight secondary-ion mass-spectroscopy images (ToF-SIMS), we confirm that hydration can lead to a partially delocalization of Ca2+ ions on wollastonite surfaces. Finally, we evaluate the impact of our model surface results by means of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) spectroscopy combined with careful discussion about the competing reactions of carbonation vs. hydration.
72
104826
Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments
Abstract:
The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.
71
28445
Study of Aqueous Solutions: A Dielectric Spectroscopy Approach
Abstract:
The time domain dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (TDRS) probes the interaction of a macroscopic sample with a time-dependent electrical field. The resulting complex permittivity spectrum, characterizes amplitude (voltage) and time scale of the charge-density fluctuations within the sample. These fluctuations may arise from the reorientation of the permanent dipole moments of individual molecules or from the rotation of dipolar moieties in flexible molecules, like polymers. The time scale of these fluctuations depends on the sample and its relative relaxation mechanism. Relaxation times range from some picoseconds in low viscosity liquids to hours in glasses, Therefore the DRS technique covers an extensive dynamical process, its corresponding frequency range from 10-4 Hz to 1012 Hz. This inherent ability to monitor the cooperative motion of molecular ensemble distinguishes dielectric relaxation from methods like NMR or Raman spectroscopy which yield information on the motions of individual molecules. An experimental set up for Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique from 10 MHz to 30 GHz has been developed for the aqueous solutions. This technique has been very simple and covers a wide band of frequencies in the single measurement. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy is especially sensitive to intermolecular interactions. The complex permittivity spectra of aqueous solutions have been fitted using Cole-Davidson (CD) model to determine static dielectric constants and relaxation times for entire concentrations. The heterogeneous molecular interactions in aqueous solutions have been discussed through Kirkwood correlation factor and excess properties.
70
78729
Influence of Graphene Content on Corrosion Behavior of Electrodeposited Zinc–Graphene Composite Coatings
Abstract:
Zinc coating as a sacrificial protection plays an important role in the traditional steel anticorrosion field. Adding second-phase reinforcement particles into zinc matrix is an interesting approach to further enhance its corrosion performance. In this paper, pure Zn and Zn–graphene composite coatings of different graphene contents were prepared by direct current electrodeposition on 304 stainless steel substrate. The coatings were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDS, and Raman spectroscopy. Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods were used to study their corrosion behavior. Result obtained have shown that the concentration of grapheme oxide (GO) in zinc sulfate bath has an important effect on textured structure and surface morphology of Zn–graphene composite coatings. The coating prepared with 1.0g/L GO has shown the best corrosion resistance compared to other coatings prepared in this study.
69
28804
Optical Characterization of Erbium-Mixed Silicon Nanocrystals
Abstract:
The structural characterization of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) have been carried out using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm. Erbium trichloride was added to silicon nano crystals using a simple chemical procedure. Erbium is useful in this context because it has a narrow emission band at ⋍1536 nm which corresponds to a standard optical telecommunication wavelength. The optical properties of SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples exhibit an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that arise from radiative recombination of Si. Erbium-mixed SiNCs also shows a weak PL emission peak at ⋍1536 nm that attributed to the intra-4f transition in erbium ions. The intensity of the PL peak of Si in erbium-mixed SiNCs is increased in the intensity up to ×3 as compared to pure SiNCs. It was observed that intensity of 1536 nm peak decreased dramatically in the presence of silicon nano crystals and the PL emission peak of silicon nano crystals is increased. Therefore, the resulted data present that the energy transfer from erbium ions to SiNCs due to the chemical mixing method which used in this work.
68
96414
Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite for Methylene Blue Adsorption
Abstract:
In the present study, a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO-CS) composite material was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized GO-CS adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of MB was conducted in batch mode. The effect of parameters influencing the adsorption of MB such as pH of the solution, initial MB concentration, shaking speed, contact time and adsorbent dosage were studied. The results showed that the GO-CS composite material has high adsorption capacity of 196 mg/g of MB solution at pH 9.0. Further, the adsorption of MB on GO-CS followed pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium adsorption data well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The study suggests that the GO-CS is a favorable adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.
67
117204
Synthesis and Characterization of an Aerogel Based on Graphene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol
Abstract:
Graphene, and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO), are emerging nanoscopic materials, with interesting physical and chemical properties. From them, it is possible to develop three-dimensional macrostructures, such as aerogels, which are characterized by a low density, high porosity, and large surface area, having a promising structure for the development of materials. The use of GO as a precursor of these structures provides a wide variety of materials, which can be developed as a result of the functionalization of their oxygenated groups, with specific compounds such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). The synthesis of aerogels of GO-PEG for non-covalent interactions has not yet been widely reported, being of interest due to its feasible escalation and economic viability. Thus, this work aims to develop a non-covalently functionalized GO-PEG aerogels and characterize them physicochemically. In order to get this, the GO was synthesized from the modified hummers method and it was functionalized with the PEG by polymer-assisted GO gelation (crosslinker). The gelation was obtained for GO solutions (10 mg/mL) with the incorporation of PEG in different proportions by weight. The hydrogel resulting from the reaction was subsequently lyophilized, to obtain the respective aerogel. The material obtained was chemically characterized by analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images; as well as water absorption tests. The results obtained showed the formation of a non-covalent aerogel (FTIR), whose structure was highly porous (SEM) and with a water absorption values greater than 50% g/g. Thus, a methodology of synthesis for GO-PEG was developed and validated.
66
61850
Synthesis of Mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ Nanocomposites as Efficient Photocatalyst for Treatment Industrial Wastewater under Visible Light and UV Illumination
Abstract:
Advanced oxidation technologies are an environment friendly approach for the remediation of industrial wastewaters. Here, one pot synthesis of mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites at different In₂O₃ contents (0-3 wt%) have been synthesized through a facile sol-gel method to evaluate their photocatalytic performance for the degradation of the imazapyr herbicide and phenol under visible light and UV illumination compared with commercially available either Degussa P-25 or UV-100 Hombikat. The prepared mesoporous In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, STEM, XRD, Raman FT-IR, Raman spectra and diffuse reflectance UV-visible. The bandgap energy of the prepared photocatalysts was derived from the diffuse reflectance spectra. XRD Raman's spectra confirmed that highly crystalline anatase TiO₂ phase was formed. TEM images show TiO₂ particles are quite uniform with 10±2 nm sizes with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO₂ exhibits large pore volumes of 0.267 cm³g⁻¹ and high surface areas of 178 m²g⁻¹, but they become reduced to 0.211 cm³g⁻¹ and 112 m²g⁻¹, respectively upon In₂O₃ incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 5 - 7 nm. The 0.5% In₂O₃-TiO₂ nanocomposite is considered to be the optimum photocatalyst which is able to degrade 90% of imazapyr herbicide and phenol along 180 min and 60 min respectively. The proposed mechanism of this system and the role of In₂O₃ are explained by details.
65
64347
Mesoporous BiVO4 Thin Films as Efficient Visible Light Driven Photocatalyst
Abstract:
Photocatalytic processes play key role in the production of a new source of energy (as hydrogen), design of self-cleaning surfaces or for the environment preservation. The most challenging task deals with the purification of water distinguished by high efficiency. In the mentioned process, organic pollutants in solutions are decomposed to the simple, non-toxic compounds as H2O and CO2. The most known photocatalytic materials are ZnO, CdS and TiO2 semiconductors with a particular involvement of TiO2 as an efficient photocatalysts even with a high band gap equal to 3.2 eV which exploit only UV radiation from solar emitted spectrum. However, promising material with visible light induced photoactivity was searched through the monoclinic polytype of BiVO4 which has energy gap about 2.4 eV. As required in heterogeneous photocatalysis, the high contact surface is required. Also, BiVO4 as photocatalyst can be optimized by increasing its surface area by achieving the mesoporous structure synthesize. The main goal of the present work consists in the synthesis and characterization of BiVO4 mesoporous thin film. The synthesis method based on sol-gel was carried out using a standard surfactants such as P123 and F127. The thin film was deposited by spin and dip coating method. Then, the structural analysis of the obtained material was performed thanks to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface of resulting structure was investigated using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The computer simulations based on modeling the optical and electronic properties of bulk BiVO4 by using DFT (density functional theory) methodology were carried out. The semiempirical parameterized method PM6 was used to compute the physical properties of BiVO4 nanostructures. The Raman and IR absorption spectra were also measured for synthesized mesoporous material, and the results were compared with the theoretical predictions. The simulations of nanostructured BiVO4 have pointed out the occurrence of quantum confinement for nanosized clusters leading to widening of the band gap. This result overcame the relevance of nanosized objects to harvest wide part of the solar spectrum. Also, a balance was searched experimentally through the mesoporous nature of the films devoted to enhancing the contact surface as required for heterogeneous catalysis without to lower the nanocrystallite size under some critical sizes inducing an increased band gap. The present contribution will discuss the relevant features of the mesoporous films with respect to their photocatalytic responses.
64
41976
Comparison of the Toxicity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles in Murine Fibroblasts
Abstract:
Nanotechnologies are considered the most promising fields with high added value, brings new possibilities in various sectors from industry to medicine. With the growing of interest in nanomaterials and their applications, increasing nanoparticle production leads to increased exposure of people and environment with ‘human made’ nanoparticles. Nanoparticles (NPs) are clusters of atoms in the size range of 1–100 nm. Metal nanoparticles represent one of the most important and frequently used types of NPs due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties, which significantly differ from those of bulk material. Biological properties including toxicity of metal nanoparticles are generally determined by their size, size distribution, shape, surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry, stability in the environment and ability to release metal ions. Therefore, the biological behavior of NPs and their possible adverse effect cannot be derived from the bulk form of material because nanoparticles show unique properties and interactions with biological systems just due to their nanodimensions. Silver and gold NPs are intensively studied and used. Both can be used for instance in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a considerable number of applications of silver NPs is associated with antibacterial effects, while gold NPs are associated with cancer treatment and bio imaging. Antibacterial effects of silver ions are known for centuries. Silver ions and silver-based compounds are highly toxic to microorganisms. Toxic properties of silver NPs are intensively studied, but the mechanism of cytoxicity is not fully understood. While silver NPs are considered toxic, gold NPs are referred to as toxic but also innocuous for eukaryotic cells. Therefore, gold NPs are used in various biological applications without a risk of cell damaging, even when we want to suppress the growth of cancer cells. Thus, gold NPs are toxic or harmless. Because most studies comparing particles of various sizes prepared in various ways, and testing is performed on different cell lines, it is very difficult to generalize. The novelty and significance of our research is focused to the complex biological effects of silver and gold NPs prepared by the same method, have the same parameters and the same stabilizer. That is why we can compare the biological effects of pure nanometals themselves based on their chemical nature without the influence of other variable. Aim of our study therefore is to compare the cytotoxic effect of two types of noble metal NPs focusing on the mechanisms that contribute to cytotoxicity. The study was conducted on murine fibroblasts by selected common used tests. Each of these tests monitors the selected area related to toxicity and together provides a comprehensive view on the issue of interactions of nanoparticles and living cells.
63
90278
Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Abstract:
Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.
62
32955
Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC
Abstract:
n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.
61
94221
Surface Characterization of Zincblende and Wurtzite Semiconductors Using Nonlinear Optics
Abstract:
Current progress in the field of nonlinear optics has enabled precise surface characterization in semiconductor materials. Nonlinear optical techniques are favorable due to their nondestructive measurement and ability to work in nonvacuum and ambient conditions. The advance of the bond hyperpolarizability models opens a wide range of nanoscale surface investigation including the possibility to detect molecular orientation at the surface of silicon and zincblende semiconductors, investigation of electric field induced second harmonic fields at the semiconductor interface, detection of surface impurities, and very recently, study surface defects such as twin boundary in wurtzite semiconductors. In this work, we show using nonlinear optical techniques, e.g. nonlinear bond models how arbitrary polarization of the incoming electric field in Rotational Anisotropy Spectroscopy experiments can provide more information regarding the origin of the nonlinear sources in zincblende and wurtzite semiconductor structure. In addition, using hyperpolarizability consideration, we describe how the nonlinear susceptibility tensor describing SHG can be well modelled using only few parameter because of the symmetry of the bonds. We also show how the third harmonic intensity feature shows considerable changes when the incoming field polarization angle is changed from s-polarized to p-polarized. We also propose a method how to investigate surface reconstruction and defects in wurtzite and zincblende structure at the nanoscale level.
60
17922
Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Abstract:
Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
59
66802
Surface Modification of Poly High Internal Phase Emulsion by Solution Plasma Process for CO2 Adsorption
Abstract:
An increase in the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emission has been a concerned problem so far. Adsorption using porous materials is feasible way to reduce the content of CO2 emission into the atmosphere due to several advantages: low energy consumption in regeneration process, low-cost raw materials and, high CO2 adsorption capacity. In this work, the porous poly(divinylbenzene) (poly(DVB)) support was synthesized under high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization then modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) by using solution plasma process. These porous polymers were then used as adsorbents for CO2 adsorption study. All samples were characterized by some techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurement and, surface area analyzer. The results of FT-IR and a decrease in contact angle, pore volume and, surface area of PEI-loaded materials demonstrated that surface of poly(DVB) support was modified. In other words, amine groups were introduced to poly(DVB) surface. In addition, not only the outer surface of poly(DVB) adsorbent was modified, but also the inner structure as shown by FT-IR study. As a result, PEI-loaded materials exhibited higher adsorption capacity, comparing with those of the unmodified poly(DVB) support.
58
61781
Material Analysis for Temple Painting Conservation in Taiwan
Abstract:
For traditional painting materials, the artisan used to combine the pigments with different binders to create colors. As time goes by, the materials used for painting evolved from natural to chemical materials. The vast variety of ingredients used in chemical materials has complicated restoration work; it makes conservation work more difficult. Conservation work also becomes harder when the materials cannot be easily identified; therefore, it is essential that we take a more scientific approach to assist in conservation work. Paintings materials are high molecular weight polymer, and their analysis is very complicated as well other contamination such as smoke and dirt can also interfere with the analysis of the material. The current methods of composition analysis of painting materials include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), each of which has its own limitation. In this study, FT-IR was used to analyze the components of the paint coating. We have taken the most commonly seen materials as samples and deteriorated it. The aged information was then used for the database to exam the temple painting materials. By observing the FT-IR changes over time, we can tell all of the painting materials will be deteriorated by the UV light, but only the speed of its degradation had some difference. From the deterioration experiment, the acrylic resin resists better than the others. After collecting the painting materials aging information on FT-IR, we performed some test on the paintings on the temples. It was found that most of the artisan used tune-oil for painting materials, and some other paintings used chemical materials. This method is now working successfully on identifying the painting materials. However, the method is destructive and high cost. In the future, we will work on the how to know the painting materials more efficiently.
57
92381
Antireflection Performance of Graphene Directly Deposited on Silicon Substrate by the Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Method
Abstract:
Transfer-free synthesis of graphene on dielectric substrates is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, by using a thin sacrificial platinum layer as a catalyst, graphene was deposited on a silicon substrate through a simple and transfer-free synthesis method. During graphene growth, the platinum layer evaporated, resulting in direct deposition of graphene on the silicon substrate. In this work, different growth conditions of graphene were optimized. Raman spectra of the produced graphene indicated that the obtained graphene was bilayer. The sheet resistance obtained from four-point probe measurements demonstrated that the deposited graphene had high conductivity. Reflectance spectroscopy of graphene-coated silicon showed a decrease in reflectance across the wavelength range of 200-800 nm, indicating that the graphene coating on the silicon surface had antireflection capabilities.
56
49534
Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.
55
106766
Photocatalytic CO₂ Reduction on 2D SNS₂ Thin Films
Abstract:
Among the several approaches, the gas phase photocatalytic conversion of CO₂ to useful fuels with the help of renewable energy source and water vapor has attracted widespread attention and is considered to be the best alternative to tackle both energy and global environmental challenges. In this report, a chemical vapor transport (CVT) grown 2D SnS₂ thin film is prepared and used as a semiconductor photocatalyst for CO₂ reduction. The as-grown SnS₂ sample is doped with a controlled amount of carbon using ion implantation operated at 5 keV energy. SnS₂ based devices are prepared to in-situ study the adsorbate and catalyst surface interactions using a dark current response while the devices are exposed to CO₂, H₂O, and CO₂+H₂O respectively. Similarly, the charge transfer behavior is studied using wavelength-dependent photocurrent response under different wavelength light exposures. Additional information on the mechanism of interfacial charge transfer was obtained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The structural changes of SnS₂ and the hydrocarbon formation during photocatalytic CO₂ reduction are also observed using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The 1 wt % carbon implanted SnS₂ (C-SnS₂) film has demonstrated very high photocatalytic activity and product selectivity towards the gas-phase photocatalytic conversion of CO₂ under simulated solar light. The C-SnS₂ has exhibited more than 26 times enhancement in the total quantum efficiency and more than 90% product selectivity for CH₃CHO formation as compared to the as-grown SnS₂ sample. The improved photocatalytic activity and selectivity can be ascribed due to pronounced charge-transfer taking place between SnS₂ and carbon and improved carrier lifetime with the availability of highly reactive carbon sites that serve as favorable CO₂ adsorption sites during the photocatalytic reaction. The detail characterization and experimental results with the future perspective of this study will be presented.
54
78247
An Advanced Approach to Detect and Enumerate Soil-Transmitted Helminth Ova from Wastewater
Abstract:
Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health and welfare. More than two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including the roundworms (Ascaris), hookworms (Necator and Ancylostoma) and whipworm (Trichuris) with majority occurring in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its low prevalence in developed countries, the removal of STHs from wastewater remains crucial to allow the safe use of sludge or recycled water in agriculture. Conventional methods such as incubation and optical microscopy are cumbersome; consequently, the results drastically vary from person-to-person observing the ova (eggs) under microscope. Although PCR-based methods are an alternative to conventional techniques, it lacks the ability to distinguish between viable and non-viable helminth ova. As a result, wastewater treatment industries are in major need for radically new and innovative tools to detect and quantify STHs eggs with precision, accuracy and being cost-effective. In our study, we focus on the following novel and innovative techniques: -Recombinase polymerase amplification and Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (RPA-SERS) based detection of helminth ova. -Use of metal nanoparticles and their relative nanozyme activity. -Colorimetric detection, differentiation and enumeration of genera of helminth ova using hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase and lipase). -Propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR to detect viable helminth ova. -Modified assay to recover and enumerate helminth eggs from fresh raw sewage. -Transcriptome analysis of ascaris ova in fresh raw sewage. The aforementioned techniques have the potential to replace current conventional and molecular methods thereby producing a standard protocol for the determination and enumeration of helminth ova in sewage sludge.
53
30502
A Study on the Synthesis of Boron Nitride Microtubes
Abstract:
A unique cone-like morphologies of boron nitride microtubes with larger internal space and thin walls structure are synthesized in a dual zone quartz tube furnace at 1200 ° C with ammonia as a reaction atmosphere. The synthesized microtubes are found to have diameter in the range of 1 to ̴ 2 μm with walls thickness estimated from 10 – 100 nm. XPS survey shows N 1s and B 1s peaks at 398.7 eV and 191 eV that represent h-BN in the sample. Raman spectroscopy indicates a high intensity peak at 1372.53 (cm-1) that corresponds to the E2g mode of h-BN.
52
75769
Modification of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Induced by Focused Laser Beam
Abstract:
Hexagonal boron nitride is a representative of a widely popular class of two-dimensional Van Der Waals materials. It finds its uses, among others, in construction of complexly layered heterostructures. Hexagonal boron nitride attracts great interest because of its properties characteristic for wide-gap semiconductors as well as an ultra-flat surface.Van Der Waals heterostructures composed of two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides or graphene give hope for miniaturization of various electronic and optoelectronic elements. In our presentation, we will show the results of our investigations of the not previously reported modification of the hexagonal boron nitride layers with focused laser beam. The electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) images reveal that the irradiation leads to changes of the local electric fields for a wide range of laser wavelengths (from 442 to 785 nm). These changes are also accompanied by alterations of crystallographic structure of the material, as reflected by Raman spectra. They exhibit high stability and remain visible after at least five months. This behavior can be explained in terms of photoionization of the defect centers in h-BN which influence non-uniform electrostatic field screening by the photo-excited charge carriers. Analyzed changes influence local defect structure, and thus the interatomic distances within the lattice. These effects can be amplified by the piezoelectric character of hexagonal boron nitride, similar to that found in nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN). Our results shed new light on the optical properties of the hexagonal boron nitride, in particular, those associated with electron-phonon coupling. Our study also opens new possibilities for h-BN applications in layered heterostructures where electrostatic fields can be used in tailoring of the local properties of the structures for use in micro- and nanoelectronics or field-controlled memory storage. This work is supported by National Science Centre project granted on the basis of the decision number DEC-2015/16/S/ST3/00451.
51
10258
Microwave Synthesis, Optical Properties and Surface Area Studies of NiO Nanoparticles
Abstract:
We report here the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles by microwave-assisted method, using a common precipitating agent followed by calcination in air at 400°C. The effect of the microwave and pH on the crystallite size, morphology, structure, energy band gap and surface area of NiO have been investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and BET surface area studies. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monophasic and highly crystalline cubic NiO. TEM analysis led to decrease the average grain size of NiO nanoparticles from 16.5 nm to 14 nm on increasing the amount of NaOH. FTIR studies also confirm the formation of NiO nanoparticles. It was observed that on increasing the volume of NaOH, the optical band gap energy (2.85 eV to 2.95 eV) and specific surface area (33.1 to 39.8 m2/g) increases, however the average particles size decreases (16.5 nm to 14 nm). This method may be extended to large scale synthesis of other metal oxides nanoparticles and the present study could be used for the potential applications in water treatment and many other fields.
50
40350
Influence of Electrode Assembly on Catalytic Activation and Deactivation of a PT Film Immobilized H+ Conducting Solid Electrolyte in Electrocatalytic Reduction Reactions
Abstract:
Symmetric (Cu–Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) and asymmetric(Pt|Nafion|Pt–Cu) assemblies were fabricated to study the nitrate reduction processes at the cathode. The electrocatalytic nitrate reduction reactions were performed in these assemblies in order to investigate the prerequisite for the enhanced catalytic activity, electrochemical cell durability as well as preferable product selectivity resulting from the reduction of nitrate at the cathode. It has been observed for the symmetric assembly that Cu particles were oxidized on the anode surface under an applied potential and the resulting copper ions migrated to the cathode surface through the Nafion membrane, which deposited as copper oxide on the cathode surface. The formation of this copper oxide covering layer on the Pt–Cu cathode surface is attributed as the reason for the deactivation of the cathode that governed the reduced nitrate reduction along with increasing nitrite selectivity. These problems were addressed and resolved with the asymmetric design of the electrocatalytic reactor, where enhanced hydrogen evolution activates the surface by eroding the CuO over layer as well as speeding up the slow rate determining hydrogenation reactions.
49
112763
Characterization of a Pure Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposited by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition
Abstract:
This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.
48
43159
Micro-Arc Oxidation Titanium and Post Treatment by Cold Plasma and Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Biomedical Application
Abstract:
Titanium and its alloy are widely used in many fields such as dentistry or orthopaedics. Due to their high strength low elastic modulus that chemical inertness and bio inert. The micro-arc oxidation used to formation a micro porous ceramic oxide layer film on Titanium surface and also to improve the resistance corrosion. For improving the biocompatibility, micro-arc oxidation surfaces bio-inert need to introduce reactive group. We introduced boundary layer by used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and organic active layer by UV light graft reactive monomer acrylic acid (AAc) therefore we can immobilize Chondroitin sulphate on surface easily by crosslinking EDC/NHS. The surface properties and composition of the modified layer were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and water contact angle. Water contact angle of the plasma-treated Ti surface decreases from 60° to 38°, which is an indication of hydrophilicity. The results of electrochemical polarization analysis showed that the sample plasma treated at micro-arc oxidation after plasma treatment has the best corrosion resistance. The result showed that we can immobilize chondroitin sulfate successful by a series of modification and MTT assay indicated the biocompatibility has been improved in this study.
47
63074
High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon
Abstract:
The ever-increasing energy demand has made research to develop high performance energy storage systems that are able to fulfill energy needs. Supercapacitors have potential applications as portable energy storage devices. In recent years, there have been huge research interests to enhance the performances of supercapacitors via exploiting novel promising carbon precursors, tailoring textural properties of carbons, exploiting various electrolytes and device types. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited BET surface area of 1,901 m² g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The high surface area OP-AC accommodates more ions in the electrodes and its well-developed porous structure facilitates fast diffusion of ions which subsequently enhance electrochemical performance. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg⁻¹. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 8.0 Wh kg⁻¹ and 16.3 Wh kg⁻¹, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g⁻¹ were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry analysis, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments. The presence of functional groups is also corroborated from the FTIR spectroscopy. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. Overall, the intriguing properties of OP-AC make it a new alternative promising electrode material for the development of high energy lithium ion capacitors from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste. The authors gratefully acknowledge Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)/ Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore for funding support.
46
24863
Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Polyaniline Films for Improved Dielectric Properties
Abstract:
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a well-known material for remarkable mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals and superior ferroelectric performances. This endows PVDF the potential for application in supercapacitor devices. The dielectric properties of PVDF, however, are not very high. To improve the dielectric properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Piezoelectric polymer nanocomposites are prepared without affecting the other useful properties of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as a filler material to prepare the nanocomposites. PVDF-PANI nanocomposite films were prepared using solvent cast method with different volume fractions of PANI varying from 0.04% to 0.048% of PANI content. The films are characterized for structural, mechanical, and surface morphological properties using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, Raman spectra, Infrared spectra, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, prepared films were in β-phase. The DSC scans indicated that the degree of crystallinity in PVDF-PANI is improved. Raman and Infrared spectrum further confirm the presence of β-phase of PVDF-PANI film. Tensile properties of PVDF-PANI films were in good agreement with those reported in literature. The surface feature shows that PANI is uniformly distributed in PVDF and also results in disappearance of spherulites. The influence of volume fraction of PANI in PVDF on dielectric properties was analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of PVDF-PANI (120) was much higher than that of PVDF (12). The sensitivity of these films was studied on application of a pressure and a constant output voltage was obtained.
45
6143
Magnetite Nanoparticles Immobilized Pectinase: Preparation, Characterization and Application for the Fruit Juices Clarification
Abstract:
In this work, pectinase was immobilized on the surface of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles via covalent attachment. The magnetite-immobilized enzyme was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. Response surface methodology using Minitab Software was applied for statistical designing of operating conditions in order to immobilize pectinase on magnetic nanoparticles. The optimal conditions were obtained at 30°C and pH 5.5 with 42.97 µl pectinase for 2 h. The immobilization yield was 50.6% at optimized conditions. Compared to the free pectinase, the immobilized pectinase was found to exhibit enhanced enzyme activity, better tolerance to the variation of pH and temperature, and improved storage stability. Both free and immobilized samples reduced the viscosity of apple juice from 1.12 to 0.88 and 0.92 mm2s-1, respectively, after 30 min at their optimum temperature. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could be reused six consecutive cycles and the efficiency loss in viscosity reduction was found to be only 8.16%.
44
78456
Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template
Abstract:
The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).
43
80370
Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour Extrudates: Characterisation Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 10-20 %, 60-80 °C, 200-300 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 80°C, 250 rpm and 15% feed moisture. FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. FTIR analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary protein structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.
42
103300
Pt Decorated Functionalized Acetylene Black as Efficient Cathode Material for Li Air Battery and Fuel Cell Applications
Abstract:
Efficiency of energy converting and storage systems like fuel cells and Li-Air battery principally depended on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which occurs at cathode. As the kinetics of the ORR is very slow, it becomes the rate determining step. Exploring carbon substrates for enhancing the dispersion and activity of the metal catalyst and commercially viable simple preparation method is a very crucial area of research in the field of energy materials. Hence, many researchers made large number of carbon-based ORR materials today. But, there are hardly few studies on the effect of interaction between Pt-carbon and carbon-electrolyte on activity. In this work, we have prepared functionalized carbon-based Pt catalyst (Pt-FAB) with enhanced interfacial properties that lead to efficient ORR catalysis. The present work deals with a single-pot method to exfoliate and functionalized acetylene black with enhanced interaction with Pt as well as electrolyte. Acetylene black was functionalized and exfoliated using a facile single pot acid treatment method. The resulted FAB was further decorated with Pt-nano particles (Pt-np). The TEM images of Pt-FAB with uniformly decorated Pt-np of ~3 nm. Further, XPS studies of Pt 4f peak revealed that Pt0 peak was shifted by 0.4 eV in Pt-FAB compared to binding energy of typical Pt⁰ found in Pt/C. The shift can be ascribed to the modulation of electronic state and strong electronic interaction of Pt with carbon. Modulated electronic structure of Pt and strong electronic interaction of Pt with FAB enhances the catalytic activity and durability respectively. To understand the electrode electrolyte interface, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out. These measurements revealed that the charge transfer resistance of electrode to electrolyte for Pt-FAB is 10 times smaller than that of conventional Pt/C. The interaction with electrolyte helps reduce the interface boundaries, which in turn affects the overall catalytic performance of the electrode. Cyclic voltammetric measurements in 0.1M HClO₄ aq. at a potential scan rate of 50 mVs-1 was employed to evaluate electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of Pt. ECSA of Pt-FAB was found to be as high as 67.2 m²g⁻¹. The three-electrode system showed very high ORR catalytic activity. Mass activity at 0.9 V vs. RHE showed 460 A/g which is much higher than the DOE target values for the year 2020. Further, it showed enhanced performance by showing 723 mW/cm² of highest power density and 1006 mA/cm² of current density at 0.6 V in fuel cell single cell type configuration and 1030 mAhg⁻¹ of rechargeable capacity in Li air battery application. The higher catalytic activity can be ascribed to the improved interaction of FAB with Pt and electrolyte. The aforementioned results evince that Pt-FAB will be a promising cathode material for efficient ORR with significant cyclability for its application in fuel cells and Li-Air batteries. In conclusion, a disordered material was prepared from AB and was systematically characterized. The extremely high ORR activity and ease of preparation make it competent for replacing commercially available ORR materials.
41
34731
Streptavidin-Biotin Attachment on Modified Silicon Nanowires
Abstract:
Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the development of biosensors. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication technologies are increasingly being used to design novel biosensors. Sensitivity and other attributes of biosensors can be improved by using nanomaterials with unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties in their construction. Silicon is a promising biomaterial that is non-toxic and biodegradable and can be exploited in chemical and biological sensing. Present study demonstrated the streptavidin–biotin interaction on silicon surfaces with different topographies such as flat and nanostructured silicon (nanowires) surfaces. Silicon nanowires with wide range of surface to volume ratio were prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer. The large specific surface of silicon nanowires can be chemically modified to link different molecular probes (DNA strands, enzymes, proteins and so on), which recognize the target analytes, in order to enhance the selectivity and specificity of the sensor device. The interaction of streptavidin with biotin was carried out on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) functionalized silicon surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been performed to characterize the surface characteristics to ensure the protein attachment. Silicon nanowires showed the enhance protein attachment, as compared to flat silicon surface due to its large surface area and good molecular penetration to its surface. The methodology developed herein could be generalized to a wide range of protein-ligand interactions, since it is relatively easy to conjugate biotin with diverse biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, peptides, and nucleotides.
40
84274
The Synthesis of AgInS₂/SnS₂ Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Norfloxacin
Abstract:
AgInS₂/SnS₂ (AIS) nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of the fabricated AIS nanocomposites were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the as-prepared AIS photocatalysts exhibited excellent photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR), mainly due to its high optical absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, as evidenced by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectra. Furthermore, the interfacial charges transfer mechanism was also discussed by DFT calculations.
39
98985
Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy
Abstract:
Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.
38
99277
Dielectric, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Elastomer Filled with in situ Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide and Spinel Ferrite NiFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles
Abstract:
The elastomer nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method with an elastomer as a matrix and in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as filler. Spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were prepared by the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The influence of filler on the microstructure, morphology, dielectric, electrical and magnetic properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel Ferrite-Elastomer nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Dielectric Impedance analyzer, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the fillers were incorporated in elastomer matrix homogeneously. The dielectric constant and dielectric tangent loss of nanocomposites was decreased with the increase of frequency, whereas, the dielectric constant increases with the addition of filler. Further, AC conductivity was increased with the increase of frequency and addition of fillers. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites exhibited ferromagnetic behavior. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
37
75785
Investigation of Doping of CdSe QDs in Organic Semiconductor for Solar Cell Applications
Abstract:
Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by solvothermal route. Subsequently a inorganic QDs-organic semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) nanocomposite (i.e CuPc:CdSe nanocomposites) were produced by different concentration of QDs varied in CuPc. The nanocomposite thin films have been prepared by means of spin coating technique. The optical, structural and morphological properties of nanocomposite films have been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of QDs having average size of  4 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits cubic crystal structure of CdSe with reflection to (111), (220) and (311) at 25.4ᵒ, 42.2ᵒ and 49.6ᵒ respectively. The additional peak observed at lower angle at 6.9ᵒ in nanocomposite thin films are associated to CuPc. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observed that surface morphology varied in increasing concentration of CdSe QDs. The obtained nanocomposite show significant improvement in the thermal stability as compared to the pure CuPc indicated by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in thermograph. The effect in the Raman spectra of composites samples gives a confirm evidence of homogenous dispersion of CdSe in the CuPc matrix and their strong interaction between them to promotes charge transfer property. The success of reaction between composite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photo physical properties were studied using UV - visible spectroscopy. The enhancement of the optical absorption in visible region for nanocomposite layer was observed with increasing the concentration of CdSe in CuPc. This composite may obtain the maximized interface between QDs and polymer for efficient charge separation and enhance the charge transport. Such nanocomposite films for potential application in fabrication of hybrid solar cell with improved power conversion efficiency.
36
43814
An Investigation of the Structural and Microstructural Properties of Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films Applied as Gas Sensors
Abstract:
Zinc oxide (ZnO) pure or doped are one of the most promising metal oxide semiconductors for gas sensing applications due to the well-known high surface-to-volume area and surface conductivity. It was shown that ZnO is an excellent gas-sensing material for different gases such as CO, O2, NO2 and ethanol. In this context, pure and doped ZnO exhibiting different morphologies and a high surface/volume ratio can be a good option regarding the limitations of the current commercial sensors. Different studies showed that the sensitivity of metal-doped ZnO (e.g. Co, Fe, Mn,) enhanced its gas sensing properties. Motivated by these considerations, the aim of this study consisted on the investigation of the role of Co ions on structural, morphological and the gas sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO samples. ZnO and Zn1-xCoxO (0 < x < 5 wt%) thin films were obtained via the polymeric precursor method. The sensitivity, selectivity, response time and long-term stability gas sensing properties were investigated when the sample was exposed to a different concentration range of ozone (O3) at different working temperatures. The gas sensing property was probed by electrical resistance measurements. The long and short-range order structure around Zn and Co atoms were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement was performed in order to identify the elements present on the film surface as well as to determine the sample composition. Microstructural characteristics of the films were analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Zn1-xCoxO XRD patterns were indexed to the wurtzite ZnO structure and any second phase was observed even at a higher cobalt content. Co-K edge XANES spectra revealed the predominance of Co2+ ions. XPS characterization revealed that Co-doped ZnO samples possessed a higher percentage of oxygen vacancies than the ZnO samples, which also contributed to their excellent gas sensing performance. Gas sensor measurements pointed out that ZnO and Co-doped ZnO samples exhibit a good gas sensing performance concerning the reproducibility and a fast response time (around 10 s). Furthermore, the Co addition contributed to reduce the working temperature for ozone detection and improve the selective sensing properties.
35
42496
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites
Abstract:
Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.
34
95042
Dendrimer-Encapsulated N, Pt Co-Doped TiO₂ for the Photodegration of Contaminated Wastewater
Abstract:
Azo dye effluents, released into water bodies are not only toxic to the ecosystem but also pose a serious impact on human health due to the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of the compounds present in the dye discharge. Conventional water treatment methods such as adsorption, flocculation/coagulation and biological processes are not effective in completely removing most of the dyes and their natural degradation by-products. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proven to be effective technologies for complete mineralization of these recalcitrant pollutants. Therefore, there is a need for new technology that can solve the problem. Thus, this study examined the photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye brilliant black (BB) using non-metal/metal codoped TiO₂. N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 0 (PAMAM G0), amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 1 ( PAMAM G1) and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI) as templates and source of nitrogen. Structural, morphological, and textural properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier- transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra-violet /visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the Degussa P-25 revealing a red shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black (BB) dye. The N, metal codoped TiO₂ containing 0.5 wt. % of the metal consisted mainly of the anatase phase as confirmed by XRD results of all three samples, with a particle size range of 13–30 nm. The particles were largely spherical and shifted the absorption edge well into the visible region. Band gap reduction was more pronounced for the N, Pt HPEI (Pt 0.5 wt. %) codoped TiO₂ compared to PAMAM G0 and PAMAM G1. Consequently, codoping led to an enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the materials for the degradation of brilliant black (BB).
33
79107
Rb-Modified Few-Layered Graphene for Gas Sensing Application
Authors:
Abstract:
In the present investigation, we demonstrated the fabrication of few-layers of graphene sheets with alkali metal i.e. Rb-G using chemical route method. The obtained materials were characterized by means of chemical, structural and electrical techniques, using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 4 points probe, respectively. The XRD studies were carried out to understand the phase of the samples where we found a sharp peak of Rb-G at 26.470. UV-Spectroscopy of Graphene and Rb-modified graphene samples shows the absorption peaks at ~248 nm and ~318 nm respectively. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.
32
25115
Evaluation of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea water by EIS
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
31
24263
Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
30
89204
Titania Assisted Metal-Organic Framework Matrix for Elevated Hydrogen Generation Combined with the Production of Graphene Sheets through Water-Splitting Process
Abstract:
In this study, metal organic framework (Cr-MIL-101) and TiO₂ nanoparticles were utilized as two semiconductors for water splitting process. The coupling of both semiconductors in order to improve the photocatalytic reactivity for the hydrogen production in presence of methanol as a hole scavenger under visible light (sunlight) has been performed. The forementioned semiconductors and the collected samples after water splitting application are characterized by several techniques viz., XRD, N₂ adsorption-desorption, TEM, ED, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and the total content of carbon. The results revealed an efficient yield of H₂ production with maximum purity 99.3% with the in-situ formation of graphene oxide nanosheets and multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated over the surface of the physically mixed Cr-MIL-101–TiO₂ system. The amount of H₂ gas produced was stored when using Cr-MIL-101 catalyst individually. The obtained data in this work provides promising candidate materials for pure hydrogen production as a clean fuel acquired from the water splitting process. In addition, the in-situ production of graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes is counted as promising advances for the presented process.
29
24267
EIS Study of the Corrosion Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water
Abstract:
Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.
28
107171
Failure and Stress Analysis of Super Heater Tubes of a 67 TPH Coke Dry Quenching Boiler
Abstract:
The steam superheater (SH) is a coil type heat exchanger which is used to produce superheated steam or to convert the wet steam to dry steam (69.6 kg/cm² and 495°C), generated by a boiler. There were two superheaters in the system, SH I and SH II. SH II is a set of tubes that faces the initial interaction with flue gas at high temperature followed by SH I tubes. After a service life of 2100 hours, a tube in the SH II found to be punctured. Dye penetrant test revealed that out of 50 such tubes, 14 more tubes had severe cracks at a similar location. The failure was investigated in detail. The materials and scale were characterized by optical microscope and advance characterization technique. Scale, observed on fracture surface, was characterized under scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Stresses acting on the tubes in working condition were analyzed by finite element method software, ANSYS. Cyclic stresses were observed in the simulation at the same prone location due to restriction in expansion of tubes. Based on scale characterization and stress analysis, it was concluded that the tube failed in thermo-mechanical fatigue. Finally, prevention and control measures were taken to avoid such failure in the future.
27
79789
Rb-Modified Few-Layered Graphene for Gas Sensing Application
Abstract:
In the present investigation, we demonstrated the fabrication of few-layers of graphene sheets with alkali metal i.e. Rb-G using chemical route method. The obtained materials were characterized by means of chemical, structural and electrical techniques, using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 4 points probe, respectively. The XRD studies were carried out to understand the phase of the samples where we found a sharp peak of Rb-G at 26.470. UV-Spectroscopy of Graphene and Rb-modified graphene samples shows the absorption peaks at ~248 nm and ~318 nm respectively. These analyses show that this modified material can be useful for gas sensing applications and to be used in diverse areas.
26
13891
Design of an Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon
Abstract:
This project is a step to manufacture solar grade silicon. It consists in designing an electrical arc furnace in order to produce metallurgical silicon Mg-Si with mutually carbon and high purity of silica. It concerns, first, the development of a functional analysis, a mechanical design and thermodynamic study. Our study covers also, the design of the temperature control system and the design of the electric diagrams. The furnace works correctly. A Labview interface was developed to control all parameters and to supervise the operation of furnace. Characterization tests with X-ray technique and Raman spectroscopy allow us to confirm the metallurgical silicon production.
25
36792
Fabrication of Carbon Nanoparticles and Graphene Using Pulsed Laser Ablation
Abstract:
Carbon nanostructures in various forms were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different liquid environment. The beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength at 7-ns pulse width is employed to irradiate the solid target in water, acetone, alcohol, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Then the effect of the liquid environment on the characteristic of carbon nanostructures produced by laser ablation was investigated. The optical properties of the carbon nanostructures were examined at room temperature by UV–Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystalline structure of the carbon nanostructures was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of samples was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was employed to investigate the form of carbon nanostructures. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the quality of carbon nanostructures. Results show that different carbon nanostructures such as nanoparticles and few-layer graphene were formed in various liquid environments. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of samples reveal that the intensity of absorption peak of nanoparticles in alcohol is higher than the other liquid environments due to the larger number of nanoparticles in this environment. The red shift of the absorption peak of the sample in acetone confirms that produced carbon nanoparticles in this liquid are averagely larger than the other medium. The difference in the intensity and shape of the absorption peak indicated the effect of the liquid environment in producing the nanoparticles. The XRD pattern of the sample in water indicates an amorphous structure due to existence the graphene sheets. X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the degree of crystallinity of sample produced in CTAB is higher than the other liquid environments. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the generated carbon materials in water are graphene sheet and in the other liquid environments are graphene sheet and spherical nanostructures. According to the TEM images, we have the larger amount of carbon nanoparticles in the alcohol environment. FE-SEM micrographs indicate that in this liquids sheet like structures are formed however in acetone, produced sheets are adhered and these layers overlap with each other. According to the FE-SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of the sample in CTAB was coarser than that without surfactant. From Raman spectra, it can be concluded the distinct shape, width, and position of the graphene peaks and corresponding graphite source.
24
2458
Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.
23
84760
Preliminary Studies of Antibiofouling Properties in Wrinkled Hydrogel Surfaces
Abstract:
In this study, it was explored the formation and the morphological differences between wrinkled hydrogel patterns obtained via generation of surface instabilities. The slight variations in the polymerization conditions produce important changes in the material composition and pattern structuration. The compounds were synthesized using three main components, i.e. an amphiphilic monomer, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), a hydrophobic monomer, trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFMA), and a hydrophilic crosslinking agent, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The first part of this study was related to the formation of wrinkled surfaces using only HEMA and PEGDA and varying the amount of water added in the reaction. The second part of this study involves the gradual insertion of TFMA into the hydrophilic reaction mixture. Interestingly, the manipulation of the chemical composition of this hydrogel affects both surface morphology and physicochemical characteristics of the patterns, inducing transitions from one particular type of structure (wrinkles or ripples) to different ones (creases, folds, and crumples). Contact angle measurements show that the insertion of TFMA produces a slight decrease in surface wettability of the samples, remaining however highly hydrophilic (contact angle below 45°). More interestingly, by using confocal Raman spectroscopy, important information about the wrinkle formation mechanism is obtained. The procedure involving two consecutive thermal and photopolymerization steps lead to a “pseudo” two-layer system. Thus, upon photopolymerization, the surface is crosslinked to a higher extent than the bulk and water evaporation drives the formation of wrinkled surfaces. Finally, cellular, and bacterial proliferation studies were performed to the samples, showing that the amount of TFMA included in each sample slightly affects the proliferation of both (bacteria and cells), but in the case of bacteria, the morphology of the sample also plays an important role, importantly reducing the bacterial proliferation.
22
25462
Chemical Modification of Jute Fibers with Oxidative Agents for Usability as Reinforcement in Polymeric Composites
Abstract:
The goal of this research is to modify the surface characterization of jute yarns with different chemical agents to improve the compatibility with a non-polar polymer, polypropylene, when used as reinforcement. A literature review provided no knowledge on surface treatment of jute fibers with sodium perborate trihydrate. This study also aims to compare the efficiency of sodium perborate trihydrate on jute fiber treatment with other commonly used chemical agents. Accordingly, jute yarns were treated with 0.02% potassium dichromate (PD), potassium permanganate (PM) and sodium perborate trihydrate (SP) aqueous solutions in order to enhance interfacial compatibility with polypropylene in this study. The effect of treatments on surface topography, surface chemistry and interfacial shear strength of jute yarns with polypropylene were investigated. XPS results revealed that surface treatments enhanced surface hydrophobicity by increasing C/O ratios of fiber surface. Surface roughness values increased with the treatments. The highest interfacial adhesion with polypropylene was achieved after SP treatment by providing the highest surface roughness values and hydrophobic character of jute fiber.
21
84240
Fluoride Immobilization in Plaster Board Waste: A Safety Measure to Prevent Soil and Water Pollution
Abstract:
The leaching of fluoride from Plaster Board Waste (PBW) is quite feasible in soil and water environments. The Ministry of Environment, Japan recommended the standard limit of 0.8 mgL⁻¹ or less for fluoride. Although the utilization of PBW as a substitute for cement is rather meritorious, its fluoride leaching behavior deteriorates the quality of soil and water and therefore envisaged as a demerit. In view of this fluoride leaching problem, the present research is focused on immobilizing fluoride in PBW. The immobilization experiments were conducted with four chemical systems operated by DAHP (diammonium hydrogen phosphate) and phosphoric acid carbonization of bamboo mass coupled with certain inorganic reactions using reagents such as calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and aqueous ammonia. The fluoride immobilization was determined after shaking the reactor contents including the plaster board waste for 24 h at 25˚C. In the DAHP system, the immobilization of fluoride was evident from the leaching of fluoride in the range 0.071-0.12 mgL⁻¹, 0.026-0.14 mgL⁻¹ and 0.068-0.12 mgL⁻¹ for the reaction temperatures at 30˚C, 50˚C, and 90˚C, respectively, with final pH of 6.8. The other chemical systems designated as PACCa, PACAm, and PACNa could immobilize fluoride in PBW, and the resulting solution was analyzed with the fluoride less than the Japanese environmental standard of 0.8 mgL⁻¹. In the case of PACAm and PACCa systems, the calcium concentration was found undetectable and witnessed the formation of phosphate compounds. The immobilization of fluoride was found inversely proportional to the increase in the volume of leaching solvent and dose of PBW. Characterization studies of PBW and the solid after fluoride immobilization was done using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM ( Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) with EDAX (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The results revealed the formation of new calcium phosphate compounds such as apatite, monetite, and hydroxylapatite. The participation of such new compounds in fluoride immobilization seems indispensable through the exchange mechanism of hydroxyl and fluoride groups. Acknowledgment: First author thanks to Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for the award of the fellowship (ID No. 16544).
20
67118
Near Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of CO Oxidation on Spinel Co3O4 Surfaces: Electronic Structure and Mechanistic Aspects of Wet and Dry CO Oxidation
Abstract:
The CO oxidation is a primary reaction in heterogeneous catalysis due to its potential to overcome the air pollution caused by various reasons. Indeed, in the study of sustainable catalysis, the role played by water is very important. The present work is focused on studying the effect of moisture on the sustainability of Co3O4 NR catalyst for CO oxidation reaction at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity, electronic structure and the mechanistic aspects of spinel Co3O4 nanorod surfaces have been explored in dry and wet atmosphere by near-ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopic techniques (NAP-PES) with conventional x-ray (Al kα) and ultraviolet sources (He-I).Comparative NAPPES studies have been employed to understand the elucidation of the catalytic reaction pathway and the evolution of various surface species. The presence of water with CO+O2 plummet the catalytic activity due to the change in electronic nature from predominantly oxidic (without water in the feed) to few intermediates covered Co3O4 surface. However, ≥ 375 K Co3O4 surface recovers and regain oxidation activity, at least partially, even in the presence of water. Above mentioned observations are fully supported by the changes observed in the work function of Co3O4 in the presence of wet (H2O+CO+O2) compared to dry (CO+O2) conditions. Various type of surface species, such as CO(ads), carbonate, formate, are found to be on the catalyst surface depending on the reaction conditions. Under dry condition, CO couples with labile O atoms to form CO2, however under wet conditions it also interacts with surface OH groups results in the formation carbonate and formate intermediate. The carbonate acts at reaction inhibitor at room temperature, however proves as active intermediate at temperature 375 K or above. On the other hand, formate has proved to be reaction spectator due to its high stability. The intrinsic role of these species to suppress the oxidation has been demonstrated through a possible reaction mechanism under different reaction conditions.
19
70129
Nanoscale Photo-Orientation of Azo-Dyes in Glassy Environments Using Polarized Optical Near-Field
Abstract:
Recent advances in improving information storage performance are inseparably linked with circumvention of fundamental constraints such as the supermagnetic limit in heat assisted magnetic recording, charge loss tolerance in solid-state memory and the Abbe’s diffraction limit in optical storage. A substantial breakthrough in the development of nonvolatile storage devices with dimensional scaling has been achieved due to phase-change chalcogenide memory, which nowadays, meets the market needs to the greatest advantage. A further progress is aimed at the development of versatile nonvolatile high-speed memory combining potentials of random access memory and archive storage. The well-established properties of light at the nanoscale empower us to use them for recording optical information with ultrahigh density scaled down to a single molecule, which is the size of a pit. Indeed, diffraction-limited optics is able to record as much information as ~1 Gb/in2. Nonlinear optical effects, for example, two-photon fluorescence recording, allows one to decrease the extent of the pit even more, which results in the recording density up to ~100 Gb/in2. Going beyond the diffraction limit, due to the sub-wavelength confinement of light, pushes the pit size down to a single chromophore, which is, on average, of ~1 nm in length. Thus, the memory capacity can be increased up to the theoretical limit of 1 Pb/in2. Moreover, the field confinement provides faster recording and readout operations due to the enhanced light-matter interaction. This, in turn, leads to the miniaturization of optical devices and the decrease of energy supply down to ~1 μW/cm². Intrinsic features of light such as multimode, mixed polarization and angular momentum in addition to the underlying optical and holographic tools for writing/reading, enriches the storage and encryption of optical information. In particular, the finite extent of the near-field penetration, falling into a range of 50-100 nm, gives the possibility to perform 3D volume (layer-to-layer) recording/readout of optical information. In this study, we demonstrate a comprehensive evidence of isotropic-to-homeotropic phase transition of the azobenzene-functionalized polymer thin film exposed to light and dc electric field using near-field optical microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We unravel a near-field Raman dichroism of a sub-10 nm thick epoxy-based side-chain azo-polymer films with polarization-controlled tip-enhanced Raman scattering. In our study, orientation of azo-chromophores is controlled with a bias voltage gold tip rather than light polarization. Isotropic in-plane and homeotropic out-of-plane arrangement of azo-chromophores in glassy environment can be distinguished with transverse and longitudinal optical near-fields. We demonstrate that both phases are unambiguously visualized by 2D mapping their local dielectric properties with scanning capacity microscopy. The stability of the polar homeotropic phase is strongly sensitive to the thickness of the thin film. We make an analysis of α-transition of the azo-polymer by detecting a temperature-dependent phase jump of an AFM cantilever when passing through the glass temperature. Overall, we anticipate further improvements in optical storage performance, which approaches to a single molecule level.
18
69832
Thin Films of Glassy Carbon Prepared by Cluster Deposition
Abstract:
Glassy carbon exhibits excellent biological compatibility with live tissues meaning it has high potential for applications in life science. Moreover, glassy carbon has interesting properties including 'high temperature resistance', hardness, low density, low electrical resistance, low friction, and low thermal resistance. The structure of glassy carbon has long been a subject of debate. It is now admitted that glassy carbon is 100% sp2. This term is a little bit confusing as long sp2 hybridization defined from quantum chemistry is related to both properties: threefold configuration and pi bonding (parallel pz orbitals). Using plasma laser deposition of carbon clusters combined with pulsed nano/femto laser annealing, we are able to synthesize thin films of glassy carbon of good quality (probed by G band/ D disorder band ratio in Raman spectroscopy) without thermal post annealing. A careful inspecting of Raman signal, plasmon losses and structure performed by HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy) reveals that both properties (threefold and pi orbitals) cannot coexist together. The structure of the films is compared to models including schwarzites based from negatively curved surfaces at the opposite of onions or fullerene-like structures with positively curved surfaces. This study shows that a huge collection of porous carbon named vitreous carbon with different structures can coexist.
17
43757
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) Monolayers
Abstract:
In this work molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and sulphur powders are used to grow MoS2 mono layers at elevated temperatures T≥800 °C. Centimetre scale continues thin films with grain size up to 410 µm have been grown using chemical vapour deposition. To our best knowledge, these domains are the largest that have been grown so far. Advantage of our approach is not only because of the high quality films with large domain size one can produce, but also the procedure is potentially less hazardous than other methods tried. The thin films have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy.
16
91914
Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance
Abstract:
The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.
15
25492
Effect of N2 Pretreatment on the Properties of Tungsten Based Catalysts in Metathesis of Ethylene and 2-Butene
Abstract:
The effect of N2 pretreatment on the catalytic activity of tungsten-based catalysts was investigated in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The presence of tungsten active species was confirmed by UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to the WO3-based catalysts treated in air, higher amount of WO42- tetrahedral species and lower amount of WO3 crystalline species were observed on the N2-treated ones. These contribute to the higher conversion of 2-butene and propylene selectivity during 10 h time-on-stream. Moreover, N2 treatment led to lower amount of coke formation as revealed by TPO of the spent catalysts.
14
36151
Development of Sb/MWCNT Free Standing Anode for Li-Ion Batteries
Abstract:
Antimony/Multi Walled Carbon nano tube nanocomposite (Sb/MWCNT) is synthesized using ethylene glycol mediated reduction process. Binder free, self-supporting and flexible Sb/MWCNT nanocomposite paper has been prepared by employing the vacuum filtration technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the structure of anode and tested for its performance in a Lithium rechargeable cell. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Sb/MWCNT composite paper anode delivers a specific discharge capacity of ~400 mAh g-1 up to a current density of 100 mA g-1.
13
60649
Electronic Properties Study of Ni/MgO Nanoparticles by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)
Abstract:
A lot of knowledge has been accumulated on the metal clusters supported on oxide surfaces because of their multiple applications in microelectronics, heterogeneous catalysis, and magnetic devices. In this work, the surface state of Ni / MgO has been studied by XPS (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The samples were prepared by impregnation with ion exchange Ni²⁺ / MgO, followed by either a thermal treatment in air (T = 100 -350 ° C) or a gamma irradiation (dose 100 kGy, 25 kGy dose rate h -1). The obtained samples are named after impregnation NMI, NMR after irradiation, and finally NMC(T) after calcination at the temperature T (T = 100-600 °C). A structural study by XRD and HRTEM reveals the presence of nanoscaled Ni-Mg intermetallic phases (Mg₂Ni, MgNi₂, and Mg₆Ni) and magnesium hydroxide. Mg(OH)₂ in nanometric range (2- 4 nm). Mg-Ni compounds are of great interest in energy fields (hydrogen storage…). XPS spectra show two Ni2p peaks at energies of about 856.1 and 861.9 eV, indicating that the nickel is primarily in an oxidized state on the surface. The shift of the main peak relative to the pure NiO (856.1 instead of 854.0 eV) suggests that in addition to oxygen, nickel is engaged in another link with magnesium. This is in agreement with the O1s spectra which present an overlap of peaks corresponds to NiO and MgO, at a calcination temperature T ≤ 300 °C.
12
49758
In situ Immobilization of Mercury in a Contaminated Calcareous Soil Using Water Treatment Residual Nanoparticles
Abstract:
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic and bio-accumulative heavy metal in the environment. However, cheap and effective in situ remediation technology is lacking. In this study, the effects of water treatment residuals nanoparticles (nWTR) on mobility, fractionation and speciation of mercury in an arid zone soil from Egypt were evaluated. Water treatment residual nanoparticles with high surface area (129 m 2 g-1) were prepared using Fritsch planetary mono mill. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanoparticles of WTR nanoparticles are spherical in shape, and single particle sizes are in the range of 45 to 96 nm. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results ascertained that amorphous iron, aluminum (hydr)oxides and silicon oxide dominating all nWTR, with no apparent crystalline iron–Al (hydr)oxides. Addition of nWTR, greatly increased the Hg sorption capacities of studied soils and greatly reduced the cumulative Hg released from the soils. Application of nWTR at 0.10 and 0.30 % rates reduced the released Hg from the soil by 50 and 85 % respectively. The power function and first order kinetics models well described the desorption process from soils and nWTR amended soils as evidenced by high coefficient of determination (R2) and low SE values. Application of nWTR greatly increased the association of Hg with the residual fraction. Meanwhile, application of nWTR at a rate of 0.3% greatly increased the association of Hg with the residual fraction (>93%) and significantly increased the most stable Hg species (Hg(OH)2 amor) which in turn enhanced Hg immobilization in the studied soils. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated the involvement of nWTR in the retention of Hg (II) through OH groups which suggest inner-sphere adsorption of Hg ions to surface functional groups on nWTR. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using a low-cost nWTR as best management practice to immobilize excess Hg in contaminated soils.
11
85433
Protein Crystallization Induced by Surface Plasmon Resonance
Authors:
Abstract:
We have developed a crystallization plate with the function of promoting protein crystallization. A gold thin film is deposited on the crystallization plate. A protein solution is dropped thereon, and crystallization is promoted when the protein is irradiated with light of a wavelength that protein does not absorb. Protein is densely adsorbed on the gold thin film surface. The light excites the surface plasmon resonance of the gold thin film, the protein is excited by the generated enhanced electric field induced by surface plasmon resonance, and the amino acid residues are radicalized to produce protein dimers. The dimers function as templates for protein crystals, crystallization is promoted.
10
81297
Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Injection and Nanotechnology
Abstract:
The continuously declining oil reservoirs and reservoirs aging have created a huge demand for utilization of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods recently. Primary and secondary oil recovery methods have various limitations and are not practical for all reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to use chemical methods to improve oil recovery efficiency by reducing oil and water surface tension, increasing sweeping efficiency, and reducing displacer phase viscosity. One of the well-known methods of oil recovery is Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding that shown to have significant impact on enhancing oil recovery. As some of the biggest oil reservoirs including those of Iran’s are fractional reservoirs with substantial amount of trapped oil in their fractures, the use of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding method is increasingly growing, the method in which the impact of several parameters including type and concentration of the Alkaline, Surfactant, and polymer are particularly important. This study investigated the use of Nano particles to improve Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The study methodology included performing several laboratory tests on drill cores extracted from Karanj Oil field Asmary Formation in Khuzestan, Iran. In the experiments performed, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12mim] [Cl])) were used as surfactant, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkaline, and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium oxide (MgO) were used as Nano particles. The experiment findings suggest that water viscosity increased from 1 centipoise to 5 centipoise when hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer. The surface tension between oil and water was initially measured as 25.808 (mN/m). The optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 500 p, at which the oil and water tension surface was measured to be 2.90 (mN/m) when [C12mim] [Cl] was used, and 3.28 (mN/m) when SDBS was used. The Nano particles concentration ranged from 100 ppm to 1500 ppm in this study. The optimum Nano particle concentration was found to be 1000 ppm for MgO and 500 ppm for SiO2.
9
53644
Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method
Abstract:
Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).
8
35024
Artificial Membrane Comparison for Skin Permeation in Skin PAMPA
Abstract:
The modified Franz cell is the most widely used model for in vitro permeation studies, however it still presents some disadvantages. Thus, some alternative methods have been developed such as Skin PAMPA, which is a bio- artificial membrane that has been applied for skin penetration estimation of xenobiotics based on HT permeability model consisting. Skin PAMPA greatest advantage is to carry out more tests, in a fast and inexpensive way. The membrane system mimics the stratum corneum characteristics, which is the primary skin barrier. The barrier properties are given by corneocytes embedded in a multilamellar lipid matrix. This layer is the main penetration route through the paracellular permeation pathway and it consists of a mixture of cholesterol, ceramides, and fatty acids as the dominant components. However, there is no consensus on the membrane composition. The objective of this work was to compare the performance among different bio-artificial membranes for studying the permeation in skin PAMPA system. Material and methods: In order to mimetize the lipid composition`s present in the human stratum corneum six membranes were developed. The membrane composition was equimolar mixture of cholesterol, ceramides 1-O-C18:1, C22, and C20, plus fatty acids C20 and C24. The membrane integrity assay was based on the transport of Brilliant Cresyl Blue, which has a low permeability; and Lucifer Yellow with very poor permeability and should effectively be completely rejected. The membrane characterization was performed using Confocal Laser Raman Spectroscopy, using stabilized laser at 785 nm with 10 second integration time and 2 accumulations. The membrane behaviour results on the PAMPA system were statistically evaluated and all of the compositions have shown integrity and permeability. The confocal Raman spectra were obtained in the region of 800-1200 cm-1 that is associated with the C-C stretches of the carbon scaffold from the stratum corneum lipids showed similar pattern for all the membranes. The ceramides, long chain fatty acids and cholesterol in equimolar ratio permitted to obtain lipid mixtures with self-organization capability, similar to that occurring into the stratum corneum. Conclusion: The artificial biological membranes studied for Skin PAMPA showed to be similar and with comparable properties to the stratum corneum.
7
77722
Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor
Abstract:
Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.
6
58524
Fabrication of High Energy Hybrid Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon
Abstract:
There is great interest to exploit sustainable, low-cost, renewable resources as carbon precursors for energy storage applications. Research on development of energy storage devices has been growing rapidly due to mismatch in power supply and demand from renewable energy sources This paper reported the synthesis of porous activated carbon from biomass waste and evaluated its performance in supercapicators. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited a high BET surface area of 1,901 m2 g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making different hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered a high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg–1. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 6.6 Wh kg-1 and 16.3 Wh kg-1, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g–1 were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments; for instances, the characteristics binding energies appeared at ~283.83, ~284.83, ~286.13, ~288.56, and ~290.70 eV which correspond to sp2 -graphitic C, sp3 -graphitic C, C-O, C=O and π-π*, respectively. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. The findings opened up the possibility of developing high energy LICs from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste.
5
78092
An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient
Abstract:
Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.
4
10914
Functionalization of Carboxylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 2-En 4-Hydroxy Cyclo 1-Octanon and Toxicity Investigation
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes were used in medical sciences especially in drug delivery system and cancer therapy. In this study, we functionalized carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) with 2-en 4-hydroxy cyclo 1-octanon. Synthesized sample was characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TGA and cellular investigations. The results showed well formation of SWNT-Ester. Cell viability assay results and microscopic observations demonstrated that cancerous cells were killed in the sample. The synthesized sample can be used as a toxic material for cancer therapy.
3
16789
Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.
2
14636
Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment
Abstract:
In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.
1
115086
Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂
Authors:
Abstract:
The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.